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Process Dynamics and Control:

Department of
Chemical Engineering
University of Engineering
And Technology, Lahore

SCADA:

Supervisory Control And Data


Acquisition

Presented to:
Dr. Ing Naveed Ramzan
Presented by:

August 24, 2010

A.N.Tabish

S. Zaheer Abbas

2009-MS-Chem-25

2009-MS-Chem-69

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Contents:
1. Fundamentals of Control
2. Introduction of SCADA
3. Applications of SCADA
4. SCADA Architectures
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Components of SCADA System


How SCADA System Works?
Comparison of SCADA, DCS, PLC and smart instrument
Security and Vulnerability of SCADA Systems
Conclusion

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Fundamentals of Control:

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Fundamentals of Control:
Control Components:
1. Control Server
2. SCADA Server or Master Terminal Unit (MTU)
3. Remote Terminal Unit (RTU)
4. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)
5. Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED)
6. Human-Machine Interface (HMI)
7. Data Historian
8. Input/Output (IO) Server
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Fundamentals of Control:
Control Components:

1. Fieldbus Network
2. Control Network
3. Communications Routers
4. Firewall
5. Modems
6. Remote Access Points

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Fundamentals of Control:
Analog Control

Analog control system block diagram

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Fundamentals of Control:
Discrete Control:

Discrete control system block diagram


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Introduction to SCADA:

Acronym stands for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

Not a full control system, but rather focuses on the supervisory


level

Purely software package that is positioned on top of hardware

Combination of telemetry and data acquisition to which it is


interfaced, generally via (PLCs) or (DCS)

Collecting of the information, transferring it back to the central site,


carrying out any necessary analysis and control and then displaying
that information on a number of operator screens or displays control
actions are then conveyed back to the process.

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Introduction to SCADA:

Typical Schematic of Sensors to panel system


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Introduction to SCADA:

PC to PLC or DCS with fieldbus and sensor

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Introduction to SCADA:

PC to IED using a fieldbus

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Introduction to SCADA:
SCADA systems are designed to collect field information, transfer it to a central
computer facility, and display the information to the operator graphically or
textually, thereby allowing the operator to monitor or control an entire system
from a central location in real time.

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Introduction to SCADA:
All together, the term SCADA refers to the entire central system. The central
system usually monitors data from various sensors that are either in close
proximity or off site.

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Applications of SCADA:

Electric power generation, transmission and distribution:

Water and sewage:

Buildings, facilities and environments:

Manufacturing:

Mass transit:

Traffic signals:

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SCADA

Architecture:

Three generations of SCADA systems:


1.First Generation

Monolithic

2.Second Generation Distributed


3.Third Generation Networked

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SCADA

Architecture:

Monolithic SCADA Systems:

First Generation of SCADA Architecture


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SCADA

Architecture:

Distributed SCADA Systems:

Second Generation of SCADA Architecture


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SCADA

Architecture:

Networked SCADA Systems:

Third Generation of SCADA Architecture


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Components of SCADA System:


1. SCADA Hardware:
SCADA system involves essentially five levels or hierarchies:
1.

Field level instrumentation and control devices

2.

Marshalling terminals and RTUs

3.

Communications system

4.

The master station(s)

5.

The commercial data processing department computer system

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SYSTEM
TYPICAL SCADA
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Components of SCADA System:


2. SCADA Software:
SCADA may be classified as:
1. Propriety:
Companies develop proprietary software to communicate to their hardware.
2. Open:
They have high interoperability to mix different manufacturers equipment on
the same system.

Key features of SCADA software

User interface
Graphics displays
Alarms
Trends

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RTU (and PLC) interface


Scalability
Access to data
Database

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Networking
Fault tolerance and
redundancy
Client/server
distributed processing
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How SCADA Works:


A SCADA system performs four functions:
1.

Data acquisition

2.

Networked data communication

3.

Data presentation

4.

Control

These functions are performed by four kinds of SCADA Components:


1.

Sensors and control relays

2.

Remote telemetry units (RTUs)

3.

SCADA master units

4.

Communications network

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Comparison of SCADA, DCS, PLC & Smart


Instrument :
SCADA System

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Comparison of SCADA, DCS, PLC & Smart


Instrument :

Considerations and benefits of SCADA system:

Overall control requirements

Sequence logic

Analog loop control

Ratio and number of analog to digital points

Speed of control and data acquisition

Master/operator control stations

Reliability/availability

Speed of communications/update time/system scan rates

System redundancy

Expansion capability

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Comparison of SCADA, DCS, PLC & Smart


Instrument :
Distributed Control System (DCS)

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Comparison of SCADA, DCS, PLC & Smart


Instrument :
Programmable Logic Controller System (PLCs)

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Comparison of SCADA, DCS, PLC & Smart


Instrument :

PLCs are used in


both SCADA and
DCS systems as the
control components
of an overall
hierarchical system
to provide local
management of
processes through
feedback control.
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Comparison of SCADA, DCS, PLC & Smart


Instrument :
Smart Instrument

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Comparison of SCADA, DCS, PLC & Smart


Instrument :
Obviously, a SCADA systems initial cost has to be justified. A few
typical reasons for implementing a SCADA system are:

Improved operation of the plant or process resulting in


savings due to optimization of the system

Increased productivity of the personnel

Improved safety of the system due to better information and


improved control

Improved energy savings due to optimization of the plant

Improved and quicker receipt of data so that clients can be


invoiced more quickly and accurately

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Security and Vulnerability of SCADA


System:
Threats to SCADA Systems:
1. Criminal groups
2. Foreign intelligence services
3. Insiders
4. Phishers
5. Spammers
6. Spyware/malware authors

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Security and Vulnerability of SCADA


System:

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Security and Vulnerability of SCADA


System:

Industrial Security Incidents by Year

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Security and Vulnerability of SCADA


System:
Potential Consequences of Security Incidents:

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1.

Physical Impacts.

2.

Economic Impacts.

3.

Social Impacts.

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Security and Vulnerability of SCADA


System:

Relationship Between Corporate and SCADA Network:


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Security and Vulnerability of SCADA


System:

Firewall between Corporate


Network and Control Network

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Security and Vulnerability of SCADA


System:
Firewall and Router between
Corporate Network and
Control Network

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Security and Vulnerability of SCADA


System:
Developing SCADA Security Strategies:

Border Router and Firewalls

Proxy Servers

Operating Systems

SCADA Firewalls

SCADA Internal Network Design

SCADA Server Operating Systems

Firewall between Corporate Network and


Control Network

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References:
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

David Bailey and Edwin Wright (2003), Practical SCADA for


Industry, Elsevier. Inc
Ken Barnes, Briam Johnson and Reva Nickelson, Review of
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems
January 2004, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental
Laboratory.
M.Lakshmi Prasanna and A.Gayatri A Technical Paper on SCADA
Technology Sri Sai Institute of Technology.
Technical Information Bulletin 04-1 Supervisory Control and Data
Acquisition (SCADA) Systems October 2004, Communication
Technologies, Inc.
Technical Manual on Spervisory Control and Data Acquisition
(SCADA) Systems for Command, Control, Communications,
Computer, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4isr)
Facilities Headquarters, Department of the Army, Washington, Dc,
January 2006

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