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Jet Engine Integration

Engine Sizing (Dimensions)

Inlet Geometry
Inlet Location
Capture Area Calculation
Boundary-Layer Diverter
Nozzle Integration
Engine Cooling

Engine Sizing (Dimensions)

Dimensions of existing off-the-shelf engines are obtained from


Estimated data for hypothetical rubber engines are provided by engine

manufacturer as nominal engine size and precise scaling laws.

Better yet, engine companies sometimes provide a parametric deck (a

computer program that provides performance and dimensional data for
an arbitrary advanced-technology engine based upon inputs such as
BPR, OPR, and TIT).

Another method is to assume that a new engine is scaled from existing

one, with some improvements due to advancing technology (20%
SFC, 30% weight, 30% length).

Inlet Geometry

Slowing down the incoming air to about Mach 0.40.5 is the primary
purpose of an inlet system to keep the tip speed of compressor blades
below sonic.
The installed performance of a jet engine greatly depends upon the airinlet system.
The type and geometry of the inlet and inlet duct determine the
pressure loss and distortion of the air supplied to the engine, which will
affect installed thrust and fuel consumption.

Roughly, 1% reduction in inlet pressure recovery inletwill reduce

thrust by ~ 1.3%.
Also, the inlets external geometry including the cowl and boundarylayer diverter will greatly influence the aircraft drag.
There are basically four types of inlets

Basic Types of Inlets

NACA flush inlet

Pitot (or normal shock) inlet
Conical (or spike or round) inlet
2-D ramp inlet

I have selected the spike inlet for my aircraft due to following reasons and

Spike and 2-D Ramp Inlets

Better performance than the normal shock inlet at higher supersonic

speeds .
Supersonic flow over cone (spike) or wedge (2D-ramp) .
Spike inlets are typically lighter and have slightly better pressure
recovery but with higher cowl drag and more complicated variable
geometry mechanisms.
Ramp inlets are used up to Mach 2, while spike inlets are used beyond
Pressure recovery through a shock depends on the strength of the

N-S: (M0= 2 M1= 0.57, p1/p0 = 72%) (M0= 1.1 M1= 0.91, p1/p0
= 99.9%)
An oblique shock does not reduce the air speed all the way to subsonic.
Final transition from super to subsonic speed occurs through a normal
Speed reduction and pressure recovery depends on the wedge or cone

Shock wave Analysis:

The greater the number of oblique shocks, the better the pressure

1. O-S: (= 10, M0= 2 = 39, M1= 1.66, p1/p0 =

2. N-S: (M1= 1.66 M2= 0.65, p2/p1 = 87.2%). Then,
p2/p0 = 87.2 98.6% =86.6

Formation of shock waves and stagnation pressure curve

As speed approaches Mach 2, the total flow turning is about 40 deg.

Turning flow back to freestream direction by outside cowl lip may not
be possible.

Selection of inlet system:

Reffering to this figure we can easily determine the external compression

Design mach number=2.1

Category-2 shock


The interior portion of an inlet where subsonic flow is further slowed

down to engine required speed.
The required length of a diffuser depends upon the application.
Subsonic aircraft has as short diffuser as possible with an internal
angle < 10 deg.
Typically, this produces a pitot inlet with a length about equal to its
front face diameter.
Supersonic aircraft has a diffuser length for max. efficiency about eight
times diameter.

Diffuser layout

Longer diffuser will have more frictional losses.

Shorter diffusers may produce some internal flow separation, but the
weight savings can exceed the engine performance penalty.
Diffusers as short as two times the diameter are used with
axisymmetric spike inlets.

Long diffuser it is important to verify that the cross-sectional area of

the flow path is smoothly increasing from the inlet front face back to
the engine using volume-distribution plot.

Inlet Location:

Embedded engines
I have selected the inlet location of Side.

Capture Area

In a jet propulsion system, the engine is the boss.

Excess air provided by the inlet must be spilled out the front.

If less air is provided, the engine will try to suck the extra required air.

Inlet capture area must be sized to provide sufficient air at all aircraft

A typical subsonic jet inlet is sized for cruise at about Mach 0.80.9

Diffusion takes place about half within and half outside the inlet duct.

The area at the inlet front face is both the capture area and the throat

Nozzle Configuration:

I have selected two dimensional vectoring nozzle because to provide pitch

control at supersonic speed when the tails are near vertical we use a two
dimensional vectoring nozzle with thrust reversing to shorten the landing,this
requires a circle to square adapter which lengthens the engine.