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Volume 2

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English Library:
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An Introduction to English Slang

A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology

Polimetrica

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Elisa Mattiello

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Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the
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Table of Contents

To Luca

Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11


Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini

1. Ethics and Human Rights


in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
Mario Santillo

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17


1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia ............ 27
Fabio Baggio

2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27


2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51


3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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Acknowledgements
Table
of Contents

Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11

I would like to address special thanks to Prof. Lavinia Merlini


Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
Barbaresi for her patient guidance and endless discussions on the
topic of this study. Her intellectual and moral support has been
1. Ethics and Human Rights
fundamental
in the course of my work.
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
I
would
also
like to thank Prof. Marcella Bertuccelli Papi whose
Mario Santillo
ideas have left unmistakable marks in this study and whose
1.1 Migrants
Rights
.............................................................................
17
precious
comments
gave
me encouragement and advice.
I
would
like
to
express
my
gratitude
to
my
department
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
colleagues Dr. Gloria Cappelli, Dr. Daniele Franceschi and Dr.
1.3 Some
Silvia
Masi,Final
whoReflections...................................................................
gave me useful suggestions and feedback, and 23
to
theBibliography
many anonymous
native speakers who provided me with
.........................................................................................
25
genuine material to work on: I thank all of them for their generous
giftMigration
of time. Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
2.
Thanks
are also due to Dr. Ronald A. Packham for his careful
Fabio Baggio
reading of the whole manuscript and for his insightful and
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
constructive suggestions.
2.2
Policies
34
A Migration
very special
noteinofESEA............................................................
gratitude goes to the series editor, Prof.
Giovanni
Iamartino,
for
offering
me
the
opportunity
to
write
this
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
monograph.
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47

3. Immigration in the 21st Century.


The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51


3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
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and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Abbreviations
Table
of Contents

Opening
and Executive Summary .............................. 11
abbrev. Considerations
abbreviation

Zanfriniadjectival
adjFabio Baggio, Laura
adjective,
adv
adverb(ial)
Amer.
1.
Ethics and HumanAmerican
Rights (English)
arch.
archaicMigration Processes .................................... 15
in the South American
attrib.
attributive(ly)
Mario Santillo
Austral.
Australian
BNC
British
National Corpus
1.1 Migrants Rights
.............................................................................
17
Brit.
British (English)
Canad.
Canadian for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
1.2 International Instrument
cent.
century
1.3 Some Final Reflections...................................................................
23
chap.
chapter
colloq.
colloquial
Bibliography .........................................................................................
25
COLT
Bergen Corpus of London Teenage Language
deprec.
depreciatory
2.
Migration Policiesderogatory
and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
derog.
dial.Fabio Baggio
dialect
E.
English
2.1 International Migration
in East Asia
and SouthOperations
East Asia.............. 27
EMOs
Extra-grammatical
Morphological
esp.
especially
2.2 Migration Policies
in ESEA............................................................ 34
euphem.
euphemistic
F. 2.3 Ethics and Migration
French Management................................................. 43
fig.
figuratively
Fig.Bibliography .........................................................................................
Figure
47
freq.
frequently
G.
German
3.
Immigration in the
21st Century.
gen.
generally
Gr.The Need for an Ethical
Greek Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Richard Vanderberg
int Christine Baghdady,
interjection
Ir.
Irish
Increase ............................................................. 51
It. 3.1 World Population
Italian
L. 3.2 Urbanization, International
Latin
Migration and Governance ................. 53
lit.
literally

3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54


Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Abbreviations9

10

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

ME
Middle English
Table
of Contents
MRs
Morphological Rules
n
noun, nominal
N. Amer.
North American (from U.S. and Canada)
NM
Natural Morphology
N.Z.
New Zealand
obs.
obsolete
occas.
occasionally
ODMS
Oxford Dictionary of Modern Slang
OE
Old English
OED
Oxford English Dictionary
offens.
offensive
orig.
origin(ally)
Opening
Considerations
and Executive Summary .............................. 11
perh.
perhaps
phrFabio Baggio, Laura
phrase
Zanfrini
pl.
plural
Portug.
1.
Ethics and HumanPortuguese
Rights
ppl
participle, participial
in
the
South
American
Migration Processes .................................... 15
pred
predicative
Mario
Santillo
prep
preposition
prob.
probably
1.1 Migrants Rights
............................................................................. 17
pron
pronoun
R.A.F.
Royal Air Force
1.2 International Instrument
for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
RHR
Righthand Head Rule
1.3 Some Final Reflections...................................................................
23
rhym.
rhyming
S. Afr.
South African
25
Sc.Bibliography .........................................................................................
Scottish, Scots
Sp.
Spanish
spec.
2.
Migration Policiesspecifically
and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
St. Fabio
E.
standard English
Baggio
U.K.
United Kingdom
U.S.
United States
2.1 International Migration
in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
usu.
usually
v 2.2 Migration Policies
verb in ESEA............................................................ 34
vbl
verbal
2.3 Ethics and Migration
Management................................................. 43
WFRs
Word-formation Rules

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51


3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Table ofofContents
Table
Contents

Opening
and Executive Summary .............................. 15
11
ForewordConsiderations
.................................................................................................
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini

1. Introduction ........................................................................................ 19
1. Ethics and Human Rights
1.1.inBasic
assumptions
and aims
.................................................................
the South
American
Migration
Processes .................................... 19
15
1.2.Mario
The theoretical
Santillo framework ................................................................... 22
1.2.1. Generative morphology ............................................................ 23
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
1.2.2. Natural morphology.................................................................. 23
1.2
International
Instrumentmarginal
for Migrants
Defence .............................
21
1.2.3.
Extra-grammatical,
and expressive
morphology ....... 24
1.2.4.
Lexical
................................................................... 25
1.3
Some
Final complexity
Reflections...................................................................
23
1.3. Provisional observations ..................................................................... 26
......................................................................................... 27
25
1.4.Bibliography
The data ..............................................................................................
1.5. The organization of the study ............................................................... 29
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
Fabio Baggio
2. Previous
Studies on Slang .................................................................. 31
2.1.2.1
The
definition
slang .........................................................................
InternationalofMigration
in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 31
27
2.1.1. The sociological approach ........................................................ 32
2.2
Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
2.1.2. The stylistic approach ............................................................... 33
2.1.3.
Theand
linguistic
approach.............................................................
2.3
Ethics
Migration
Management................................................. 33
43
2.1.4. The lexicographic definition..................................................... 34
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
2.2. The classification of slang.................................................................... 35
Slang vs.
jargon
36
3. 2.2.1.
Immigration
in the
21st........................................................................
Century.
2.2.2.
Slang
vs.
cant............................................................................
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 36
51
2.2.3.
Slang
vs. dialect........................................................................
37
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard Vanderberg
2.2.4. Slang vs. vernacular.................................................................. 38
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51
2.2.5. Slang vs. accent ........................................................................ 38
3.2
Urbanization,
International
Migration
and Governance ................. 38
53
2.2.6.
Slang vs. colloquial
language
...................................................
2.2.7.
Specific
vs.
general
slang
.........................................................
39
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

12

Table of Contents
9

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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

2.3. The description of slang ....................................................................... 40


Table
of Contents
2.3.1. The linguistic properties of slang.............................................. 41

2.3.2. The sociological properties of slang ......................................... 46


3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology ........................ 61
3.1. Slang formations ................................................................................. 61
3.1.1. Grammatical formations ........................................................... 63
3.1.2. Extra-grammatical formations .................................................. 65
3.1.3. Borderline cases........................................................................ 70
3.2. Slang word-formation .......................................................................... 72
3.2.1. Considerations
Compounding ...........................................................................
72
Opening
and Executive Summary .............................. 11
3.2.2.
Prefixation
................................................................................
91
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
3.2.3. Suffixation ................................................................................ 93
FinalHuman
combining
forms............................................................ 120
1. 3.2.4.
Ethics and
Rights
3.2.5.
Infixation
................................................................................
in
the South
American
Migration Processes ....................................123
15
Mario Santillo
3.2.6.
Conversion.............................................................................. 124
3.2.7.
Back-formation
....................................................................... 128
1.1
Migrants
Rights .............................................................................
17
3.2.8. Reduplicatives ........................................................................ 131
1.2
International
for Migrants
Defence .............................135
21
3.2.9.
AcronymsInstrument
and initialisms
.......................................................
3.2.10.
Blending
................................................................................. 138
1.3
Some
Final Reflections...................................................................
23
3.2.11. Clipping .................................................................................. 141
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
3.2.12. Elliptic rhyming slang............................................................. 148
3.2.13. Reversed forms ....................................................................... 149
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
3.2.14.
Variation ................................................................................. 150
Fabio Baggio
3.2.15. Word manufacture and fanciful formations ............................ 154
International
Migration in East Asia and South East Asia..............155
27
3.3.2.1
Conclusion
........................................................................................
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
4. Lexical Organization and Disorganization..................................... 157
Ethics
Migration
Management.................................................
43
4.1.2.3
The
slangand
lexicon:
hypotheses
and aims ............................................. 157
4.2.Bibliography
Lexical organization
.......................................................................... 158
.........................................................................................
47
4.2.1. Organization via meaning relations ........................................ 159
Organization
viastregular
patterns............................................ 169
3. 4.2.2.
Immigration
in the 21
Century.
Needdisorganization
for an Ethical
Approach. The Canadian Experience .....193
51
4.3.The
Lexical
......................................................................
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard Vanderberg
4.3.1.
Partial
disorganization
............................................................ 194
4.3.2.
Total
disorganization
..............................................................
3.1
World
Population
Increase
.............................................................202
51
4.4. Conclusion ........................................................................................ 207
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53

3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54


Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Table of Contents

139

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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

5. Sociological Properties ..................................................................... 211


Table
of Contents
5.1. Slang sociology ................................................................................. 211
5.2. Speaker-oriented properties ............................................................... 214

5.2.1.
5.2.2.
5.2.3.
5.2.4.
5.2.5.

Group- and subject-restriction ................................................ 214


Secrecy and privacy................................................................ 216
Informality and debasement.................................................... 217
Vulgarity and obscenity.......................................................... 218
Time-restriction, ephemerality and localism .......................... 220
5.3. Hearer-oriented properties ................................................................ 222
5.3.1. Playfulness and humour.......................................................... 222
5.3.2. Considerations
Freshness and novelty.............................................................
Opening
and Executive Summary ..............................224
11
5.3.3.
Desire
to
impress
and faddishness .......................................... 225
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
5.3.4. Colour and musicality............................................................. 227
Impertinence,
offensiveness and aggressiveness .................... 229
1. 5.3.5.
Ethics and
Human Rights
theopinion
South American
Migration
Processes ....................................231
15
5.4.inThe
of native speakers
...........................................................
5.5.Mario
Conclusion
........................................................................................ 234
Santillo

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17


Final Remarks....................................................................................... 237
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
References ............................................................................................. 243
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
Author
Index.........................................................................................
Bibliography
.........................................................................................253
25
Subject
IndexPolicies
........................................................................................
2.
Migration
and Ethics in East and South East Asia............257
27
Fabio Baggio
Glossary................................................................................................. 261
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27

2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34


2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51


3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Foreword
Table
of Contents

Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11

Despite the amount of work that has been carried out to collect
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
English slang data, there has been, to date, no general introductory
work that has attempted to synthesize the main points of predictable
1. Ethics and Human Rights
relevance
of slang as a linguistic phenomenon. This book aims to
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
fillMario
the gap.
Santillo
The reasons for this constant omission are mainly to be sought in
Migrants attitude
Rights .............................................................................
17
the1.1traditional
of linguists and morphologists towards any
linguistic
fact
that
is
dubious
in
terms
of
grammar
and
its
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
recognized rules. Slang, a linguistic modality confined to spoken
1.3 Somehas
Finalalways
Reflections...................................................................
language,
been difficult to locate, to explain and 23
to
grasp
as a unitary
phenomenon. This has discouraged overall
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
formal accounts. Or, at most, its relevance has been explored in
sociology,
it and
has Ethics
been described
asSouth
a manifestation
of low2.
Migrationwhere
Policies
in East and
East Asia............
27
class
membership,
or
as
the
secret
language
of
restricted
groups,
Fabio Baggio
unwilling to communicate with outsiders, or, more generically, it
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
has been conflated with homiletic or other colloquial varieties.
2.2 Migration
in ESEA............................................................
34
Slang
has beenPolicies
preferentially
described in relation to the social
effects
that
it
produces
rather
than
as
a
phenomenon
in
itself.
The
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
linguistic comments have been mainly impressionistic and hardly
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
descriptive
or explanatory
of the phenomenon.
The present work comes as the result of a dissatisfaction with
3.
Immigration
in as
thean
21st
Century.
such
studies and
attempt
a successful one to fill the void
The
Need
for
an
Ethical
Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
of a rigorous linguistic investigation.
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
The book
is a careful,
theory-grounded
description of slang and of
its3.1
relevance
in
key
areas
such
as
morphology,
semantics and socioWorld Population Increase .............................................................
51
pragmatics. It offers a new understanding of slang formation
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
mechanisms, of its elusive, unstable meanings and meaning relations
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

16

Lavinia Merlini Barbaresi


9

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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
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and, lastly, it systematically reconsiders its socio-pragmatic impact


Table
of Contents
and relevance.
The main challenge for the author was to overcome widespread
prejudice whereby slang is allegedly only a marginal area of the
lexicon, a useless redundancy in semantics, an oddity in wordformation and an isolated phenomenon, lacking isomorphism with
syntactic relationships.
The key hypothesis of the project, by contrast, is that slang has a
locus both in the lexicon and among word-formation mechanisms
and that its input/output rules are to be found within the borders of
the phenomenon
itself,
not Summary
in contrast
with canonical
Opening
Considerations
andand
Executive
..............................
11
grammatical
rules.
A
comparison
with
grammatical
morphology
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
only provides a basis for formulating evaluation criteria, but is not
theEthics
mainand
target
of the
work. Slang is a widespread phenomenon
1.
Human
Rights
deserving
a space
of itsMigration
own in Processes
linguistic....................................
inquiry, precisely on
in the South
American
15
account
of its frequent independence of behaviour and extraMario Santillo
grammatical quality.
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
The authors appropriate model of explanation within the
relevant
disciplines
and the for
wealth
of data
systematically
analysed
1.2 International
Instrument
Migrants
Defence
.............................
21
in the book lead to reliable viewpoints on the issue and to an
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
interesting wide-ranging description of the phenomenon.
Bibliography
25
A thorough.........................................................................................
description of slang must take into account and
accommodate its frequently discrepant behaviour in terms of
2.
Migrationmechanisms.
Policies and Ethics
in East
and South
Eastbasic
Asia............
formation
It often
deviates
from
rules 27
of
Fabio Baggio grammar, but it may also represent a violation of the
morphological
more
general principle
of ingrammatical
Even when
2.1 International
Migration
East Asia and competence.
South East Asia..............
27
slang words relate to morphological structures governed by
2.2 Migration Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
morphological
competence,
they may be discrepant because they
are2.3coined
conscientiously
rather than spontaneously. This is the
Ethics and
Migration Management.................................................
43
case with many sophisticated coinages, like rhyming reduplicatives
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
or blends, or also analogical formations, like workaholic or
Irangate. Such forms are normally excluded by morphologists,
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
owing to their non-predictability.
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Slang may also deviate from any criterion of predictability and
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
transparency at the level of semantics. Meaning is often a
3.1 World Population
Increase
.............................................................
51
conscientious
attribution,
rather
than the output of compositional
elements.
This
is
the
case,
for
example,
with
Cockney
rhyming
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
slang, many compounds, but also with a large number of single
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Foreword

179

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

words, whose meaning is totally at variance with the meaning the


Table
of Contents
same words have in the standard language.
The study of slang also opens up many sociological and sociolinguistic prospects, amply investigated in the literature. Slang
separates society into groups along various dimensions, and this
fact is certainly of great relevance in sociology and partly explains
specific linguistic features of slang, such as its search for originality
and secrecy. Of special interest, though, is the area of emotions and
attitudes, in which the speakers choices of slangy formations and
their pragmatic effects on the addressee are carefully regulated.
This book
approaches the
from
a wide-ranging
perspective
Opening
Considerations
andmatter
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
andFabio
provides
a
clear
account
of
the
various
motivations
which
lie at
Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
the basis of slang use.
1. Ethics and Human Rights
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
Mario Santillo

Lavinia Merlini Barbaresi

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17

1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21


1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
Fabio Baggio

2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27


2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51


3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

1. Introduction
Table
of Contents

Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11

1.1.
Basic assumptions and aims
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini

Slang is a controversial topic nowadays, and the debate on its

1. Ethics and Human Rights


definition,
classification
and linguistic
relevance
is still heated.
in the South
American Migration
Processes
....................................
15

The
concept
Mario
Santilloof slang has been inaccurately defined by many
lexicographers who tend to restrict it to colloquial or bad language,
1.1the
Migrants
Rights
17
and
term has
been.............................................................................
imprecisely used by many sociolinguists who
conflate
it with such
language
varietiesDefence
as cant,
jargon, dialect,
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants
.............................
21
vernacular or accent. Besides, many formations of slang have long
1.3 Some
Final by
Reflections...................................................................
23
been
neglected
morphologists dealing with the English system
(Aronoff
1976,
Mayerthaler 1981, Bauer 1983, Scalise 1984,
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
Dressler et al. 1987 inter alia) since they find no room within the
regular
word-formation
patterns
of the
language;
other
2.
Migration
Policies and Ethics
in East
andstandard
South East
Asia............
27
Fabio
Baggio
slang
formations
have been briefly dealt with since they result
from the same ordinary word-building processes that give rise to
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
the general vocabulary (Eble 1996: 9).
2.2
Migration
in ESEA............................................................
34
The
presentPolicies
study is
an attempt to explore English slang and
reconsider
it
from
both
linguistic
and
sociological
perspectives.
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
The approach adopted here is synchronic, as it aims to illustrate
.........................................................................................
47
theBibliography
formations
and the neo-semanticisms which characterize
present-day English slang. As a more specific and ambitious
3.
Immigration
the 21sttoCentury.
aim,
this studyinintends
make a contribution to the international
The Need
for an
Ethicalthat
Approach.
The Canadian
Experience
.....the
51
debate
on the
position
slang formations
occupy
within
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
relevant morphological theories, principally, generative morphology
(Aronoff
1976,
ScaliseIncrease
1984),.............................................................
natural morphology (Dressler et al.
3.1 World
Population
51
1987, Kilani-Schoch 1988, Tonelli & Dressler eds 1993, Wurzel
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
1994, Dressler 1999, 2005), and extra-grammatical morphology
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

20

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

(Dressler & Merlini Barbaresi 1994, Doleschal & Thornton eds


Table
of Contents
2000) or expressive morphology (Zwicky & Pullum 1987). I am
indeed persuaded that the spontaneous, lively, and creative
processes of a language may cast some light on the possible
development of its grammar. And I am also persuaded that a
qualitative approach to slang could help to explain the semantic
issues of the phenomenon, its sociological impact, and the reasons
why it is used or objected to within society.
Consider, for instance, the slang term foxy. From the morphological
point of view, it is a denominal adjective produced by a rule-governed
mechanism
of word-formation,
i.e. Summary
fox
fox-y.
Grammarians
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
..............................
11
classify
this
term
among
the
most
productive
canonical
derivatives
of
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
English, together with such standard adjectives as juicy, sexy, shiny,
etc.Ethics
(Marchand
1969:
352). From the semantic point of view, it
1.
and Human
Rights
instead
a novelMigration
sense which
departs
from the standard
in the acquires
South American
Processes
....................................
15
English
Mario meaning.
Santillo It is frequently used among young men, who apply
it to attractive, desirable, pretty, sexy women.
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
Consider now the slang adjective shagadelic, which has a
similar
meaning toInstrument
foxy, butfor
anMigrants
uncertainDefence
origin .............................
connected with the
1.2 International
21
coarse slang verb shag (copulate). This adjective does not obey
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
any of the standard mechanisms of formation and would therefore be
Bibliographyby
.........................................................................................
25
marginalized
grammarians to what is called extra-grammatical (or
expressive) morphology. Yet it has been genuinely coined by young
2.
Migration
Policies
and Ethics
in East
and South
East Asia............
27
men
and applied
to sexy,
beautiful
women
(Mattiello
2005).
Fabio
Our Baggio
question now is: why use the semantically indeterminate
adjective
foxy or the
extra-grammatical
formation
shagadelic
rather
2.1 International
Migration
in East Asia and
South East
Asia..............
27
than clearer canonical forms such as sexy or beautiful? This question
Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
has2.2both
linguistic
(semantic
and grammatical) and sociological
(speaker-oriented
and hearer-oriented)
explanations:
2.3 Ethics and Migration
Management.................................................
43
From the
semantic point of view, slangy foxy is more loaded
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47

than neutral sexy in terms of information provided. That is, for


st Century.
young people
foxy
means having the quality of: (1) attracting
3. Immigration
in the 21
interest,
attention,
desire,
(3) excellent
The Need
for an
Ethical affection,
Approach.(2)
Thecausing
Canadian
Experience
..... 51
or admirable
in appearance,
and (4) sexually provocative,
Christine
Baghdady, Richard
Vanderberg
exciting, etc., whereas sexy only refers to the quality indicated
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51
in point (4);
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

1. Introduction

219

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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

grammatical point of view, the slangy formation


TableFrom
of the
Contents
shagadelic is less transparent than the standard derivatives
beautiful ( beauty) or sexy ( sex), and its formation is
difficult to assign to recognized morphological rules. This
word, popularized by the film Austin Powers: International
Man of Mystery (1997), has recently been included in
Dalzell & Victor (eds) (2007a) as a blend of shag and
psychedelic (cf. partial blends in Thornton 1993: 145148), and in the OED as a combination of shag and -adelic
(a combining form originating from psychedelic). But
whereas
psychedelic
is obtained
from an
established base
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
(psyche),
a
well-known
formative
(
make manifest,
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
reveal manifest, visible, as in delomorphic), and
a
common
English
1. Ethics and
Human
Rights suffix (-ic), shagadelic exhibits a base
which is Migration
not attested
in other
derivatives, and 15
its
in the(shag)
South American
Processes
....................................
Marioformation
Santillo must necessarily rely, both morphologically and
semantically, on the word psychedelic;
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17

The speaker-oriented explanation concerns the speakers

1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants
Defence
21
social identity:
foxy and
shagadelic
index.............................
male adolescents,

whoFinal
use them
for multifarious reasons connected with their
1.3 Some
Reflections...................................................................
23

identity e.g., to show their belonging to a band, to stress


their virility or their age, to reinforce connection with their
peer group and to exclude outsiders, to show off, etc. while
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
neither sexy nor beautiful say much about the speaker;
Fabio Baggio
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

The hearer-oriented explanation concerns rather the effects


the speaker wishes to produce upon the hearer: in-group foxy
2.2 Migration
Policies
ESEA............................................................
34
is certainly
morein efficient
and fresher than sexy, and vulgar
shagadelic
is
undoubtedly
playful,
faddish,
colourful
and
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
musical, and therefore achieves effects which could not be
Bibliography
obtained.........................................................................................
using a comparable standard English form, such 47
as
beautiful.
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27

3. Immigration in the 21st Century.


The
adjectives
and shagadelic
but
two of the
wide range
of
The
Need for foxy
an Ethical
Approach.are
The
Canadian
Experience
..... 51

slang
words.
In this Richard
study IVanderberg
intend, first, to offer a survey of the
Christine
Baghdady,
grammatical and extra-grammatical formations of English slang in
3.1 World
Population
Increaseand,
.............................................................
51
terms
of their
morphology,
second, to go deeper into their
semantics
and social
meaning. Migration
Each of these
aspects will.................
be touched
3.2 Urbanization,
International
and Governance
53
upon and expanded from chapters three to five. The theoretical
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

22

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

framework, some provisional observations, the data, and the entire


Table
of Contents
organization of the study are clarified below.

1.2. The theoretical framework


In the relevant theories, many slang formations are marginalized or
even ignored on account of: (a) oddity and opacity (Aronoff 1976),
(b) minor importance within word-formation (Scalise 1984), (c)
lack of naturalness (Dressler 1999), and (d) extra-grammatical
nature (Dressler & Merlini Barbaresi 1994, 1997, Doleschal &
Opening
Summary
..............................
11
ThorntonConsiderations
eds 2000). Onand
theExecutive
other hand,
these types
of expressions
Fabio
Baggio,
Laura
Zanfrini
are marked and therefore complex (Merlini Barbaresi 1988, ed.
2003), and may create extreme complexity in terms of lexical
1.
Ethics and Human
Rights
organization
(Bertuccelli
Papi & Lenci 2007). In other a-theoretical
in
the
South
American
Migration
Processes ....................................
15
(purely descriptive) studies,
the mechanisms
of slang are attributed
Mario
Santillo
the same regularity as ordinary (morphological and semantic)
processes,
and Rights
it is claimed
that there is no evidence that slang 17
is
1.1 Migrants
.............................................................................
created in special or unfamiliar ways (Eble 1996: 17; cf. Munro
International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
ed.1.2
1997).
Since
slang
and meanings may represent issues for23a
1.3
Some
Finalformations
Reflections...................................................................
theoretical debate, I will provisionally claim that there is evidence
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
that slang is created in special or unfamiliar ways. Hence, an
overview
ofPolicies
the pertinent
andEast
lexical
semantic
2.
Migration
and Ethicsmorphological
in East and South
Asia............
27
theories
would seem to be in order here. Particularly, this overview
Fabio Baggio
focuses attention on the mechanisms of formation that violate the
2.1 International
East Asia and South
East Asia..............
27
basic
properties ofMigration
Englishinmorphological
grammar,
although they
have
entered the
standard
language. It is thus meant to illustrate
2.2 Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
what morphologists analysing the English system have considered
Ethics and
Migration
Management.................................................
43
as 2.3
irregular
(not
rule-governed),
or have viewed as marked and
dispreferred,
often confined to extra-grammatical morphology.
Bibliographyand
.........................................................................................
47
The last subsection devoted to lexical semantics aims to illustrate
what
has recently
considered complex within the English
3.
Immigration
in thebeen
21st Century.
The Need
for an Ethical
51
lexis,
and hence
createsApproach.
difficultyThe
in Canadian
cognitive Experience
processing.....and
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
interpretation.
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

1. Introduction

239

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

1.2.1. Generative morphology


Table
of Contents

Within generative grammar, many phenomena are not assigned the


status of word-formation rules (WFRs), i.e. rules which specify sets
of words on which they can operate. For instance, such phenomena
as blends (e.g. chunnel channel + tunnel), acronyms (e.g. NATO),
clippings (e.g. fan fanatic), word manufacture (e.g. Kodak), backformation (e.g. v peddle peddler), and mixed formation (e.g.
scramjet supersonic combustion ramjet) are classified among the
oddities of a language, i.e. very unusual and escaping wordformation processes (Aronoff 1976: 20). They are indeed viewed as
Opening
Considerations
ExecutiveofSummary
..............................
11
opaque and
uncommon and
mechanisms
word-formation
which have
Baggio, Laura
Zanfrini
no Fabio
recognizable
internal
structure or constituents.
In Bauer (1983: 232), these mechanisms are grouped under the
1.
Ethics
and Human formations:
Rights
label
unpredictable
it is said, at least, that they cannot
in
the
South
American
Migration Processes
....................................
15
be predicted by the word-formation
rules of
generative grammar.
Mario
Santillo
Nonetheless, it is also said that since they are so common in
English,
it is misleading
to consider them unusual. In spite of this,
1.1 Migrants
Rights .............................................................................
17
in such studies as Scalise (1984), they are relegated to a footnote,
1.2 International
Instrumenttofor
.............................
because
they are marginal
theMigrants
theory ofDefence
generative
morphology.21
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23

1.2.2. Natural morphology

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

In morphology, naturalness/markedness claims are based on many


criteria
whichPolicies
are relevant
also to
formations.
Within
the theory
2.
Migration
and Ethics
inslang
East and
South East
Asia............
27
of Fabio
naturalness/markedness,
many
formations
are
less
natural/more
Baggio
marked along the semiotically-derived parameters of iconicity,
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
indexicality, (morphosemantic and morphotactic) transparency and
2.2 Migration
Policies et
in al.
ESEA............................................................
34
biuniqueness
(Dressler
1987, Dressler 1999, 2005).
As
regards
the
parameter
of
iconicity
(resemblance
between
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
signans and signatum), conversion (e.g. n cut v cut) appears to
47
beBibliography
non-iconic .........................................................................................
because addition of meaning is not paralleled by
change in form. Indeed, it is less iconic than canonical derivation
3.
Immigration
in the
21stor
Century.
(e.g.
cut-t-er
v cut)
compounding (e.g. cutthroat cut +
The
Need
for
an
Ethical
Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
throat).
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard Vanderberg
As regards
the parameter
of indexicality (direct reference of
signans
to
signatum),
the
morphological
phenomenon of infixation
3.1 World Population Increase .............................................................
51
(e.g. in-bloody-credible) infrequent in English and rare in the
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
Indo-European languages (Bauer 1983: 18) is more marked than
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

24

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

prefixation (e.g. in-credible) or suffixation (e.g. credibil-ity) because


Table
of Contents
it adds something in-between an affix and its base. In connection
with the same parameter, exocentric compounds, in which the head
has to be inferred, as in pick-pocket (a person who picks pockets),
are more marked than endocentric compounds, which have their head
within the compound (e.g. hip-pocket is a type of pocket).
As regards the parameter of morphosemantic transparency, the
least natural compounds are those which exhibit opacity of both
members (e.g. birdbrain a stupid person). On the other hand,
early bird (one who rises early), bird cherry (a wild cherry) and
birdcageConsiderations
(a cage for and
birds)
illustrate
progressive
degrees 11
of
Opening
Executive
Summary
..............................
naturalness,
because
they
respectively
display
transparency
of
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
modifier, head, or both constituents.
As regards
the related
1. Ethics
and Human
Rightsparameter of morphotactic transparency,
blends
contaminations)
and other
abbreviatory
operations (i.e.
in the(or
South
American Migration
Processes
....................................
15
clippings,
acronyms, etc.) are marked and marginal, because they are
Mario Santillo
mere semantic alternatives of existing words, although they are
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
recurrent
in English as a result of a conscious action of economizing.
Lastly,
as regards
the parameter
ofDefence
biuniqueness
(one-to-one
1.2
International
Instrument
for Migrants
.............................
21
relations), marked (unique) formations are those in which one and the
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
same signans/form corresponds to two or more signata/functions:
Bibliography
e.g.,
the suffix.........................................................................................
-th forming both ordinal numbers (as in four 25
fourth) and nouns from adjectives (as in long
leng-th). The most
2.
Migration
andambiguous
Ethics in East
and SouthinEast
Asia............
27
marked
are, Policies
however,
formations,
which
one form
Fabio Baggio
corresponds
to many functions and vice versa: e.g., the suffix -er
forming
agent, instrument
localAsia
nouns,
in competition
with agent
2.1 International
Migrationand
in East
and South
East Asia..............
27
nouns obtained by adding the suffixes -ist and -ator.
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

1.2.3.
Extra-grammatical,
marginal and expressive morphology 43
2.3 Ethics
and Migration Management.................................................
Within
the theory
of morphopragmatics (Dressler & Merlini Barbaresi
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
1994, 1997), many phenomena are excluded from morphological
grammar:
(a) in
sophisticated
coinages like shm-reduplication (e.g.
3.
Immigration
the 21st Century.
variables
shmariables),
(b)Approach.
blends (e.g.
smog),
(c) hypocoristics
(e.g.
The Need
for an Ethical
The
Canadian
Experience .....
51
Liz,Christine
Bet Baghdady,
Elisabeth;Richard
cf. grammatical
Vanderberg Lizz-ie, Bett-y, in which the
hypocoristic suffix -y is grammatical but the bases are not), (d)
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51
acronyms (e.g. GOP Grand Old Party), (e) clippings (e.g. mike
3.2 Urbanization,
International (e.g.
Migration
and Governance
.................(or
53
microphone),
(f) echo-words
zigzag),
(g) back-derivation
back-formation,
e.g.
v
edit

editor),
and
(h)
expletive
infixations
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

1. Introduction

259

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
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(e.g. abso-blooming-lutely). These phenomena are said to violate


Table
of Contents
various universal principles of English grammar: for instance, ablaut
reduplicatives i.e. echo-words of the type tick-tock may be formed
either from a left-hand or a right-hand base or have no existing base at
all (as in tip-top). Hence, their marginalization to extra-grammatical
morphology (see Merlini Barbaresi forthcoming) and irrelevance
for morphopragmatic investigation.
In Zwicky & Pullum (1987), most such formations are similarly
classified among the innovative extra-grammatical patterns of
English, as part of what they call expressive morphology, so as to
distinguish
them from theand
ordinary
formations
of plain
morphology.
Opening
Considerations
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
In Fabio
their Baggio,
opinion,
Expressive
morphology
is
associated
with an
Laura Zanfrini
expressive, playful, poetic, or simply ostentatious effect of some kind
(Zwicky
Pullum
1987:
335).
1.
Ethics &
and
Human
Rights
Doleschal
& Thornton
(eds) Processes
(2000), the
central role of extrainInthe
South American
Migration
....................................
15
grammatical
(or non-prototypical) phenomena in word-formation is
Mario Santillo
likewise stressed. In particular, what is stressed is the worldwide
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
frequency
of blending, acronyms and combining forms (Bat-El,
Fradin),
trade names
(Ronneberger-Sibold,
Thornton),
and toponyms
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants Defence
.............................
21
(Nbling). Here a distinction is also made by Dressler between
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
extra-grammatical and marginal morphology: the former lies
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
outside
morphological
grammar, whereas the latter lies at 25
its
boundaries, that is between morphology and other levels (e.g.
2.
Migration
Policiesetc.),
and Ethics
in East
and South
East Asia............
27
syntax,
phonology,
or within
morphology
(inflection,
derivation
Baggio
andFabio
compounding)
(Dressler 2000: 1). Therefore, extra-grammatical
morphology
includes
such morphological
echo-words,
2.1 International
Migration
in East Asia andoperations
South East as
Asia..............
27
blends, hypocoristics, abbreviations, and back-formation, which
2.2 Migration
Policiesby
in regular
ESEA............................................................
34
cannot
be described
morphological rules. By contrast,
marginal
includes clitics, lying between
2.3 Ethicsmorphology
and Migration rather
Management.................................................
43
morphology and syntax, and semi-suffixes (or combining forms),
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
lying between derivation and compounding.
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
1.2.4. Lexical complexity
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51

The
theoryBaghdady,
of complexity
recently entered the framework of
Christine
Richard has
Vanderberg
lexical semantics (Bertuccelli Papi & Lenci 2007) via an extension
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51
from textual complexity (Merlini Barbaresi 2003). This theory paves
Urbanization,
International
Migrationofand
.................
the3.2way
for a concrete
interpretation
theGovernance
lexicon, viewed
as53a
complex
self-organized
dynamical
macro-system
whose
behaviour
is
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

26

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

determined by a high number of interrelating factors and dimensions.


Table
of Contents
Within this theory, a word such as texture provides an instance
of complexity in English because: (a) its description makes use of
multiple dimensions, and (b) it covers a multifaceted, fuzzy and
loosely organized semantic space spreading over multiple domains,
and, specifically, it is polysemous and therefore difficult to assign
to a single semantic frame in the sense of Barsalou (1992).1
This brief overview gives rise to a debate on whether slang
formations have to be marginalized, as they actually have been so
far, or rather
appreciated
forExecutive
the opportunity
they
offer to develop
Opening
Considerations
and
Summary
..............................
11
theFabio
branch
of
morphology
and
its
parameters
of
analysis. It also
Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
offers the starting-point for a discussion of slang lexical semantics,
which
hasand
received
treatment that may be called systematic, or
1.
Ethics
Humanlittle
Rights
in in
any
helpful,
e.g. for
interpreters
or translators.
theway
South
American
Migration
Processes
.................................... 15
Mario Santillo

1.3.
observations
1.1Provisional
Migrants Rights
............................................................................. 17
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

The guiding hypotheses of this study, based on a preliminary


1.3 Some Final
investigation
of Reflections...................................................................
partial data, concern both the morphotactics 23
of
slang formations and their semantic extensions (neo-semanticisms).
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
With reference to the morphology of slang:
2. Migration
and Ethicsare
in East
and South
East Asia............
27
SomePolicies
slang formations
regularly
produced
by recognized
Fabioword-formation
Baggio
rules (as established in generative grammar),

and hence provide


of grammatical
morphology
(e.g.
2.1 International
Migrationinstances
in East Asia
and South East
Asia..............
27
fox

fox-y);

2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

Others are not rule-governed, but attested in ordinary English

2.3 Ethics
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
as instances
of extra-grammatical
or expressive morphology

(e.g. shagadelic);
Bibliography
......................................................................................... 47
Still other formations are typical of English slang the most

st Century.
3. Immigration
in the 21
representative
phenomenon
being Cockney rhyming slang,
The Need
for
an
Ethical
Approach.
Canadian
Experience
..... 51
esp. in its elliptic form but The
inexistent
in standard
English.
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

1 See
3.1 World
Population
Increase
.............................................................
51
Bertuccelli
Papi (2003),
Franceschi
(2007), Lorenzetti (2007) and Masi

(forthcoming) for an application of the Lexical Complexity Theory to English


3.2ofUrbanization,
International
Migration
and Governance
verbs
vision. See Bertuccelli
Papi &
Cappelli (2007)
and Cappelli.................
(2007) for 53
an
application
of
the
theory
to
verbs
of
cognitive
attitude.
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

1. Introduction

279

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

they appear to exhibit regularity and set the pattern for the
TableYet
of
Contents
creation of analogous forms.
As for slang semantics:
Slang items are far from being merely synonymous or
connoted variants of standard English equivalent forms (cf.
Dumas & Lighter 1978), because they are loaded with
aspects of meaning which are normally absent in standard
correspondents (cf. foxy and sexy);
They are rather complex words because: (a) their semantic
description
requires
numerous
dimensions
(e.g. foxy
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
entails visual perception and cognition, and
Fabiosimultaneously
Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
also points to the dimension of affect); (b) they cover vague
and
disorganized
semantic spaces, namely:
1. Ethics
and
Human Rights
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

In terms of semiotic principles, they may display low


transparency due to morphosemantic or morphotactic opacity
1.1 Migrants
Rights .............................................................................
17
(e.g. in shagadelic
meaning is non-compositional, headedness
is
hardly
assignable,
and
the
internal
structure
or
constituents
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
are difficult to identify), or they may lack biuniqueness due
1.3 Some
Finalambiguity
Reflections...................................................................
23
to their
with common English forms (cf. slang
foxy attractive,
desirable, pretty, sexy and St. E. crafty,
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
cunning), or to polysemy (i.e. more than one slang meaning/
function);
2. Migration
Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
Mario Santillo

Fabio
InBaggio
cognitive terms, it is very difficult to assign them to a

single frame,
since in
theEast
same
may
to more
2.1 International
Migration
Asiaelement
and South
Eastbelong
Asia..............
27
than one, and these in turn may differ from the frame
assigned to the same word in the standard language.

2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43


Bibliography
1.4.
The data......................................................................................... 47
st Century.
3.
Immigration
in thein21
The
main difficulty
collecting
slang data is discriminating between
TheisNeed
anwhat
Ethical
Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
what
slangfor
and
is not.

Christine
Baghdady,
Richard Vanderberg
A clear-cut
discrimination
would have not been possible without a

2 Corpora, film script excerpts


preliminary
selection in
dictionaries.
3.1 World Population
Increase
.............................................................
51

3.2 Urbanization,
Governance
53
2 Many
dictionaries ofInternational
English slangMigration
have beenand
compiled
so far .................
(e.g. Partridge
1984,
ed. 1998,Migration
Munro ed.in1989,
1993,An
1997,
2001,
Dalzell & ...........
Victor eds
3.3 Ayto
International
Canada:
Ethical
Assessment
54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

28

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

and questionnaires by native informants have however supported


Table
of Contents
lexicographic descriptions and corroborated genuine usage of the
selected expressions.
To sum up, my collection of slang data is drawn from two main
sources:
For the descriptive part, slang data has been cross-checked
in The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) and The Oxford
Dictionary of Modern Slang (ODMS), and reported together
with alternative spellings (if any), etymological information,
usage notes, definitions, and possible cross-references to
Opening
Considerations
Executive Summary
..............................
11
pertinent
entries. and
Contextualized
examples
have mostly been
Fabiotaken
Baggio,
Laura
from
theZanfrini
British National Corpus (BNC), which helped
me with the semantic descriptions of the words, providing
1. Ethics
and Humanabout
Rights
information
token frequency and preferential con- and
in theco-texts
South American
Migration Processes .................................... 15
(word sketches).
Mario Santillo

For the empirical part, tests on slang have been carried out by

1.1 Migrants
Rights
.............................................................................
17
submitting
to informants
excerpts from English films in which

some slangInstrument
expressions
used, Defence
as well .............................
as conversations 21
in
1.2 International
for are
Migrants
teenage slang recorded in COLT. The corpus-based slang data

1.3 Some
Final
Reflections...................................................................
23
is not
necessarily
recorded in the OED or in any specialized

dictionary
of slang (e.g. ODMS). Native speakers have
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25

confirmed its authenticity, current use or disuse, and its slang


nature,Policies
and and
haveEthics
givenin their
personal
opinion
about 27
its
2. Migration
East and
South East
Asia............
derogatory flavour, vulgarity, obscenity, privacy
Fabioinformality,
Baggio
or regionalism.
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27

The slang lexicon explored in this study is neither group-specific


2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
(cf. Munro ed. 1997, 2001) nor subject-specific (cf. Dalzell &
2.3 Ethics
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
Victor
eds 2007b,
c), since
the slang of one particular group (e.g.
college
slang) .........................................................................................
or belonging to a precise area, such as vice or sex,
Bibliography
47
would exclude a large part of general slang items, or of the slang
spoken
by other
groups
drug addicts, military men, rappers,
3.
Immigration
in the
21st (e.g.
Century.
etc.),
and
would
therefore
make
of slang
formations
The Need for an Ethical Approach.my
Thesurvey
Canadian
Experience
..... 51
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

3.1 World
Population
Increase
.............................................................
2007a,
b, c; see
also bilingual
dictionaries
such as Monti ed. 2003, Cagliero 51
&
Spallino eds 2007), but no specific corpora of slang are at the moment available
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
and Governance
53
except
for the Bergen Corpus
of London
Teenage Language
(COLT), .................
which however
provides
only an incomplete
restricted
illustration
the phenomenon.
3.3 International
Migration
in Canada:
AnofEthical
Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

1. Introduction

299

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

incomplete. A distinction between general and specific slang is


Table
of Contents
however drawn in the second chapter, and the areas preferentially
covered by slang use are carefully analysed in the pertinent chapter
(chap. 4).
As a final point, the slang mentioned here is only partially in
current use: given the ephemeral nature of slang and its complex
dynamics, today some slang items may be considered old-fashioned
or obsolete. However, whenever slang is referred to as obsolete in
the OED or ODMS I will indicate it.
Opening
1.5. TheConsiderations
organizationand
of Executive
the studySummary .............................. 11
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini

This study is divided into five chapters. Chapter two introduces the

1.
Ethics
HumanaRights
topic
andand
provides
brief state of the art. It is meant to identify
in
the
South
American
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
certain descriptive
criteria
which may
help us
recognize slang and

Mario Santillo
distinguish
it from other non-standard language varieties.
Chapters
three
and
four focus on the linguistic properties 17
of
1.1 Migrants
Rights
.............................................................................
slang. Specifically, chapter three is centred on slang morphology. It
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
classifies
the word-formation processes of slang, discriminating
between
theFinal
types
that conform to grammatical morphology and
1.3 Some
Reflections...................................................................
23
those that depart from it and rather belong to extra-grammatical (or
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
expressive) morphology. Some subsections are devoted to the
distribution
slang and
affixes,
to in
their
base
properties
2.
Migrationof
Policies
Ethics
East
andcategories,
South Easthead
Asia............
27
andFabio
grammatical
classes. Others are devoted to slang compounds,
Baggio
especially to the syntactic categories of their constituents and to their
2.1 Internationaltransparency
Migration in East
Asia and(cf.
South
East Asia..............
27
morphosemantic
vs. opacity
Dressler
1999). Minor
phenomena
formation,
including reduplication, acronyms,
2.2 MigrationofPolicies
in ESEA............................................................
34
initialisms, blends, clippings, elliptic rhyming slang, back-formation,
2.3 Ethics
and Migration
43
reversed
forms,
variation, Management.................................................
word manufacture and fanciful formations,
areBibliography
also dealt with,
as they are frequently involved in slang formations.
.........................................................................................
47
Chapter four deals with the phenomenon of slang from a lexical
st Century.
semantic
perspective.
first explores whether the slang lexical
3.
Immigration
in the 21It
The Need
for an Ethical
Theone
Canadian
..... 51
system
is comparable
withApproach.
the standard
in termsExperience
of organization
Christine
Richard
Vanderberg
into
fields Baghdady,
and internal
meaning
relations. It then explores some
representative
semantic
areas.............................................................
of slang viz., drug addiction,
3.1 World Population
Increase
51
homosexuality, alcoholism, foreigners, attractive women, body
3.2 Urbanization,
andregular
Governance
53
parts
with the International
purpose of Migration
identifying
and.................
predictable

3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54


Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

30

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

behavioural patterns, e.g. in terms of


Table
of Contents
inferential mechanisms applicable to

meaning association and


meaning disambiguation.
Lastly, it examines the complexity and disorganization of some
slang items due to the enormous array of information they require
in semantic description and to the manifold cognitive processes
they activate as contrasted with standard comparable forms (cf.
Bertuccelli Papi & Lenci 2007).
Finally, chapter five focuses on the sociological properties of
slang, classified as speaker-oriented and hearer-oriented. In my
classification, the speaker-oriented properties qualify the speaker as
belongingConsiderations
to some distinct
group within
society,
whereas the
Opening
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
hearer-oriented
properties
produce
some
particular
effect
upon the
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
hearer. This chapter is entirely based on conversations either
spontaneous,
as in COLT
1.
Ethics and Human
Rights dialogues, or planned, as in film script
transcripts
since
it is only
in realProcesses
or realistic
contexts that we can
in the South
American
Migration
....................................
15
perceive
the functions/effects of slang.
Mario Santillo
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
Fabio Baggio

2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27


2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51


3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

2. Previous
Studies on Slang
Table
of Contents

Opening
and
Executive
..............................
One ofConsiderations
the clichs of the
subject
is thatSummary
anyone can
recognize slang, 11
Fabio
Baggio,
Laura
Zanfrini
but no one can define it. The reverse may be closer to the truth.
(Dumas & Lighter 1978: 10)
1. Ethics and Human Rights
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

2.1.
TheSantillo
definition of slang
Mario

.............................................................................
17
In 1.1
theMigrants
pertinentRights
literature,
most definitions of slang show a tendency
towards
a sociological
view
of the phenomenon.
This view 21
is
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants
Defence .............................
accepted, among others, by Eble (1996) and Munro (ed.) (1997),
1.3 basically
Some Finalregard
Reflections...................................................................
23
who
slang as a social means of identification and
cohesiveness
a group (cf. Allen 1998). A second fundamental
Bibliographywithin
.........................................................................................
25
approach is stylistic. In line with this, slang has to be arranged among
theMigration
varietiesPolicies
according
attitude
(Quirk
et al. East
1985:
25-27) as27
it
2.
and to
Ethics
in East
and South
Asia............
Fabio Baggio
includes
words that are below the level of stylistically neutral
language
(Stenstrm et al. 2002: 67). A third relevant approach
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
emphasizes the aspects of novelty and freshness of slang, and
2.2 Migrationit Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
characterizes
as a language
variety that exhibits a leaning towards
lexical
innovation
(Dundes
&
Schonhorn
1963,
Mencken
1967,
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
Olesen & Whittaker 1968, Dumas & Lighter 1978, Sornig 1981).
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
In lexicography,
most dictionaries agree that the word slang
may be defined with at st
least two senses. First, slang is the restricted
3.
Immigration
in the
Century.
speech
of marginal
or21
distinct
subgroups in society and, second, it is a
The
Need
for
an
Ethical
Approach.
The Canadian
Experience
..... 51
quite temporary, unconventional
vocabulary
characterized
primarily
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
by connotations of informality and novelty. In the OED, for
instance,
slang
is described
both as the special vocabulary 51
or
3.1 World
Population
Increase .............................................................
phraseology of a particular calling or profession and as a language
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
of a highly colloquial type, considered as below the level of standard
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

32

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not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
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educated speech, and consisting either of new words or of current


Table
of Contents
words employed in some special sense.
What follows is an overview of the definitions of slang from
various perspectives, including the sociological, stylistic and linguistic
approaches, as well as its lexicographic description.1
2.1.1. The sociological approach
Within the sociological approach, slang is ascribed the two opposite
purposes of keeping insiders together and outsiders out. On the one
hand, Eble (1996: 11) stresses the social and interpersonal aspects
of slang and
its functionand
toExecutive
establish Summary
or reinforce
social identity 11
or
Opening
Considerations
..............................
cohesiveness
within
a
group
or
with
a
trend
or
fashion
in
society
at
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
2
large. Accordingly, sharing the same slang vocabulary aids both
to Ethics
gain acceptance
in a group and to preserve group solidarity
1.
and Human Rights
(Munro
1997).
Speaking
in more
general ....................................
terms, slang is a socioin the ed.
South
American
Migration
Processes
15
cultural
Mario practice
Santillo that speakers privilege for such social purposes as
being on the same speech-level with ones audience, facilitating
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
social intercourse, and inducing friendliness or intimacy.
1.2
Instrument
Migrants
Defence
.............................
21
OnInternational
the other hand,
slang for
is said
to serve
antisocial
purposes such
as 1.3
marking
social
differences (Allen 1998), opposing people 23
in
Some Final
Reflections...................................................................
authority (Eble 1996), and hiding secret information or improper
Bibliography
25
behaviour
from.........................................................................................
them (Franklyn 1961, Andersson & Trudgill 1990,
Stenstrm et al. 2002). In particular, slang is viewed as an in-group
2.
Migrationthat
Policies
andsubclasses
Ethics in East
and South
Asia............
27
vocabulary
certain
in society
(e.g.East
criminals
or drug
Fabio
Baggio
addicts) cultivate to keep the content of their conversations private,
or 2.1
which
such specific
subgroups
as adolescents
or college
students
International
Migration
in East Asia
and South East
Asia..............
27
adopt to keep the older generation at a distance.
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
The two conflicting social and antisocial tendencies of slang
Ethics and
Migration
43
are2.3evident
in the
effectsManagement.................................................
it may produce: if sometimes it appears
playful
and
amusing,
it
may,
some
other
times,
signal
the
speakers
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
1

Part of this chapter is a revision


of Mattiello (2005 online).
3.
Immigration
in the 21st Century.
2 Actually,
Eble (1996: 116) highlights three general functions of slang: (1) Slang
The Need
for of
andiscourse
Ethical in
Approach.
The
..... 51
changes
the level
the direction
of Canadian
informality.Experience
(2) Slang identifies

Christine
Richard
Vanderberg
members
of aBaghdady,
group. (3) Slang
opposes
established authority. However, she gives
greatest prominence to the group-identifying function because her study focuses on
World
Population
Increase
the3.1
slang
used by
college students.
She.............................................................
indeed comments that slang mainly serves51
to
demarcate smaller groups or subcultures within the college student community, and
Migration
Governance
.................
53
that3.2
it Urbanization,
helps subgroupsInternational
like technicians
or studentand
journalists
to enhance
solidarity
and3.3
work
together. Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
International

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

2. Previous Studies on Slang

339

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

intention to startle his audience or even to be aggressive (Andersson


Table
of Contents
& Trudgill 1990).
2.1.2. The stylistic approach
Within the stylistic approach, slang is neutrally and rather vaguely
defined as a level of usage. In early studies (Partridge 1947: 287), it
is claimed that slang is the quintessence of colloquial speech, or,
as in Flexner (1960: vi), that it is not accepted as good, formal
usage by the majority.3
In this view, slang is juxtaposed to formal language: particularly,
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
..............................
11
it is below
standard discourse
and theSummary
neutral stylistic
level (Allen
Fabio
Baggio, Laura
1998,
Stenstrm
et al.Zanfrini
2002), and typical of informal, relaxed speech
(Quirk et al. 1985). On the other hand, slang is also juxtaposed to
1.
Ethics
and Human
Rights it is neither dialect nor register, nor can
other
non-standard
varieties:
in
the
South
American
Migration
Processes
....................................
it be restricted to the concepts
of cant,
argot, or
jargon (Andersson 15
&
Mario
Santillo
Trudgill 1990, Eble 1996). Slang can be rather viewed as a shortlived
ephemeral
vocabulary
that is expecting either to pass into
1.1 Migrants
Rights
.............................................................................
17
disuse or to have a more standard status (as gay).4
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

2.1.3.
The linguistic
approach
1.3 Some
Final Reflections...................................................................
23
From
the linguistic
point of view, slang is regarded as the use 25
of
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
ordinary words in extraordinary senses or of extraordinary words in
ordinary
senses
(Yustand
ed.Ethics
1950).inJespersen
(1922:East
298)Asia............
pioneers this
2.
Migration
Policies
East and South
27
position,
stating
that
slang
finds
amusement
in
the
creation
and
Fabio Baggio
propagation of new words and in attaching new meanings to old
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
words.5
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43

3 As Dumas & Lighter (1978: 7) provocatively comment, everything is slang by this

definition
except formal
usage and words and expressions of limited currency. 47
Bibliography
.........................................................................................

4 Many studies stress the short-lived nature of slang. For instance, Andersson &

Trudgill (1990: 70) point outstthat, as slang is subject to change over time and from
3.
Immigration in the 21 Century.
place to place, What is slang for one person, generation or situation may not be
The
for an
Approach.
Thelikewise
Canadian
Experience
51
slang forNeed
another,
andEthical
Munro (ed.)
(1997: 27)
notices
that Slang.....
words

Christine
Vanderberg
come
and go.Baghdady,
Some slangRichard
expressions
are no longer recognized by speakers just a
few years later, other slang words come to be accepted as standard language, while
World
Population
51
still3.1
others
persist
as slangIncrease
for many.............................................................
years. More in Dumas & Lighter (1978),
Maurer & High (1980) and Eble (1996).
3.2Dundes
Urbanization,
International
Migration
andand
Governance
.................
53
5 See
& Schonhorn
(1963), Mencken
(1967)
Olesen & Whittaker
(1968)
for3.3
related
positions. Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
International

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

34

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Within the linguistic approach, slang is distinguished from the


Table
of Contents
standard language in both its morphology and its semantics. In
morphology, it is characterized by clear insubordination as regards the
standard word-formation rules, and in semantics, it not only renames
everyday objects, but also enriches, qualifies and complexifies them.
Hence, Sornigs (1981: 20) definition of slang:
Slang is, as it were, a language in statu nascendi, a language (or at
least a lexicon) in the making. Slang is essentially an experimental
language.

Opening
Considerations
Executive Summary .............................. 11
2.1.4. The
lexicographicand
definition
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini

In dictionaries, there is no unique clear-cut definition of slang


because this concept has acquired different senses in different periods
1. Ethics6and Human Rights
of intime.
Originally, the term was used to refer to the language of
the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
criminals,
thieves and vagabonds. The OED, for instance, states that
Mario Santillo
1.1 Migrants
.............................................................................
17
6 Opinions
divergeRights
not only
with regard to the definition of the concept of slang

but also as regards the etymology of the word slang, which is presently unknown
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
or dubious for most lexicographers. Overall, two distinct positions have developed
which
attribute
dissimilar
origins to slang. One relates slang to the Scandinavian
1.3 Some
Final
Reflections...................................................................
23
world. In Skeat (ed.) (1910) the origin of the word slang (low, vulgar language)
is traced
back to the
Norwegian verb slengja kjeften (lit. sling the jaw, use abusive
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
language, slang) and to the Icelandic words slyngr or slunginn (versed in a thing,
cunning). In addition, the lexicographer behind this dictionary also reminds us of the
2.
Migration
Policies
and Ethics
in East
South
East
27
Swedish
word slanger
(gossip),
remarking
thatand
all these
terms
areAsia............
probably derived
Fabio
from
the Baggio
second grade of the verb sling (throw, cast). The supposition of a
Scandinavian origin is also contemplated by Weekly (1921, in Mencken 1967: 703,
Migration
in East
and South
Asia..............
27
see2.1
alsoInternational
Partridge 1970),
who reports
two Asia
Norwegian
dialectEast
words
the neologism
slengjeord
(lit. a slang-word)
the nickname slengjenamn (lit. a slang-name)34
2.2 Migration
Policies in and
ESEA............................................................
as its brothers. By contrast, the OED states that the date and early associations of this
word
it improbable
that there
is any connection with certain Norwegian forms
2.3make
Ethics
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
based upon the cognate verb slenge or slengje.
TheBibliography
alternative position
suggested in the OED attributes a cant origin to slang.
.........................................................................................
47
The word slang may be either an argotic distortion of the French word langue or a
blending with the English word
language as its second member: e.g., sling language
3.
Immigration in the 21st Century.
(Webster & McKechnie eds 1963). Cf. beggars language, rogues language, thieves
The Need
for an
Ethical
Approach.
Thepostulation
Canadian
Experience
.....fact
51
language
(Mencken
1967,
Eble 1996).
The latter
is motivated
by the
Baghdady,
Richard
that,Christine
when the
word slang
first Vanderberg
appeared in English, about the middle of the
eighteenth century, it was employed as a synonym of cant, and, less than fifty years
3.1asWorld
Population
Increase
.............................................................
51
later,
a synonym
of argot.
As observed
by Skeat (ed.) (1910: 568), the word
slang once denoted a narrow piece of land, so that currently, in the language of
3.2 Urbanization,
andtravel
Governance
.................
thieves
and gipsies, toInternational
be out on theMigration
slang means
about the
country as53a
hawker,
encamping byMigration
night on theinroadside
slangs.
3.3 International
Canada:
An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

2. Previous Studies on Slang

359

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
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in the mid-eighteenth century, it labelled the special vocabulary


Table
of Contents
used by any set of persons of a low or disreputable character, and
Webster & McKechnie (eds) (1963) specify that in the beginning it
referred to the specialized vocabulary and idioms of criminals,
tramps, etc. the purpose of which was to disguise from outsiders the
meaning of what was said. Accordingly, there seems to be an
overlap between the original sense of slang and the current concept
of cant (cf. F. argot).
But soon after the mid-eighteenth century, the term slang
gradually broadened to include the language of other subgroups, not
necessarily
of low culture,
rather connected
by their profession,
Opening
Considerations
andbut
Executive
Summary ..............................
11
likeFabio
lawyers,
scientists,
historians,
essayists
and
poets (OED), or by
Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
a common way of life (Webster & McKechnie eds 1963). In this
sense,
theand
term
became
more specialized and nearly synonymous
1.
Ethics
Human
Rights
with
jargon.
in the
South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
Lastly,
in the early years of the nineteenth century, slang acquired
Mario
Santillo
the more general sense of colloquial or informal vocabulary which is
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
outside
of conventional or standard usage, and which belongs rather
to 1.2
familiar
conversation
to written
language
(Webster 21
&
International
Instrumentthan
for Migrants
Defence
.............................
McKechnie eds 1963, Longman Dictionary 1984, OED).7
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
Today slang covers both the specific and the general sense. It
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
typically
consists
of new words and novel or extended meanings,
and develops from the attempt to find fresh, vigorous, colourful,
2.
Migration
Policies and
Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
pungent
or humorous
expressions.
Fabio Baggio

2.1The
International
Migration
East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
2.2.
classification
ofinslang
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

As an exploration of the literature shows, the classification of slang


Ethics and Migration
43
is 2.3
a challenging
task. OnManagement.................................................
the one hand, there is a conceptual and
terminological
overlap which makes slang hard to distinguish from
Bibliography .........................................................................................
47
other similar language varieties (e.g. cant, jargon, dialect). On the
st Century.
other
hand, theinnature
slang is so vast and all-encompassing that
3.
Immigration
the 21of
The Need for an between
Ethical Approach.
The general
Canadian
Experience
..... 51
a sub-distinction
specific and
slang
is definitely
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
required.
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
7 The Longman Dictionary (1984) mentions dialect as a synonym of slang.

3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

36

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Among the numerous non-standard language varieties of English,


Table
of Contents
slang finds its place both as a diastratic variety and as a diatopic
variety. Nonetheless, as a diastratic variety, it diverges from both
jargon and cant, whereas, as a diatopic variety, it departs from
dialect as well as from vernacular and accent. Lastly, slang may
also be viewed as a diaphasic variety, although it differs from
colloquial language.
2.2.1. Slang vs. jargon
Slang is not jargon, a widely used term referring to the specialized
vocabulary
and phraseology
of a set Summary
of people..............................
sharing a trade 11
or
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
Fabio Baggio,
Laura
profession
(OED;
cf. Zanfrini
Nash 1993, Burke 1995), although slang may
be a choice within jargon. For example, musicians employ specific
1.
Ethics
and to
Human
slang
terms
refer Rights
to different music styles (e.g. funk, grunge,
in
the
South
American
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
handbag, hardcore, house,
jazz, jungle,
ragga,
techno, etc.), doctors
Mario
Santillo
use medicine slang terms to describe the diseases or physical
conditions
of their
patients
(e.g. O sign orig. and chiefly U.S. the
1.1 Migrants
Rights
.............................................................................
17
open mouth of a patient who is in a coma, dying, or dead), soldiers
International
for Migrants
Defence
.............................
21
use1.2such
servicesInstrument
slang words
as acker (a
piastre)
and skunk (an
unidentified
surface
craft) in their military life, and seamen use
1.3 Some Final
Reflections...................................................................
23
such nautical slang expressions as Harry Flakers (exhausted),
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
Harry
Flatters ((of the sea) calm) and Harry Frees (free)
jocularly from flaked, flat and free with their ship-mates.
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............
27
Slang differs from jargon in its lack of prestige8 and
Fabio Baggio
pretentiousness. In fact, slang terminology is much more familiar and
2.1 International
in East Asia
and South
Asia..............
27
spontaneous
thanMigration
the technical
jargon
of East
science,
medicine,
academics,
law,Policies
bureaucracy,
business, etc. Slang may be used
2.2 Migration
in ESEA............................................................
34
within a particular group like musicians, doctors, soldiers or
2.3 Ethics
Migration
Management.................................................
43
seamen,
butand
it does
not exactly
deal with status or reputation.

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47

2.2.2. Slang vs. cant

3.
Immigration
in thethe
21stspecialized
Century. and usually secret language of
Slang
is not cant,
The
Need
for
an
Ethical
Approach.
Canadian
Experience
..... 51
thieves, professional beggars,
and otherThe
groups
operating
on the fringes
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
of Christine
society (OED,
see also
Barisone
1989, Beier 1995, Gotti 1999). Yet
many
slang
words
arise
from
the
language
of the underworld and are
3.1 World Population Increase .............................................................
51

3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53


8 Cf. covert prestige in Andersson & Trudgill (1990) and Allen (1998).

3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

2. Previous Studies on Slang

379

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

used for the purposes of secrecy and conspiracy. For instance, drug
Table
of Contents
dealers use such specific slang names as Charley/-ie, rock, skag,
skunk and speed for drugs in their traffics, and criminals use a
number of different in-group slang words to refer to the police (e.g.
bill, filth, fuzz, heat, pigs) in their illicit trades.
Despite its sometimes cryptic character, slang cannot be reduced
to the private language of the criminal world. It may be used by those
people in society who have reason to hide from actual authority (like
drug addicts and criminals), but it may also suit certain subgroups
who want to keep the content of their conversations secret from adult
people (like
teenagers and
college
students),
either..............................
to gain acceptance
Opening
Considerations
and
Executive
Summary
11
in aFabio
group
or
to
preserve
their
group
solidarity
(Eble
1996, Munro ed.
Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
1997, Stenstrm 2000).
1. Ethics and Human Rights
2.2.3.
Slang
vs.American
dialect Migration Processes .................................... 15
in the
South
Mario
Slang
is Santillo
not geographically restricted, like dialect (cf. Chambers &
Trudgill
1980, Rights
Romaine
1994, 2000, Trudgill 1999), even if it 17
is
1.1 Migrants
.............................................................................
often regional and may vary from place to place, dialect to dialect
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants
Defence .............................
(Andersson
& Trudgill
1990:
70). Therefore,
what is slang 21
in
British
English
be standard in American English, or may have23a
1.3 Some
Finalmay
Reflections...................................................................
different meaning within the two regional varieties. For example, the
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
slang
word bomb is used in British English to refer to a success (esp.
in entertainment) (e.g. like a bomb with considerable effectiveness
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
or success), but in American English, some of which is gaining
Fabio Baggio
currency in Britain, it is used in the exactly opposite sense of a
2.1 International
in East
andfanny
Southrefers
East Asia..............
27
failure.
Similarly,Migration
the vulgar
slangAsia
word
to the female
genitals
in British
English,
but it means the posterior or rump 34
in
2.2 Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
American English.
2.3
Ethics its
andlocal
Migration
Management.................................................
43
Despite
peculiarities,
slang is not necessarily associated
with
one region
or social class. Some slang words are of more
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
general use or they happen to be understood by practically anyone
within
the language
3.
Immigration
in the community:
21st Century.for example, this is the case with
words
like for
nerd
insignificant
or socially
person)
or
The Need
an (an
Ethical
Approach. The
Canadianinept
Experience
..... 51
crackers
(crazy,
mad),
though
they may not be accepted as proper
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
British or American English words.

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53


3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

38

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

2.2.4. Slang vs. vernacular


Table
of Contents

Slang is not vernacular, the native speech of a particular country or


district (OED), but it frequently includes variation of sounds or
mispronunciation of words which are typical of a limited area. The
expressions bejesus, bollox and eejit are Anglo-Irish alterations of by
Jesus, bollocks (a stupid, contemptible man or boy) and idiot, while
bovver (trouble or fighting) and garn are Cockney pronunciations
of bother and go on.
Slang is a wider concept than vernacular (cf. Walker 1984), as it
is not strictly indigenous local speech. It is instead a hybrid language
Opening
andforeign
Executive
Summary
..............................
and oftenConsiderations
permeated with
lexical
material,
as in the case 11
of
Fabio(heroin),
Baggio, Laura
Zanfrini
smack
which
comes from Yiddish schmeck, and ackers
(money, cash), which in turn is an adaptation of Arabian fakka
1.
Ethicschange,
and Human
Rights
(small
coins)
via Egyptian akka.
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

Mario
Santillo
2.2.5.
Slang
vs. accent

1.1 Migrants
Rights .............................................................................
17
Since
slang is pertinent
to word form and meaning, it is not accent,
which
simply
refers
to
word
pronunciation
(tone
quality,
pitch,
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
stress, etc.) (see Simpson 1994). In actual fact, some slang words
Some Final
23
are1.3created
by Reflections...................................................................
changing some sounds of standard items: e.g.,
Gawblimy!
and.........................................................................................
Gor blimey! are corruptions of the imprecation God
Bibliography
25
blind me!, heck is a slang euphemistic alteration of hell, lickle
(small)
is aPolicies
childlike
corruption
of little,
thang
the Southern
2.
Migration
and
Ethics in East
and and
South
EastisAsia............
27
U.S.
slang
pronunciation
of
thing
(originating
from
Black
E., see
Fabio Baggio
Munro ed. 1989: 8).
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
As we will see, however, slang involves not only altered words
Migration
Policies in ESEA............................................................
34
in 2.2
terms
of misspelling
or mispronunciation, but also new forms
and
novel
senses
(more
in

2.3.1
below).
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
Bibliography
47
2.2.6.
Slang vs..........................................................................................
colloquial language

Slang does not correspond to colloquial language, although, like

3. Immigration in the 21st Century.


familiar
speech,
departs
from neutral
and formal
styles.....(see
The Need
for an itEthical
Approach.
The Canadian
Experience
51

Partridge
Andersson
& Trudgill 1990). Slang is informally
Christine1947,
Baghdady,
Richard Vanderberg
used among people who belong to the same social group, or, more
3.1 Worldamong
Population
Increase
.............................................................
generally,
friends,
intimates
or family members, but 51
its
purposes
differ
from
mere
familiarity.
Consider,
for
instance,
the
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
expressions belly and beer belly: the former is a colloquial term
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

2. Previous Studies on Slang

399

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

referring to ones stomach, while the latter is a slang expression


Table
of Contents
which refers to a protruding stomach caused by drinking large
quantities of beer, and may also be used as a derogatory definition
for people having such a stomach, as in They described Pa as a
beer-belly and said Ma was unfriendly. Similarly, nana is an
abbreviation of banana in colloquial English, but, in English slang,
it rather refers to a foolish or silly person, as in A frank admission
that he had made a nana of himself.
Slang displays features such as secrecy, privacy or vulgarity
which are not applicable to colloquial language, and it produces
various effects
(e.g. humour,
impertinence,
etc.),
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
Summaryoffensiveness,
..............................
11
which
are
not
obtained
by
comparable
familiar
expressions.
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
2.2.7.
Specific
vs. general
1.
Ethics
and Human
Rightsslang
thewe
South
American
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
Soinfar,
have
established
that slang
may be
classified as a social

Mario characterizing
Santillo
variety
a group (e.g. music slang, military slang,
navy
slang,
drug
slang,
thieves slang, teenage slang, college slang,
1.1 Migrants Rights .............................................................................
17
etc.), as a regional variety distinguishing an area (e.g. British slang,
1.2 International
Instrument forslang)
Migrants
21
American
slang, Anglo-Irish
or aDefence
district.............................
(Cockney slang),
and
an Final
informal
style of the language. It must be further
1.3as
Some
Reflections...................................................................
23
subdivided into either specific or general slang.9
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
Basically, specific slang is language that speakers use to show
their belonging to a group and establish solidarity or intimacy with
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
the other group members. It is often used by speakers to create their
Fabio Baggio
own identity, including such aspects as social status and geographical
2.1 International
in East Asia
and Southlifestyle
East Asia..............
27
belonging,
or evenMigration
age, education,
occupation,
and special
10
interests.
It is Policies
largely in
used
by people of similar age and experience
2.2 Migration
ESEA............................................................
34
(like teenagers or college students) to strengthen the bonds within
2.3 own
Ethicspeer
and group,
Migration
Management.................................................
43
their
keeping
outsiders out (Eble 1996, Munro ed.
1997,
Stenstrm
et al. 2002). It is also used by people sharing the
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47

3.
Immigration
in the 21st Century.
9 In
sociolinguistics some scholars requiring a systematic classification make a
The Need
for an
Ethical
The
Canadian
Experience
.....64),
51
distinction
between
specific
andApproach.
general slang
words.
Stenstrm
et al. (2002:

Baghdady, between
Richard those
Vanderberg
for Christine
example, distinguish
words that are associated with a particular
group or trend (e.g. joint, speed, spliff) and those that are not (e.g. booze, fag,
3.1 World
Population
Increase
spooky)
(see also
Allen 1998:
878). ............................................................. 51
10 Flexner (1960: xii-xiii): Slang can be one of the most revealing things about a
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
andcontains
Governance
person,
because our own
personal slang
vocabulary
many .................
words used 53
by
choice,
words
which
we
use
to
create
our
own
image.
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

40

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

same occupation (like military men and computer users) to increase


Table
of Contents
efficiency in communication; or by those sharing the same living
conditions (like prisoners and criminals) to hide secret information
from people in authority. Lastly, it is used by people sharing an
attitude or a lifestyle (like drug addicts and homosexuals) to
reinforce their group cohesiveness (cf. Andersson & Trudgill 1990:
158). Items like chick (a girl; a young woman), cool (all right,
OK) and dude (a fellow or chap) can be considered specific
slang words, as they are related to the young and hardly understood
by adults, and rock (a crystallized form of cocaine), smack (a
drug, spec.
heroin) andand
smoke
(opium,
marijuana)
are likewise
Opening
Considerations
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
specific,
as
they
belong
to
the
vocabulary
of
drug
addicts
and drug
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
dealers, but they have a different meaning in the standard language.
General
the other hand, is language that speakers
1. Ethics
andslang,
Humanon
Rights
deliberately
use
to breakMigration
with the standard
and to change
in the South
American
Processeslanguage
....................................
15
theMario
levelSantillo
of discourse in the direction of informality. It signals the
speakers intention to refuse conventions (cf. Flexner 1960, Dumas
Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
& 1.1
Lighter
1978) and their need to be fresh and startling in their
expression,
to ease
social for
exchanges
induce
friendliness, 21
to
1.2 International
Instrument
Migrantsand
Defence
.............................
reduce excessive seriousness and avoid clichs, in brief, to enrich
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
the language (cf. Partridge 1947: 288). General slang words have a
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
wider
circulation
as they are neither group- nor subject-restricted:
for example, items like bevvy (a drink, esp. beer), caff (a caf)
2.
Migration
Policies and
in more
East and
South
Asia............ 27
and
footy (football)
areEthics
much
likely
to East
get established
as
Fabio Baggio
informal
or colloquial English.
YetInternational
some slang
words are
bothAsia
specific
and East
general,
according
2.1
Migration
in East
and South
Asia..............
27
to their pragmatic meaning and context of occurrence: e.g., the
2.2 Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
word
grass in slang
takes
on both the specific sense of marijuana,
used
a drug
(drug slang),
or of a police informer (criminals
2.3 as
Ethics
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
slang), and the more general sense of green vegetables.
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47

3.
Immigration
in the 21st
2.3.
The description
ofCentury.
slang
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard Vanderberg
The
descriptive
properties
which can be ascribed to slang are
heterogeneous,
and
vary
depending
on the perspective (sociological,
3.1 World Population Increase .............................................................
51
stylistic or linguistic) from which it is investigated, or on the sense
3.2 Urbanization,
International
and Governance
.................
53
(either
specific or general)
thatMigration
is taken into
account. After
a careful

3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54


Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

2. Previous Studies on Slang

419

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

examination of the relevant studies on slang, a primary distinction


Table
of Contents
can be drawn between its linguistic and sociological properties.
2.3.1. The linguistic properties of slang
In the literature, most linguists dismiss the question of the slang
locus in language by assigning it to the lexicon. Jespersen (1922:
299), for instance, argues that slang is more productive in the lexical
than in the grammatical portion of language. Andersson & Trudgill
(1990) likewise stress that slang affects above all vocabulary, and
Sornig (1981: 22) lays emphasis on its tendency towards the
creation of
a lexicon of and
its own.
I have
to personally
contrast this
Opening
Considerations
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
Fabio Baggio,
Laura that
Zanfrini
opinion
in the sense
I would rather assign slangs relevance to
each level of the language.
1. Ethics and Human Rights
2.3.1.1.
in the Phonology
South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

AtMario
the phonological
level, slang plays with sounds and manipulates
Santillo
word pronunciations (Flexner 1960, Sornig 1981, Eble 1996, Allen
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
1998). The most common way of enlivening slang terms is
1.2 International
Instrumentwhich
for Migrants
Defence
.............................
onomatopoeia
or echoism,
accounts
for many
slang terms, 21
as
in 1.3
theSome
set ofFinal
synonyms
for the verb vomit (i.e. barf, bolk, chunder,
Reflections................................................................... 23
puke, ralph, spew, throw (up), etc.).
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
Another way
is jocular mispronunciation of words: for instance,
the slang affectionate forms of address hinnie/-y, luvvie/-y and
2.
Migration
Policies and mock
Ethics pronunciations
in East and South
Asia............
27
marra
are respectively
ofEast
honey,
lovey and
Fabio Baggio
marrow,
while the pronouns summat ( somewhat) and nuffink
sound
like and are
used inin the
of South
standard
2.1 International
Migration
East place
Asia and
East something
Asia..............and
27
nothing (cf. analogical formations in COLT: e.g. anyfink
2.2 Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................ 34
anything,
everyfink
everything).
Assimilation
is likewise
recurrent in slang, especially 43
in
2.3
Ethics and Migration
Management.................................................
combination with consonant gemination. Examples proliferate in
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
teenagers conversations: the interjections innit? ( isnt it?) and
wunnit? ( wasnt it?), and such contractions as dunno ( I do
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
not/dont
know),
give (itThe
to) Canadian
me; cf. lemme
let.....
me),
The Need
for angimme
Ethical(
Approach.
Experience
51
gonna
(
going
to),
gotta
(
(have)
got
to/a)
and
wanna
(
want
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
to/a) are attested in COLT (cf. doncher dont you).
3.1
World Population
51
Furthermore,
some Increase
sounds .............................................................
seem to be more distinctive of slang
than
others
(cf.
Wescott
1977,
1978,
in
Eble
1996:
40).
For
instance,
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
the vowel /u/ is in slang variations, such as bazoom /bzum/ (
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

42

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

bosom /bz
a womans
Table
of m/)
Contents

breast, booty /but/ ( bottom


/btm/, via botty /bt/) the buttocks, choom /tum/ ( chum
/tm/) an English soldier, and shoot /ut/ ( shit /t/) a coarse
exclamation of annoyance or disgust, and in copy reduplicatives,
such as boo-boo /bubu/ a foolish mistake or blunder, doo-doo
/dudu/ and pooh pooh/poo poo /pupu/ faeces, excrement. It
may also act as a suffix, as in smackeroo /smkru/ (U.S.) (
smacker) a coin or note of money (more under the suffix -eroo,
3.2.3.8). The voiced consonant /z/ is likewise frequent in slang (as in
Opening
Considerations
Executive Summary
..............................
11
pizzazz /pzz/
vitalityand
or liveliness),
especially
from voiceless /s/
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
after back-clipping, as in spaz /spz/ ( spastic /spstk/), and
combined
suffixation,
1.
Ethics andwith
Human
Rights as in Aussie /zi/ ( Australian
in
the
South
American
Migration
....................................
15
/strelin/), mossie/mozzie
/mz/Processes
( mosquito
/mskit/) and
Mario Santillo
prossie/-y /prz/ ( prostitute /prsttjut/).
1.1
Migrants Rights
Nevertheless,
the .............................................................................
most lively phenomenon in the creation 17
of
slang
terms
is
Cockney
rhyming
slang,
based
on
rhyme.
Rhyming
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
slang is the process whereby an item is replaced by one or more
1.3 Some
Reflections...................................................................
words
that Final
rhyme
with it (e.g. trouble and strife for wife). 23
It
originated
in the
London tradition of Cockneys, but then extended
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
to other areas and speakers, even if it remains a private language.
Rhyming Policies
slang isand
extremely
in theEast
coining
of nouns,
2. Migration
Ethics inproductive
East and South
Asia............
27
which
are
normally
in
the
form
of
two
semantically
and
Fabio Baggio
syntactically-related words (e.g. dog and bone for telephone, five2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
to-two for Jew, God forbid for kid, pigs ear for beer, rock of
2.2 for
Migration
Policies
34
ages
wages,
etc.),inorESEA............................................................
of a single word, either a simple one (e.g.
joanna
for
piano)
or
a
complex
one
(e.g.
boat-race
for
face).
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
Rhyming slang nouns may also be obtained from fictitious proper
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
names
(e.g. Rosy
Lee for tea), or from the names of famous
characters of sport, music, television, cinema, etc. (e.g. Mutt and
3.
Immigration
in thethe
21stcharacters
Century. of a popular comic strip). Lastly,
Jeff
for deaf, from
The
Need
for
an
Ethical
Approach.
The Canadian
Experience
51
they may be obtained from
the names
of familiar
places .....
(e.g.
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
Hampstead Heath for teeth, from a district in north London).
Some
such nouns
rhyme
with slang
rather than standard words: e.g.,
3.1 World
Population
Increase
.............................................................
51
fiddley-did (Austral.) rhymes with quid (one pound), ginger-beer
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

2. Previous Studies on Slang

439

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

with queer (a homosexual), John Hop with cop (a policeman),


Table
of Contents
macaroni (chiefly Austral.) with baloney (nonsense, rubbish), etc.
The same forms are found though relatively less often in
rhyming slang adjectives (e.g. elephants trunk for drunk, Mozart
and Liszt rhymes with pissed drunk, intoxicated), verbs (e.g.
Adam-and-Eve for believe, cocoa for say so, rabbit-and-pork for
talk, also n), and clauses (e.g. Hot beef for Stop, thief!).
2.3.1.2. Morphology
At the morphological level, it is claimed that the same ordinary
word-building processes that give rise to the general vocabulary also
Opening
Considerations
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
shape slang
expressionsand
(Eble
1996: 39).
However,
Eble (1996: 26Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
38) only mentions word-formation processes which are attested in
both slang and standard English, namely compounding, affixation,
1. Ethics and Human Rights
conversion, shortening and blending, and completely disregards the
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
processes
which are distinctive of slang. As far as I know, the
Mario Santillo
suffixes -o (e.g. doggo dog, quiet; kiddo kid, a child), -s
1.1nuts
Migrants
Rights
.............................................................................
17
(e.g.
nut,
mad;
bananas banana, crazy), and -ers (e.g.
champers

champagne,
preggers

pregnant)
do
not
give
rise
to
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
any standard English term, nor do the infixes -bloody- (e.g. abso1.3 Some Final
23
bloody-lutely)
andReflections...................................................................
-fucking- (e.g. unfuckingtouchable).11
Besides, formations
obtained by back-slang (e.g. yob boy, 25
a
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
lout, hooligan) and rhyming slang (e.g. dogs meat feet) are not
considered
WFRs
they typically
2.
Migrationestablished
Policies and
Ethicsby
in morphologists,
East and South since
East Asia............
27
obtain
English
slang
words
rather
than
standard
ones.
In fact, slang
Fabio Baggio
morphology exhibits many formation patterns which still have to be
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
explored, and which will be in chapter 3 of this work.
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

2.3.1.3. Grammar
2.3much
Ethicsattention
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
Not
has been
devoted so far to the grammar of slang.
Munro
(ed.) (1997:
19) argues that the grammar of U.C.L.A. slang
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
is almost identical to the grammar of standard English, at least in its
inflectional
morphology
Sornig 1981, Eble 1996). Indeed, as in
3.
Immigration
in the 21st(cf.
Century.
The Need
for aninflection,
Ethical Approach.
The Canadian
.....the
51
standard
English
slang plural
nouns areExperience
obtained by
Christine
Richard
addition
of Baghdady,
the -s suffix
(e.g.Vanderberg
bird a girl, woman
birds), or of its
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

11 Munro (ed.) (1997: 8) remarks that one frequent infix that has entered the slang

3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
andfrom
Governance
.................
53
vocabulary
of Californian
students is -iz-,
as in dizope
dope trendy,
and dizark
in the
from darkMigration
in the park.in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
3.3pizark
International

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

44

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

allomorphic variants (e.g. fairy a male homosexual


fairies,
Table
of
Contents
yobbo
yobbo(e)s), and uncountable nouns do not have any plural
form (e.g. stuff narcotics). Similarly, most slang verbs act regularly,
with the -ed suffix in the past tense form (e.g. nick steal nick-ed),
-s in the third person singular form (e.g. nick-s), and the -ing form
(e.g. nick-ing). Lastly, slang adjectives have ordinary comparative
and superlative forms (e.g. daisy U.S. first-rate, charming, daisi-er,
daisi-est).
As far as syntax is concerned, three main features have been
regarded as typical of slang: first, an unusual affective use of the
definite article
the as in and
I have
the mega
headache
to mean I have11a
Opening
Considerations
Executive
Summary
..............................
mega
headache,
second,
the
omission
of
copular
be in presentFabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
tense sentences such as You crazy instead of You are crazy, and
third,
theand
special
use Rights
of the adjectival word total with the adverbial
1.
Ethics
Human
function
of completely
as in ImProcesses
total hungry
(from Munro ed.
in the South
American Migration
....................................
15
1989:
13-14).
Mario
SantilloActually, slang does not depart from the standard
language for these syntactic aspects. Firstly, the article the is part of
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
slang
idiomatic expressions (e.g. to give a person the hump annoy,
depress,
a person,
to kick the
bucket die,
etc.),
but similar fixed
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants
Defence
.............................
21
forms belong to standard English (e.g. to kick/strike the beam be
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
greatly outweighed, to hold the stage command the attention of a
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
theatre
audience,
etc.). Secondly, the frequent omission of the copula
in slang present-tense predicative sentences is comparable to the
2.
Migration
and Ethics
East
Asia............
27
omission
of Policies
be in Black
usage,in12East
andand
hasSouth
entered
American
slang
Baggio
viaFabio
the increased
popularity of rap music. Thirdly, the construction
with
adjectiveMigration
total in adverbial
position
is recurrent
in slang, 27
as
2.1the
International
in East Asia
and South
East Asia..............
other adjectives are in informal language and dialects (e.g. real).
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

2.3.1.4.
Semantics
2.3 Ethics
and Migration Management................................................. 43
The semantics of slang has attracted the attention of almost all
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
pertinent
studies.
In particular, Eble (1996: 61-73) and Munro (ed.)
(1997: 11-12) underline the tendency of slang to name things
3.
Immigration
in the 21st Century.
indirectly
or figuratively,
especially through metaphor (e.g. bird an
The Need for
an Ethical
Approach.
The Canadian
51
aeroplane,
double
O U.S.
an intense
look), Experience
metonymy .....
(e.g.
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
tinnie/-y Austral. a can of beer), synecdoche (e.g. wheels a car),
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

12 Dalphinis (1998: 77) asserts that many grammatical features of Black English

3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
andtheGovernance
.................
(mainly
derived from Creole
languages)
survive in
U.K. For instance,
John 53
go
to market
is
said
instead
of
John
goes
to
the
market,
and
it
red
instead
of
it
is
red.
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

2. Previous Studies on Slang

459

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

euphemism (e.g. family jewels the male genitalia), and irony (e.g.
Table
of Contents
a (little) bit of all right something or somebody regarded as highly
satisfactory; esp. applied to a pretty woman) (see also Gumperz
1972).
Eble (1996: 54-60) also argues that slang items often diverge
from standard usage in predictable ways, especially by such
opposite semantic processes as generalization and specialization,
or amelioration and pejoration.13 For instance, the term eppie/-y
( epileptic fit) is used in slang with the more general sense of a
fit of temper, whereas grass, which in standard English refers to
herbage Considerations
in general, inand
slang
rather assumes
specialized sense
Opening
Executive
Summarythe
..............................
11
of Fabio
marijuana,
used
as
a
drug.
Similarly,
the
adjective
wicked,
Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
having bad connotations in standard English (i.e. bad in moral
character,
disposition,
or conduct), in slang is used with positive
1.
Ethics and
Human Rights
connotations
mean excellent,
(orig. U.S.),
in the SouthtoAmerican
Migrationsplendid;
Processesremarkable
....................................
15
whereas
the neutral adverb inside (St. E. on the inner side), in
Mario Santillo
slang acquires the negative sense of in prison. Actually, similar
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
processes
of pragmatic adjustment are found in standard English as
well.
(2003:
273-277),
instance,
identifies
the process 21
of
1.2 Wilson
International
Instrument
for for
Migrants
Defence
.............................
narrowing (e.g. drink used to mean alcoholic drink), and that of
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
broadening, which is further subdivided into approximation
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
(e.g.
square used
to mean squarish) and metaphorical extension
(e.g. rose or diamond applied to a person).
2. Migration
Ethics
in Easttoand
SouthaEast
Asia............
27
However,Policies
it is notand
always
possible
identify
logical
connection
Fabio Baggio
between
a words standard meaning and those added by slang.
Indeed,
what seems
to beinparticularly
from
my lexical
2.1 International
Migration
East Asia andrelevant
South East
Asia..............
27
semantic approach is the organization (if any) of the slang lexical
2.2 Migration
in ESEA............................................................
34
system.
That is,Policies
I hypothesize
that the associative processes which
help
identify
the meaning
of slang words are different from
2.3 us
Ethics
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
standard ones, and sometimes they are concealed, so as to make
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
words inaccessible to outsiders. I will particularly concentrate on this
aspect of slang semantics
st in chapter 4.
3. Immigration in the 21 Century.
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

13 Eble (1996: 58) uses the term pejoration for the process opposed to amelioration.

Urbanization,
Migration
and Governance
.................
53
She3.2
further
explains thatInternational
pejoration is the
process whereby
the connotation
associated
with
item becomes
less favourable
than the
normally denotes.
3.3a slang
International
Migration
in Canada:
Anmeaning
EthicalitAssessment
........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

46

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

2.3.1.5. Pragmatics
Table
of Contents
The pragmatics of slang

is marginally hinted at in relevant


literature, or is treated indirectly through the various functions that
are attributed to the phenomenon, or the effects it produces upon the
hearer. These aspects, however, interface with slang sociological
properties (see the section which follows and chap. 5).
2.3.2. The sociological properties of slang

Again in the literature, slang is associated with many sociological


properties, which derive from both its varied nature and its
multifunctionality.
The and
properties
reported
here below and
Opening
Considerations
Executiveare
Summary
..............................
11
Fabio Baggio,
Laura Zanfrini
arranged
in descending
order of frequency: that is, the first property
(group-restriction) is the most frequent among slang definitions,
1.
Ethics the
andthirty-first
Human Rights
whereas
(spontaneity) is reported only in one study of
14
in
the
South
American
Migration
Processes .................................... 15
all those that I have
explored.
Mario
Santillo
Given the miscellaneous nature of such properties, and their
often
contradictory
(cf. debasement and prestige), slang 17
is
1.1 Migrants
Rightsnature
.............................................................................
not claimed to exhibit all of them simultaneously. However, it
1.2 International
Instrument
Migrants
Defence
15 ............................. 21
should
exhibit at least
some for
of the
following:
1.3 Some
Final Reflections...................................................................
23
Group-restriction:
in its specific sense, slang is frequently

described
as an in-group vocabulary that identifies people 25
of
Bibliography
.........................................................................................

a common age and experience, and facilitates their group


solidarity.
London
teenagers,
example,
mayAsia............
be identified
2. Migration
Policies
and Ethics
in Eastfor
and
South East
27
their use of such slang words as man, mate and wicked
Fabioby
Baggio
(COLT), while drug addicts use such words as coke, joint,
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
and smack to create cohesiveness within their group.
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

Informality: slang (esp. general slang) is commonly viewed as

2.3 Ethics
and Migration
a colloquial
level ofManagement.................................................
speech that signals the speakers desire 43
to

soften the
seriousness or formality of the dominant tone, and
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47

to assume instead a more familiar or conversational tone.

3. Immigration in the 21st Century.


14 The
an Ethical
Approach.
The Canadian
Experience
..... 51
MostNeed
of thefor
properties
are mentioned
by linguists
and lexicographers
as exactly

Christine
Baghdady,
Richard Vanderberg
reported
in this
section. However,
as terminology varies throughout the literature,
synonymous properties are included under the same label. For instance, such
3.1 World
Population
51
properties
as vitality,
vigour,Increase
vivacity,.............................................................
liveliness and exuberance fall under the label
freshness, whereas informality summarizes the slang qualities of being (highly)
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
Governance
53
colloquial,
conversational,
familiar, popular,
or notand
accepted
as formal.................
usage.
15 See Table 2 for a detailed report in the literature.
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

2. Previous Studies on Slang

479

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

of slang informality are the noun bread (orig. U.S.),


TableInstances
of Contents
used in familiar contexts to mean money, and the verb
phrases go big (orig. U.S.) and go it, which are the informal
counterparts of be a big success, have a large sale and go
along at great speed.
Time-restriction: slang is temporary since it changes over
time. It is typical of some generation but falls into disuse
very quickly, with the taking over of the next generation and
the change of trends and tastes. Thus, some slang words may
have a very similar meaning, but a different temporal
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
Summary ..............................
11
collocation,
as shown
by the near-synonymic
exclamations
Fabiofor
Baggio,
Laura Zanfrini
excellent:
wizard (1920s), groovy (1930s-40s), magic
(1950s), fab ( fabulous, 1960s), brill ( brilliant, 1980s),
1. Ethics
and(2000s).
Human Rights
sick
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

slang is an ephemeral, short-lived, everMarioEphemerality:


Santillo
changing vocabulary. Novel words and special meanings

1.1 Migrants
.............................................................................
crop upRights
at very
brief intervals, but generally remain 17
in

current useInstrument
for a shortfor
time,
and then
pass .............................
away as quickly 21
as
1.2 International
Migrants
Defence

they have been created. Thus, while some words, such as

1.3 Some
Reflections...................................................................
23
chap,Final
chum
and grub have been slang for a long time

(Andersson
& Trudgill 1990: 78), other words (called vogue
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25

words in the literature), such as massive, paranoid and


reckon,
haveand
become
a short
of time
2. Migration
Policies
Ethicsfashionable
in East andfor
South
Eastperiod
Asia............
27
et al. 2002: 65). And still other words, such as bus,
Fabio(Stenstrm
Baggio
phone and pub are no longer felt as slang, but rather as
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
colloquial language (see 2.2.6).
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

Debasement: like many other non-standard varieties, slang is

2.3 Ethics
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
considered
debased,
subordinate speech, characteristically

dominated
by reversed prestige, lack of dignity and anti-social
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47

features. At least, slang is viewed so by the conformists, who


condemninmany
slang words (e.g. bloke, dude, guv)
st Century.
3. Immigration
the 21common
because
they
lower
the
level
discourse
to degraded
The Need for an Ethical Approach.
The of
Canadian
Experience
..... 51
language.
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

Freshness:
slangIncrease
is often.............................................................
described as a fresh vital vocabulary
3.1 World
Population
51
that keeps language alive and growing. The vigour and

3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
Governance
.................for
53
liveliness that
lie behind
slangand
make
it a language
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

48

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

people, and for those who


Tablefashionable
of Contents
monotony of ordinary language. Thus,

want to avoid the


fashionable young
people use such slang adverbs as for yonks (a long time), in
a mo ( in a moment) and indeedee ( indeed) (COLT) to
be fresh and to escape the dullness of neutral style.

Playfulness: slang is usually playful, since it manipulates


words and their meanings. The jocular use of slang is
illustrated, for example, by the catch-word Abyssinia, which
plays on the pronunciation of the parting salutation Ill be
seeing you!, by the term Eyetalian, which distorts standard
Opening
Considerations
andEyetie),
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
Italian
(cf. offens.
and
by nana
( banana) and
Fabiocake,
Baggio,
Laura
Zanfrinifor a foolish or silly person.
used
jocularly
Obscenity: slang synonyms flourish in the taboo subjects of

1. Ethics and Human Rights


culture.
For instance,
slang
vocabulary
is rich in dirty
in thea South
American
Migration
Processes
....................................
15

Mariowords
Santilloand obscenities which are related to sex, especially

male and female genitalia (e.g. cock, dick, prick, cunt, fanny,

1.1 Migrants
Rights .............................................................................
17
pussy), sexual
intercourse (e.g. fuck, screw, shag), oral sex

(e.g. suck) or
sexual stimulation
(e.g.
wank).
Other obscenities
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants
Defence
.............................
21

are related to either excretion (e.g. cack, crap, shit), or

1.3 Some
Final e.g.,
Reflections...................................................................
23
religion:
blasphemous expressions, such as for fucks

sake, goddamn,
etc. (cf. Munro ed. 1997, Stenstrm et al.
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
2002).

2. Migration
Policies and Ethics
in East and
South
Asia............
27
Subject-restriction:
sometimes
slang
is East
described
as the
Fabio Baggio

special, even specialized, vocabulary of some profession,

occupationMigration
or activity
in society.
makes
slang peculiar
2.1 International
in East
Asia andThis
South
East Asia..............
27
to a set of people who are identified by their specific
terminology or by the specialized terms they use with in2.3 Ethics
MigrationIn
Management.................................................
groupand
members.
particular, specific slang words such 43
as
crack (a
potent, crystalline form of cocaine), junkie (a
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
drug addict) and joint (a marijuana cigarette) are related to
the topicinof
and creep (a stealthy robber), dog (an
3. Immigration
thedrugs,
21st Century.
informer;
a
traitor),
and the Family
(the thieving
fraternity)
The Need for an Ethical Approach.
The Canadian
Experience
..... 51
are
connected
with
the
crime
topic.
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

Novelty:
slangIncrease
is generally
modern and up-to-date. The
3.1 World
Population
.............................................................
51
linguistic exuberance and the rapid change of the slang

3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
Governance
.................
53
lexicon represent
a large
part of and
slangs
originality,
as they
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

2. Previous Studies on Slang

499

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

peoples speech more creative and new. Eble (1996:


Tablerender
of Contents
42), for instance, notices how North Carolina students enjoy
creating such novel words as emboosticated (embarrassed),
matriculate (start a trip), or motorvate (move around
socializing in a group, leave). An original expression that
has gained the approval of many young people is Black
slang phat, esp. applied to sexy, attractive women, or to
excellent, admirable; fashionable music.16
Orality: slang is predominantly associated with spoken
language, where it generally starts its way towards recognition
Opening
Considerations
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
and
acceptance. and
This
is amply
demonstrated
by what
FabioStenstrm
Baggio, Laura
Zanfrini
et al.
(2002: 65) call vague words (e.g. doodad,
doofer, thingamajig, thingy) and smallwords (e.g. innit,
1. Ethics
and Human
Rights which are typical fillers of everyday
yeah,
you know),
in theconversation
South American
Migration
and never
usedProcesses
in formal....................................
written language. 15
Mario Santillo

Unconventionality: Dumas & Lighter (1978: 13) argue that,

1.1 Migrants
Rights
17
in general,
the.............................................................................
slang lexicon is characterized by the intention

of the speaker/writer
break Defence
with established
linguistic
1.2 International
Instrument forto
Migrants
.............................
21
convention. Unconventionality is evident, for example, in

1.3 Some
Reflections...................................................................
23
someFinal
unusual
slang expressions meaning crazy, mad, such

as bananas,
bonkers, crackers or nuts (Mattiello 2005). 25
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
Faddishness: slang consists of an eccentric, strange vocabulary,

2. Migration
and Ethics
in East and
South East
Asia............
27
mainlyPolicies
characterized
by bizarre
metaphors
(Allen
1998: 878)
Fabio Baggio

and other extravagant, forced, or facetious figures of speech

(McHenry Migration
ed. 1993: in
871).
instance,
bird
and
chick are odd
2.1 International
EastFor
Asia
and South
East
Asia..............
27
metaphors for a girl; a young woman, while fairy and
pansy bizarrely allude to a male homosexual. Figurative
2.3 Ethics
and Migration
Management.................................................
interpretation
likewise
characterizes metonymy (e.g. brain 43
a
clever
person),
irony
(e.g.
bitching,
killer
having
the
positive
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
senses of excellent and a formidable person or thing),
euphemism
(e.g.
baccy, wacky tobaccy, wacky weed
3. Immigration
in the
21stwacky
Century.
U.S.
marijuana),
and
similes
(e.g.
to smoke
like a chimney
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The
Canadian
Experience
..... 51
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

16 The OED considers phat a respelling of fat, but also provides some quotations

3.2explanations
Urbanization,
International
Migration
Governance
.................
53
with
of the
term as an acronym
(and
pussy
hips ass and
tits or pretty
hot3.3
andInternational
tempting; cf. pretty
hips and
thighs, Eble
175).
Migration
in Canada:
An1996:
Ethical
Assessment ........... 54

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not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

a lot, to work like a dog work very hard) (Mattiello


Tablesmoke
of
Contents
2005).
Humour: slang is usually hilarious and as Yust (ed.) (1950:
766) states, an element of humour is almost always present
in slang, usually as humorous exaggeration. Sometimes the
humour of slang is evident (as in antiphrases that are generally
accompanied by an ironic intonation), but more frequently it
is implied (as in punning or intrinsic ambiguity). The humour
of slang is clearly illustrated by the expressions to dance ones
ass/tits off, to work ones brains off/out and to work ones guts
Opening
Considerations
Executive Summary
..............................
11
out,
which are and
exaggerations
of the effects
produced by
Fabioexcessive
Baggio, Laura
Zanfrini
dancing,
studying or working.

Vulgarity: slang has often been associated with bad language

1. Ethics and Human Rights


e.g.,
Andersson
& Trudgill
1990:....................................
69). Slang vocabulary
in the(see,
South
American
Migration
Processes
15

effect abounds in vulgarisms, which are now used as


MarioinSantillo
naturally as decent language by most people.17 Examples of

1.1 Migrants
Rightsare
.............................................................................
17
vulgar slang
expressions connected with the word fuck

(e.g. fucked-off),
esp. for
when
used asDefence
an intensifier
(e.g. fucking
1.2 International
Instrument
Migrants
.............................
21
bollocks, fucking crap, fucking hell, etc.) (cf. obscenity above).

1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23

Desire to impress: slang is deliberately used by speakers to

Bibliography
25
impress.........................................................................................
or shock others. Partridge (1947: 288) supports this

opinion by stating that one reason for using slang is to be

2. Migration
Policies
and Ethics
in Eaststartling,
and South and
East Asia............
arresting,
striking,
or even
Andersson 27
&
Fabio Baggio

Trudgill (1990: 78) likewise state that the point of slang

words is often
to bein startling,
amusing
or shocking.
2.1 International
Migration
East Asia and
South East
Asia..............The
27
striking or shocking effects of slang are obviously related to
the extravagance and taboo nature of some of its
2.3 Ethics
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
expressions,
such as
fart (a breaking wind, a contemptible
person).........................................................................................
and cunt (the external female genital organs, 47
a
Bibliography
term of vulgar abuse for a woman).18
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

3. Immigration in the 21st Century.


The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

17 Apte (1998: 989): Individuals who use taboo words excessively in their speech

3.1become
World insensitive
PopulationtoIncrease
51
may
both the.............................................................
socially determined taboo nature of these
words and the fact that such words are offensive to listeners.
International
and
.................
18 3.2
ApteUrbanization,
(1998: 988): Speakers
who Migration
are aware of
theGovernance
potential of taboo
words53
to
arouse
strong
reactions
may
deliberately
use
them
to
shock
their
listeners.
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

2. Previous Studies on Slang

519

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

slang is sometimes viewed as a hybrid language


TableHybridism:
of Contents
variety because some foreign words may occur in its
vocabulary. Foreign lexical material can be borrowed either as
direct loans, as in ciao (hello; good-bye) from Italian, and
loco (orig. U.S. mad, insane) from Spanish, or as loan
adaptations, as in capeesh (chiefly U.S. do you understand?),
which is adapted from Italian capisce (cf. Polari in Iamartino
2002, Pinnavaia 2003a, b). In any case, the effect of borrowing
is always that of a mixture of languages and cultures (see also
Andersson & Trudgill 1990: 83-84, Munro ed. 1997: 13).
Opening
Considerations
Summary
..............................
11
Localism:
there and
are Executive
many regional
differences
in slang.
FabioBritish,
Baggio,American
Laura Zanfrini
and Australian slang, although they share a

common language (English), are viewed as different varieties

1. Ethics
Human
ofand
it (cf.
Brit. Rights
slang bloke man, fellow and U.S. slang guy),
in theand
South
American
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
within each variety,
other
sub-varieties
can be identified.
MarioFor
Santillo
instance, American slang is often differentiated between

SouthernRights
and Northern,
and within British slang, Cockney 17
is
1.1 Migrants
.............................................................................

used in the London area. So, while some slang items can be

1.2 International
Instrument
Defence
.............................
21
found in all
regions for
of Migrants
Britain (e.g.
knackered
exhausted,

wornFinal
out),
others, such as whistle ( rhym. slang whistle
1.3 Some
Reflections...................................................................
23
and flute for suit), are restricted to Cockney.

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

Colour: slang has a tendency to be colourful, or, as Andersson


& Trudgill
16) suggest,
to South
make East
yourAsia............
speech vivid,
2. Migration
Policies(1990:
and Ethics
in East and
27
Fabiocolourful
Baggio and interesting. Yust (ed.) (1950: 766) made
reference to the onomatopoeic colour of some slang words
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
of the period: e.g., biff (a blow, whack), flabbergast
2.2 Migration
Policies
ESEA............................................................
34
(bombast)
andinflummox
(a failure). Other instances of the
onomatopoeic
colour
of
slang
are
verbs
for
engage
in
sex
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
(e.g. boff, bonk, pork, etc.) (see Eble 1996).
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47

Impertinence: slang may be defined as audacious, and be


accused inofthedisrespect
and impertinence.19 For instance, it
3. Immigration
21st Century.
disregards
other people
with its numerous
impolite
The Need
for anrespect
Ethicalfor
Approach.
The Canadian
Experience
..... 51
appellations.
Many
derogatory
terms
are
coined
or
used in
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
slang to name outsiders: e.g., the term dago (a corruption of
3.1 World
Population
Increase
.............................................................
51
Sp. Diego
James)
is used
by American people for Spaniards,
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
19 An additional sense of slang in the OED is abuse, impertinence.

3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


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52

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Italians
TablePortuguese,
of Contents
Paki are used by

or any foreigner, Chinkie/-ey/-y and


British people to indicate Chinese,
Pakistani or South Asian people (see COLT), whereas
Pommie/-y ( pomegranate) is used in Australia and New
Zealand for immigrants from Britain, esp. from England.

Offensiveness: as a consequence of the previous property,


slang may be offensive. Many slang derogatory words
characterizing certain groups of people on the basis of negative
stereotypes are inherently offensive. For example, many sexist
slang words refer to male or female homosexuality (fag,
Opening
Considerations
and female
Executive
Summary(slag,
..............................
faggot,
lesbo, lezzy),
promiscuity
slut, tart),20 11
or
Fabioeven
Baggio,
Laura Zanfrini
to women
as animals (bitch, cat, cow, dog). These are
normally perceived as abusive words by the hearer or
21 Rights
1. Ethics
and Human
addressee.
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

MarioSecrecy:
Santillo slang may also be cryptic and exclusive when it is

used by certain subgroups to hide their conversations from

1.1 Migrants
Rights
.............................................................................
17
people in
authority.
Criminals, for example, use the slang

verbs nickInstrument
and pinch
mean steal
(a.............................
thing), and they
1.2 International
forto
Migrants
Defence
21
employ the polysemous noun stuff (narcotics, money,

1.3 Some
Final
Reflections...................................................................
cash,
stolen
goods, forbidden goods smuggled into 23a

gaol) to
speak secretly about clandestine drug traffic and
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
other forms of illegal behaviour.22

2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27


Fabio Baggio

in East Asia
Southand
East
Asia..............
20 2.1
Cf. International
the/his tart (aMigration
wife or girl-friend)
in and
Australia
New
Zealand, or 27
in
Scouse, the Liverpool dialect.

Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34


21 2.2
Chapman (1986: xxxiii, in Munro ed. 1989: 12), marks two levels of
offensiveness:
on the
one hand,
the strongest impact rating which indicates43a
2.3 Ethics and
Migration
Management.................................................
taboo expression, and, on the other hand, the lesser impact rating which signals a
vulgar
expression..........................................................................................
Munro (ed.) (1997: 17) finds this reasoning quite arbitrary, and
Bibliography
47
opts for only one level of offensiveness: Only the category of derogatory words is
perceived as potentially offensive
by todays U.C.L.A. students (cf. Apte 1998).
3.
in the 21st Century.
22 Immigration
The cryptic character of slang is reminiscent of French verlan, which is a nonThe Need
for an
Ethical
Approach.
The Canadian
Experience
..... 51
standard
language
formed
by syllabic
inversion,
hence the name
verlan (from
F.
Christine
Richard
lenvers).
AsBaghdady,
Mla (1991)
states,Vanderberg
verlan is predominantly spoken by college
students, and relates to specific semantic areas, such as drugs (e.g. cigarette
3.1 World
Population
Increase
51
[artsi]
cigarette),
sex (e.g.
cul .............................................................
[yk] bum), intercultural relations (e.g.
portugais
[typr] Portuguese), scuffle (e.g. partouze
[tuzpar] bunch),
International
Migration
and(underground)
Governance .................
53
but3.2
alsoUrbanization,
to ordinary terms,
such as mtro
trom
and poubelle
bellepou
(dustbin).
Mla (1991),
who An
suggests
theAssessment
main patterns
for the
3.3
International
Migration
in Canada:
Ethical
...........
54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

2. Previous Studies on Slang

539

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

another typical tendency of slang speech is to


TableMusicality:
of Contents
play with sounds. In particular, rhyme is the favourite sound
effect of slang (see Eble 1996: 39-43), as amply illustrated
by the phenomenon best known as Cockney rhyming slang
(e.g. pork-pie a lie). Yet reduplicatives (e.g. hotsy-totsy
comfortable, satisfactory) and alliteration (e.g. dinky-die
Austral. and N.Z. honest, genuine, kidvid U.S. a video
made for children) also play a role in slang musicality.
Privacy: slang is occasionally private, obscure or nearly
incomprehensible to outsiders. It generally creates a sense of
Opening
Considerations
Executive
Summary
intimacy
among and
in-group
members,
but ..............................
at the same time11
it
Fabiomay
Baggio,
Laura
create
a Zanfrini
sense of exclusion or even rejection among
those people who are not part of the group. College students,
1. Ethics
Human show
Rightstheir closeness when they talk about the
forand
instance,
in theother
Southsex:
American
Migration
....................................
e.g., young
men Processes
use fox and
knockout to refer 15
to
Marioattractive
Santillo girls, and young women use babe and magnet for
attractive
boys.
But most of these college slang words
1.1 Migrants
Rights
.............................................................................
17
would be impenetrable to outsiders, esp. parents, teachers
1.2 International
and adults Instrument
in general.for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
1.3 Some
Final Reflections...................................................................
Aggressiveness:
slang is aggressive and forceful, and 23
at

times malicious
or even cruel. Sornig (1981: 69) cites the
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25

aggressive and parodistic undertone of slang, and Allen


(1998:Policies
879) its
verbal
In
2. Migration
andvicious
Ethics inand
Easthostile
and South
Eastaggression.
Asia............ 27
slang is often used by speakers as a means of
Fabiofact,
Baggio
provocation or otherwise to express hostility and dislike.
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
Verbal aggression is illustrated, for example, by the
2.2 Migration
Policies
ESEA............................................................
numerous
slanginterms
referring to an idiot, fool, crazy, 34
or
stupid
person
(airhead,
bone-head,
cluck,
drongo,
dumb2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
dumb, flat-head, goof, knuckle-head, muggins, ning-nong,
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
slob, turkey,
etc.) (cf. Andersson & Trudgill 1990: 88-89). 47
Culture-restriction:
slang is a marker of cultural differences.
3. Immigration
in the 21st Century.
It
is
viewed
as
an
anti-language
that servesExperience
an anti-society
The Need for an Ethical Approach.
The Canadian
..... 51

(likeBaghdady,
beggars and
gamblers),
and generally associated with the
Christine
Richard
Vanderberg
levels of society that are culturally sub-standard. The raga

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
and Governance
53
formation
of verlan, stresses
its use both
in clandestine
activities, as.................
a secret code,
and3.3
in peer
groups likeMigration
students, as
marker ofAn
belonging
alliance. ........... 54
International
inaCanada:
Ethical and
Assessment
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

54

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

for instance, is associated with reggae music,


Tableyouth
of culture,
Contents
drugs, Jamaican or African accent and speech style, and with
such expressions as ya man and mash up (Stenstrm et al.
2002: 75-76).
Efficiency: slang is efficient in the sense that slang words
may be much more direct than their standard corresponding
descriptions. Among the numerous reasons for using slang
that Partridge (1947: 288) identifies is to be brief, concise.
In fact, slang terms are not always concise, but they are
generally immediate and unequivocal for those who share
Opening
and Executivesince
Summary
11
theConsiderations
same slang vocabulary,
they ..............................
help efficiency. As
Fabioevidence,
Baggio, Laura
Zanfrini
compare
the slang compound outside job and its
standard English equivalent explanation: a crime committed
1. Ethics
Humannot
Rights
byand
a person
connected or associated with the building,
in theorganization,
South American
.................................... 15
etc.,Migration
in which itProcesses
took place.
Mario Santillo

Individuality: slang is viewed by some scholars as a marker of

1.1 Migrants
Rights .............................................................................
an individuals
identity. For example, it may be perceived as17a

distinguishing
mark,forrevealing
information about
1.2 International
Instrument
Migrants private
Defence .............................
21
someones age, gender, attitude, condition, education, special

1.3 Some
Final etc.
Reflections...................................................................
23
interests,
By the way, Stenstrm et al. (2002: 73-76) show

the relationship
between slang and gender (see also Olivares
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25

1998, Stenstrm 1999), and between slang and age. As for


gender,
they and
remark
that
maleand
speakers
use Asia............
proper slang
2. Migration
Policies
Ethics
in East
South East
27
Fabiowords
Baggio(e.g. bimbo, freak, yobbo) and dirty slang words (e.g.
bastard, crap, suck) relatively more often than female
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
speakers (cf. Allen 1998, Taylor 1998), whereas for age,
2.2 Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
COLT 17-19
year-olds
are reported to use more slang than
the
other
age
groups.
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
Prestige:
slang may be used to convey a sense of prestige. 47
In
Bibliography
.........................................................................................

particular, sociolinguists (e.g. Andersson & Trudgill 1990,


Allen 1998)
a kind of positive value in slang use,
3. Immigration
in theidentify
21st Century.
which
they
call
covert
prestige.
Covert Experience
prestige is .....
often
The Need for an Ethical Approach.
The Canadian
51
associated
with
toughness
and
strength,
or
with
other
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
positive qualities such as independence and naturalness.
3.1 World
Population
.............................................................
51
Young
men, forIncrease
instance,
are strongly tempted to use slang
swearwordsInternational
(e.g. bitch, Migration
bollocks, and
fuckGovernance
off, hell) because
they
3.2 Urbanization,
.................
53
serve to create their own status or reputation, and to
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

2. Previous Studies on Slang

559

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

group affinity. Actually, Sornig (1981: 63) claims


Tablestrengthen
of
Contents
that transgression of valid norms provides prestige.

Technicality: slang can sometimes be viewed as a technolect,


as it behaves as terminology in terms of restricted use. For
example, the verbs bull (polish (equipment, etc.) in order to
meet excessive standards of neatness) and slot (kill or injure
(a person) by shooting) belong to the slang of the army,
while bloke (the ships commander), oggin (the sea) and
to clap a guy on (put a stop to) to nautical slang.

Spontaneity: slang is a free natural speech, associated with


cities and modern society. Allen (1998: 881) remarks that
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
new experiences in the industrial city were recorded by the
slang of the 1950s (e.g. bus, el, skyscraper, taxi, etc.).
1. Ethics and Human Rights
Furthermore,
many
slang Processes
terms are
popular locutions
in the South American
Migration
....................................
15
aroused
in
spontaneous
conversation
or
prompted by the
Mario Santillo
mass media. Instances of spontaneous coins are the blends
1.1 Migrants
Rights
.............................................................................
17
fantabulous
(
fantastic and fabulous) of almost incredible
excellence,Instrument
and ginormous
(Defence
gigantic
and enormous)
1.2 International
for Migrants
.............................
21
very large, simply enormous, which reflect the influence of
1.3 Some
Final
Reflections...................................................................
23
spoken
language
on vocabulary innovation.

Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11

Bibliography
25
Tables
1 and 2.........................................................................................
below summarize the properties of slang illustrated
above. Table 1 shows the language levels which in the relevant
2.
Migration
Policiesasand
Ethics by
in East
and
South East
Asia............
27
studies
are viewed
affected
slang,
whereas
Table
2 shows the
Fabio Baggio
sociological aspects which have been associated with slang up to
now.
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
The language levels and sociological aspects are disposed on the
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
vertical axis of the two respective tables, while the studies
2.3 Ethics are
and placed
Migration
considered
on Management.................................................
the horizontal axis. In Table 1 the mark 43
9
indicates
that the
language level under examination is claimed to 47
be
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
affected by slang innovation in the corresponding study on the
horizontal
axis;
in 21
Table
2, it indicates that slang meets the
st Century.
3.
Immigration
in the
sociological
property
taken
into
account,
again in the
opinion of
The Need for an Ethical Approach.
The Canadian
Experience
.....the
51
respective
scholar(s).
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Table of Contents

Yust (ed.) (1950)

Webster & McKechnie (eds) (1963)


Trudgill (1999)
Stenstrm et al. (2002)
Stenstrm (2000)
Stein (ed.) (1966)
Sornig (1981)
Quirk et al. (1985)
Pearsall (ed.) (1998)

Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini

Partridge (1947)

Olesen & Whittaker (1968)

1. Ethics and Human Rights


in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
OED

Table 1. The linguistic properties of slang in the relevant studies.

Mario Santillo

Munro (ed.) (1997)

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17


Mencken (1967)

1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21


McHenry (ed.) (1993)

1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23


Matthews (ed.) (1997)

Longman Dictionary (1984)

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
Jespersen (1922)

2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27


Franklyn (1961)

Fabio Baggio

Flexner (1960)

2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27


Eble (1996)

2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34


Dundes & Schonhorn (1963)

2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43


Dumas & Lighter (1978)

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
Andersson & Trudgill (1990)
Allen (1998)

pragmatics

lexis/
semantics

grammar

Levels

Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

morphology

phonology

Language

Studies

3. Immigration in the 21st Century.


The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Relevant

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51


3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Table of Contents
Yust (ed.) (1950)

Webster & McKechnie (eds) (1963)


Trudgill (1999)
Stenstrm et al. (2002)
Stenstrm (2000)
Stein (ed.) (1966)
Sornig (1981)
Quirk et al. (1985)
Pearsall (ed.) (1998)

Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini


Partridge (1947)

Olesen & Whittaker (1968)

1. Ethics and Human Rights


in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
Mario Santillo

Munro (ed.) (1997)

Table 2. The sociological properties of slang in the relevant studies.

OED

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17


Mencken (1967)

1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21


McHenry (ed.) (1993)

1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23


Matthews (ed.) (1997)

Longman Dictionary (1984)

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
Jespersen (1922)

2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27


Franklyn (1961)

Fabio Baggio

Flexner (1960)

2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27


Eble (1996)

2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34


Dundes & Schonhorn (1963)

2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43


Dumas & Lighter (1978)

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
Andersson & Trudgill (1990)
Allen (1998)

orality

novelty

subject-restr.

obscenity

freshness

playfulness

debasement

time-restr.

Social

Aspects

Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

ephemerality

informality

group-restr.

Studies

3. Immigration in the 21st Century.


The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Relevant

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51


3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11


Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini

1. Ethics and Human Rights


in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
Mario Santillo

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17


1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
Fabio Baggio

2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27


2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
Table 2 (Contd).

spontaneity

technicality

prestige

efficiency

individuality

aggressiv.

culture-restr.

privacy

secrecy

colour

localism

humour

vulgarity

Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

musicality

offensiveness

impertinence

hybridism

desire to impr.

faddishness

3. Immigration in the 21st Century.


The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
unconvention.

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Table of Contents

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51


3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

2. Previous Studies on Slang

599

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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Table 1 shows that the level of lexis/semantics is influenced by


Table
of Contents
slang much more than the other language levels. Pragmatics is also
significant in slang, seeing that its context of use and interlocutors
play a central part in its interpretation. The remaining levels i.e.
morphology, phonology and grammar are taken into account in
this descending order of importance, but they are normally
underestimated or marginalized. I rather believe that the levels of
morphology, especially word-formation, and lexical semantics,
constitute the core features of slang, since they exhibit qualities
which allow us to discriminate slang from the standard language.
Specifically,
I believe and
thatExecutive
slang extra-grammaticality
allows 11a
Opening
Considerations
Summary ..............................
distinction
from
the
canonical
rules
of
English
grammar,
and that
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
some of its word-formation mechanisms are so peculiar that they can
help
us determine
theRights
slang status of words. In addition, I believe that
1.
Ethics
and Human
thein obscure
between Processes
some lexemes
and their slang
the Southrelationship
American Migration
....................................
15
meaning(s)
allows a distinction from the standard English lexicon,
Mario Santillo
since it is indicative of slang lexical disorganization, and of the
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
complicated
cognitive processes that slang activates.
Table
2 showsInstrument
that slangfor
is Migrants
considered
both in
its specific sense
1.2
International
Defence
.............................
21
(as an in-group language variety) and in its general sense (as a
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
short-lived informal vocabulary which is below the level of stylistic
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
neutral
language).
It also shows that the sociological properties 25
of
slang may be classified in relation to either the speaker or the
2.
Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
hearer.
Fabio
Baggio
The speaker-oriented
properties of slang characterize the speaker:
2.1 International
Migration
Asia andgroup
South East
Asia.............. 27
As member
of ain East
particular
(group-restriction,

individuality),
an exclusive one (secrecy, privacy,
2.2 Migration
Policies often
in ESEA............................................................
34
culture-restriction, prestige);

2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43

As someone with a precise occupation/activity (subject-

Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
restriction,
technicality);

As someone
having
a low cultural status (informality,
st Century.
3. Immigration
in the 21
debasement),
or
using
low/bad
language
(vulgarity,
obscenity);
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The
Canadian
Experience
..... 51
Christine
RichardofVanderberg
As Baghdady,
an individual
a certain age or generation (time-

restriction,
ephemerality),
or coming from a specific regional
3.1 World
Population
Increase .............................................................
51
area (localism).

3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53


3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

60

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

The hearer-oriented properties are rather


Table
of Contents
effect upon the hearer, viz.:

meant to produce some

To amuse the hearer or to make him laugh (playfulness,


humour);
To release him from the monotony of neutral style
(freshness, novelty, unconventionality);
To impress the hearer (desire to impress), esp. with bizarre
expressions (faddishness), or to attract his attention with
colourful words (colour) and their sounds (musicality);
Opening
andorExecutive
Summary
..............................
11
ToConsiderations
mock, offend
challenge
the hearer
(impertinence,
Fabiooffensiveness,
Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
aggressiveness).

The
linguistic
and sociological
properties of slang may therefore be
1.
Ethics
and Human
Rights
summarized
rearranged
as in
the schedule
below, which
in the Southand
American
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
provides
an outline of chapters 3-5 of this study on slang.
Mario Santillo

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17


1.2 International Instrument forSLANG
Migrants Defence ............................. 21
SOCIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
1.3 LINGUISTIC
Some Final Reflections...................................................................
23
PROPERTIES

Speaker-oriented
Hearer-oriented
Bibliography .........................................................................................
25

grammatical and
group-restriction
playfulness
extra-grammatical
subject-restriction
humour
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South
East Asia............ 27
morphology
secrecy
freshness
Fabio Baggio
privacy
novelty
2.1 International Migration
in East Asia and South
EasttoAsia..............
27
informality
desire
impress
debasement
faddishness
2.2 Migration
lexical
organizationPolicies in ESEA............................................................ 34
vulgarity
colour
and
disorganization
2.3
Ethics and Migration
Management.................................................
43
obscenity
musicality
time-restriction
impertinence
Bibliography .........................................................................................
47
ephemerality
offensiveness
localism
aggressiveness
st

3. Immigration in the 21 Century.


The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Table
3. A review of the linguistic and sociological properties of slang.
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

3. Grammatical
and Extra-grammatical
Table
of Contents
Morphology

Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11


Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
Though slang usage is characterized by rule-breaking and
insubordination as regards the rules of Standard usage, this
1. Ethics and Human Rights
insubordination follows rules of its own, it is a partly
in
the South American
Migration
Processes(Sornig
....................................
15
conventionalized
disregard
for conventions.
1981: 76)
Mario Santillo
TheMigrants
speaker always
the capacity to make up new words, which he 17
1.1
Rightshas
.............................................................................
can then add to his repertoire. It thus remains the task of a morphology
to tell
us what sortInstrument
of new words
speaker can
form. (Aronoff
1976: 19) 21
1.2
International
for aMigrants
Defence
.............................

1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23

3.1. Slang formations

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

Slang formations follow different word-formation patterns. Many of


them
are obtained via extra-grammatical morphological operations
Fabio Baggio
(EMOs), i.e. word-formation mechanisms which violate various
2.1 International
Migration
in East Asiamorphology
and South East(see
Asia..............
universal
properties
of grammatical
Dressler 27
&
Merlini
Barbaresi
1994,
Doleschal
&
Thornton
eds
2000;
cf.
Zwicky
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
& Pullums 1987 expressive vs. plain morphology). Yet some
2.3 Ethics
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
slang
formations
can be
assigned to recognized grammatical
morphological
rules (MRs), i.e. rules which are productive in the
Bibliography .........................................................................................
47
grammatical morphology of standard English (see Bauer 2001). A
third
type of slang
appears to lie in-between, since it
3.
Immigration
in the formation
21st Century.
exhibits
some
regularity
(e.g. in The
the Canadian
process Experience
of morphotactic
The Need
for an
Ethical Approach.
..... 51
concatenation),
but extra-grammaticality
Christine Baghdady,
Richard Vanderberg in the base forms, or vice
versa, i.e. it shows the regularity of the base, but extra-grammaticality
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51
in the mechanism of formation. For example, consider the following
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
Governance
representative
sample
of contemporary
useand
(taken
from the.................
ODMS):53
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27

3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54


Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

62

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

1. I was bombed out (under the influence of drink or drugs)


Table
of Contents
didnt know what I was doing.
2. The women thought him an eligible bachelor, if a bit of a
chaser (an amorous pursuer of women).
3. Mm, is that him? said the girl, all velvet. Hes dishy (very
attractive).
4. They even had a couple of black-clad bagladies (homeless
women) sitting silently on straight chairs by the door.
5. Tom needed money for drugs pot, acid, speed, ups

Opening(amphetamines),
Considerations and
Executive
Summary ..............................
11
downs
(tranquillizing
drugs).
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini

6. Young men exchange their uniforms for civvies (civilian


1. Ethicsclothes).
and Human Rights
in7.theHer
South
American
Processes ....................................
15
husband
gotMigration
antsy (agitated)
and asked me to have
MarioTom
Santillo
Lewis see her in consultation.

1.1
Rights
.............................................................................
17
8. Migrants
The local
Teddies
and yobbos ( back-slang yob + -o,

louts) swing
their dubious
weight
behind.............................
the strike.
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants
Defence
21
9. Some
A shambles
as big as the Labour gabfest (a gathering for
1.3
Final Reflections...................................................................
23
talk).

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

10. Gee, said Wing Commander Dewar, this thingll drive me


nuts (crazy).
2. Migration
Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
FabioBy
Baggio
11.
half-past three hell be raving bonkers (mad).

2.1 International
Migration
in Eastabso-bloomin-lutely
Asia and South East Asia..............
27
12.
Oh so loverly
sittin
(emphatic,
absolutely)
still!
I would never budge til Spring crept over
2.2 Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
me windersill.
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43

13. If you look like a grot ( grotty, unpleasant person),


Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
youll never
get a flat.
People inwill
to anything now, muses Mal. I blame
3. 14.
Immigration
the dance
21st Century.
the
E
(ecstasy)
meself!.
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
15.
Have
a butchers
(Vanderberg
rhym. slang butchers hook look) at
the News
of theIncrease
World. ............................................................. 51
3.1 World
Population

16.
The Bill continues
to go
from strength
to strength
because
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
and Governance
.................
53
all the bobbies are completely O.T.T. (outrageous).
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

639

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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

17. She avoids ever producing her ambi-sextrous (bisexual)


Table
of Contents
young publisher.
18. The days of the des res (desirable residence) that clearly
isnt are set to end for estate agents.
19. Aving a proper argy-bargy (contentious argument) in
ere, arent you? Losing your tempers too.
20. Better have some chuddy (chewing gum), said Tom.
I can anticipate that types (1) to (5) are rule-governed, i.e. their
word-formation
processes
toSummary
the canonical
derivation and
Opening
Considerations
andconform
Executive
..............................
11
Fabio Baggio, Laura
Zanfrini of standard English. Hence, they
compounding
mechanisms
demonstrate that slang formations may conform to grammatical
1.
Ethics
and Human
Rights
MRs.
Types
(6) to (8)
are partially regular formations, in the sense
in
the
South
American
Migrationfor
Processes
15
that they exhibit regularity
some ....................................
aspects, but extraMario
Santillo
grammaticality for others (i.e. unrecognizable bases or irregular
order
of morphological
processes). Type (9) (-fest) represents17a
1.1 Migrants
Rights .............................................................................
transitional phenomenon between derivation and compounding
1.2 International
Defence
.............................
21
(combining
forms)Instrument
and mayfor
beMigrants
viewed as
a case
of what Dressler
(2000:
6-7)Final
considers
marginal morphology. Lastly, types (10) 23
to
1.3 Some
Reflections...................................................................
(20) are clearly outside grammar, since the processes of their
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
formation
violate
too many of the basic properties of morphological
grammar to be considered rule-governed.

2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27


Fabio
Baggio
3.1.1.
Grammatical
formations

2.1 International
in East
Asia andgrammar
South East
27
Slang
formations Migration
conforming
to regular
areAsia..............
unexpectedly
numerous.
In both
derivation
and composition, they adopt regular
2.2 Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
morphological mechanisms to obtain predictable new words, as in
2.3 Ethics
andand
Migration
Management.................................................
43
dish
dish-y
bag + lady
baglady.
Within derivation,
suffixation may allow a better illustration 47
of
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
regular morphological patterns, since the number of suffixes largely
3.
Immigration
21st Century.
outweighs
that inofthe
prefixes
in English slang. The most productive
The Need
for an forming
Ethical Approach.
The
Canadian Experience ..... 51
suffixes
regularly
slang nouns
are:
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

-er, attached to nominal bases (life

lifer, weekend

3.1 World
Population
.............................................................
weekender),
or Increase
to verbal
bases (chop
chopper, drop 51

dropper), like
St. E. hatMigration
hatter,and
bake
baker;................. 53
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Governance
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


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64

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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

attached to verbs, as in flame


flam-ing, ram-raid
Table-ing,
of
Contents
ram-raiding, in line with the standard -ing pattern.
Less productive but still regular suffixes are: -ation/-ion (as in
connection v connect), -ery (as in noshery nosh), -ette
obtaining female nouns from male ones (as in hackette hack), -ful
obtaining nouns from nominal bases (as in earful ear), -ish
attaching to various bases (as in peckish v peck and all-overish
all-over), privative -less (as in legless drunk, though with added
figurative meaning), -ness (as in chestiness chesty), and -ster (as
in dopester dope, after drugster drug).
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
Regular
suffixes deriving
adjectives
are frequent
as well, as the
Fabio Baggio,
Laura
Zanfrini
following
samples
show:
-ed deriving participial adjectives from verbs, as in crack

1. Ethics and Human Rights


and bomb
bombed,
by ....................................
analogy with standard
in thecracked
South American
Migration
Processes
15
Marioforms;
Santillo

-ed deriving denominal adjectives, as in pot


potted and
parasynthetic moon-eye
moon-eyed, which follow the
1.2 International
Instrument
Migrants Defence
standard patterns
of for
culture
cultured.............................
and dark-eye 21
dark-eyed;
1.3 Some
Final Reflections................................................................... 23
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17

-ing forming
participial adjectives, as in zonk
zonking, by
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
analogy with St. E. will

willing;

2. Migration
Policies
Ethics
East and South
East
Asia............
27
-y attached
toand
nouns,
as in cheese
cheesy,
analogous
to St.
FabioE.Baggio
ice icy.

2.1 International
Migration in East
Asia and
Asia..............
27
Some
such adjective-forming
suffixes
areSouth
less East
recurrent
in slang
than
standardPolicies
language,
as -able (e.g. ropeable v rope).
2.2in
Migration
in ESEA............................................................
34
Some adverbs are likewise formed regularly by attaching the
2.3 Ethics
Migration
43
suffix
-ly to and
adjectives,
asManagement.................................................
in stinkingly ( stinking), formed like St.
E. Bibliography
strikingly (
striking).
.........................................................................................
47
There are also some prefixes used in slang, which act regularly,
butImmigration
their productivity
3.
in the 21inst forming
Century. new words is low. Examples are
de-The
(asNeed
in de-bag
bags,Approach.
remove the
trousers),
(as in re-up
for an
Ethical
The
CanadianreExperience
.....
51
converted
up), superandVanderberg
un- (as in super-cool and uncool
Christine vBaghdady,
Richard
cool), and under- (as in underfug fug).
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51
Within composition, regularity is in terms of both morphotactics
3.2morphosemantics.
Urbanization, International
Migration
and Governance
53
and
From the
morphotactic
point of.................
view, some
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

659

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not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
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slang compounds conform to the regular pattern forming nouns,


Table
of Contents
adjectives and verbs, by combining two bases, namely a modifier
(non-head) and a head. The compound noun baglady, for example,
is similar to St. E. bag-fox. But also the compound adjective piefaced and the verb talk turkey are comparable to St. E. formations
(e.g. dog-faced, talk sailor).
From the morphosemantic point of view, the above slang
compounds have their head within the compound (lady, face(d),
talk), hence, they conform to the prototypical pattern of endocentric
compounds, denoting a type of lady, a kind of face or a way of
talking. Considerations
However, not all
ofExecutive
them seem
to obey ..............................
Freges principle 11
of
Opening
and
Summary
compositionality,
according
to
which
the
global
meaning
of
the
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
compound can be deduced from the meaning of its constituent parts
(cf.Ethics
full and
transparency
in Dressler 2005). Indeed, while baglady
1.
Human Rights
denoting
a woman
whoMigration
carries her
possessions
in bags is fully
in the South
American
Processes
....................................
15
compositional,
Mario Santillo pie-faced applied to someone having a round, flat
face and talk turkey meaning speak frankly and without reserve
Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
are1.1not,
though in pie-faced the semantic motivation by its first
member
(non-head)
is still evident.
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
As regards conversion, i.e. the transfer of a lexical item to a
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
different syntactic category with no overt marker, slang formations
25
areBibliography
assignable .........................................................................................
to widely recognized patterns (as in Marchand 1969):
e.g., the transfer from a noun to a verb (n souvenir
v souvenir
2.
Migration
Policies and
Ethics
in East
and(vSouth
East Asia............
take
as a souvenir;
steal)
or vice
versa
pop inject
a drug 27n
popFabio
anBaggio
injection of a drug), from an adjective to a verb (adj
special
v special
work in
as East
a special
correspondent),
and from27a
2.1 International
Migration
Asia and
South East Asia..............
particle to a verb (prep off
v off kill). They also exhibit less
2.2 Migration
Policies
ESEA............................................................
34
frequent
patterns
(e.g. infrom
a particle to a noun, as in up, down,
etc.),
but still
attested in
standard English (cf. ups and downs
2.3 Ethics
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
vicissitudes, variations).
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
Let us now turn to what is outside of standard English.
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
3.1.2. Extra-grammatical formations
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51

Extra-grammatical
are frequent slang formations. They
Christine Baghdady,phenomena
Richard Vanderberg
mainly consist of:
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

a) Anomalous derivations (i.e. expletive infixation and backformation or back-derivation, see Marchand 1969);

3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53


3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

66

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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

b) Abbreviatory morphological operations: i.e. clippings,


Table
of Contents
acronyms, initialisms, blends (in the wider sense of Thornton
1993; cf. Dressler 2000: 5), and abbreviated rhyming
formations;
c) Reduplicating mechanisms: the various patterns of echowords or reduplicatives (see Merlini Barbaresi forthcoming);
d) Irregular and unpredictable reversed forms and variations of
the base, including analogical formations, malapropisms,
metathesis, letter pronunciation, extensions and a range of
alterations;

Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11

e) The
combination
of (b), (c) or (d) with affixes which carry no
Fabio
Baggio,
Laura Zanfrini

semantic but merely pragmatic meaning: e.g., the colloquial

schm-/shm-,
1. Ethicsprefix
and Human
Rightsthe hypocoristic or familiar suffix -ie/-y,
allomorphic
variants
-ey/-ee,
the (chiefly
Australian slang)
in theits
South
American
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
Mariofamiliarizer
Santillo
-o, jocular -er and -s, and the composite suffixes

-ers, -eroo, -sie/-sy/-so (cf. Dressler & Merlini Barbaresi


1994, Merlini Barbaresi 2001);

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17

1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

f) Entirely unmotivated terms derived by word manufacture

1.3 Some
Reflections...................................................................
23
(seeFinal
Bauer
1983) and fanciful formations of unknown

origin. ......................................................................................... 25
Bibliography
The major grammatical MRs that appear to be violated in the afore-

2.
Migrationslang
Policies
and Ethicscompared
in East and
South
East Asia............
27
mentioned
formations,
with
canonical
formations,
Fabio Baggio
include:

2.1 International
Migration
in East Asiaderivation
and South East
Whereas rules
of canonical
are Asia..............
predictable 27
in

form change,
affixes
being added to continuous bases (un-34
+
2.2 Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
touch, absolute + -ly), the morphotactics of slang derivatives

2.3 Ethics
and irregular,
Migration Management.................................................
43
is often
as in back-derived grot ( grotty), or the

base may
be discontinuous, that is, interrupted by an infix, 47
as
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
in abso-blooming-lutely.

3. Immigration
the 21st Century.
Whereasinsubtractive
MRs exhibit a tendency to delete a
The Need
an Ethical
Approach.
The
Canadian
Experience
..... 51
smallfor
(usually
final)
part of the
base
(evacuate
evacu-ee),

Christine
and,Baghdady,
with twoRichard
bases,Vanderberg
of the first base (Austrian-Hungarian

slang subtractive operations may


3.1 WorldAustr-o-Hungarian),
Population Increase .............................................................
51

delete larger and not necessarily final (non-salient) parts:


i.e., the coda (E ecstasy, feeb feeble-minded), two

3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53


3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

679

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

res desirable residence), the beginning (gator


Tablecodas
of (des
Contents
alligator, bin loony bin), both the coda and the
beginning (tec detective), or the middle part, as in B-girl
( bar-girl), ginormous ( gigantic + enormous),
ambisextrous ( ambidextrous + sex) (see 3.2.10.2).
Whereas conventional word-formation rules rely on existing
stem or word bases, slang reduplicative formations often
show no meaningful bases, hardly recognizable as preexistent meaningful morphemes (hanky-panky, hotsy-totsy,
zig-zag). In the onomatopoeic type (bling-bling), no
Opening
Considerations
andbases
Executive
..............................
11
independent
word
are Summary
identifiable,
since the two
Fabioconstituents
Baggio, Lauraform
Zanfrini
a phonetic unit. In the rhyming and ablaut
types, headedness is difficult to assign, since both
1. Ethics
and Humandirections
Rights are possible (cf. easy-peasy and chitsyntagmatic
in thechat).
South The
American
....................................
15
sameMigration
happens Processes
with slang
fanciful formations
Mario(lallapaloosa),
Santillo
whose bases are not independent words, or
with
those
forms
of unknown etymology obtained by word
1.1 Migrants Rights .............................................................................
17
manufacture (scag).
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

Whereas standard MRs mostly comply with Aronoffs

1.3 Some
FinalUnitary
Reflections...................................................................
23
(1976)
Base Hypothesis, slang extra-grammatical

formations
exhibit various base categories for the same suffix,
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25

thus exhibiting what Zwicky & Pullum (1987: 336) call


1 This
promiscuity
withEthics
regardintoEast
input
category.
is the case
2. Migration
Policies and
and
South East
Asia............
27
Fabiowith
Baggio
the -ie/-y suffix, applied primarily to nouns (druggie/-y),
but also to adjectives (biggie/-y), verbs (clippie/-y a bus2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
conductress), adverbs (downie a depressant or tranquillizing
2.2 Migration
Policies
ESEA............................................................
34
drug), etc.
(seein also
Merlini Barbaresi 2001). The same
promiscuity
is
found
in
the
output
(cf.
Scalises
1988
Unitary
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
Output Hypothesis), as shown by the alternative classes of the
Bibliography
......................................................................................... 47
above outputs.
WhereasinMRs
form
new words, slang formations often obtain
st Century.
3. Immigration
the 21
connoted
variants.
This
is the case
(1) some
reduplicative
The Need for an Ethical Approach.
The with:
Canadian
Experience
..... 51
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

1 The hypothesis that input syntactic category information is not crucial to word-

3.1 World
Increase
51
formation
rulesPopulation
has been put
forward.............................................................
by many linguists (e.g., by Plank 1981, Plag
1999, Ryder 1999, Montermini 2001), and has been systematically investigated by
3.2(2004),
Urbanization,
Migration
and Governance
53
Plag
who showsInternational
that the Unitary
Base Hypothesis
is untenable.................
in derivational
morphology,
and ratherMigration
proposes ain
semantic,
approach. ........... 54
3.3 International
Canada:output-oriented
An Ethical Assessment

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

68

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

such as O.K.
Tableformations,
of Contents
prefix schm-/shm- (e.g.

okey-dokey, sometimes with the


moon-schmoon); (2) some slang
suffixes (e.g. -eroo as in flop
flopperoo, -o as in yob
yobbo), esp. when combined with shortened bases (e.g. -er/-ers
in bedder bedroom, preggers pregnant, -ie/-y in footie/-y
football, -o in muso musician, etc.); (3) most variations,
as champagne
shampoo (humorously chosen for its
assonance), B.B.C.
Beeb; (4) various abbreviatory
operations, such as initialisms (sex appeal
S.A.), blending
(tabloid show
tab show), and clipping (hashish
hash,
potato
tato),
which
do
not
generally
exhibit
any
semantic
Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11
between
input and output.
Fabiodifference
Baggio, Laura
Zanfrini
As the descriptive and theoretical literature on morphology shows

1.
Ethics
and Human
(esp.
Marchand
1969,Rights
Aronoff 1976, Bauer 1983), some of the above
in
the
South
American
Migration
Processesare
....................................
15
extra-grammatical morphological
operations
not peculiar to slang.

Santillothe phenomena included in (a), (c), (f) (back- and


ForMario
instance,
reduplicative
and word manufacture), and subtraction
1.1 Migrantsformations
Rights .............................................................................
17
(as in b), are attested in other non-standard varieties and in informal
1.2 International
Instrumentexcluded
for Migrants
Defence
.............................
21
speech,
but are generally
from
morphological
grammar
due
theirFinal
oddity
and disregard of generative WFRs. On the other
1.3toSome
Reflections...................................................................
23
hand, other extra-grammatical morphological operations are
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
restricted to slang use, viz.:

Infixation,
in and
which
the inbases
rather than
2. Migration
Policies
Ethics
East are
and discontinuous
South East Asia............
27
morphs, as in fantastic
Fabiocontinuous
Baggio

fan-bloody-tastic (cf.
the preference for morphotactic transparency in Natural
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
Morphology (NM), Dressler 2005).
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

Abbreviated (elliptic) rhyming formations, which, like other

2.3 Ethics
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
subtractive
devices,
exhibit no meaning change between

input and
output, and also tend to lose the phonological
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47

iconicity relating onset and outset, as in butchers (


butchers
the element hook rhyming with the
3. Immigration
in hook),
the 21stlosing
Century.
referent
look
(cf.
preference
for iconicity
NM).
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The
CanadianinExperience
..... 51
Christine
Baghdady,
Vanderberg
Reversed
andRichard
altered
forms, as in back-slang neves for

seven,Population
chuddy for
chewing
gum and flick for film, in which
3.1 World
Increase
.............................................................
51

the bases are unrecognizable as pre-existent meaningful

3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53


3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

and the resulting


Tablemorphemes,
of
Contents
morphotactically opaque.

699

formations are therefore

Familiarizing suffixes (familiarity markers in Quirk et al.


1985: 1584), which do not derive new words, but rather pet
forms or colloquial variants of standard English words.
Examples would be:

The English pet suffix -ie/-y (or -ey/-ee), with a basic


hypocoristic meaning, used in slang to convey the pragmatic
feature [non-serious], as in denominal shoppie/-y (a shop
assistant) and deadjectival hottie/-y (a sexually attractive
Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11
person) (see Dressler & Merlini Barbaresi 1994);
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini

The British suffix -er (and -ers, from a cumulation with -s),

1. Ethicsintroduced
and Human
Rights
into
Oxford University slang from sport, esp.
in therugby,
South American
Processes
....................................
15
and used Migration
to make jocular
formations
on nouns, by
Marioclipping
Santillo or curtailing them and adding -er(s) to the remaining

part, which
is .............................................................................
sometimes itself distorted, as in leccer/lecker/
1.1 Migrants
Rights
17

lekker ( lecture), rugger ( rugby), spaggers/spadgers (

1.2 International
for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
spaghetti), Instrument
etc.;

1.3
Reflections...................................................................
23
Some
The Final
American
slang suffix -eroo (as in pipperoo pip),

and its .........................................................................................


variants -aroo, -roo, -oo, conveying playfulness and
Bibliography
25

jocularity to terms used in certain circles (e.g. radio, sports,


advertising);
2. Migration
Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
Fabio Baggio

The Australian slang familiarizer -o, used to obtain informal

equivalentsMigration
of nounsinand
as inEast
kiddo
( kid) and
2.1 International
Eastadjectives,
Asia and South
Asia..............
27
cheapo ( cheap) (cf. the derivative function in milko a
milkman).

2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43

The suffix -s which, unlike the homophone and homograph

Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
inflectional
suffix of standard English, derives adjectives

from nominal bases, as in nuts and bananas mad, crazy, or

st Century.
3. Immigration
in the 21
may combine
with
other suffixes (e.g. -y, -er, -o) to obtain
The Need
for an (nutsy,
Ethical Approach.
The Canadian
Experience
..... fat
51
adjectives
bonkers crazy)
or nouns
(fatso a
Christine
Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
person).

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51


3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

70

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

3.1.3. Borderline cases


Table
of Contents

In-between grammatical and extra-grammatical morphological


operations, there are some partially regular slang formations, which
conform to the regular patterns of word-formation, but may exhibit
some violations of universal properties of English grammar. We
distinguish three main tendencies:
g) Formations which conform to the regular patterns of
morphotactic concatenation, but display extra-grammaticality
in the base form (cf. Bauer 1988b);

h) Formations
withand
regular
bases,
but an..............................
irregular order 11
of
Opening
Considerations
Executive
Summary
processes (esp. derivation after inflection);
Fabiomorphological
Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
i)

Formations which belong to marginal morphology because

1. Ethicsthe
and
Human Rights
processes
involving them straddle the borderline between,
in thesay,
Southderivation
American Migration
Processes ....................................
15
and compounding,
or morphology and
Mario Santillo

phonology.

1.1 Migrants
17
Type
(g) is theRights
most.............................................................................
common in slang formations. Consider, for

instance,
the derivatives
obtained
via suffixation
of the slang bases
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants
Defence .............................
21
yob, derived by back-slang (i.e. inverting the letters of boy), and
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
yuppie, an acronym from young urban professional:
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

From yob, slang obtains the adjectives yobby and yobbish,


the adverb yobbishly, and the abstract nouns yobbery and
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
yobbishness;
Fabio Baggio
From yuppie, it obtains the noun yuppi(e)ness, the adjective
yuppyish, and, after the verb yuppify, the deverbal adjective
2.2 Migration
ESEA............................................................
34
yuppifiedPolicies
and thein noun
yuppification.
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27

2.3 Ethics
and one
Migration
43
While,
on the
hand,Management.................................................
these derivatives conform to the regular
order
of morphological
concatenation (i.e. n yob
adj yob-b-ish 47
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
n yobbish-ness; n yuppie v yupp-ify adj yuppif-i-ed / n yuppif-ication),
on theinother
they show a basic extra-grammatical
st Century.
3.
Immigration
the 21hand,
nature
due
to
the
origin
of
the
bases (see
3.1.2). Experience ..... 51
The Need for an Ethical Approach.
The Canadian
Type
(h)
is
basically
exemplified
by
inflected bases deriving
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
new words. Indeed, one of the most common generalizations which
3.1 World Population
Increase
.............................................................
51
morphologists
make when
distinguishing
inflection from derivation
is 3.2
thatUrbanization,
derivationalInternational
suffixes tend
to occurand
closer
to the .................
root or stem
Migration
Governance
53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

than inflectional suffixes, as in (v) arrive


Table
of Contents
arrive-al-s.

719

(n) arrive-al

(pl.)

Compare, now, the inflected slang nouns civvies (shortened from


civilian clothes) and yobbos (from a familiarizing suffixation of backslang yob) with the slang adjectives antsy and ballsy, respectively from
the inflected (plural) bases ant-s (also in antsy-pantsy) and ball-s.
Whereas civvies and yobbos exhibit a regular inflectional morphology,
though attached to extra-grammatical bases (type g), antsy and ballsy
exhibit a regular derivative morphology, but attached to inflected bases
(n ant
pl. ant-s
adj ants-y; n ball
pl. ball-s
adj balls-y),
which
makes
the
formatives
morphotactically
and
morphosemantically
Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11
opaque
Dressler
2005). A similar example is provided by the
Fabio (cf.
Baggio,
Laura Zanfrini
adjective dicey, in which the base of the derivative is inflected the
plural
of die
and hence
irregular.
1.
Ethics
andHuman
Rights
words
are also
universally
less preferred
than autonomous
inInflected
the South
American
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
words
compound members. Hence, the slang nominal compound
MarioasSantillo
balls-up, with a pluralised first base, is less preferred than St. E.
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
ballpark,
with autonomous words in their uninflected form as bases
2
(cf.1.2
Dressler
2005).Instrument
International
for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
Type (i) is illustrated by some slang final combining forms (e.g.
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
-fest as in gabfest and -burger as in psychoburger), which are
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
transitional
phenomena
between derivation and compounding, and
therefore belong to what Dressler (2000) considers marginal in
2.
Migration Policies
andfinal
Ethics
in East andforms
South East
Asia............ 27
morphology.
Indeed,
combining
(or semi-suffixes)
Fabio Baggio
display
the same productivity and morphosemantic regularity as
derivational
suffixes
(see Mattiello
butEast
often
acquire 27
an
2.1 International
Migration
in East Asia2007b),
and South
Asia..............
independent status (e.g. fest G. Fest and burger as a shortening
Migration Policies
in ESEA............................................................
of 2.2
hamburger;
cf. 3.2.4.2),
which makes them comparable 34
to
compound
2.3 Ethicsmembers.
and Migration Management................................................. 43
This latter type is additionally illustrated by some slang
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
phenomena which are marginal in the sense that they lie in-between
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
2 An
Theexplanation
Need for an
Approach.inconsistency
The Canadian
51
forEthical
the morphological
of aExperience
derivational .....
suffix

Christine
Vanderberg
preceding
an Baghdady,
inflectional Richard
one is found
in the lexicalization process: in American
slang, the noun balls acquires the singular sense of courage, determination, so it is
3.1 World
Population
Increase
51
treated
as a simple
base rather
than as .............................................................
a complex one in the adjective derivation. The
case of antsy is similar: the origin of this adjective is from the American English
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
and Governance
.................
idiomatic
phrase to have
ants in ones
pants (fidget
constantly, esp.
because 53
of
extreme
agitation),
hence
the
lexicalized
noun
ants
to
which
the
-y
suffix
is
added.
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

72

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

morphology and, e.g., phonology, such as letter pronunciation,


Table
of Contents
reproducing the pronunciation of the initial letters of a word (e.g. gee
guy), or as an alteration, reproducing a colloquial, dialect, regional
or standard word pronunciation (e.g. Cockney loverly /lvl/
lovely /lvl/).

3.2. Slang word-formation


As seen so far, the word-formation mechanisms of slang include
regular phenomena, such as compounding, affixation mostly in the
Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11
form
of suffixation, but also of prefixation and conversion, as well
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
as extra-grammatical ones, exemplified and discussed in section
3.1.2.
Weand
will
now examine
1.
Ethics
Human
Rights each phenomenon in more detail, and
describe
the
grammatical
classes ofProcesses
slang formations,
in addition 15
to
in the South American Migration
....................................
their
base
categories
and
head
properties.
As
regards
slang
classes,
I
Mario Santillo
can anticipate that most slang compounds and derivatives are nouns,
1.1 Migrants
Rights .............................................................................
17
followed
by adjectives
and verbs. Interjections, adverbs and particles
represent
relatively
minor groups
withinDefence
the slang
lexicon, though
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants
.............................
21
they are attested among its formations, e.g. the exact reduplicative
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
hubba-hubba is an interjection, the -o derivative doggo is an adverb,
.........................................................................................
25
etc.Bibliography
Idiomatic phrases
and longer expressions will not be part of this
investigation with the exception of some slang idioms (e.g. dogs
2.
Migrationwhich
Policies
in East from
and South
Asia............
27
breakfast),
willand
be Ethics
distinguished
properEast
slang
compounds.
Fabio Baggiois the first topic of my investigation.
Compounding
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27

3.2.1. Compounding

2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

Compounding is a common morphological mechanism which


2.3 Ethics
Migration
Management.................................................
obtains
newand
words
consisting
of two elements, the first of which43
is
either
a
root,
a
word
or
a
phrase,
the
second
of
which
is
either
a
root
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
or a word (Plag 2003: 135). In English and similar languages, the
modifier
generally
the head, as established by Williams
3.
Immigration
in theprecedes
21st Century.
3 In slang, both head and non(1981)
Righthand
Head
Rule
(RHR).The
The Need for an Ethical Approach.
Canadian Experience ..... 51
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

3 Williams (1981: 248) Righthand Head Rule states: In morphology, we define

World
Population Increase
.............................................................
51
the3.1
head
of a morphologically
complex
word to be the righthand member of that
word. By the way, Dressler (2005: 275-276) claims that an explanation for the
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
and Governance
.................
53
right-hand
head preference
may lie in
the psycholinguistic
recency
effect which
makes
the end of a word
more in
salient.
In An
semiotic
terms,
the compound
3.3 International
Migration
Canada:
Ethical
Assessment
...........head
54

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3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

head positions may be occupied by a variety of classes, the most


Table
of Contents
unusual being particles (i.e. prepositions, numerals and pronouns),
as in four-eyes, I AM, Section Eight, she-male, undercover, all
forming compound nouns. On the other hand, the regular pattern of
right-headed endocentric compounds, which have the head within
the compound and, specifically, to the right, is found in doss-house
a lodging house, hot chair the electric chair, and outside man
denoting a person involved in robbery, which have respectively a
noun, adjective and adverb as non-head. These combinations are
called attributive or appositional (e.g. by Marchand 1969: 41,
61) because
they are and
typically
characterized
by a determinantOpening
Considerations
Executive
Summary ..............................
11
determinatum
relation.
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
Before moving on to a classification of slang compounds, an
orthographic
clarification
may be in order here. It is well known that
1. Ethics and Human
Rights
compounds
in English
areMigration
spelt variously
as one
word (blackbird), 15
as
in the South
American
Processes
....................................
hyphenated
words (black-face), or as two independent words (black
Mario Santillo
eye) (see Jespersen 1942: 136, Lieber 1992: 84). This distinction,
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
however,
is not always as clear-cut as that: some compounds are,
indeed,
written in Instrument
different ways,
as blackboard
black board, and
1.2 International
for Migrants
Defenceor
.............................
21
black-ball or blackball, all perfectly acceptable in standard English.
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
Slang compounds make no exception, as the three spellings of red
Bibliography
25
neck,
redneck .........................................................................................
or red-neck seem to confirm. Sometimes, however,
spelling may affect the reading of the compound: for instance, the
2.
Migration compound
Policies andbad-mouth
Ethics in East
Asia............
27
hyphenated
mayand
be South
both aEast
noun
and a verb.
Baggio
ButFabio
when
the compound is written as two separate words (as bad
mouth)
it has to beMigration
read as ainnoun,
whileand
when
it is
spelt
as one word
2.1 International
East Asia
South
East
Asia..............
27
(as badmouth) it denotes a verb.
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

3.2.1.1.
Compound
nounsManagement................................................. 43
2.3 Ethics
and Migration
Nouns constitute the most extensive syntactic class of slang
BibliographyThe
.........................................................................................
compounds.
base categories of such compounds are, 47
as
anticipated, various, though the most common are, as in standard
3.
Immigration
in the(house-man),
21st Century. or a head-noun and an adjectiveEnglish,
two nouns
The Need(main
for an man).
Ethical Less
Approach.
The Canadian
Experience
..... by
51
modifier
common
bases are
provided
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
grammatical rather than lexical words, as in I AM or she-male, with
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
and Governance
.................
53
represents
the figure, while
the non-head
is the ground.
However, saliency
does not
seem
apply to Romance
languages
(see Scalise
1992).
3.3toInternational
Migration
in Canada:
An 1988,
Ethical
Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

74

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

a pronominal first member. What follows is an attempt to identify


Table
of Contents
the possible combinations among base categories.
3.2.1.1.1. Noun-noun compounds are richly illustrated in slang.
Within this pattern, the most frequent subgroup is represented by
metonymic compounds (see 3.2.1.4.1), in which the syntactic
head is a part of the semantic head. In particular, the syntactic head
is a body part, which stands for the whole person.
Metonymic compounds with head as the second member mainly
denote a stupid or despicable person. This sense is in airhead, bonehead, bubblehead, knucklehead, meat-head, mush-head, mutton-head,
Opening
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
shithead, Considerations
and, with a deverbal
first member,
propellerhead.
They are
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
all analysable as a person having a head as indicated by the first
member.
1. Ethics and Human Rights
Such compounds have to be distinguished from compounds in
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
which
head means drug addict. This latter type, indeed, does not
Mario Santillo
have a metonymic nature, as the first member rather specifies the
1.1ofMigrants
Rights
.............................................................................
17
sort
substance
(drug
or other) the person is addicted to: e.g., acid
head
(orig.
U.S.)
an
LSD
addict,
crackhead
(orig.
U.S.)
one
who
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
is addicted to crack cocaine, hophead (U.S.) an opium-smoker,
1.3 Some(chiefly
Final Reflections...................................................................
piss-head
Brit. and N.Z.) a drunkard, pothead one who23
is
addicted
to marijuana
(more in 4.2.1.3).
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
Other metonymic compounds having mouth as the second
member
denote
a person
who in
talks
inand
the South
way denoted
by the first
2. Migration
Policies
and Ethics
East
East Asia............
27
member
(e.g.
flannel-mouth
U.S.
an
empty
talker,
motormouth
Fabio Baggio
orig. U.S. a person who talks fast and incessantly). Similar pars2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
pro-toto compounds (Warren 1978: 27) are beer belly one who has
2.2 Migration
Policies caused
in ESEA............................................................
34
a protruding
stomach
by drinking large quantities of beer,
cloth
ears
a
person
with
a
poor
sense
of
hearing,
guzzle-guts
a
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
glutton, jack-leg (U.S.) an incompetent or unskilled person, vulgar
Bibliography
47
jive-ass
(U.S.) .........................................................................................
a person who loves fun or excitement, lard-ass (orig.
N. Amer.) a fat person, mossback a slow, rustic, or old-fashioned
3.
Immigration
in the 21st Century.
person,
and sparrow-brain
a person with a tiny brain.
The
Need for
an Ethical
Approach.
The Canadian
Experience
..... 51
Another
group
of endocentric
nominal
compounds
characterized
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
by man as the second member belongs to the attributive
(appositional)
type: hit-man
hired murderer, lurkman (Austral.)
3.1 World Population
Increasea.............................................................
51
( lurk a scheme, plan of action) a person who lives by sharp
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
practice, matman (orig. U.S.) ( mat floor-covering used in
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

759

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

wrestling) a wrestler, monkey-man (U.S.) a weak or gullible


Table
of Contents
man, muscle man a man with highly developed muscles, needle
man (U.S.) a drug addict who takes drugs by injection, rodman
( rod a gun) a gunman, skyman (Journalistic) a paratrooper.
The element man is pronounced [mn] in slang when the word
denotes a member of a specific group, as in house-man (U.S.) a
burglar, passman a male prisoner who is allowed to leave his cell
as a special privilege, and streetman (U.S.) a petty criminal who
works on the street.
Within the attributive type, the following compounds have a
human being
as the second
baglady
(orig.
U.S.) a homeless
Opening
Considerations
andelement:
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
woman,
often elderly,
who carries her possessions in shopping bags,
Fabio Baggio,
Laura Zanfrini
glamour boy a member of the R.A.F., homeboy (orig. U.S.) a
member
of ones
peer
group or gang, Jew boy (offens.) a Jewish
1.
Ethics and
Human
Rights
in theloony-doctor
South American
Processes
....................................
male,
a Migration
psychiatrist,
pavement
princess (U.S.) 15
a
Mario Santillo
prostitute
who seeks business on the streets (cf. Amer. sidewalk),
pen-mate
(Austral.
and
N.Z.) each of two or more shearers who
1.1 Migrants
Rights
.............................................................................
17
shear sheep from the same pen, piss artist (chiefly Brit.) a
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants
Defence
.............................
drunkard,
pox-doctor
( pox
syphilis)
a doctor
specializing 21
in
the1.3treatment
of
venereal
disease,
sky
pilot
a
priest
or
clergyman,
Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
esp. a military or naval chaplain, suicide blonde (jocular) a
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
woman
with hair
dyed blonde (esp. rather amateurishly), witchdoctor (Military) a psychiatrist. Some such compounds, however,
2.
Policies and (e.g.
Ethicspavement
in East and
South East
27
areMigration
non-compositional
princess,
skyAsia............
pilot), since
Fabio Baggio
they do not denote a member of the class expressed by the second
member,
but they Migration
have rather
to beAsia
readand
metaphorically.
2.1 International
in East
South East Asia.............. 27
The class of endocentric compounds with a non-human head
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
includes blood wagon an ambulance, doss-house ( doss a bed)
Ethics andlodging-house,
Migration Management.................................................
a 2.3
common
hit list a list of persons to 43
be
assassinated,
hit
squad
(orig.
U.S.)
a
group
of
esp.
politicallyBibliography ......................................................................................... 47
motivated assassins or kidnappers, hock-shop a pawnshop,
lughole
the ear-hole,
(orig. and chiefly U.S.) an
3.
Immigration
in the 21stmeat-wagon
Century.
ambulance,
monkey
meat
(U.S.,
Army)
tinned meat,
monkey
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian
Experience
.....suit
51
(orig.
U.S.)
a
formal,
decorative,
or
showy
uniform,
needle
beer
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
(U.S.) near-beer mixed with ethyl alcohol, nut-house a home or
3.1 World
Increase
.............................................................
51
hospital
for Population
people with
mental
illnesses, penguin suit a mans
formal
evening wear,
roadwork
(Criminals)
the work
of 53
an
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
and Governance
.................
itinerant thief, sack time (orig. U.S., Forces) time spent in bed,
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

76

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

sin city (often jocular) a city of licentiousness and vice. The head
Table
of Contents
is unusually the left-hand member in murder one (U.S.) a firstdegree murder.
The class of opaque exocentric compounds referring to human
beings includes dream-boat (orig. U.S.) an exceptionally attractive
or pleasing person, face-ache a mournful-looking person,
fruitcake (orig. U.S.) a crazy or eccentric person, gasbag ( gas
empty or boastful talk) an empty talker, glamour puss a
glamorous person, grease-ball (U.S.) a derogatory term for a
foreigner, grease monkey a mechanic, gum-shoe a detective,
head case
(orig. Brit.) and
a person
characterized
as mentally ill 11
or
Opening
Considerations
Executive
Summary ..............................
unstable,
jail-bait
(orig.
U.S.)
a
girl
who
is
under
the
legal
age
of
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
consent, jelly bean a pimp, jelly-dog a harrier, jelly roll a
lover,
bunny Rights
a derogatory term used to designate Blacks,
1.
Ethicsjungle
and Human
Australian
Aborigines,
king-fish
(U.S.)....................................
a leader, chief, boss,
in the South
Americanetc.,
Migration
Processes
15
lounge
Mariolizard
Santillo(orig. U.S.) a man who spends his time idling in
fashionable society, mouthpiece (chiefly Criminals) a lawyer,
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
nutcase
a crazy, mad, or eccentric person, peanut a small,
unintelligent,
or unimportant
chop
(U.S., derog.) 21
a
1.2 International
Instrument forperson,
Migrantspork
Defence
.............................
black person who is subservient to whites, post office a person
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
who receives information and either transmits it or holds it for
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
collection,
ring-worm
(U.S.) someone who regularly attends
boxing-matches, salt horse (Nautical) a naval officer with general
2.
Migration
Policies(chiefly
and Ethics
in East
and South aEast
Asia............
27
duties,
screwball
U.S.)
an eccentric;
madman,
snowFabio
Baggio
bird
(U.S.)
( snow cocaine) one who sniffs cocaine, stink-pot
a 2.1
term
of abuse for
a person.
International
Migration
in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
The following exocentric compounds refer to inanimate objects,
2.2 Migration
Policies
ESEA............................................................
34
things,
places, and
eveninabstract
aspects: cakehole a persons mouth,
cheesecake
(orig.
U.S.) Management.................................................
female sexual attractiveness, eyewash
2.3 Ethics and
Migration
43
(Military) unnecessary routine tasks or ceremonial, glass-house a
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
military prison or guard-room, gobstick ( gob the mouth) a
clarinet, God-box a church or other place of worship, goggle-box a
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
television set, goof ball/pill (a tablet of) any of various drugs, gumThe Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
bucket
(Naval) a smokers pipe, gum-game (U.S.) a trick or dodge,
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
hash-joint (chiefly U.S.) a cheap eating-house, hop toy a container
3.1for
World
Population
Increase
used
smoking
opium,
horse.............................................................
opera (orig. U.S.) a Western film 51
or
television
series,
jaw-bone
(N.
Amer.)
credit,
joy-house
a
brothel,
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
joy/jungle juice (U.S.) alcoholic drink, knuckle sandwich a punch in
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

the mouth, lead balloon a failure, liquorice-stick (Jazz) a clarinet,


Table
of Contents
loony bin ( loony a lunatic) a mental hospital, marble
orchard/town (N. Amer.) a cemetery, meat-hook an arm or hand,
meat-house ( obs. meat a prostitute) a brothel, meat-market a
meeting-place popular among prostitutes or people in search of casual
sexual partners, mitt camp (U.S.) ( mitt a hand) a palmists or
fortune-tellers booth, tent, etc., monkey parade (dated) an
evening promenade of young people, mousetrap inferior or
unpalatable cheese, neck-oil an alcoholic drink, esp. beer, nose
candy (N. Amer.) a drug that is inhaled through the nose; spec.
cocaine,Considerations
notch house (
coarse notch
the female
genitals) 11
a
Opening
and Executive
Summary
..............................
brothel,
oil
can
(Military)
a
German
trench
mortar
shell
of
the
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
First World War, parlour-house (U.S.) an expensive type of
brothel,
pie-card
(U.S.,
dated) a meal ticket, pigboat (N. Amer.,
1.
Ethics and
Human
Rights
Navy)
submarine,
pigeon-drop
(orig. ....................................
U.S., Criminals) 15
a
in the a
South
American Migration
Processes
confidence
trick, pineapple a bomb, pine drape (U.S.) a coffin,
Mario Santillo
prat leather (U.S., Criminals) ( prat a hip-pocket) a wallet or
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
purse
kept in the hip pocket, puppy-hole (Eton College) ( puppy
pupil)
a pupil-room,
ratforhouse
(Austral.
and
N.Z.) a mental
1.2 International
Instrument
Migrants
Defence
.............................
21
hospital, slaughter-house a shop where goods are bought from
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
small makers at very low prices, whore-shop a brothel, wish book
.........................................................................................
25
(N.Bibliography
Amer.) a mail-order
catalogue.
This latter type with a plural second member is found in family
2.
Migration
and South
Eastfeathers
Asia............
27
jewels
(orig.Policies
U.S.) and
theEthics
malein East
genitals,
horse
(U.S.)
Fabio Baggio
nonsense,
rubbish, balderdash, office hours (U.S., Military) a
disciplinary
session,
roadinapples
(U.S.)
horse
2.1 International
Migration
East Asia
and South
Eastdroppings,
Asia..............and
27
snake eyes (U.S.) tapioca.
2.2
Migration
Policies
ESEA............................................................
34
This
type may
alsoinbe
used attributively, as in rat-bag (orig.
Austral.
andand
N.Z.)
a stupid
or eccentric person (also stupid) and
2.3 Ethics
Migration
Management.................................................
43
screwball (chiefly U.S.) an eccentric; a madman (also eccentric,
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
mad).
Some of the above opaque compounds have a figurative origin,
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
and therefore meaning can be retrieved through metaphorical
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
reading
(cakehole the mouth), euphemism (joy-house a brothel,
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
marble town a cemetery, pine drape a coffin), synecdoche (prat
3.1 World
.............................................................
51
leather
a Population
wallet), Increase
etc. The
compound peg-house, originally
endocentric
and
used
to
mean
a
public
house,
a
tavern,
is
now
used
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
figuratively for a brothel or meeting place for male homosexuals.
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

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Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

3.2.1.1.2. Adjective-noun compounds represent another widespread


Table
of Contents
pattern in slang. Many metonymic compounds fall into this group.
Examples are pointy-head (orig. U.S., derog.) a stupid person,
shrewd-head (Austral. and N.Z.) a cunning person, sore-head
(chiefly N. Amer.) a discontented, dissatisfied person, squarehead
an honest person; big mouth (orig. and chiefly U.S.) a very
talkative or boastful person, fat-mouth (U.S.) one who talks
extravagantly, smart mouth (U.S.) one who is good at repartee;
red-neck (U.S.) a reactionary, roughneck (orig. U.S.) a person of
rough habits or quarrelsome disposition; roundeye a European
(cf. slant-eye
orig. U.S. and
a slant-eyed
esp.
an Asian); lameOpening
Considerations
Executive person,
Summary
..............................
11
brain
(
lame
nave,
socially
inept)
a
dull-witted
or stupid
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
person; paleface (orig. N. Amer., Black E., chiefly derog.) a white
person;
pinkHuman
toe (U.S.,
1.
Ethics and
RightsBlack E.) a white woman, or a lightskinned
black American
woman; red
legs (U.S.,
Military)
an artilleryman;
in the South
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
yellow
(orig. U.S.) ( colloq. yellow cowardly) a coward.
Mariobelly
Santillo
In greenback the second element refers to the back of an animal
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
(i.e.
a frog, see 3.2.1.4), whereas in bad-mouth, glad eye and
glad
hand the body
part respectively
a type of talk,
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants refers
Defenceto.............................
21
look, and handshake.
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
A small subgroup of metonymic compounds denotes the person
Bibliography
through
his/her.........................................................................................
clothing: e.g., droopy drawers an untidy, sloppy, 25
or
depressing woman, fancy pants a dandy; a snob, old boot a
2.
Migration
Policies
and Ethics
in East
and South
East Asia............
27
woman;
a wife,
red-cap
(Brit.,
Military)
a military
policeman,
Fabio (Military)
Baggio
red-hat
a staff officer, slyboots (mainly jocular) a sly,
cunning,
or craftyMigration
person. in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
2.1 International
People are also denoted through non-transparent exocentric
2.2 Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
compounds
whose
second
member is difficult to assign to the
semantic
head:
mainManagement.................................................
squeeze (N. Amer.) an important person;
2.3 Ethics
and e.g.,
Migration
43
a sweetheart, oddball (orig. U.S.) an eccentric or odd person, old
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
bean/fruit a familiar form of address, old ship a jocular address to
a sailor, old sweat an experienced soldier or military pilot, pink
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
button (Stock Market) a jobbers clerk, Roman Candle a Roman
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Catholic,
second banana (orig. U.S., Theatre) a supporting
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
comedian (cf. top banana the leading comic in a burlesque
3.1 World Population
.............................................................
51
entertainment),
smallIncrease
potatoes
(orig. U.S.) a person or thing
considered
unimportant
or
worthless,
sweetie-pie
(orig.
U.S.)
a
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
lovable person; also as a term of endearment.
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

799

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

The following are non-transparent exocentric compounds with a


Table
of Contents
non-human semantic head: cold turkey (orig. N. Amer.) a method
of treating drug addicts by sudden and complete withdrawal of the
drug, dead soldier (U.S.) an empty bottle, good oil (Austral.)
reliable information, greasy spoon (orig. U.S.) a cheap and
inferior eating-house, greenhouse (Aeronautics) the glass cockpit
covering over observation and similar planes, happy dust
cocaine, hard cheese (Brit.) bad luck, hard tail (U.S.) a mule,
heavy sugar (U.S.) big money, hot rod (orig. U.S.) a motor
vehicle specially modified to give high power and speed, hot-shot
(U.S.) injection
of a drug
is of higher
potency
than the addict
Opening
Considerations
andthat
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
is Fabio
accustomed
to,
idiot
box
a
television
set,
idiot
stick (U.S.) a
Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
shovel, inside job a crime committed in a house, etc., by a resident
or Ethics
servant
the building,
1.
andinHuman
Rights inside stand the placing of a gang
member
incognito
as oneMigration
of the staff
of a place
to be robbed, Irish
in the South
American
Processes
....................................
15
confetti
Mario stones
Santillo used as weapons, lazy dog (U.S., Military) a type
of fragmentation bomb, left field a position away from the centre
Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
of 1.1
activity,
lunatic soup (Austral. and N.Z.) alcoholic drink,
merry
hell a disturbance;
severe
pain, physical
torture (humorous)
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants
Defence .............................
21
physical training, private business (Eton College) extra tuition,
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
red ink (chiefly U.S.) cheap red wine, Redland the Soviet Union,
.........................................................................................
redBibliography
lead (Naval)
tomato ketchup; tinned tomatoes, short time 25
a
brief sojourn in a hotel for sexual purposes, Spanish tummy a
2.
Migration
Policies
East and South
Asia............
27
stomach
upset
of a and
typeEthics
freq.inexperienced
by East
visitors
to Spain,
Fabiodog
Baggio
tinned
(Austral.) canned meat.
Endocentric
farAsia
lessand
frequent.
Examples
include
2.1
Internationalcompounds
Migration inare
East
South East
Asia..............
27
animate and inanimate terms. Compounds denoting animate beings
Migration
Policies
ESEA............................................................
34
are2.2main
guy (U.S.)
ainman
of authority or importance, main man
(U.S.)
a favourite
male Management.................................................
friend, old lady (U.S., chiefly Prison) 43
a
2.3 Ethics
and Migration
passive partner in a homosexual relationship (cf. colloq. a
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
persons mother; a mans wife), pretty-boy an effeminate man, a
male homosexual, wise guy (orig. U.S.) a know-all. Compounds
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
denoting inanimate things are hot chair, liquid lunch (often jocular)
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
a Christine
midday meal
at which drink rather than food is consumed, mad
Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
money money for use in an emergency, wooden cross (Military) a
3.1 World
Population
Increase .............................................................
51
wooden
cross
on a servicemans
grave.
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

80

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

3.2.1.1.3. The type verb + noun generally refers to a person (agent)


Table
of Contents
performing the action denoted by the verb, as in jitterbug (orig.
U.S.) denoting a bug a person obsessed by an idea who jitters
acts in a nervous way and plug-ugly (orig. and chiefly U.S.) an
ugly ugly person who plugs strikes.
Within this pattern, the noun may represent an object (patient),
as in sawbones surgeon and slaphead (orig. and chiefly Brit.,
humorous or deprec.) a bald or shaven head.
3.2.1.1.4. The type adverb + noun is found in the endocentric
compound outside man (U.S.) a person involved in robbery, and
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
Summaryoutside
..............................
11
in the exocentric,
but metaphoric,
compound
job a crime
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
committed by a person not connected with the building in which it
took place (see efficiency in 2.3.2).
1. Ethics and Human Rights
in the South
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
3.2.1.1.5.
The American
first member
is a numeral
in four-eyes
a person who

Mario Santillo
habitually
wears spectacles and nineteenth hole (humorous, orig.
U.S.)
the
bar
a golf clubhouse, as reached at the end of17a
1.1 Migrants room
Rightsin
.............................................................................
standard round of eighteen holes. It is a preposition in undercover
International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
an1.2
undercover
agent.

1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23

3.2.1.1.6. There are other possible base combinations, which


Bibliography
.........................................................................................
however
represent
marginal cases. For instance, compounds with25a
nominal/verbal base followed by a verb (look-see a survey; a tour
2.
Policies
andadverb
Ethics in
East and South
East Asia............
27
of Migration
inspection),
by an
(speak-easy
an illicit
liquor shop,
Fabio Baggio
star-back an expensive, reserved seat at a circus), by a preposition
(beer-off
an off-licence,
or -party,
2.1 International
Migration inbeer-up
East Asiaa
anddrinking-bout
South East Asia..............
27
booze-up a drinking-bout, going-over a beating; a thrashing, leg2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
over sexual intercourse), or by a numeral (as in Military slang
2.3 Ethics
and An
Migration
Management.................................................
43
Section
Eight).
adjective
followed by an adverb is found in lowdown
the fundamental
facts on (about) a person, situation, etc.. 47
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
Some rare cases of composition have a grammatical word (gen.
a Immigration
pronoun) as intheir
first
base (e.g. her indoors ones wife or
st Century.
3.
the 21
girlfriend,
I
AM
a
self-important
person,
she-male
a passive
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The
Canadian
Experience
..... 51
male
homosexual
or
transvestite),
or
they
may
combine
a word
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
with an interjection, as in shoo-fly (U.S.) a policeman, usu. in plain
3.1 World
Increase
51
clothes
andPopulation
Hooray Henry
a.............................................................
type of loud, rich, rather ineffectual
young
society man,
which has Migration
a proper name
as its second
member.53
3.2 Urbanization,
International
and Governance
.................
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

819

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

3.2.1.2. Compound adjectives


Table
of Contents
Adjectives are quite frequent

among slang compounds. Most of


them are deverbal that is, they are obtained via participial
adjectives (God-damn-ed, mind-blow-ing) or phrasal verbs (bombed out) or denominal, as in mob-hand-ed, mutton-head-ed, mooney(e)-ed, etc. In my description, however, the type moon-eyed will
be dealt with under suffixation ( 3.2.3.5), since *eyed does not
exist as an autonomous word. On the other hand, the types bombed
out and mind-blowing belong here, because the elements bombed
and blowing are freestanding participial adjectives and may
thereforeConsiderations
act as independent,
thoughSummary
complex,
constituents (see
Opening
and Executive
..............................
11
4
Crocco
Galas
2003).
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
3.2.1.2.1. The most common type of slang compound adjectives is

1. Ethics and Human Rights


the pattern obtained from phrasal verbs. The first base therefore
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

occurs
in its inflected form (as a past participle) and the second one
Mario Santillo
is a preposition. The preposition is out in bombed out drunk; under
Migrantsof
Rights
.............................................................................
17
the1.1influence
drugs,
gross-out shocking, disgusting, skinned
out1.2having
no
money
left,
broke,
strung
out
(orig.
and
chiefly
International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
U.S.) addicted to drugs.
1.3
Some
Final Reflections...................................................................
23
The
preposition
up is extensively used, as in hopped-up (U.S.)
under
the influence
of a narcotic drug, hung up confused, lit up
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
( v light up) drunk or under the influence of a drug, pissed up
(chiefly
Brit.)
drunk,
up East
(Austral.)
dressed
2.
Migration
Policies
andintoxicated,
Ethics in Eastpooned
and South
Asia............
27
up,Fabio
esp. Baggio
showily or flashily, sexed-up sexually aroused, washed
up (orig. and chiefly U.S.) defeated, exhausted. It is also present
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
in stove-up (N. Amer.) run-down, exhausted, irregularly obtained
2.2 the
Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
from
verb stave
(break
up (a cask) into staves), and in geed-up
drugged,
which
has
a
nominal
first
base
(gee
opium
or
a
similar
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
drug) acting as a verb.
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47

3. Immigration in the 21st Century.


4 Crocco
The Need
for
an Ethical
Approach.the
The
Canadian
..... 51
Galas
(2003:
32-33) distinguishes
type
blue-eyed Experience
from the compounds

Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
which
have a past
or present
participle
as their second member (e.g. easy-going). The
author claims that the former is a derivational compound adjective which firstly
3.1 World
Population
Increase
51
undergoes
a rule
of compounding
and .............................................................
secondly a rule of derivation (blue-eye + -ed),
whereas the latter is the result of a derivational rule (going) followed by a
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
and Governance
................. -ed
53
compositional
rule (easy
+ going). Cf.
Contis (2007)
analysis of double-base
derivatives.
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

82

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Less common prepositions are off (as in pissed off


Table
of Contents
angry, irritated) and on (as in switched-on aware of

orig. U.S.
all that is

considered fashionable and up-to-date).


3.2.1.2.2. The type with a participial adjective as its second base is
not as profuse as the previous one. Examples with a past participle
are gobsmacked or gob-struck (Brit.) ( gob the mouth)
flabbergasted; speechless, blasphemous God-damned accursed,
damnable, and coarse shit-scared extremely frightened; whereas
mind-blowing consciousness-altering (esp. as a result of drug use)
shows a present participle. The interpretation is, in both subgroups,
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
metaphorical:
e.g., mind-blowing
alludes
to the
fact that drugs
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
blow ones mind.
1.
Ethics and
Rights
3.2.1.2.3.
In Human
the type
God-awful terrible; extremely awful, the
in
the
South
American
Migration
Processes
15
second base is an adjective
and the first
one (a....................................
noun) often intensifies
Santillo it. Other compounds belonging to this pattern are
or Mario
characterizes
shit-hot
(coarse)Rights
unpleasantly
enthusiastic, very skilful, slug-nutty
1.1 Migrants
.............................................................................
17
(U.S.) punch-drunk, and stir-crazy (chiefly U.S., Criminals) (
Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
stir1.2aInternational
prison) mentally
deranged (as if) from long imprisonment.
The
ruined, with a participial as its second
1.3compound
Some Finalstone-broke
Reflections...................................................................
23
base, has inspired the coining of comparable adjectives (e.g. stone
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
crazy, drunk, mad, etc.) (cf. St. E. stone-dead). This type with a verb
in Migration
the non-head
position
is found
slap-happy
dizzy
2.
Policies
and Ethics
in in
East
and Southpunch-drunk;
East Asia............
27
(with
happiness).
Fabio Baggio

3.2.1.2.4.
When the
first base
is an
adjective,
one may
2.1 International
Migration
in East
Asia
and Souththe
Eastsecond
Asia..............
27
be either an adjective or a participial. The former is found in
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
squeaky clean above criticism, beyond reproach, and the latter in
2.3 Ethics
andobs.
Migration
Management.................................................
43
half-cut
(also
half shaved),
half-shot (orig. U.S.) half-drunk,
and
stony-broke
ruined (cf. stone-broke above).
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
3.2.1.2.5. The attributive type adjective + noun is clearly exophoric

3. Immigration in the 21st Century.


(metaphoric), as the following examples seem to confirm: half-pie
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51

(N.Z.) halfway towards, imperfect, punk-ass (U.S.) of a person:


Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
worthless, good-for-nothing, red-eye (U.S.) used attrib. to designate
World Population
.............................................................
51
an3.1
aeroplane
flight on Increase
which the
traveller is unable to get adequate
sleep,
sad-ass
(N.
Amer.)
poor,
contemptible,
smart-arse/-ass
(also
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

839

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

wise-ass) ostentatiously or smugly clever, split-arse/-ass (Forces)


Table
of Contents
classy, showy, white-shoe (chiefly U.S.) effeminate, immature.
3.2.1.2.6. A few unusual patterns combine a base with a particle, that
is to say a preposition (in pod pregnant, all-in exhausted) or an
adverb (spark out forgotten; (completely) unconscious), or two
adverbs (as in far-out orig. U.S. excellent, splendid, way-in
conventional; sophisticated, way-out far removed from reality or
from convention).
3.2.1.3. Compound verbs

Opening
Considerations
andmostly
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
Slang compound
verbs are
obtained
by conversion,
as in (v)

Fabio
Baggio,
Laura Zanfrini
eyeball
(n) eye-ball
and (v) bad-mouth (n) bad mouth (see
3.2.1.3.4). These are considered verbal pseudo-compounds by
1.
Ethics and(1969:
Human101)
Rights
Marchand
and are classified together with verbal
in
the
South
American
Processes
....................................
15
compounds obtained by Migration
back-formation.
Other
types are relatively
Mario
Santillo
marginal in slang.

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17

3.2.1.3.1. A possible combination within slang compound verbs is


1.2+International
Instrument
for Migrants
.............................
21
verb
noun. Although
the first
base is a Defence
verb, they
generally thwart
a literal
reading,
and are therefore exocentric: e.g., kick ass (orig.
1.3 Some
Final Reflections...................................................................
23
and chiefly U.S.) act roughly or aggressively, raise Cain create
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
trouble
or confusion,
spit blood of a spy: fear exposure, spit chips
(Austral.) feel extreme thirst. A partial exception is talk turkey
2.
Migration
Policiesspeak
and Ethics
in East
South reserve,
East Asia............
(orig.
N. Amer.)
frankly
andand
without
which 27
is
Fabio Baggio
endocentric, but not fully-compositional (see 3.1.1).
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27

3.2.1.3.2. The opposite direction (noun + verb) yields more


2.2 Migration
Policies incompounds,
ESEA............................................................
frequently
endocentric
as donkey-lick (Austral.) (34v
lick
defeat
easily, pig-jump (chiefly Austral. and
2.3beat,
Ethicsthrash)
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
N.Z.) of a horse: jump from all four legs without bringing them
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
together,
esp. in
an attempt to unseat the rider, and skin-pop (orig.
U.S.) ( v pop) inject st
a drug subcutaneously.

3. Immigration in the 21 Century.


The NeedAfor
an Ethical
Approach.
The Canadian
Experience
51
3.2.1.3.3.
verb
is followed
by a numeral
in hang
five, ten,.....etc.
Christineallow
Baghdady,
Vanderberg
(Surfing)
the Richard
specified
number of toes to project over the
nose
of
the
surfboard,
usu.
to
gain speed, or by a grammatical
3.1 World Population Increase .............................................................
51
word, as in make it achieve sexual intercourse (with), mix it
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Governance
.................
53
quarrel,
fight, snuff
it die,Migration
stop oneand
(Austral.)
take
a drink,

3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54


Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

84

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

strong it (Brit.) behave excessively, exaggerate. A rare possibility


Table
of Contents
combines a numeral with a noun, as in two-time (orig. U.S.) be
unfaithful to (a spouse or lover).
3.2.1.3.4. As anticipated, many (pseudo) compound verbs are
converted from nouns (see also 3.2.6.1.1). They follow either the
pattern with two noun constituents or the pattern with an adjective
plus a noun. The first subgroup is illustrated by eyeball (U.S.) look
or stare at, pratfall fall on to the buttocks, sandbag underperform
in a race or competition in order to gain an advantage, showboat
(U.S.) perform or behave ostentatiously; show off, tear-arse/-ass
Opening
Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11
drive recklessly.
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
The second subgroup is exemplified by bad-mouth (orig. U.S.)
abuse (someone) verbally; criticize, dead-head (chiefly U.S.)
1. Ethics and Human Rights
drive an empty train, truck, taxi, etc., highball (U.S.) go or drive
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
at Mario
high Santillo
speed, hot-stuff (Army) ( hot stuff stolen goods)
scrounge, steal, hot-wire (N. Amer.) by-pass the ignition system
Migrants
RightsPeculiarly,
.............................................................................
17
of 1.1
a motor
vehicle.
sweetmouth (chiefly U.S., Black E.)
flatter
has
no
corresponding
nominal
compound.
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
3.2.1.4.
Non-prototypical
slang compounds
1.3 Some
Final Reflections...................................................................
23
The variety of potential members of slang compounds confronts us
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
with the problem of non-prototypical compounds. We distinguish
various
typesPolicies
of such
compounds
in slang,
which
depart
from the
2.
Migration
and
Ethics in East
and South
East
Asia............
27
universal
preferences
established
within
NM
(see
Dressler
et al.
Fabio Baggio
1987, Dressler 2005):
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27

Exocentric compounds, which have their head outside the

2.2 Migration
Policies
compound,
as in
in ESEA............................................................
greenback a frog, and lame-brain 34
a

stupid
person;
2.3 Ethics
and
Migration Management................................................. 43
Synthetic
compounds, in which the head is a deverbal
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
derivative, as in block-busting and egg-beater a helicopter;

st Century. in which one of the compound


3. Immigration
in the 21compounds,
Three-member
The Need
for an(generally
Ethical Approach.
The Canadian
members
the non-head)
is itself a Experience
compound,.....
as 51
in
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
four-letter
man
and one-arm
joint;

3.1 World
Population
Increase .............................................................
51
Coordinate
compounds,
in which the first member does not

modify the first


one, as in
lover man;
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

859

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

of two or more elements which may resemble


TableCombinations
of Contents
compounds, but are not: e.g., bunch of fives, mothers ruin,
tired and emotional, to kick the bucket, and phrasal verbs,
such as knock in, off, etc.
3.2.1.4.1. In standard English, exocentric compounds were originally
identified by Jespersen (1942: 142), who drew attention to bahuvrihicompounds such as red-coat, which is not a kind of coat but a
person wearing a red coat. Similarly, Marchand (1969) notices that
the formula AB = B, though valid for endocentric compounds, does
not apply to other types of combinations, viz. pseudo-, bahuvrihi or
Opening
Considerations
Summary
..............................
11
exocentric
compounds and
(e.g.Executive
birdbrain,
blackout,
pickpocket and
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
showoff).
After such pioneering studies, many scholars have highlighted
1. Ethics and Human Rights
the difference between endo- and exo-centric compounds: in
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
chronological
order, Downing (1977), Warren (1978), Bauer (1983),
Mario Santillo
while Williams (1981: 250) suggests that exocentric compounds are
Migrants
Rights
.............................................................................
17
not1.1only
evident
exceptions
to his Righthand Head Rule, but they
are1.2even
derived
by
headless
rules.
Lieber
(1992:
82)
likewise
International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
distinguishes between endocentric compounds (i.e. those in which
1.3 Some
Final Reflections...................................................................
23
both
the semantic
and syntactic category of the compound
corresponds
that of the head) and exocentric compounds (i.e.
Bibliographyto.........................................................................................
25
those in which either semantically or syntactically (or both), the
compound
a wholeand
does
not bear
theand
characteristics
of its head).
2.
MigrationasPolicies
Ethics
in East
South East Asia............
27
In
terms
of
naturalness/markedness
(cf.
Dressler
et al. 1987),
Fabio Baggio
exocentric compounds are less natural/more marked than
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
endocentric compounds, based on the parameters of indexicality
2.2 Migration
Policies intransparency:
ESEA............................................................
34
and
morphosemantic
first, they do not allow
straightforward
access
to
the
compound
head,
which
is
outside
the
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
compound or has to be inferred, and, second, they are nonBibliography .........................................................................................
47
compositional
and opaque, i.e. their meaning is not motivated by
the compound members.
st Century.
3. Immigration
in the
In slang there
are21many
exceptions to endocentric compounds.
Thesuch
Needexception
for an Ethical
Approach.
..... 51
One
is illustrated
byThe
theCanadian
extremelyExperience
large group
of
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
metonymic nominal compounds (see 3.2.1.1.1-2, also Mattiello
2003;
cf. Warrens
27.............................................................
pars-pro-toto compounds, Plags
3.1 World
Population1978:
Increase
51
2003: 146 possessive compounds), which have a body part as the
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
second member, but refer to the whole person: e.g., big mouth,
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

four-eyes, lame-brain, paleface, pink toe, pointy-head, red legs, red


Table
of Contents
neck, roundeye, yellow belly, etc. These compounds imply a
metonymic relationship between the expressed member (the body
part) and the unexpressed one (the person), which is the actual
semantic head of the compound. Hence, big mouth alludes to a
very talkative person, four-eyes refers to a person wearing
glasses, lame-brain to a person having a lame brain, etc.
Another exception is illustrated by metaphoric slang compounds
(snow-bird, post office, half-cut), in which the head has to be
inferred. Thus, a snow-bird is a person who uses snow, i.e.
cocaine,Considerations
a post office isand
a Executive
person who
receives
information, and
Opening
Summary
..............................
11
half-cut
refers
to
someone
who
is
partially
affected
by the bad
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
effects of alcohol, that is half-drunk.
Otherand
exceptions
fully compositional (transparent) compounds
1. Ethics
Human to
Rights
certainly
exist American
(e.g. nominal
beer-off,
her indoors,
adjectival all-in,
in the South
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
far-out,
verbal strong it, two-time, etc.), but, as seen, they represent
Marioor
Santillo
marginal and sometimes the only cases within the vast amount of
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
slang
compounds.
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

3.2.1.4.2. Synthetic compounds (also called verbal, deverbal, or


1.3 Some
Final
Reflections...................................................................
verbal
nexus
compounds)
are those in which the second member 23
is
derived
from a.........................................................................................
verb. In standard English, the most productive are
Bibliography
25
the types watchmaker and housekeeping, whereas cost containment,
food
spoilage,
load tolerance,
tax-evasion
and waste
2.
Migration
Policies
and Ethics power
in Eastfailure,
and South
East Asia............
27
disposal
represent
less
productive
types
(see
Marchand
1969,
Allen
Fabio Baggio
1980; cf. Roeper & Siegel 1978, Lieber 1983, 1992).
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
Within NM, synthetic compounds are universally less preferred
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
on2.2
theMigration
basis of the
parameter
of morphotactic transparency, because
one
of
the
members
is
not
a
base
word,
but
rather
a
derivative
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
(high-land-er, dish-wash-ing).
Bibliography
47
In slang, we.........................................................................................
find examples of the most frequent types, as in mittreader (U.S.) a palmist, a fortune-teller and skin-popping the act
3.
in thesubcutaneously.
21st Century.
of Immigration
injecting a drug
However, the -er type is far
Theproductive
Need for anthan
Ethical
Approach.
The itCanadian
..... 51
more
the -ing
type: e.g.,
is found Experience
in dog-robber
a
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
navy or army officers orderly, easy rider (U.S.) a sexually
satisfying
a guitar,
egg-beater (U.S.), gay deceivers 51
a
3.1 Worldlover,
Population
Increase .............................................................
padded brassire, gob-stopper a large, hard, freq. spherical sweet
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
for sucking, gold-digger (orig. U.S.) a girl or woman who attaches
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

879

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

herself to a man merely for gain, head-banger a young person


Table
of Contents
shaking violently to the rhythm of pop music, head-shrinker (orig.
U.S.) a psychiatrist, herring choker (U.S.) a Scandinavian, highbinder a swindler, esp. a fraudulent politician, high-roller (U.S.)
one who spends extravagantly or gambles for high stakes, kneetrembler an act of sexual intercourse between persons in a standing
position, man-eater a sexually voracious woman, monkeyhurdler (U.S.) an organist, oil-burner a vehicle which uses an
excessive amount of lubricating oil, pork-chopper (U.S.) a fulltime union official, sin-shifter a clergyman, skirt-chaser one
who
pursues
women with
amorous
attentions,
This type is also
Opening
Considerations
and
Executive
Summaryetc.
..............................
11
in Fabio
compounds
which
are
not
deverbal
but
denominal,
as in leftBaggio, Laura Zanfrini
footer a Roman Catholic and short-timer (U.S., Military) one
nearing
of hisRights
period of military service.
1. Ethicsthe
andend
Human
the morphosemantic
pointProcesses
of view,....................................
most such compounds
inFrom
the South
American Migration
15
areMario
non-compositional
and require a figurative interpretation: for
Santillo
instance, if gob-stopper is a sweet which stops ones gob mouth,
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
impeding
talking, an egg-beater does not beat eggs, but alludes
to 1.2
theInternational
helicopter Instrument
rotor-blades,
which resemble
the appliance used
for Migrants
Defence .............................
21
for beating eggs, and a skirt-chaser does not chase skirts, but, by
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
metonymic extension, he rather chases women.
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
From the morphotactic
point of view, synthetic compounds such
as gob-stopper are analysable as a complex head that forms a
2.
Migrationtogether
Policies with
and Ethics
in EastTherefore,
and South [gob
East Asia............
compound
a non-head.
[stop-p-er]]27
is
Fabio Baggio
a better
analysis than [[gob stop] -er] (see Oshita 1994: 201 and
Plag
149 forMigration
equivalent
opinions).
On
the other
hand, the -ing
2.12003:
International
in East
Asia and
South
East Asia..............
27
type (as in block-busting) is better analysable as a derivative
2.2 Migration
ESEA............................................................
34
compound,
i.e. Policies
[[block in
bust]
-ing].
Some
combinations
contain the verbal element in the
2.3
Ethics-ing
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
modifier non-head position. The slang compounds creeping Jesus
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
an abject or servile person, flaming onions (Services) an antiaircraft projectile, and knocking-shop a brothel belong to this
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
morphological type. However, since their head (i.e. most salient)
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
element
is not a derivative, they cannot be compared to the types
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
illustrated earlier (see Marchand 1969: 19), though they are likewise
3.1 World Population
Increase ............................................................. 51
morphotactically
opaque.
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
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2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

88

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

3.2.1.4.3. Three-member compounds


Table
of Contents
constituents include a compound, thus

are combinations whose


called compound-withincompounds by Warren (1978: 10). Potentially, the modifier, the
head or both may occur as compounds. Actually, results from
studies on three-member compounds show that, across the various
languages (esp. English and German), there is an evident preference
for left-branching over right-branching compounds. Hence, the most
common type is that of the modifier being a compound, as in St. E.
three-star general, which is morphotactically less natural than star
general, with a word as the first member (see Dressler 2005).
The following
are and
slang
three-member
with 11a
Opening
Considerations
Executive
Summarycompounds
..............................
compound
in
the
non-head
position:
backroom
boy
a
person
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
engaged in (secret) research, catbird seat (U.S.) a superior or
advantageous
position,
five-finger discount (U.S.) the activity or
1.
Ethics and Human
Rights
proceeds
of stealing,
forty-rod
whisky
(U.S.)....................................
cheap, fiery whisky,
in the South
American
Migration
Processes
15
four-letter
man (Brit.) an obnoxious person, necktie party (U.S.)
Mario Santillo
a lynching or hanging, ninety-day wonder (U.S., Services,
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
humorous)
a graduate of a ninety-day officers training course,
one-arm
bandit (orig.
U.S.)for
a Migrants
slot machine,
one-arm
joint (U.S.)
1.2 International
Instrument
Defence
.............................
21
a cheap restaurant where the seats have one arm wide enough to
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
hold a plate of food, one-night stand a casual sexual liaison,
Bibliography
25
peanut
gallery.........................................................................................
the top gallery in a theatre or cinema, underground
mutton (Austral.) a rabbit; rabbit meat.
2. Migration
Policies
Ethics in Eastcompound
and South East
27
An example
of aand
three-member
withAsia............
a composite
Fabio Baggio
member
in the head position is Mexican overdrive the putting of
the2.1
gears
of a vehicle
into neutral
coasting
downhill,
whereas
International
Migration
in East while
Asia and
South East
Asia..............
27
drug-store cowboy (U.S.) a braggart, good-for-nothing is rather a
2.2 Migrationcompound,
Policies in ESEA............................................................
34
four-member
with a compound in both the head and the
non-head
positions.
2.3 Ethics
and Migration Management................................................. 43
The non-head position is covered by a phrase in butter-and-egg
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
man (U.S.) a wealthy, unsophisticated man who spends money
freely and wood-and-water joey (Austral.) an odd job man (cf.
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
phrasal compounds in Lieber 1992: 92).
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
However, since grammatical relations are, like semiotic ones
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
(Peirce 1965), preferentially binary, three- and four-member
3.1 World Population
Increase
.............................................................
51
compounds
can be grouped
into
two binary relations, i.e. [[catbird]
[seat]],
[[Mexican]
[overdrive]],
and
[[drug-store]
[cowboy]],
where
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
catbird, overdrive, drug-store and cowboy form intermediate units.
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

The case of butter-and-egg man, on the other hand, is analysable as


Table
of Contents
[[butter-and-egg] [man]], comparable to St. E. [[do-it-yourself]
[movement]] (vs. eye movement) (Dressler 1999: 138, 2005: 276,
also Plag 2003: 133).
3.2.1.4.4. Coordinate (coordinative, copulative, additive or dvandva)
compounds are (esp. noun-noun) combinations whose first element
does not modify or characterize the second one. To describe them,
Jespersen (1942: 142) uses the formula AB means A plus B, as in
Schleswig-Holstein, which consists of two districts (Schleswig and
Holstein), while Marchand (1969: 41) prefers B which is also A
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
.............................. 11
(e.g. Austria-Hungary
meaning
AustriaSummary
is also Hungary).
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
In NM, coordinate compounds are less natural/more marked
than subordinate ones because they appear to have two (or more)
1. Ethics and Human Rights
morphosemantic heads with no clear figure-ground distinction. For
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
instance,
in speaker-hearer both members are of equal status, even
Mario Santillo
if (pragmatically) the more important member, speaker, comes first.
1.1
Migrants
Rightscompounds
.............................................................................
17
Slang
coordinate
similarly display members of equal
status.
Examples
are
nouns
(e.g.
witch-doctor
a
psychiatrist)
and
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
adjectives (e.g. red-hot uninhibited, sexy, passionate). Such
1.3 Some Final
Reflections...................................................................
compounds,
however,
are morphosemantically opaque. That is,23a
witch-doctor
to a type of doctor, who is not a witch, but25
is
Bibliographyrefers
.........................................................................................
metaphorically comparable to him for practices, skills, etc., and,
similarly,
red-hot
something
red and
2.
Migration
Policiesonly
and figuratively
Ethics in Eastindicates
and South
East Asia............
27
hot
at
the
same
time.
Fabio Baggio
Coordinate compounds are therefore different from pleonastic
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
compounds (called subsumptive by Marchand 1969: 40), whose
2.2 Migration
in ESEA............................................................
34
second
elementPolicies
is a logical
subclass of the first element (e.g. oaktree).
Indeed,
in
pleonastic
compounds
(e.g.
lover
boy,
lover
man
a
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
lover, a woman-chaser, nancy boy an effeminate man or boy)
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
semantic
headedness
is more evident, since the head is a hypernym
of the non-head. Thus, a lover boy is a boy and more specifically
st Century.
3.
the 21boy
a Immigration
lover, and ain
nancy
is a boy and more specifically a nancy
The
Need for an Ethical
Approach.
The Canadian
..... 51
(i.e.
a homosexual),
representing
a subgroup
of the Experience
general category
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
boys.
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

3.2.1.4.5. Lastly, compounds have to be distinguished from lexical


3.2 Urbanization,
Migration
.................
53
phrases,
which areInternational
not compounds
forand
twoGovernance
reasons. First,
unlike
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

90

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

compounds, lexical phrases exhibit syntactic markers, as in bread


Table
of Contents
and butter, man in the street, mother of pearl (labelled phrases by
Marchand 1969: 122-123).5 Second, whereas compounds, at least
fully compositional ones, are motivated by their members, phrases
are lexicalized, and therefore more opaque.
Lexical phrases are frequent in slang, especially as nouns.
Examples include phrases marked by prepositions (e.g. bunch of
fives the fist, the hand, fly-by-night one who defrauds his
creditors by decamping in the night, hill of beans a thing of little
value, House of Lords a lavatory, six by six six wheel truck with
six-wheelConsiderations
drive), conjunctions
(e.g. slap
and tickle
light amorous
Opening
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
play,
soup-and-fish
mens
evening
dress),
or
articles
(e.g. JackFabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
the-Lad (a nickname for) a troublemaker or rogue, from Jack
Sheppard,
a celebrated
thief).
1. Ethics and
Human Rights
type
is marked
by the....................................
possessive case, as 15
in
inThe
the most
Southfrequent
American
Migration
Processes
cats
pyjamas/whiskers
(orig. U.S.) the acme of excellence, dogs
Mario
Santillo
age (orig. U.S.) a long time, dogs body a junior person, dogs
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
breakfast/dinner
a mess, donkeys breakfast a straw mattress or
hat,
disease a
for shortness 21
of
1.2 ducks/ducks
International Instrument
forfacetious
Migrants expression
Defence .............................
leg, Irishmans hurricane (Nautical) a dead calm, Irishmans rise
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
reduced wages, Kellys eye (in the game of bingo) the number
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
one,
magsman
(orig. Brit.) ( mag chatter, talk) a street
swindler, Montezumas revenge (jocular) diarrhoea suffered by
2.
Migrationesp.
Policies
and Ethics
in East and
Asia............
27
travellers,
in Mexico,
mothers
ruinSouth
gin,East
sailors
blessing
Fabio Baggio
(Nautical)
a curse, sailors farewell (Nautical) a parting curse.
Slang
lexical orMigration
idiomatic
adjectives
(full 27
as
2.1
International
in phrases
East Asiamay
and also
SouthbeEast
Asia..............
a goog, out-of-sight extremely well, tired and emotional, under
Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
the2.2table
drunk,
what-the-hell
casual, careless, devil-may-care),
or 2.3
verbs
(toand
beMigration
with it be
fashionable, up-to-date, to kick ones
Ethics
Management.................................................
43
heels stand waiting idly or impatiently, to kick the bucket die).
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
With slang phrasal verbs we observe the same state of affairs as
with other lexical phrases.
That is, they cannot be considered actual
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
compounds
because, rather than being motivated by their members,
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
they
are
lexicalized
as frozen phrases, and stored as such in the
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
mental lexicon. What follows is a partial exemplification.
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migrationphrase,
and Governance
5 Accordingly,
F. chemin
de fer is a lexicalized
whereas G. .................
Eisen-bahn,53
It.
ferro-via
and Sp. ferro-carril
are compounds.
3.3 International
Migration
in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

919

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

As in standard English, many of them have the same verbal base


Table
of Contents
combining with different prepositions. Examples are buzz in come
in (quickly), buzz off go off or away quickly; kick in (U.S.) break
into (a building), contribute (money, etc.), kick off (orig. U.S.)
die; knock down (Austral. and N.Z.) spend in drink or riot, knock
in (University) knock so as to gain admission to college after the
gate is closed, knock off die, steal, rob, (orig. U.S.) kill;
murder, seduce (a woman), knock out (Austral., N.Z. and U.S.)
earn, knock over (Underworld) rob (a person), burgle (a
building); steal (from), knock up (orig. U.S.) make (a woman)
pregnant;
make out succeed
in seducing,
make
with bring into
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
operation;
use;
set
over
(U.S.,
Criminals)
kill
or
murder, set up
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
lead on in order to fool, cheat, or incriminate (a person).
Otherand
bases
occurRights
with only one preposition. Instances include
1. Ethics
Human
dryin out
of a American
drug addict
or alcoholic:
undergo
treatment to cure
the South
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
addiction,
gussy up smarten up, esp. dress smartly, hang out (in
Mario Santillo
early use chiefly U.S.) spend or pass time, reside, live, kiss off
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
dismiss,
get rid of, kill, go away, die, lay for (orig. U.S.) (of a
woman)
be willingInstrument
to have (extramarital)
sexual intercourse,
mix 21
in
1.2 International
for Migrants Defence
.............................
start or join in a fight, pig out (orig. N. Amer.) over-indulge esp.
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
by overeating, pop off die, race off (Austral.) seduce (a
Bibliography
25
woman),
row .........................................................................................
in conspire, salt away put by, store away (money,
stock), scope out (U.S.) investigate or assess (a person or a state
2.
Policies
and(orig.
Ethics
in East
and South
East Asia............
27
of Migration
affairs), send
down
U.S.)
dispatch
or commit
to prison by
Fabio Baggio
sentence,
shell out pay up, hand over, snuff out kill, murder,
string
out (U.S.)Migration
be under
the Asia
influence
of East
a drug,
wind up
2.1 International
in East
and South
Asia..............
27
(Racing) put (a race-horse) into fit condition for running, wipe out
2.2 Migration
in ESEA............................................................
34
(orig.
U.S.) of Policies
drink: render
intoxicated or senseless.
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43

3.2.2. Prefixation

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47

Among slang affixes, prefixes play a marginal role. Their number is


indeed
small, especially
compared with that of slang suffixes. The
3.
Immigration
in the 21stifCentury.
only
which
deserves
attention
schm-/shm(as in .....
child
Theprefix
Need for
an Ethical
Approach.
TheisCanadian
Experience
51
schmild),
its Richard
origin Vanderberg
is in colloquial rather than standard
Christinesince
Baghdady,
language. The other prefixes (de-, re-, super-, un- and under-), which
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51
are attested in standard English, offer no case study of slang extra3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
grammaticality.
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

92

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

3.2.2.1. The prefix deTable


of Contents
In standard English de- is prefixed to simple verbs to form complex
verbs having the sense of undoing the action of , or of depriving
(anything) of the thing or character therein expressed (e.g. de-acidify
undo or reverse the acidifying process). Less frequently, verbs (and
their derivatives) are formed by prefixing de- to a noun with the
meaning deprive, divest, free from, or rid of the thing in question
(e.g. debowel take the bowels out of, eviscerate). This latter pattern
is found in the slang verbs debag remove the trousers from (a
person) as a punishment or for a joke, from colloquial bag(s)
trousers,Considerations
and delouse free
something
unpleasant,
figuratively
Opening
and from
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
from
St.
E.
clear
of
lice.
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
3.2.2.2. The prefix re-

1. Ethics and Human Rights


In English formations, whether on native or Latin bases (or French
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

in Mario
line Santillo
with Marchand 1969: 188), re- is almost exclusively
employed in the sense of again, and only occasionally of back. It
1.1be
Migrants
.............................................................................
may
prefixedRights
to ordinary
verbs of action, chiefly transitive (as 17
in
rearrange)
and
to
derivatives
from
these
(rearrangement).
In
slang,
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
it is prefixed to the verb up increase or raise to obtain re-up (U.S.
1.3 Some re-enlist
Final Reflections...................................................................
23
Services)
(also one who re-enlists), and its derivative
re-upping.
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

3.2.2.3.
The prefix
shm- in East and South East Asia............ 27
2.
Migration
Policiesschm-,
and Ethics

Schmshm-) is a colloquial chiefly American element,


Fabio(or
Baggio
derived from the numerous Yiddish words that begin with this
2.1 International
Migration
in East
Asiaorand
South East
27
sequence
of sounds.
It is fused
with
replaces
the Asia..............
initial letter(s)
of 2.2
a word,
so as
to form
a nonsense-word which is added to the
Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
original word in order to convey disparagement, dismissal, or
2.3 Ethics
andresult
Migration
Management.................................................
43
derision.
The
is a reduplicative
formation of the type of slang
child
schmild,.........................................................................................
moon-schmoon, Oedipus Schmoedipus, TrotskyBibliography
47
Shmotsky, etc.

3. Immigration in the 21st Century.


3.2.2.4.
The for
prefix
super- Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
The Need
an Ethical

Prefixed
inBaghdady,
an adverbial
relationship
to adjectives, in English superChristine
Richard
Vanderberg
has the sense of exceedingly, very highly, extremely, supremely,
3.1 World Population
.............................................................
51
extraordinarily;
over-Increase
(e.g. superactive
highly active). This sense
is 3.2
likewise
conveyed
by the slang
adjectives
super-cool
(orig. and
Urbanization,
International
Migration
and Governance
.................
53
chiefly U.S.) very cool, relaxed, fine, cool being itself a slang
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

939

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

adjective with the meaning restrained or relaxed in style (applied


Table
of Contents
to jazz music), and superfly (U.S.) very good, excellent, the best
(esp. in the context of drugs) (cf. slang adj fly chiefly Black E.
attractive; hence, excellent). The adjective superfly is also used in
the sense of typical of the film character Super Fly (from the film
of the same name), with a related noun meaning one who sells
illegal drugs.
3.2.2.5. The prefix unIn the standard language, un- is freely prefixed to adjectives of all
kinds to convey the basic meaning not (e.g. unclear not clear,
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
unfair not
fair). In slang
it is regularly
applied
to obtain the
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
negative adjectives uncool unrelaxed; unpleasant, unreal (chiefly
N. Amer. and Austral.) so good or impressive as to seem incredible;
1. Ethics and Human Rights
remarkable, amazing, and untogether poorly coordinated; not in full
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
control
of ones faculties.
Mario Santillo
3.2.2.6.
The prefix
under1.1 Migrants
Rights
............................................................................. 17
In English the prefix under- is used with nouns in names of
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
garments
worn under other articles of clothing (e.g. undershorts). In
Schoolboys
slang
it is in denominal underfug (Brit.) an undervest;
1.3 Some Final
Reflections...................................................................
23
also, underpants, from colloquial fug a thick, close atmosphere.
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

3.2.3. Suffixation

2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27


Fabio Baggio
Suffixation
is a wider phenomenon than prefixation in English
slang. Yet the productivity of slang suffixes is constrained by their
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
ephemeral character, and it is difficult to predict possible words,
2.2is,
Migration
Policies in ESEA............................................................
34
that
their applicability
in terms of base and suffix. It is perhaps
easier
to
talk
in
terms
of
token
frequency
rather
than
type
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
productivity. This is expectable, given the scarce compliance of
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
slang
words with
regular morphological mechanisms.
As anticipated in the distinction between grammatical and extra3.
Immigration
in the 21st Century.
grammatical
morphology,
some slang suffixes behave regularly and
The to
Need
for anbases
Ethical
The Canadian
..... 51
attach
standard
to Approach.
form new words,
as in (v)Experience
chop chop-pChristine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
er, which entirely conforms to the universal patterns of the English
grammar
system.
SuchIncrease
suffixes,
however, may also conform to the
3.1 World
Population
.............................................................
51
regular mechanisms of morphological concatenation, but attach to
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
irregular bases, as in twocer, from the acronym twoc ( taking

3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54


Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

94

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

without owners consent). Other suffixes are, instead, outside


Table
of Contents
grammar and do not obtain new words but connote existing ones,
adding nuances of jocularity, humour, playfulness, etc., as in
bedder ( bedroom) and preggers ( pregnant). The latter
formations, which are not governed by well-known rules of
grammatical morphology, deserve more attention and scrutiny than
the regular ones, since they throw light on the core suffixes of
slang.
3.2.3.1. The suffix -able
In standard English -able is a suffix forming denominal and deverbal
Opening
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
adjectivesConsiderations
(measure
measurable,
accept
acceptable),
normally
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
with a passive sense. In slang, it is found in deverbal ropeable
(Austral. and N.Z.) requiring to be roped; intractable, from the verb
1. Ethics and Human Rights
rope tie, bind, or secure with a rope, itself obtained from a noun. It
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
is also
in colloquial noshable suitable for noshing; tasty, delicious,
Mario Santillo
again from a verb (nosh eat, have a meal).
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17

3.2.3.2. The suffix -ation, -ion


International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
In 1.2
English
-ion is a suffix forming nouns of action from verbs (e.g.
pollute
pollution).
In slang, it is found in deverbal connection
1.3 Some Final
Reflections...................................................................
23
(orig. U.S.) a supplier of narcotics; the action of supplying
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
narcotics, from connect meet in order to obtain drugs (from).
The alternative
frequent
-ationEast
(as in
St. E. damn
2. Migration
Policiesand
andmore
Ethics
in Eastform
and South
Asia............
27
damnation)
is
in
Black
English
trickeration
(U.S.)
(
trickery) a
Fabio Baggio
trick or stratagem, and in the colloquial noun yuppification (orig.
2.1 International
Migration
East Asia
South
U.S.),
from the verb
yuppifyin(see
3.1.3,and
type
g). East Asia.............. 27
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

3.2.3.3. The suffix -dom


2.3abstract
Ethics and
Migration
43
The
suffix
of stateManagement.................................................
-dom was originally attached to nouns and
adjectives
to convey
the sense of condition, state, dignity, as 47
in
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
bishopdom (the dignity of a bishop), freedom, wisdom (the
condition
of being
free,
etc. It is now a living suffix, freely
3.
Immigration
in the
21stwise),
Century.
employed
to
form
derivatives
and
with the .....
main
The Need for an Ethical Approach.nonce-derivatives
The Canadian Experience
51
sense
of
domain,
realm,
as
in
kingdom,
popedom,
sheriffdom,
etc.
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
In slang formations, this suffix expresses both senses in
3.1
World Population
.............................................................
hippiedom,
queerdom Increase
and yuppiedom,
which respectively refer 51
to
the
or the
fact of being
a hippie,
queer homosexual,
3.2condition
Urbanization,
International
Migration
and Governance
................. 53
yuppie, or to the domains of such people.
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

959

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

3.2.3.4. The suffix -ed (deverbal type: cracked)


Table
of Contents
In English the suffix -ed primarily obtains participial

adjectives
from verbs (e.g. annoy
annoyed, irritate
irritated). In English
slang, this pattern is found in cracked unsound in mind, slightly
insane, crooked (Austral. and N.Z.) irritable, angry, gutted
bitterly disappointed; devastated, paralysed (chiefly U.S.)
intoxicated; incapacitated through drink, plastered very drunk,
qualified euphemistic substitute for bloody, damned, etc.,
smashed (orig. U.S.) drunk; under the influence of drugs.
The same pattern from slang rather than standard verbs is in
banjaxed
(Anglo-Irish) and
(Executive
banjax batter
or ..............................
destroy) ruined,
Opening Considerations
Summary
11
blasted
(chiefly
U.S.)
(
blast
smoke
marijuana)
under the
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
influence of drugs or alcohol, bombed ( bomb Austral. drug (a
racehorse);
St. E.
bombard) drunk; under the influence of
1. Ethics and cf.
Human
Rights
drugs,
gassedAmerican
( gasMigration
orig. U.S.
excite
or thrill) drunk;
in the South
Processes
....................................
15
intoxicated,
knackered exhausted, oiled ( oil (up) N. Amer. and
Mario Santillo
Austral.) (mildly) drunk, pissed (orig. U.S.) ( piss (off)) angry,
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
irritated,
plotzed (U.S.) ( plotz burst, esp. fig. explode with
frustration)
intoxicated;
drunk,
splicedDefence
married,
stoned drunk,
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants
.............................
21
extremely intoxicated, wiped (orig. U.S.) ( wipe (out) kill (a
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
person)) exhausted, tired out, incapacitated by drugs or alcohol,
etc.Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
3.2.3.5.
The suffix
-edand
(denominal
type:and
potted)
2.
Migration
Policies
Ethics in East
South East Asia............ 27

The
suffix
-ed is also productively added to standard nouns to form
Fabio
Baggio
adjectives with the sense of possessing, provided with,
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
characterized by , as in cultured, moneyed, toothed, etc., and in
2.2 Migration derivatives
Policies in ESEA............................................................
34
parasynthetic
(dark-eyed, lion-hearted, seven-hilled,
etc.).
It
is
likewise
added
to
slang
nouns
to
form
the
respective
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
adjectives: e.g., loaded (U.S.) ( load a dose of narcotics or a
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
large
amount of
alcohol) drugged or drunk, pipped (now chiefly
Austral. and N.Z.) ( pip a fit of disgust, annoyance) annoyed,
3.
Immigration
in the(chiefly
21st Century.
irritated,
plonked
Austral. and N.Z.) ( plonk cheap
The Need
for an Ethical
Approach.
TheAmer.)
Canadian
..... 51
wine)
intoxicated,
drunk,
potted (N.
( Experience
pot marijuana)
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
under the influence of cannabis, etc. On the other hand, the
adjective
O.D.d
having
taken.............................................................
an overdose is from the initialism
3.1 World
Population
Increase
51
O.D.
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

96

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

This suffix is also productive in the formation of slang


Table
of Contents
parasynthetic derivatives: e.g., mob-handed (Brit.) ( mob a large
crowd) that forms a large body, moon-eyed (orig. and chiefly
U.S.) drunk, mutton-headed (orig. U.S.) stupid; foolish, piefaced (orig. U.S., chiefly derog.) having a round, flat face or a
blank expression; stupid, poker-faced having a solemn or
humourless expression (abbreviated as po-faced), snake-headed
(Austral. and N.Z.) angry, irritable, sticky-fingered apt to steal,
light-fingered, toffee-nosed snobbish, supercilious, and numerous
vulgar derivatives with a second constituent -arsed (Amer. -assed),
viz.
half-arsed/-assed
inadequate,
hard-assed tough,
Opening
Considerationsineffectual,
and Executive
Summary ..............................
11
uncompromising,
resolute,
raggedy-assed
(orig.
Military) new and
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
inexperienced, rat-arsed drunk (also ratted as drunk as a rat),
stiff-arsed/-assed
reserved,
1. Ethics and Human
Rights supercilious, tight-arsed/-assed unable
to inrelax
and enjoy
oneself,
tin-arsed
(Austral.
and N.Z.) ( tin
the South
American
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
money)
very lucky, white-arsed contemptible, despicable, etc.
Mario Santillo
1.1 Migrants
Rights
17
3.2.3.6.
The suffix
-er.............................................................................
(type lifer, chancer)
In 1.2
its International
original use,Instrument
the suffixfor
-erMigrants
(like L. -arius)
was
added
to
nouns
Defence ............................. 21
to form derivative nouns with the general meaning a man who has to
Some
do1.3
with
(theFinal
thingReflections...................................................................
denoted by the base), and hence chiefly serving 23
to
designate
people
according to their profession or occupation (e.g.
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
hatter one who makes hats). The English words of this type not
referring
to Policies
profession
or employment
are comparatively
few:
2.
Migration
and Ethics
in East and South
East Asia............
27
examples
are
bencher,
cottager,
outsider,
villager.
Fabio Baggio
Slang formations conforming to the regular model are numerous.
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
Examples include nouns formed from either standard or slang
2.2 Migration
ESEA............................................................
34
nominal
bases: Policies
gonger in(U.S.)
( gong opium) an opium pipe,
jocker
(N.
Amer.)
(
coarse
jock
the
male
genitals)
a
male
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
homosexual, josser (Austral.) ( joss a Chinese figure of a deity)
47
a Bibliography
clergyman or.........................................................................................
minister of religion, juicer ( juice electricity) an
electrician, lifer one sentenced to penal servitude for life, looker
3.
Immigration
the 21st Century.
(orig.
U.S.) ain person,
usu. a woman, of particularly pleasing
The Need for
an Ethical
Approach.
Canadian(from
Experience
51
appearance,
mucker
a heavy
fall,The
a cropper
falling.....into
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
muck), ozoner (U.S.) ( colloq. ozone fresh air) a drive-in
cinema,
placer
(Austral.
and .............................................................
N.Z.) a sheep which remains in one
3.1 World
Population
Increase
51
place (cf. deverbal placer below), popper ( pop an injection of a
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
drug) a person who takes pills (esp. of stimulant drugs) excessively,
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

rocker head, rounder (U.S.) a transient railway worker, topper


Table
of Contents
(U.S., Military) a first sergeant, whaler (Austral.) a tramp, orig. one
whose route followed the course of a river. A name
noun pattern
is in Christer (U.S.) an over-zealous or sanctimonious person.
Some of them are from compound bases (see also 3.2.1.4.2):
e.g., eyewasher ( eye-wash humbug) one who obscures actual
facts, hot rodder ( hot rod) the driver of a powerful motor
vehicle, left-footer a Roman Catholic, moonlighter a person who
makes a hasty departure by night, one-lunger an engine with a
single cylinder, one-pipper (Military) a second lieutenant (so
called from
this officers
entitlement
to wear
one pip on the
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
shoulder
of
his
uniform),
weekender
(orig.
U.S.)
a person who
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
indulges in occasional drug-taking, esp. at weekends.
A special
use of Rights
the -er suffix in the standard language is its
1. Ethics
and Human
addition
to names
of places
or countries
to express
the meaning 15
a
in the South
American
Migration
Processes
....................................
native
a resident of (e.g. Icelander, Londoner, New Yorker).
Marioof,
Santillo
This use is comparably illustrated by the derogatory American
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
slang
noun Piker, referring to a poor white migrant from the
southern
states ofInstrument
the U.S.for
(orig.
Pike County,
Missouri), and by
1.2 International
Migrants
Defence .............................
21
Scouser a native or inhabitant of Liverpool.
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
The most common use of this suffix is, however, as a deverbal
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
formative
of agent-nouns
with the meaning animate or inanimate
performer of an action (e.g. St. E. baker). This is the pattern of
6 namely
2.
Migration
Policies and Ethics
in East
and South
27
many
slang agent-nouns,
chancer
one East
who Asia............
takes chances
or Fabio
does Baggio
risky things, chaser (chiefly U.S.) ( chase pursue (a
member
of the opposite
sex)inamorously)
women,
2.1 International
Migration
East Asia andone
Southwho
Eastchases
Asia..............
27
chopper (U.S.) a machine-gun or -gunner, a helicopter, a
2.2 Migrationclapper
Policies(
in ESEA............................................................
34
motor-cycle,
clap tinkle) the tongue of a bell, which
strikes
it onand
theMigration
inside and
causes it to sound, crimper ( crimp
2.3 Ethics
Management.................................................
43
curl) a hairdresser, fizzer ( fizz make a hissing or sputtering
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
sound) anything excellent or first-rate, frightener a member of a
criminal gang who intimidates the victims of its activities, greaser
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
(U.S.)
( grease smear with grease) a native Mexican or native
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Spanish
American, heater a gun, joker (esp. Austral. and N.Z.)
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
man, fellow, chap, jumper a ticket-inspector or ticket-collector,
3.1 World
.............................................................
51
jumping
on Population
to buses Increase
to inspect
tickets, killer ( hyperbolic kill
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
6 Also Marchand (1969: 275, 280) observes that slang is rich in -er words.

3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

98

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

excite, thrill, delight) an impressive, formidable, or excellent


Table
of Contents
person or thing, loser (U.S.) ( lose perish) a convicted
criminal, owner (Nautical) the captain of a ship, passer ( pass
have currency) a person who puts base or forged money into
circulation, placer an organizer of criminal practices, esp. a dealer
in stolen goods, roader (Taxi-drivers) ( Amer. road do (a
distance) on the road) a long-distance taxi fare or journey, shiner
coin, money, a mirror, a diamond, a black eye, sitter (U.S.)
someone employed to sit in a bar and encourage other patrons to
buy drinks, snorer the nose, starrer ( star perform the leading
part) a Considerations
play or film which
provides an
impressive
leading role for
Opening
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
an Fabio
actor Baggio,
or actress,
stormer
(Brit.)
(
storm
rush
with violence)
Laura Zanfrini
something of surpassing size, vigour, or excellence, ticker (orig.
U.S.)
(and
tickHuman
beat, pulse)
1.
Ethics
Rights the heart, etc.
from non-standard
verbs are....................................
extremely frequent 15
in
inAgent-nouns
the South American
Migration Processes
slang.
instances are crammer (orig. University) one who
MarioSome
Santillo
prepares pupils for an examination, copper ( cop capture, catch)
Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
a 1.1
policeman,
crapper (coarse) ( crap defecate) a privy,
croaker
(now chiefly
U.S.) (ironically
Defence
croak kill)
a doctor, esp.
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants
.............................
21
a prison doctor, doer ( do cheat, swindle) one who cheats
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
another, doozer (perh. douse strike, punch) something
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
remarkable
or unbelievable,
dosser ( doss sleep) one who stays
at a common lodging-house, dropper one who passes counterfeit
2.
Migration
Policies
and drummer
Ethics in East
and South
money,
cheques,
etc.,
a thief,
esp. East
one Asia............
who robs 27
an
Fabio Baggio
unoccupied
house, flasher one who exposes himself indecently,
fucker
one who Migration
copulates,
grafter
U.S.)East
one
who makes
2.1 International
in East
Asia(orig.
and South
Asia..............
27
money by shady or dishonest means, grasser a police informer,
2.2 Migration
Policies in ESEA............................................................
hoofer
a (professional)
dancer, hustler ( hustle engage 34
in
prostitution)
a Migration
prostitute,Management.................................................
minder a bodyguard employed to protect
2.3 Ethics and
43
a criminal, mixer (Brit.) ( colloq. mix fight or argue vigorously)
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
a troublemaker, moocher a beggar, a scrounger, nailer ( nail
apprehend, incriminate (a person)) a police officer, detective,
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
nobbler (chiefly Austral. and N.Z.) ( colloq. nobble strike; stun)
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
a small
quantity of alcoholic drink, poisoner (Austral. and N.Z.) (
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
colloq. poison) a cook, esp. for large numbers, poler (Austral. and
3.1 World
Population
Increase .............................................................
51
N.Z.)
( pole
take advantage
of someone) a scrounger; a shirker,
pusher
(orig.
U.S.)
one
who
peddles
drugs
illegally,
rager
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
(Austral. and N.Z.) ( rage revel) a person who enjoys having a
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

999

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

good time, rapper (U.S.) ( colloq. rap talk or chat in a discursive


Table
of Contents
manner) a talker; a chatterer, raver ( rave give oneself over to
enjoyment) a passionate enthusiast for a particular thing, idea, or
cause, renter a male prostitute, roller (chiefly N. Amer.) ( roll
rob) a thief; a prostitute who robs her customers, rosiner ( dial.
rosin supply with liquor; make drunk) alcoholic drink, scalper
(U.S.) someone who sells tickets, etc., esp. below the official rates,
scammer (orig. U.S.) ( scam perpetrate a fraud; cheat) a
criminal, sender (orig. and chiefly U.S.) ( send enthral, delight)
one who or that which moves or enthrals, esp. a popular musician,
singer (Criminals)
(andcant
sing Summary
peach, turn
informer) an
Opening
Considerations
Executive
..............................
11
informer,
skimmer
(U.S.)
one
who
conceals
some
of
his earnings in
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
order to avoid paying tax on them, yacker (derog.) a chatterbox or
gossip,
(orig.Rights
U.S.) ( zap Computing erase or change (an
1.
Ethics zapper
and Human
item
in aSouth
program))
the Migration
remote-control
unit for
a piece of electronic
in the
American
Processes
....................................
15
equipment.
Mario Santillo
The following nouns are from complex slang verbs: ear-basher
Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
(1.1ear-bash
talk inordinately) a chatterer; a bore, four-flusher (
four
in poker:
act in aforfraudulent
one who bluffs,
1.2flush
International
Instrument
Migrants manner)
Defence .............................
21
and panhandler (U.S.) ( panhandle beg from or importune (a
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
person)) a street beggar.
Bibliography
25
Slang words.........................................................................................
not coined with a basic agentive meaning are blower
a speaking-tube or telephone and smacker (orig. U.S.) a dollar; a
2.
Migration
Policies
and a
Ethics
in East
and South
27
pound,
whereas
cooler
prison
or prison
cellEast
has Asia............
an underlying
Fabio Baggio
agentive
meaning as it metaphorically cools prisoners.
There
are alsoMigration
some class-maintaining
slang East
nouns
with the -er
2.1
International
in East Asia and South
Asia..............
27
suffix: e.g., gasser (orig. U.S.) ( gas) something that gives
2.2 Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
enormous
fun and
excitement,
nutter ( nut a mad or crazy person)
an2.3insane
or eccentric
scrubber ( scrub disreputable
Ethics and
Migration person,
Management.................................................
43
woman) a prostitute; an untidy girl or woman, slammer (orig. U.S.)
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
( slam) prison.
As in standard English (see Marchand 1969), in slang the -er
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
suffix may be tacked to almost any base: a proper name (Jimmy
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Woodser
a solitary drinker), an adjective (deader a dead person, a
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
corpse, goner one who is dead or undone,7 no-hoper a racehorse
3.1 no
World
Population
Increase .............................................................
with
prospect
of winning),
a particle (downer a depressant 51
or
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
7 Cf. St. E. goer, as in theatre-goer, with a totally different meaning.

3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

100

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

tranquillizing drug, upper a drug (esp. an amphetamine), Public


Table
of Contents
School a pupil of the upper school), an adverb (oncer a one-pound
note, outer the uncovered area of a racecourse or sports ground,
twicer a crook, liar), a converted adverbial (up-and-downer/upper
and downer an up-and-down fight or argument), an interjection
(coo-er an exclamation expressing surprise or incredulity), and a
numeral (ten per center a theatrical agent).
Some slang nouns are peculiarly obtained from irregular
nominal, verbal or adjectival bases. For instance, fratter one who
frats is from the verb frat (short for fraternize) establish friendly
and esp.Considerations
sexual relations
German
women,
prepper (U.S.,
Opening
and with
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
School
and
College)
a
student
at
a
prep
school
is from the
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
abbreviated adjective prep ( preparatory), hotter (Brit.) a
person,
youth, Rights
who engages in hotting is from hot, a back1. Ethicsesp.
and aHuman
formation
fromAmerican
the verbal
noun hotting
joyriding
in stolen, highin the South
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
performance
cars, ligger one who gatecrashes parties is from the
Mario Santillo
verb lig sponge; gatecrash or attend parties, a dialect variation of
Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
lie,1.1and
twocer (with alternative spellings twocker/TWOCer) (Brit.,
orig.
Police) a car
thief for
is from
the Defence
acronym
twoc ( taking
1.2 International
Instrument
Migrants
.............................
21
without owners consent).
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
From abbreviated bases, the suffix also derives class-maintaining
Bibliography
25
adjectives,
such.........................................................................................
as chocker (orig. Naval) ( chock-a-block jammed
or crammed close together) fed up; extremely disgruntled, and
2.
Migration
Policies
and Ethics
East and
East Asia............
upter
(Austral.)
( colloq.
up toinputty)
badSouth
or worthless;
no good.27
Fabio Baggio

3.2.3.7. The suffix -er, -ers (type footer, champers)


2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
The British slang suffix -er (and -ers, cumulated with -s) was
2.2 Migration
Policiesfrom
in ESEA............................................................
34
originally
introduced
Rugby School into Oxford University
slang
in
1875.
Since
then,
it
has
been
used
to
obtain
colloquial
or
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
jocular forms of words and names, with curtailment and often some
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
distortion
of the
root. The earliest attested examples are nouns
connected with sport and university habits, actions, objects, etc.: e.g.,
3.
Immigration
in the1863),
21st Century.
footer
( football,
brekker ( breakfast, 1889), ekker (
The Need
for an
Ethical
Approach.
The Canadian
Experience
..... 51
exercise,
1891),
rugger
(
rugby, 1893),
Togger (
Torpid, 1897)
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
a boat rowing in the Oxford college races called Torpids, bonner
(3.1bonfire,
1898), Divvers
Divinity, 1905) divinity honour
World Population
Increase (
.............................................................
51
moderations, the first public examination in Holy Scripture, and,
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
unusually, from the middle of words, tosher ( unattached, 1889)
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
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2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

an unattached or non-collegiate student at a university having


Table
of Contents
residential colleges, and soccer/socker ( Association, 1891) the
game of football as played under Association rules.
Other familiar examples with an -er/-ers ending are bedder (
bedroom), bed-sitter ( bed-sitting room), champers ( champagne),
collekkers ( collections) an examination at the end of each term in
the colleges of the University of Oxford, cupper ( cup) a series of
intercollegiate matches played in competition for a cup, leccer/
lecker/lekker ( lecture) and rudders ( rudiments of divinity).
Examples of proper names with the same ending are Adders (
Addisons
Walk), Bodder
Bodleian)
and Johnners
( Brian
Opening Considerations
and(
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
Johnston,
a
British
cricket
commentator).
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
The respective extended variants -agger/-aggers are likewise
used
withand
clipped
nominal
1. Ethics
Human
Rights bases (e.g. chagger changing-room,
sensagger
American
sensation,Migration
spaggers/spadgers
spaghetti, stragger
in the South
Processes ....................................
15
Mario
stranger,
wagger waste-paper basket), or with proper names
Santillo
(e.g. Jaggers Jesus College and Quaggers Queens College).
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
The cumulative suffix -ers is additionally used in Nautical slang
to 1.2
coin
nouns pertaining
to drinks
or liquids,
such
as pinkers (Brit.)
International
Instrument
for Migrants
Defence
.............................
21
( pink a drink of pink gin) pink gin, sippers (Brit.) ( sip) a
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
sip (of rum), and strongers ( strong) a mixture containing
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
caustic
soda used
for cleaning paintwork and woodwork on ships
(cf. soogee-moogee in the same sense).
2. Migration
in East suffix
and South
Eastthe
Asia............
Another Policies
use of and
thisEthics
composite
is in
coining 27
of
Fabio Baggio
adjectives,
such as bonkers (perh. bonk a blow or punch on the
head)
mad, crazy,
slightly
drunk,
crazy,
2.1 International
Migration
in East
Asia crackers
and South(
Eastcracker)
Asia..............
27
mad; infatuated (cf. cracked unsound in mind, crazy), and, after
2.2 Migrationpreggers
Policies in(orig.
ESEA............................................................
34
abbreviation,
Brit.) ( pregnant), ravers raving
mad,
starkers (Brit.)
( stark naked) absolutely without
2.3 delirious,
Ethics and Migration
Management.................................................
43
clothing.
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47

3.2.3.8. The suffix -eroo, -aroo

3.
Immigration
in the
21stitsCentury.
The
ending -eroo
(and
variant -aroo, also -roo, -oo)8 has been
The
Need
for
an
Ethical
Approach.
The Canadian
Experience ..... 51
defined as a factitious slang suffix (OED)
or a neo-pseudo-suffix
Christine Baghdady,
Richard Vanderberg
(Wentworth
1972) peculiar
to American slang formations, such as

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51


3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
and
Governance
53
8 According
to Wentworth
(1972), there
should be
a further
variant.................
-amaroo, with
an 3.3
intrusive
element -am-,
as is kissamaroo,
longer
in use.
International
Migration
in Canada:noAn
Ethical
Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

102

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

flopperoo a flop, a failure. In fact, it can be viewed as a factitious or


Table
of Contents
pseudo-suffix because it has no semantic consistency. Nevertheless,
Marchand (1969: 211) suggests that it has an endearing force: that
is to say, unlike regular slang suffixes (e.g. -er, as in life
lifer), it
does not derive new words, but rather new connoted variants, such as
flopperoo, which sounds like a [non-serious] (Dressler & Merlini
Barbaresi 1994) jocular account of a flop.
According to Wentworth (1972), it may have originated from
American dialect buckaroo (a corruption of Sp. vaquero cowboy),
or from Australian kangaroo, after which, by analogy, many
curious toy-words
(e.g. and
antseroo,
bingeroo,
bounceroo,
etc.) have
Opening
Considerations
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
been
formed.
Thus,
although
the
ending
of
the
supposed
progenitors
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
is -aroo, the most frequent form of the suffix is -eroo.
It occurs
some modern
1. Ethics
andin
Human
Rights American slang nouns, such as jerkeroo
(in the
jerk)South
a fool,
a stupid
person,
peacheroo
( peach) an
American
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
attractive
woman (cf. peacherino), pipperoo ( pip) a particularly
Mario Santillo
remarkable or pleasing person or thing, sockeroo ( sock)
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
something
with an overwhelming impact, stinkeroo ( stink a
disgusting
smell)Instrument
something
a veryDefence
low standard;
a very bad
1.2 International
for of
Migrants
.............................
21
performance, switcheroo ( switch) a change of position or an
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
exchange, esp. one intended to surprise or deceive. Switcheroo may
Bibliography
also
be used as.........................................................................................
an attribute, with the meaning reversible, reversed.25
The suffix -aroo, with a basic vowel a instead of e, is less
2.
Migrationused,
Policies
andmerely
Ethics in
South East
frequently
and
asEast
an and
alternative
to Asia............
-eroo, as 27
in
Fabio Baggio
stinkaroo/stinkeroo,
buckaroo/buckeroo (also buckayro).
The
variant -roo
is regularly
usedand
with
bases
having a final
2.1
International
Migration
in East Asia
South
East Asia..............
27
vowel e, as in boozeroo (N.Z.) ( boose/booze) a drinking spree,
2.2 Migration
whereas
the -ooPolicies
variantinisESEA............................................................
added to nominal er-ending bases, as 34
in
poofteroo
( poofter
orig. Austral.) a homosexual man;
2.3 Ethics(derog.)
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
an effeminate or affected man, smackeroo ( smacker) a coin or
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
note of money, a kiss; a blow, smasheroo ( smasher anything
uncommon) a great success.
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
The -eroo suffix (or its variant -oo) may be added to shortened
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
bases
as well, as in brusheroo ( brush-off) a rebuff, dismissal,
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
razoo ( raspberry) ridicule; the arousing of indignation or the
3.1 World
Population
.............................................................
51
like,
and skidoo
( v Increase
skedaddle)
leave or depart hurriedly.
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
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3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

3.2.3.9. The suffix -ery


Table
of Contents
The suffix -ery occurs in many English words adopted from French
(e.g. F. batterie, E. battery), and, as -y, in many others formed on
nouns ending in -er (e.g. baker
bakery). The formatives in -ery
regularly exhibit a general collective sense (machinery, scenery).
They may denote classes of goods (as pottery, jewelry), actions/
behaviours characteristic of, with contemptuous implication (as
knavery, monkery), or the place where an employment is carried on
(brewery, fishery).
The standard type brewery is identifiable in the English slang
nouns
(orig.
U.S.)..............................
( night or 11
its
Openingnightery/-erie,
Considerationsnitery/-erie
and Executive
Summary
respelling
nite)
a
nightclub,
noshery
(
nosh
food,
a
meal)
a
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
restaurant; a snack bar, nuttery (U.S.) ( nut) a mental hospital,
and
in jocular
Wrennery
(Services) a building used to accommodate
1.
Ethics
and Human
Rights
Wrens,
from the
noun Wren
denoting
a member
of the Womens
in the South
American
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
Royal
Naval
Service (cf. nunnery, obs. slang a brothel, now only
Mario
Santillo
St. E. a convent).
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
The senses expressed by pottery and knavery are less recurrent
in 1.2
slang:
an example
of the
is Defence
ironmongery
(firearms),
International
Instrument
for former
Migrants
.............................
21
which is obtained from a complex base (iron + deverbal monger),
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
whereas the latter is in British slang yobbery hooliganism, from
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
yob
(see 3.1.3,
type g).
3.2.3.10.
ThePolicies
suffix -ette
2.
Migration
and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27

The
suffix
-ette corresponding to the French diminutive suffix
Fabio
Baggio
(e.g. F. montagnette, E. mountainette) is productively used in
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
English to form female nouns from male personal nouns (e.g.
2.2 Migration
Policies in ESEA............................................................
suffragist
suffragette).
It is analogously used in English slang 34
to
form
hackette
(
hack
a
journalist
or
reporter)
a
jocular
or
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
disparaging term for a female journalist, and in colloquial British
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
English
to obtain
ladette ( lad a boy, youth) young woman
characterized by her enjoyment of male activities.
st
3. Immigration
the 21
In slang the in
suffix
-etteCentury.
may also be attached to a shortened base,
Needcase
for an
Ethical
Approach.
Experience
..... 51
in The
which
it does
not
derive aThe
newCanadian
word but
a connotative
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
option, as in derogatory bimbette ( bimbo) a young woman
regarded
as Population
sexually attractive
but thought to lack intelligence. 51
3.1 World
Increase .............................................................
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

104

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

3.2.3.11. The suffix -ful


Table
of Contents
In modern English the suffix

-ful which originated, as in other


Germanic languages, from the syntactic group a mouth full (of soup)
has become a suffix forming derivatives with the general meaning
quantity that fills or would fill (Marchand 1969: 292-293). It may
therefore be freely attached to any noun denoting an object that can
be regarded as holding or containing a more or less definite quantity
of anything, as in bookful, bottleful, boxful, etc. (as much as a book,
bottle, box, etc. will contain).
In slang, this suffix attaches to nouns denoting parts of the human
body
to form
novel nouns
a figurative
rather
than literal sense.
Opening
Considerations
andwith
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
Examples
are
earful
as
much
(talk)
as
ones
ears
can
take in at one
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
time, eyeful a good look at something, hence, a strikingly
attractive
woman,
handful
1.
Ethics and
Human
Rightsa five-year prison sentence (think of the
five
of aAmerican
hand), mouthful
(orig.
and chiefly
U.S.) an utterance
in fingers
the South
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
of Mario
notable
truth or relevance, skinful as much as the skin can hold:
Santillo
as much as any one can drink. Sometimes the variant -full is used
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
(eye-full,
skinfull), so that the new words are more similar to
compounds
(with autonomous
than to.............................
derivatives.
1.2 International
Instrument forconstituents)
Migrants Defence
21
1.3 Some
Final
Reflections...................................................................
23
3.2.3.12.
The
suffix
-ie, -y
The
suffix -ie/-y
has a basic hypocoristic meaning/function 25
in
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
standard English: that is, it is used to form pet terms (terms of
endearment)
and familiar
diminutives
jocularity 27
or
2.
Migration Policies
and Ethics
in East and expressing
South East Asia............
affection.
It
may
be
tacked
either
to
full
common
nouns
(aunt
Fabio Baggio
auntie, babe baby) or to shortened or endearingly modified proper
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
names (Edward/Edmund Eddie, Elizabeth Lizzie or Betty).
2.2
Migration
ESEA............................................................
34
The
forms -yPolicies
and -iein are
now almost equally common in proper
names
as
such,
but
in
a
few
pet
forms
one
or
other
spelling
is
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
preferred (Annie but Sally), whereas in the transferred applications of
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
these
(as in dolly,
jemmy) the variant -y prevails. In other hypocoristic
forms -ie seems to be the favourite choice, after Scottish usage (as in
st
3.
Immigration
dearie,
laddie). in the 21 Century.
The
for an
Ethical
The Canadian
51
TheNeed
variants
of -ie/-y
areApproach.
-ey, regularly
used with Experience
bases with a.....
final
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
vowel e (as in Charles
Charley, love
lovey), -ee (as in boot
bootee
an
infants
wool
boot),
and,
after
cumulation,
-sie/-sy (often
3.1 World Population Increase .............................................................
51
in reduplicative formations, such as popsy-wopsy, tootsie-wootsie). As
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
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2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Merlini Barbaresi (2001) remarks, one of the favourite areas of use of


Table
of Contents
the suffix -ie/-y is slang.
In slang, many proper name hypocoristics convert into the
category of common nouns, though sometimes maintaining the
initial capital letter. Examples are Archie ( Archibald) an antiaircraft gun, Charlie/-ey (orig. U.S.) ( Charles) cocaine,
Hughie/Huey (Austral. and N.Z.) ( Hugh) the god of weather,
Joey ( Joe) a threepenny bit, Johnnie/-y ( John) a policeman,
a condom, Judy ( Judith) a girl, woman, maggie/-y (U.S.) (
Margaret) a prostitute, patsy (orig. U.S.) ( Patrick) someone
who is the
object of ridicule,
and many
appellatives
for cowards 11
or
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
Summary
..............................
effeminate
men
deriving
from
(mainly
female)
forenames
(e.g.
gussie
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
Augustus, Lizzie/lizzie Elizabeth, mollie/-y/-ey Mary, nancy
Ethics
Anne or
Agnes,
nellie/-y
1.
and
Human
Rights Eleanor or Helen).
is predominantly
used to
form nouns with 15
an
inThe
the -ie/-y
South suffix
American
Migration Processes
....................................
appellative
hypocoristic meaning/function (as in duckie/-y a term
Mario Santillo
of endearment). However, it may also be used ironically or
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
sarcastically,
esp. to refer to:
1.2 International
for Migrants
Defence
A person Instrument
who belongs
to a different
race.............................
or country, as 21
in

Chinkie/-y/-ey
a Chinaman, Dutchie/-y/-ee a Dutchman 23
or
1.3 Some
Final Reflections...................................................................

a German, Eyetie ( jocular Eye-talian) an Italian, Heinie/


-ey (N. Amer.) ( Heinrich) a German (soldier), homie/-ey
(N.Z.) an Englishman; a British immigrant, Hymie (U.S.)
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
(
Jewish Hyman) a Jewish person, Ikey/-y ( Isaac) a
Fabio Baggio
Jew, Sammy (Brit.) an American soldier in the war of 19142.1 International
Migration
Eastoriental,
Asia andaSouth
East Asia..............
18, slopy/-ey
(U.S.)inan
Chinese,
Welshie/-y 27
a
Welshman
or
Welshwoman,
whitie/-y/-ey
(Black
E.)
a
white
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
person, yardie (orig. West Indies) a Jamaican;
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43

One whose behaviour is not approved, as in druggie/-y a

Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
drug addict,
junkie/-y/-ey (orig. U.S.) ( junk any narcotic

drug) a drug addict, queerie ( queer homosexual) one

3. Immigration
in theeffeminate,
21st Century.
who is soft,
or homosexual, roughie/-y a rough
The Need
for an Ethical
Approach.
The (chiefly
CanadianU.S.)
Experience
..... 51
or rowdy;
a hooligan,
rummy
a habitual
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

drunkard, sickie/-y (N. Amer.) one who is mentally ill or


perverted;
3.1 World
Population Increase ............................................................. 51
A person having
a distinctive
condition,
defect 53
or
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migrationphysical
and Governance
.................
mental deficiency, as in gimpy a cripple, nully (rare) a

3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

106

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

person; a nobody, shortie/-y a person of short


Tablestupid
of Contents
stature, thickie one who is dull of intellect, weirdie/-y an
odd or unconventional person, wheelie/-y (Austral.) a
person in or confined to a wheelchair, wingy a one-armed
man, wrinklie/-y an old or middle-aged person.
The above terms, esp. those belonging to the first two groups, are
deliberately used to produce an offensive effect, and most of them
undeniably have a derogatory sense.
With respect to the base categories, the -ie/-y suffix primarily
obtains nouns from nominal or adjectival bases.
Opening
Considerations
Executive
..............................
11
Denominal
formativesand
with
an -ie/-ySummary
ending mainly
denote people
Fabio Baggio,byLaura
Zanfrini occupation, hobby, etc.. Examples are
characterized
an activity,
bikie (Austral. and N.Z.) a motor-cyclist, chiefy (Forces) a chief
1.
andofficer,
Human Rights
or Ethics
superior
gobby a coastguard, or an American sailor,
in
the
South
American
Migration
....................................
15
groupie (R.A.F.)
a group
captain,Processes
groupie/-y
an ardent follower
Mario
Santillo
of a touring pop group, looie/louie/looey ( N. Amer. pronunciation
/lu/
lieutenant)
a .............................................................................
lieutenant, roadie/-y someone who organizes
1.1ofMigrants
Rights
17
and
supervises
a
touring
pop
group,
schoolie
(Naval)
a
classroom
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
instructor, shoppie/-y a shop assistant, slushie/-y/-ey ( slush
1.3 Some
Final cook,
Reflections...................................................................
23
food)
a ships
squaddie/-y (Services) a member of a squad;
a private
soldier,
stripey (Naval) a long-service able seaman; one
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
with good-conduct stripes, surfie (chiefly Austral.) a surfer or
surfboarding
enthusiast.
2.
Migration Policies
and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
Inanimate
Fabio Baggio nouns from a nominal base refer to something
characterized by or having to do with what the base denotes: e.g.,
2.1(
International
Migration
in East
Asia and middy
South East
Asia..............
27
letty
It. letto bed)
a bed,
a lodging,
(Austral.)
( mid)
a 2.2
medium-sized
measure
of beer or other liquor, munchie (
Migration Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
colloq. munch something to eat) snack food, soupy/-ie (U.S.,
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
Military) (a summons to) a meal, and woodie/-y (orig. Surfing,
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
chiefly
U.S.) an
estate car with timber-framed sides.
Deadjectival formatives with this suffix generally refer to
3.
Immigration
in the
21st Century.
people
or things
having
the quality indicated by the adjective.
The Need
for an Ethical
Approach. The
..... 51
They
are similarly
distinguished
into Canadian
animate Experience
and inanimate.
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
Animate nouns are biggie/-y (orig. U.S.) an important person,
cutie/-ey
(orig.
U.S.) Increase
a cute.............................................................
person; esp. an attractive young
3.1 World
Population
51
woman, dummie/-y/-ee ( dumb stupid) a deaf-mute, hottie/-y
3.2 Urbanization,
International
and Governance
.................
53
(orig.
U.S.) ( hot
sexuallyMigration
attractive)
a sexually
attractive
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
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2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

person, nuddie/-y (orig. Austral.) ( nude, as in in the nuddy),


Table
of Contents
smoothie (orig. U.S.) ( smooth stylish, suave, chic) a person
who is smooth, swiftie/-y a fast-moving person: a rapid runner, a
quick thinker, weakie/-y (chiefly Austral.) a person who is weak
in constitution, character, or ability.
Instances denoting inanimate nouns are cheapie something
cheap, darky/-ey the night, falsies (orig. U.S.) a padded
brassire, greenie (Surfing) a large wave before it breaks, sharpie
(N. Amer.) ( sharp smart, well-equipped) that which is smart
or in good condition, esp. of cars.
The -ie/-y
suffix attaches
to other Summary
less common
bases, such 11
as
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
..............................
verbs
(clippie/-y
a
bus-conductress),
and
adverbs
(downie
a
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
depressant or tranquillizing drug). It peculiarly attaches to the
thieves
cantHuman
verb chive
1.
Ethics and
Rightsknife to obtain the synonymous slang
verb
chivvy/chivey.
But Migration
it mostlyProcesses
attaches ....................................
to irregular shortened
in the
South American
15
bases,
clippings and acronymic formations (see 3.2.11,
Mariolike
Santillo
3.2.9.1 for the base analysis).
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
Clippings with an additional pet suffix are particularly frequent
in 1.2
slang.
They areInstrument
mainly class-maintaining
nouns
which pertain 21
to
International
for Migrants Defence
.............................
the contexts of home, clothing, food, pub, sport, television, school,
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
military, job, etc. Examples are bevie/bevvy ( beverage), footie/-y
Bibliography
25
(esp.
Austral. .........................................................................................
and N.Z.) ( football), indie ( independent) an
independent theatre, film, or recorded company, jerry (
2.
Migration
and or
Ethics
in East
and South Eastlocie/lokey
Asia............(N.
27
jeroboam
a Policies
large bowl
goblet)
a chamber-pot,
Fabio and
Baggio
Amer.
N.Z.) ( locomotive), Minnie/-y (Military) ( G.
Minenwerfer)
a German
(orig.
and chiefly
2.1 International
Migrationtrench
in Eastmortar,
Asia andnembie
South East
Asia..............
27
U.S.) ( Nembutal) a Nembutal capsule, Polly ( Apollinaris)
2.2 Migrationmineral
Policies in
ESEA............................................................
34
Apollinaris
water,
pornie ( porn shortened from
pornography)
pornographic
film, tatie/tattie ( potato), U-ey
2.3 Ethics andaMigration
Management.................................................
43
(Austral.) ( U-turn), wellie/-y ( Wellington a Wellington boot)
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
a kick, acceleration, and sammie or sarnie/-ey ( sandwich), after
an alteration of the base due to natural preferences.
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
Some of these inanimate nouns seem to belong to a more formal
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
area,
such as the jargon of business, banking, urban planning, etc.
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
(e.g. chippie/-y chip-shop; derry derelict, a derelict building;
3.1 World
Population
Increase
.............................................................
51
divvy
dividend;
offie/-y
off-licence,
an off-licence shop), now
also
extended
to
everyday
language.
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

108

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Other clippings with this suffix are hypocoristic names of places


Table
of Contents
(countries or towns), or refer to their inhabitants: e.g., Argie (
Argentinian/Argentine), Aussie ( Australia(n)), and its variants
Ossie/Ozzie, gippy/gyppie/gyppy ( gipsy) an Egyptian (also a
gipsy), Phillie/-y (U.S.) ( Philadelphia), and Tassie/-y/-ey
(Austral.) ( Tasmania(n)).
Animate nouns from clipped bases denote people who have a
specific job, activity, habit, political/religious belief, or physical
condition. Examples are cokie/-ey (orig. U.S.) ( coke abbrev. of
cocaine) a cocaine addict, Commie/-y ( Communist; cf.
Commo),Considerations
flatty (orig. U.S.)
flat-foot)
a policeman,
gremmie/-y
Opening
and (
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
(Surfing)
(
gremlin)
a
young
surfer,
hostie
(Austral.
and N.Z.)
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
( hostess), juvie/-ey (U.S.) ( juvenile), kriegie ( G.
Kriegsgefangener
prisoner
1.
Ethics and Human
Rights of war) an Allied prisoner of war in
Germany
during
the war
of 1939-45,
( lesbian; cf.
in the South
American
Migration
ProcessesLesbie
....................................
15
Lesbo),
its variants Lessie/-y/Lezzy, Limey (U.S.) ( lime-juicer)
Mario Santillo
an English sailor, pikey/-y (chiefly regional) ( pike shortened
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
from
turnpike) a vagrant, polly (orig. U.S., now chiefly Austral.
and
( Instrument
politician),forProddie/-y
(chiefly
Ir.) ( Prod
1.2 N.Z.)
International
Migrants Defence
.............................
21
shortened from protestant with voicing of intervocalic -t-),
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
prossie/-y or prostie/-y (N. Amer.) ( prostitute; cf. pross), statie
Bibliography
25
(U.S.)
( state.........................................................................................
trooper), trannie ( transvestite). A clipped word
with previous alteration of the base is patootie (chiefly U.S.) (
2.
Migration
Policies aand
Ethics in East
and South
East Asia............
27
potato)
a girlfriend,
sweetheart;
an attractive
woman.
An adjective
Fabio Baggio
belonging
here is preggie/-y ( pregnant; cf. preggers, preggo).
A International
small group Migration
of (mostlyin American)
nouns
-ie/-y ending
2.1
East Asia and
Southwith
Eastan
Asia..............
27
originate from acronyms: e.g., dinkie/-y ( double income no kids),
2.2 Migration
34
woopie/-y
( Policies
well-offin ESEA............................................................
old(er) person), and yumpie ( young
upwardly
people),
after yuppie/-y ( young urban
2.3 Ethics mobile
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
professional, now also frequently interpreted as young upwardly
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
mobile professional), Fannie Mae ( Federal National Mortgage
Association, after two female personal names), and Naffy, a variant
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
from NAAFI ( Navy, Army, and Air Force Institutes).
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
The suffix -ie/-y and its cumulative variants -sie/-sy/-sey
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
sometimes attach to reduplicative formations, as in footie-footie or
3.1 Worldamorous
Populationplay
Increase
51
footy-footy
with.............................................................
the feet (also footsie-footsie, footsyfootsy,
or
simply
footy),
and
tootsie-wootsie
or
tootsey-wootsey
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
(chiefly U.S.) a woman, a girl; a sweetheart.
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

1099

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

3.2.3.13. The suffix -ify, -fy


Table
of Contents
The English suffix -ify (and

its variant -fy quoted in the OED)


regularly forms verbs with the common meaning make, convert
into, bring into the state of , as in denominal beautify and
deadjectival uglify, with the regular dropping of final -y before the
suffix is added.
In slang, this suffix attaches to an irregular base the acronym
yuppie/-y to form the verb yuppify (orig. U.S.) subject to
yuppification (see -ation, 3.2.3.2). After cumulation with the -ed
(participial) suffix, it also attaches to the slang noun pansy a male
homosexual;
an effeminate
man and
to colloquial
sissy an
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
effeminate
person;
a
coward
to
obtain
the
adjectives
pansified
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
excessively stylized or adorned; affected and sissified effeminate.
1. Ethics and Human Rights
3.2.3.14. The suffix -ing (n type: flaming)
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

In Mario
present-day
English, -ing is a suffix forming verbal derivatives,
Santillo
originally abstract nouns of action (ask
asking, learn
1.1 Migrants
.............................................................................
learning),
but Rights
subsequently
developed in various directions, 17
to
express
existence,
processes,
habits,
etc.
By
later
extension,
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
formations with this suffix have been analogically made from nouns
1.3 Somegardening),
Final Reflections...................................................................
23
(bedding,
and, by ellipsis, from adverbs (as inning,
offing,
outing);.........................................................................................
while nonce-words in -ing are formed freely on
Bibliography
25
words or phrases of many kinds: e.g. oh-ing, hear-hearing (calling
oh!,
hear! hear!),
how-dye-doing
you do?);
2.
Migration
Policies and
Ethics in East(saying
and Southhow
Eastdo
Asia............
27
pinting
(having
pints
of
beer),
etc.
Fabio Baggio
In English slang, verbal nouns ending in -ing mainly express
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
actions which have passed into a process, practice, habit: e.g.,
2.2 Migration
Policiesthe
in ESEA............................................................
34
flaming
(Computing)
action or practice of sending inflammatory
or 2.3
abusive
messages
by
e-mail,
foozling
(Golf)
bungling,
fratting
Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
( frat) friendly relations between British and American soldiers
Bibliography
47
and
German .........................................................................................
women, mooching (regional) begging; loafing,
phishing (Computing) (a respelling of fishing) fraud perpetrated on
st Century.
3.
in the 21(U.S.,
theImmigration
Internet, ranking
Black E.) ( rank insult (a person))
The Need for
an Ethicalsteaming
Approach.the
The action
Canadian
..... 51
intra-group
repartee,
of Experience
passing rapidly
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
through a public place robbing bystanders.
Sometimes
the notion
of action
may be limited to a single 51
or
3.1
World Population
Increase
.............................................................
particular occasion, as in bashing (Services) any arduous task,
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

110

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

doing (dial.) a scolding; a thrashing; a severe


Table
of Contents
shellacking (chiefly U.S.) a beating; a defeat.

monetary loss,

Nouns ending in -ing are also obtained from compound nouns or


verbs, as in denominal gender-bending (back-formed genderbender, see 3.2.8.3) the action of affecting an androgynous
appearance), hot-rodding (orig. U.S.) ( hot rod) racing powerful
motor vehicles, jawboning (U.S.) ( jaw-bone credit) name
applied to a policy, and in deverbal ram-raiding ( v ram-raid
break into (esp. commercial premises)) a form of smash-and-grab
robbery in which premises are broken into by ramming a vehicle
through aConsiderations
window or wall.
Opening
and Executive Summary .............................. 11
The
-ing
suffix
may
also attach to adjectives, as in hotting (Brit.)
Fabio Baggio,
Laura
Zanfrini
( hot stolen (goods)) joyriding in stolen, high-performance cars,
or Ethics
to nouns,
as in sledging
1.
and Human
Rights (Austral., Cricket) ( sledge a large
heavy
usually wielded
with
both hands)
unsportsmanlike
in thehammer
South American
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
attempts
by fielders to upset a batsmans concentration by abuse,
Mario Santillo
needling, etc.. A peculiar irregular base is the acronym sug (Brit.)
Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
(1.1sell
under guise), which originates the noun sugging.
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

3.2.3.15. The suffix -ing (ppl adj type: corking)


1.3English
Some Final
Reflections...................................................................
23
The
suffix
-ing is used to form both adjectives of participial
origin
or nature.........................................................................................
(as cunning orig. can, willing), and prepositions
Bibliography
25
or adverbs of participial origin (as concerning, during, excepting,
notwithstanding,
pending,
touching).
2.
Migration Policies
and Ethics
in East and South East Asia............ 27
Instances
of
slang
participial
adjectives are corking (chiefly
Fabio Baggio
U.S.) unusually fine or excellent; stunning, happening ( happen
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
be successful) currently in vogue, fashionable, storming (chiefly
Migration
Policiesoutstanding
in ESEA............................................................
34
in 2.2
Sport)
displaying
vigour, speed, or skill, swinging
(2.3swing
be
promiscuous)
of
or
pertaining
to
one
who
engages
Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
in promiscuous sexual activity, topping of high quality; excellent,
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
zonking
( zonk
overcome, overwhelm) impressively (large 47
or
great).
3. Immigration
the 21st Century.
Most slanginparticipial
adjectives of this type are used as
The Need for
an Ethical
The Canadian
Experience
..... 51
intensifying
adverbs,
orApproach.
as euphemistic
substitutes
for strong
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
expletives (i.e. bloody, fucking), exhibiting a phonological
resemblance
with the original
Examples are blinking, blooming,
3.1 World Population
Increaseterm.
.............................................................
51
chuffing (Brit.), effing ( eff variant of ef, name of the letter F,
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
representing fuck), flipping, fricking (orig. U.S.), frigging, naffing
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

1119

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

(Brit.), perishing, pissing (chiefly Brit.), sodding, steaming, stonking.


Table
of Contents
Intensifiers with an -ing ending may also originate from nouns (as
pigging Brit.) or from adjectives (as hellishing chiefly Austral. and
N.Z.).
3.2.3.16. The suffix -ish
The adjectival suffix -ish has various functions and meanings in
English. In OE it was used to form adjectives from national names:
e.g., British (OE Brittisc), English (OE Englisc), Scottish (OE
Scyttisc), etc. With the same basic meaning of appurtenance, -ish
attaches to common nouns, as in more recent boyish, girlish, and,
Opening
Considerations
and in
Executive
11
with a derogatory
meaning,
babyish,Summary
clownish,..............................
foolish, etc.
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
The suffix is now added to adjectives denoting colour (reddish,
yellowish), and, in colloquial use, to other monosyllabic adjectives
1. Ethics and Human Rights
with the meaning of the nature of, approaching the quality of,
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
somewhat
(darkish, poorish, smallish). Further examples of this
Mario Santillo
type are the colloquial plutish (orig. Austral., now chiefly U.S.)
1.1 Migrantsfrom
Rightsthe
.............................................................................
17
plutocratic,
base plute, shortened from plutocrat, and
moreish
of
food
or
drink:
that
makes
one
want
to
have
more.
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
The suffix may attach to other head classes: verbs (as in standard
1.3 Someand
Final
Reflections...................................................................
23
snappish
colloq.
peckish somewhat hungry (of a person)
peck
orig. cant.........................................................................................
eat, feed), particles (as in standard uppish) and
Bibliography
25
numerals, to denote approximate age or time (as in standard
fortyish,
ninish).
2.
Migration
Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
In
slang
use, it also attaches to adverbial phrases (as in allFabio Baggio
overish having a general sense of illness pervading the body),
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
nominal compounds (as in pound-noteish/notish Brit. affected,
2.2 Migration
in ESEA............................................................
34
pompous),
andPolicies
to such
irregular bases as altered clipped nouns
(hippish
somewhat
hypochondriacal

hip,
altered
abbreviation
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
of hypochondria), and as back-slang nouns (as in yobbish yob,
Bibliography .........................................................................................
47
characteristic
of a yob, see 3.1.3, type g).
3.2.3.17.
The suffix
3.
Immigration
in the-less
21st Century.
The
Need forsuffix
an Ethical
Canadian Experience
51
The
adjectival
-less,Approach.
accordingThe
to Marchand
(1969: 324).....
the
Christine
Baghdady, Richard
Vanderberg
negative
counterpart
of -ful,
attaches to nominal bases to convey
the3.1
privative
sense
without,
free
from (as in careless, needless;
World Population Increase .............................................................
51
cf. careful, needful). This sense is in colloquial potless (now chiefly
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
and Governance
53
Brit.)
having no money,
penniless,
obtained
from the.................
slang noun

3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54


Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

112

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

pot a large sum of money. Added to deverbal nouns of action, the


Table
of Contents
adjectival derivative takes on the sense of not to be ed (as in
countless, numberless not to be counted, numbered).
In slang, the sense without, not having has to be read
metaphorically, as in legless alluding to the physical effects of
drinking too much, and therefore referring to someone who is
drunk, esp. too drunk to stand. A likewise metaphorical reading
applies to motherless (Austral.) very poor, having no money, to
coarse shitless alluding to a state of extreme fear, and to zipless
denoting a brief and passionate sexual encounter. Some slang
derivatives
with a -less and
ending
are also
used to ..............................
intensify adjectives
Opening
Considerations
Executive
Summary
11
(asFabio
motherless
in
motherless
broke,
drunk,
stoney).
Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
3.2.3.18. The suffix -ly

1. Ethics and Human Rights


In English -ly is a suffix forming adverbs of manner, mainly from
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

adjectives,
as badly in a bad manner. With the sense in a
Mario Santillo
manner slang regularly obtains adverbs from slang adjectives
1.1 Migrants
Rights .............................................................................
17
ending
in y, changed
to i before -ly: e.g., chestily (U.S.) in a chesty
manner,
dopily
in
a
dopey
manner,
glitzily,
groovily,
hammily,
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
kookily, raunchily, spookily, wackily, etc. From an irregular
1.3 Some base
Final Reflections...................................................................
23
adjectival
(yobbish, see the adjective-forming suffix -ish
above),
slang coins
yobbishly in a loutish manner.
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
Slang adverbs may acquire the metaphorical sense unusually,
excessively,
really, extraordinarily
when
intensifiers,
as 27
in
2.
Migration Policies
and Ethics in East
and used
SouthasEast
Asia............
all-firedly
(
all-fired
infernal,
a
euphemism
for
hell-fired),
Fabio Baggio
seriously (orig. U.S.) (esp. as seriously rich), stinkingly (e.g.
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
stinkingly drunk, pretty, rich).
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

3.2.3.19. The suffix -ness


2.3English
Ethics and
Migration
Management.................................................
43
The
suffix
-ness forms
(mainly abstract) nouns from adjectives
(hardness),
participles
(drunkenness, knowingness), adjectival phrases
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
(donothingness), and (more rarely) nouns (childness), pronouns (Iness),
adverbs (nowness),
particles (outness) and numerals (oneness).
3.
Immigration
in the 21st Century.
The
Need for
an of
Ethical
Approach.isThe
..... 51
The
general
sense
the derivatives
theCanadian
condition,Experience
quality, state
of
Christine
Richard Vanderberg
being
what Baghdady,
the base denotes.
Regularly-formed
deadjectival
nouns are chestiness the
3.1
World Population slang
Increase
.............................................................
51
condition or quality of being chesty, crumbiness ( crumby lousy;
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
and Governance
.................
53
filthy),
dragginess,
glitziness,
grunginess
( grungy
grimy,
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

1139

unpleasant), kookiness, peckishness (


Table
of Contents
raunchiness, schmal(t)ziness, scuzziness,

deverbal adj peckish),


spookiness, wackiness,

yuckiness.
Nouns ending in -ness from compound adjectives are, for instance,
all-overishness (see the adj all-overish under -ish above), boneheadedness ( bone-headed thick-headed, stupid), slug-nuttiness
( slug-nutty U.S. punch-drunk), and with-it-ness ( with-it
fashionable). The noun hotsy-totsiness is from a reduplicative
adjective (i.e. hotsy-totsy comfortable, satisfactory) and yobbishness
the condition of being a hooligan is from a denominal adjective
(yobbish),Considerations
whereas hippi(e)ness
the characteristics
of a hippie 11
or
Opening
and Executive
Summary ..............................
hippies
is
from
a
noun
(hippie/-y
a
hipster;
a
beatnik).
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
3.2.3.20. The suffix -o

1. Ethics and Human Rights


The
suffix -o now widespread in English-speaking countries but
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

especially
associated with Australian English has various origins,
Mario Santillo
which deserve some diachronic explanation. In the early 16th
1.1 Migrants
Rights .............................................................................
17
century,
it mainly
represented the final syllable of Romance
borrowings
(e.g. E.
camisado
Sp. Camisada,
E. lingo Portug.
1.2 International
Instrument
for
Migrants
Defence .............................
21
lingua). In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, it represented the
1.3 Some
Reflections...................................................................
23
vowel
that Final
became
final after the shortening of words by dropping
theBibliography
syllables following
a medial o, as in memo ( memorandum),
.........................................................................................
25
and more recent (19th cent.) loco ( locomotive). Since the late
ME
period, it
has also
theand
interjections
O, and oh
2.
Migration
Policies
andrepresented
Ethics in East
South East ho,
Asia............
27
attached
to a word to form refrains or vocative expressions (e.g.
Fabio Baggio
cheerio, heave-ho, righto). A number of words occur in the second
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
half of the 19th century which appear to have their origin in the
2.2 Migration
ESEA............................................................
34
attachment
of Policies
one of inthese
interjections to a noun or adjective.
Some
of
these
are
normally
or
frequently
written
as
hyphenated
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
compounds (e.g. bottle-ho, dead-ho, smoke-ho, daddy-o, rabbit-o),
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
while
others (e.g.
milko, wino) are treated in spelling as having the
suffix -o.
3. Immigration
the 21st Century.
The earliestinexample
which shows a clear transition from one
for anisEthical
Experience
..... 51
useThe
to Need
the other
milko, Approach.
used both The
as aCanadian
milkmans
call indicating
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
that milk is available (esp. as Milk O, Milk-o) and as a slang word
for3.1milkman.
Further Increase
examples
used as interjections as well 51
as
World Population
.............................................................
nouns or adjectives are whizzo (an exclamation expressing delight,
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

114

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

something excellent), and socko (an interjection imitative of the


Table
of Contents
sound of a violent blow, a success, stunningly effective).
The -o suffix has various uses in colloquial language and slang.
In colloquial language, it is used to form exclamations by analogy
with vocative expressions, as in Whacko expressing delight or
excitement and Whammo suggesting a sudden violent blow or
surprising event, respectively from the onomatopoeic nouns whack
and wham.
In slang, the suffix is additionally used to form personal nouns
from non-personal nouns, as in milko (orig. Austral. and N.Z.),
plonko (Austral.)
( plonk
cheap wine)
an alcoholic,
rabbit-o/
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
rabbit-oh
(Austral.)
an
itinerant
seller
of
rabbits
as
food,
wino
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
(orig. U.S.) ( wine) a habitual drinker of cheap wine.
It alsoand
forms
nouns
from adjectives, as in dumbo (orig. U.S.) (
1. Ethics
Human
Rights
dumb)
slow-witted
stupid person,
pinko
(chiefly N. Amer.,
in theaSouth
AmericanorMigration
Processes
....................................
15
freq.
derog.)
( pink tending to left-wing) a socialist, saddo
Mario
Santillo
(Brit., deprec.) a person perceived as socially inadequate or
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
contemptible,
scruffo a scruffy person, sicko (U.S.) one who is
mentally
ill or Instrument
pervertedfor(cf.
sickie),Defence
single-o
(U.S., chiefly
1.2 International
Migrants
.............................
21
Criminals) a crime perpetrated without an assistant, sleazo (U.S.)
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
something sleazy, pornographic, weirdo an odd or unconventional
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
person
(cf. weirdie),
wrongo (chiefly U.S.) ( Criminals wrong
untrustworthy, unreliable) a bad, dishonest person. After
2.
Migration Policies
and Ethics
in Eastthe
and deadjectival
South East Asia............
27
cumulation,
the suffix
-so derives
nouns fatso
Fabio Baggio
(humorous)
a fat person and nutso ( nuts) a mad or crazy person
(cf.2.1nutsy
under theMigration
adjective-forming
-y below).
International
in East Asiasuffix
and South
East Asia.............. 27
Less frequently, nouns are derived from verbs, as in stingo
2.2 Migration
Policiesorin from
ESEA............................................................
34
strong
ale or beer,
deverbal nouns, as in stoppo a rest
from
work,and
(Criminals)
an escape, a get-away. The adjective
2.3 Ethics
Migration Management.................................................
43
stinko (orig. U.S.) of a very low standard, intoxicated, drunk is
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
similarly formed from a verb (stink; cf. stinkeroo).
In criminals slang, there are also the in-group verb nitto keep
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
still or quiet; stop, from another colloquial verb (nit), with the
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
opposite
sense of escape, decamp, and the adverb doggo, as in to lie
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
doggo lie quiet, remain hid, perh. from dog an informer; a traitor.
3.1
Population
Increase
51
YetWorld
the most
common
use.............................................................
of the -o suffix is to form familiar,
informal
equivalents
of
nouns
and
adjectives.
Familiar
nouns
ending
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
in o are often used as forms of address: e.g., bucko (Nautical) (
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

buck a man) a swaggering or domineering fellow, daddy-o (


Table
of Contents
daddy), kiddo ( kid) a young child, man or woman, oafo (Brit.)
( oaf a fool) a lout, a hooligan, yobbo/yobo ( yob, see
3.1.2).
Examples of informal adjectives of this type are cheapo ( adj
cheap, also reduplicated as cheapo-cheapo), and neato (chiefly N.
Amer.) that is excellent, desirable. The adjective wacko (orig. and
chiefly U.S.) crazy, mad; eccentric is from slang wack/whack,
back-formed from wacky.
The suffix preferentially attaches to truncated word-forms.
According
to the OED, and
the Executive
earliest example
of..............................
the addition of the
Opening Considerations
Summary
11
suffix
to
a
truncated
word
is
probably
beano
(second
half of 19th
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
cent., orig. Printers) ( bean-feast), followed by Australian Salvo
(Ethics
Salvationist)
a member
1.
and Human
Rights of the Salvation Army, and robbo (
Robinson)
a horse
or trap,
or its Processes
driver; a ....................................
poor horse. Since the
in the South
American
Migration
15
beginning
of the 20th century, esp. Australian and New Zealand
Mario Santillo
slang formations of this kind have become numerous: e.g., aggro (
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
aggravation/aggression),
ammo ( ammunition), combo (
combination),
Commo
( Communist),
compo .............................
( compensation),
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants Defence
21
garbo ( garbage) a dustman, a collector of rubbish, gippo/gyppo/
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
gypo ( gipsy) a gipsy, an Egyptian, jollo ( jollification),
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
journo
( journalist),
lesbo ( lesbian), metho ( methylated
spirits), muso ( musician), obbo/obo (Military) ( observation)
2.
Policies
and Ethics
in (
Eastpregnant),
and South propho
East Asia............
27
anMigration
observation
balloon,
preggo
(orig. U.S.,
Fabio Baggio
Military)
( prophylaxis), provo/Provo ( provisional) a member
of 2.1
theInternational
ProvisionalMigration
I.R.A., reffo
refugee)
a East
European
refugee,
in East(
Asia
and South
Asia..............
27
rego/reggo ( registration) motor-vehicle registration, speako
2.2 Migration
Policies a
in ESEA............................................................
34
(U.S.)
( speakeasy)
shop or bar where alcoholic liquor is sold
illegally,
( stark
naked), susso (dated) ( sustenance)
2.3 Ethicsstarko
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
state government relief paid to the unemployed, troppo ( tropic)
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
mentally ill through spending too much time (orig. on war service)
in the tropics. Some such words also display alteration of the base
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
spelling, as in arvo ( afternoon), Nasho ( National Service),
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
sammo
( sandwich; cf. sammie in 3.2.3.12), and secko ( sex) a
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
sexual pervert; a sex offender.
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53


3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

3.2.3.21. The suffix -ock


Table
of Contents
The suffix -ock originally forms diminutives (as in ME hillock a
little hill, and early ME wretchock a diminutive person, little
wretch). Most formations since the 18th century are regional (esp.
Scots), as in bittock a little bit, and lassock a little girl. Several
names of animals, esp. birds and fishes, have what appears to be the
same ending (e.g. piddock, tarrock), and are probably diminutive
formations.
In slang, esp. the British English variety, the suffix -ock is no
longer diminutive in nature, but is mainly used to form a number of
familiar, Considerations
mildly depreciative
or disrespectful
words
for people, such
Opening
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
as Fabio
fussock/fuzzock
a
fat,
unwieldy
woman,
pillock
a fool, an
Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
idiot, and wassock/wazzock (orig. northern dial.) a stupid or
annoying
person.
1.
Ethics and
Human Rights
suffixAmerican
is also present
in the
slang ....................................
verb ballock ( ball)
inThis
the South
Migration
Processes
15
reprimand
or tell off severely, and in the plural noun ballocks (and
Mario Santillo
its alterations bollocks, rollocks) meaning an absurdity; a mess,
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
also
used as an interjection to mean nonsense, or as an adjective
with
sense of naked.
1.2the
International
Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
1.3 Some
Final
Reflections...................................................................
23
3.2.3.22.
The
suffix
-s
In Bibliography
English the .........................................................................................
suffix -s is commonly combined with other suffixes,
25
esp. -y (as -sy), used in proper names (Betsy, Patsy), common nouns
(mopsy,
petsy),
and and
reduplicatives
(popsy-wopsy).
Yet
it may also
2.
Migration
Policies
Ethics in East
and South East
Asia............
27
be Fabio
used Baggio
autonomously with a hypocoristic function (as in Babs,
ducks, moms) (see Quirk et al. 1985: 1584).
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
In slang the -s suffix is peculiarly used to form denominal
2.2 Migration
in ESEA............................................................
34
adjectives
withPolicies
the general
meaning crazy, mad, or in weakened
sense,
eccentric;
wildly
enthusiastic
(about
something
or
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
someone). Examples are bananas (as in to go/drive bananas) and
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
nuts
( off ones
nut out of ones mind, insane), also used 47
in
British English as to be (dead) nuts on/upon be fond of (a person);
st Century.
3.
the 21
beImmigration
enthusiastic in
about
(a person
or thing).
The
for an in
Ethical
Approach.
As Need
remarked
section
3.1.3, The
the Canadian
-s suffix Experience
may also .....
be 51a
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
reminiscence of a previous plural suffix. For instance, in ants (see
antsy
agitated
in 3.2.3.24)
and bats (crazy), which originated
3.1 World
Population
Increase .............................................................
51
from longer phrases (i.e. to have ants in ones pants, to have bats in
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
the belfry).
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

The suffix may also attach to nominal or adjectival bases to form


Table
of Contents
nouns which refer to human skills or feelings, physical (or
imaginary) mental diseases, as in denominal guts energy, verve;
courage and deadjectival smarts (U.S.) intelligence; wits. The
formatives of this type are usually preceded by a definite article the,
as in the all-overs (chiefly U.S.) a feeling of nervousness or
unease, the shits diarrhoea, the slows an imaginary disease or
ailment accounting for slowness, and the uglies depression, bad
temper.
3.2.3.23. The suffix -ster

Opening
Considerations
andhas
Executive
Summary
11
In English
the suffix -ster
been used
in the ..............................
formation of agent-

Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini


nouns,
derived from verbs or their corresponding nouns. According
to Marchand (1969: 349), this suffix often exhibits a characteristic
1. Ethics and Human Rights
nuance of shadiness, as in crimester (organized perpetrator of
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
crimes,
his quote), drugster, gangster, etc.
Mario Santillo
Slang formations with such a nuance are boomster (U.S.) one who
1.1 Migrants
Rightsa.............................................................................
17
works
up a boom;
speculator, dopester ( dope information,
drug)
one
who
collects
information
on,
and
forecasts
the
result
of,
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
sporting events, elections, etc., one who sells or uses drugs, and
1.3 Some
Reflections...................................................................
23
mobster
(Final
the Mob
the Mafia) a member of the Mafia. The OED
states
that these.........................................................................................
formations imitate those of trade designations, from
Bibliography
25
which they derive the disparaging sense that we find, e.g., in
boomster
as Policies
compared
boomer
oneand
who
booms
or pushes 27
an
2.
Migration
andtoEthics
in East
South
East Asia............
enterprise.
Fabio Baggio
A non-disparaging sense is found in slang hipster/hepster (orig.
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
U.S.) an addict of jazz, swing music, etc..

2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

3.2.3.24. The suffix -y


2.3derivational
Ethics and Migration
43
The
suffix -yManagement.................................................
which descends from the OE -ig suffix
is
used in English
to form adjectives. Originally, it only attached
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
to nouns to provide the meaning having the qualities of, full of
st Century.
(asImmigration
in bloody, icy).
13th century, the suffix began to be used
3.
in theIn21the
Theverb-stems
Need for an to
Ethical
Approach.
The Canadian
Experience
..... do
51
with
express
the meaning
inclined
or apt to
Christine Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
something,
or giving
occasion
to a certain action (as in choky).
Since
the early
years ofIncrease
the 19th
century, it has been used still more
3.1 World
Population
.............................................................
51
freely in nonce-words designed to connote such characteristics of a
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

118

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

person or thing as call for condemnation, ridicule, or contempt (as


Table
of Contents
in beery, newspapery, piggy, etc.).
The variant -ey regularly occurs when the base ends in y (as in
skyey), or when the base ends in -e preceded by a vowel (as in
bluey, gluey). When the final -e is preceded by a consonant, there
may be variation (as in nosey/nosy).
Denominal derivatives are numerous in slang with the meaning
of, pertaining to, or characterized by . Instances are cheesy (
cheese the right thing) fine or showy, when found with the
variant -ey inferior, second-rate, crappy (orig. U.S., coarse) (
crap rubbish)
rubbishy;
dishy (..............................
dish an attractive
Opening
Considerations
andworthless,
Executive Summary
11
person)
sexually
attractive,
doggy
(
dog
style) dashing,
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
smart, dopy/-ey (orig. U.S.) ( dope drugs) sluggish or
stupefied,
with
or as Rights
with a drug, fig. stupid, drippy (orig. U.S.)
1.
Ethics and
Human
(in the
dripSouth
sentimental
drivelling,
sloppily sentimental,
Americandrivel)
Migration
Processes ....................................
15
faggoty/faggy
Mario Santillo ( faggot/fag U.S. a (male) homosexual)
homosexual, foxy (U.S.) ( fox an attractive woman) attractive,
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
desirable,
pretty, sexy, froggy ( frog a Frenchman) French,
funky
(orig. U.S.) Instrument
( funk) of
jazz or similar
music:
down-to-earth
1.2 International
for Migrants
Defence
.............................
21
and uncomplicated; emotional, gassy ( gas empty or boastful
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
talk) characterized by empty talk, gimpy (orig. U.S.) ( gimp a
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
lame
person or
leg) lame, crippled, groovy (orig. U.S.) (
groove something excellent or very satisfying) excellent, very
2.
Migration
Policies
Ethics
in East
andsubstance)
South East of
Asia............
good,
gungy/-ey
(and
gunge
any
messy
a sticky 27
or
Fabioconsistency;
Baggio
messy
mucky, hammy ( ham an ineffective or
over-emphatic
actor)
characteristic
a ham
ham acting,
2.1 International
Migration
in East Asiaofand
Southactor
East or
Asia..............
27
hippy (orig. U.S.) ( hyppie/-y a hipster) characteristic of
2.2 Migration
ESEA............................................................
34
hippies,
hoppyPolicies
(U.S.)in(
hop a narcotic drug; spec. opium)
characterized
drugs orManagement.................................................
drug-taking, hunky (orig. U.S.) ( hunk
2.3 Ethics andby
Migration
43
a sexually attractive man) attractive, handsome, jivey/-y (chiefly
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
U.S.) ( jive misleading or empty talk) phoney, pretentious,
kooky/-ie ( kook a cranky or crazy person) crazy, eccentric,
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
lippy (dial.) ( lip saucy talk, impudence) impertinent; verbose,
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
lushy/-ey
( lush a habitual drunkard) intoxicated, drunk, peachy
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
(orig. U.S.) ( peach an attractive young woman) attractive,
3.1 Worldponcy/-ey
Population(chiefly
IncreaseBrit.,
.............................................................
51
desirable,
derog.) ( ponce an effeminate
man;
a
homosexual)
affected;
homosexual,
queeny
(
queen
a
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
male homosexual) effeminate, raunchy/rancy (orig. U.S.) (
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

raunch shabbiness, grubbiness) inept; dirty, salty (U.S., Nautical)


Table
of Contents
( salt a sailor) of a sailor: hard-bitten; aggressive, schmaltzy (
Yiddish schmaltz sentimentality, emotionalism) sentimentalized,
over-emotional, sidy/-ey ( side pretentiousness, conceit)
conceited, snitty (orig. and chiefly U.S.) ( snit a state of
agitation) ill-tempered, sulky, spooky (U.S.) ( spook a spy) of
or pertaining to spies or espionage, stakey/-y (chiefly Canad.) (
stake an amount of money) well provided with money, yucky (
yuck messy or distasteful material) nasty, unpleasant, zappy (
zap liveliness, energy) lively; striking, zizzy ( zizz gaiety,
liveliness)
showy; uninhibited.
Opening
Considerations
and Executive Summary .............................. 11
Some
such
are obtained from standard nouns, such as
Fabio Baggio,adjectives
Laura Zanfrini
chesty (U.S.) having ones chest thrust out as a sign of selfimportance
and druggy
characteristic of narcotic drugs or their
1.
Ethics and Human
Rights
users.
mostAmerican
of them,Migration
the connection
with
the nominal base 15
is
in theIn
South
Processes
....................................
metaphoric,
as in dreamy (orig. U.S.) perfect, ideal, lemony
Mario Santillo
(Austral. and N.Z.) irritated, angry, mossy (U.S.) extremely
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
conservative
or reactionary; old-fashioned, rosy drunk, tipsy,
smelly
suspicious,
tasty for
sexually
Of the same
1.2 International
Instrument
Migrants attractive.
Defence .............................
21
figurative type is spooky (Surfing) of a wave: dangerous or
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
frightening, which originates from colloquial spook (a spectre,
Bibliography
......................................................................................... 25
apparition,
ghost).
It should be stressed that the adjective-forming -y suffix also
2.
Migration
Policies
and Ethics
in East
and South
Asia............
27
attaches
to plural
nouns,
as in antsy
agitated
(East
the pl.
of ant, also
Fabio Baggio
reduplicated
in antsy-pantsy), ballsy courageous; determined (
the2.1
pl.International
of ball), and
dicey risky,
(East
the Asia..............
pl. of die) (see
Migration
in Eastdangerous
Asia and South
27
3.1.3, type h, for their morphotactic analysis).
2.2
Migration
Policies
ESEA............................................................
34
Less
frequently,
theinsuffix
attaches to bases other than nouns:
e.g.,
shabby
or dirty in appearance; inferior), verb
2.3verbs
Ethics(scroungy
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
phrases (screwy to have a screw loose, crazy; eccentric; windy
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
to get the wind up, apt to get into a state of alarm), adjectives
(nutsy mad; eccentric nuts, after a cumulation with the slangy
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
suffix -s, see 3.2.3.22), adjectival phrases (wacky crazy; odd
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
outChristine
of whack
disordered, malfunctioning), and adverbs (e.g.
Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
sometimey U.S. Black and Prison variable, unstable).
3.1
World
Population suffix
Increase-y.............................................................
51
The
derivational
is sometimes conflated with the
hypocoristic
-y.
There
are
a
number
of
borderline
cases
which
seem
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
to legitimate such a conflation, such as the adjectives dotty, goofy,
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

120

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

goopy (silly, stupid) and nutty (crazy) in A person who is


Table
of Contents
wanting in the upper storey is: dotty, goofy or goopy, and You
have to be a real sour square not to love the nutty, noisy, happy,
handsome Beatles. The abbreviated type may be borderline as well,
since it often corresponds to a hypocoristic noun.
Abbreviated bases are mostly back-clippings: e.g., gutty (Jazz)
( gut-bucket a primitive, unsophisticated brand of jazz) earthy,
primitive, poopy (chiefly U.S.) ( poop a stupid or ineffectual
person, shortened from nincompoop) foolish; ineffectual, specky
( specs shortened from spectacles) bespectacled, sussy (
suspicious/suspected),
(U.S.) (
wig out
be overcome by
Opening
Considerationswiggy
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
extreme
emotion;
go
mad)
mad,
crazy.
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
Abbreviations with a quasi-hypocoristic -y suffix are grotty (
grotesque)
dirty, ugly, loony/-ey/luny ( lunatic),
1. Ethics andunpleasant,
Human Rights
porny
pornAmerican
shortened
from pornography)
pornographic (also
in the(
South
Migration
Processes ....................................
15
n),Mario
preppy
(orig. and chiefly U.S.) ( prep shortened from
Santillo
preparatory) of or relating to a student at a prep school (also n),
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
Proddy
(chiefly Ir., derog.) ( Prod shortened from Protestant; cf.
The
and The Instrument
Proddy Dogs
the Catholics
and
the Protestants).
1.2Cats
International
for Migrants
Defence
.............................
21
The base may be a blend, as in hokey (orig. U.S.) ( hokum, a
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
blend of hocus-pocus and bunkum, U.S., Theatrical) sentimental,
Bibliography .........................................................................................
25
melodramatic,
artificial, and scuzzy (orig. and chiefly N. Amer.)
( scuzz, a blend of scum and fuzz, or a corrupted abbrev. of
2.
Migrationdisgusting
Policies andinEthics
in East and
South East
Asia............
27
disgusting)
appearance,
behaviour,
etc..
It may also
Baggio
be Fabio
clipped
from a reduplicative formation, as in the American
adjective
zooty Migration
(strikingly)
the rhyming
2.1 International
in Eastfashionable,
Asia and Southfrom
East Asia..............
27
reduplicative zoot suit. A reversed base is in the adjective yobby
2.2 Migration
Policies
34
loutish,
from yob
(seein ESEA............................................................
3.1.3, type g).
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43

3.2.4. Final combining forms

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47

Final combining forms are traditionally viewed as pseudo- or semisuffixes


occurring
neoclassical
3.
Immigration
in thein21st
Century. compounds (Marchand 1969,
Bauer
e.g.,
(science
of),The
an anglicised
adaptation of
The 1983):
Need for
an -logy
Ethical
Approach.
Canadian Experience
.....Gr.
51
loga
via French
use,Richard
as inVanderberg
pharmacology, psychology, sociology,
Christine
Baghdady,
etc.9 In modern English there are two extra types of combining
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
andbos,
Governance
.................
53
9 Initial
combining forms
(e.g. bio- life,
from Gr.
as in biogenetic)
are not
included
in this description
because
for the
topic Assessment
under investigation.
3.3 International
Migration
in irrelevant
Canada: An
Ethical
........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

forms, namely truncated forms of model words (e.g. -holic


Table
of Contents
alcoholic, as in spendaholic), and parts of model words, which
happen to be established morpheme-forms (e.g. -gate Watergate,
as in Yuppiegate) (see Warren 1990, Fradin 2000, Plag 2003,
Mattiello 2007b).
The modern types are found in slang as well, and, since some of
them have acquired an autonomous morphological status, their
formation mechanism has been compared to that of proper
composition: e.g., by Dressler (2000), who classifies them as cases
of marginal morphology. It remains true, however, that combining
forms develop
a novel
is ..............................
connected to, but
Opening
Considerations
andmeaning
Executivewhich
Summary
11
independent
from
that
of
the
original
full
word
(cf. Amer. -burger
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
and hamburger explained below).
1. Ethics and Human Rights
3.2.4.1. The combining form -(a)licious
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

The
final combining form -alicious ( delicious), with a variant
Mario Santillo
-licious (esp. after a vowel or y), is used in American slang to form
1.1 Migrants
.............................................................................
adjectives
withRights
the meaning
embodying the qualities denoted 17
or
implied
by
the
first
element
to
a
delightful
or
attractive
degree.
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
Examples of denominal adjectives are babelicious/babe-alicious
Some
Reflections...................................................................
23
(1.3babe
aFinal
girl or
woman) of a woman or girl: sexually attractive,
gorgeous,
bootylicious
( booty the buttocks) esp. of a woman,
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
often with reference to the buttocks: sexy; shapely, and other
nonce-words,
such and
as Ethics
dog-licious,
goodylicious,
2.
Migration Policies
in East and
South East groovalicious,
Asia............ 27
hunkalicious
and
spooklicious
(recorded
in
the OED).
Fabio Baggio
2.1 International
Migration
East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
3.2.4.2.
The combining
formin-burger
The
form -burger,
whose origin is from the G. city 34
of
2.2combining
Migration Policies
in ESEA............................................................
Hamburg, reanalysed as ham + burger by folk etymology even if
2.3 Ethics
Migration
there
is noand
ham
in the Management.................................................
hamburger (Marchand 1969: 213) 43
is
commonly
used
in
English
as
the
second
element
in
compounds
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
denoting types of hamburgers (e.g. beefburger, cheeseburger,
10 nutburger,
fishburger,
3.
Immigration
in the 21stvegeburger
Century. vegetable, etc.).
The
an early
Ethical1980s,
Approach.
Canadian
51
YetNeed
sinceforthe
it hasThe
also
formed Experience
American .....
slang
Christine
Richard
Vanderberg
words
with Baghdady,
the meaning
people
characterized by the initial element.
The
is probably
mouseburger,
coined by Gurley Brown 51
to
3.1progenitor
World Population
Increase
.............................................................
denote a person who does not have a particularly good-looking
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53

10 See Warren (1990: 119) for the semantic analysis of cheeseburger vs. fishburger.

3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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122

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9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

appearance or high I.Q., but can nevertheless achieve professional


Table
of Contents
and personal success through determination. Since then, it has been
attached to various bases to obtain similar humorous formations, such
as cheerfulburger, nothingburger and psychoburger.
3.2.4.3. The combining form -fest
The American English combining form -fest (from G. Fest
festival, as in Oktoberfest, Sngerfest and Turnfest), is interpreted
as an allomorph of E. feast. It attaches to nouns or verbs to denote
a festival or special occasion, qualified by the accompanying
word, as in hen fest, songfest an informal session of group-singing,
Opening
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
talk fest, Considerations
and bookfest, eatfest,
smokefest,
stuntfest,
walkfest reported
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
in Marchand (1969: 212).
This combining form is analogously used in American slang
1. Ethics and Human Rights
gabfest ( gab talk) a gathering for talk; a prolonged conference
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
or Mario
conversation,
and slug-fest ( v slug hit) a hard-hitting contest,
Santillo
spec. in boxing and baseball.
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17

3.2.4.4. The combining form -ville


1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
The
final combining form -ville (from F. ville town) is appended
to 1.3
nouns
frequently have a plural suffix) or adjectives 23
to
Some(which
Final Reflections...................................................................
form the names of fictitious places with reference to a particular
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
(often unpleasant) quality.
In American
slang,
anEthics
adjectival
derivative
withEast
-ville
is Dullsville
2. Migration
Policies
and
in East
and South
Asia............
27
anFabio
imaginary
town
characterized
by
extreme
dullness
or
boredom,
Baggio
and nominal ones are Cubesville denoting a group or set of
2.1 International
Migration
in East Asia and
South East
Asia.............. 27
extremely
conventional
or conservative
persons,
Endsville/Endville
the
things or people, Niggerville, used 34
in
2.2imaginary
Migration home
Policiesofingood
ESEA............................................................
the negative sense of a neighbourhood with predominantly black
2.3 Ethics (cf.
and Migration
Management.................................................
residents
Niggertown),
and Squaresville, a synonym 43
of
Dullsville
(see
also
Bauerle
1960).
But
there
are
other
jocular
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
nonce-formations reported in the OED, such as Boneheadville (e.g.
ImImmigration
telling youinyoure
theCentury.
biggest bonehead from Boneheadville),
3.
the 21st
The Need for an Ethical Approach.
The Canadian
Experience
.....out
51
Jaguar-threepointfoursville
(e.g. It offers
an enjoyable
evening
Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
in Christine
Jaguar-threepointfoursville),
etc.
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

3.2.5. Infixation
Table
of Contents

Infixation is the process whereby an affix (called an infix) is


inserted in the middle of a word. Morphologists generally agree that
English has no infixes, other than within extra-grammatical
morphology of inserting expletives into words for additional
emphasis, as in absolutely
abso-blooming-lutely (Aronoff 1976,
Siegel 1979, Bauer 1983, Plag 2003, Dressler 2005). McCarthy
(1982) relevantly observes that there are some phonological
constraints on expletive infixes: first, they must precede a vowel
bearing some degree of stress, and, second, they must fall to the left
Opening
Considerationsconsonant
and Executive
Summary
of the syllable-initial
cluster.
Thus, ..............................
fan-fuckin-tastic 11
is
Fabio but
Baggio,
Laura Zanfrini and *fa-fuckin-ntastic are not.
correct,
*fant-fuckin-astic
The infixation process is frequent in slang, its most common
1.
Ethics and
Human
Rights
expletive
infixes
being
-bally-, -blessed-, -bloody-, -blooming- and
in
the
South
American
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
-fucking-, often as -fuckin(pronounced
[n] rather
than [] after the
Mario Santillo
dropping of final g). The infixed base may be an adjective (e.g.
1.1 Migrantsfan-bloody-tastic),
Rights .............................................................................
fantastic
an adverb (e.g. absolutely 17
abso-bally-lutely,
perhaps
per-bloody-haps),
a verb (e.g.
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
advance
ad-bloody-vance), a noun (e.g. defence
de-fuckin1.3 Some
Final Reflections...................................................................
23
fence),
a pronoun
(e.g. nobody
no-bloody-body in McGraths
1978
Yobbo Nowt,
yourself
your-bloody-self), or an exclamation
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
(e.g. Jesus Christ
Jesus-fucking-Christ in A Scanner Darkly
2006).
In some
cases,and
theEthics
infix is
intoEast
the Asia............
word but after
2.
Migration
Policies
in not
Eastinserted
and South
27
theFabio
prefix
(e.g.
un-believable
un-fuckin-believable,
un-touchable
Baggio
un-fucking-touchable in COLT).
2.1
International
Migration
in East
Asia and
South
East Asia..............
27
The
infix -bloodyis also
in jocular
triple
bloody
glazing (after
double-glazing),
in blasphemous
Christ all bloody mighty (
2.2 Migration Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
Christ Almighty) (both from The Full Monty 1997), and in Jehovah
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
bloody Witnesses (from Mickey Blue Eyes 1999).11 Most such
Bibliography
47
formations
are.........................................................................................
anyway produced spontaneously by speakers, and
often remain nonce-words,12 such as unfuckingtouchable, occurring
3.
Immigration
in the 21st Century.
only
once in COLT.
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
11 3.1
Population
Increase
See World
Wierzbicka
(2002) and
Biscetti.............................................................
(2004) for the pragmatic meaning of bloody.51
12 Bauer (2001: 38-39) draws a distinction between nonce-word and neologism

3.2 Urbanization,
and
Governance
53
according
to which the International
former fails toMigration
become part
of the
norm, and .................
is not generally
seen
part of the lexicographers
brief,
but theAn
reverse
is true
for the latter.
3.3asInternational
Migration in
Canada:
Ethical
Assessment
........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

124

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9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

3.2.6. Conversion
Table
of Contents

Conversion (also called zero-derivation, zero-affixation or


functional shift in the literature) is a process consisting of the
syntactic change of a word without any corresponding formal
change (e.g. v run
n run, n bottle
v bottle). Thus, since there
is no overt marker distinguishing the base from the derivative, this
process poses the problem of determining which member of the
couple comes first. The question is often complicated, but at least
two criteria may be used to establish the antecedence of the base
over its derivative. First, the diachronic criterion, according to
Opening
Considerations
Executive
..............................
11
which the
base should and
be the
earlierSummary
word. Second,
the semantic
Fabio Baggio,
Zanfrini
criterion,
whichLaura
imposes
that the derivative is the word whose
meaning includes the base word (cf. directionality of conversion
1.
and Human
in Ethics
Plag 2003:
108). Rights
inMarchand
the South (1969:
American
Migration
Processes
....................................
361)
distinguishes
the most
common types 15
of
Mario
Santillo
standard English conversion, namely, from noun into verb (n bridge
v bridge)
vice .............................................................................
versa (v look
n look), from adjective into
1.1
MigrantsorRights
17
verb (adj idle
v idle), and from particle into verb (adv out
v
1.2
International
Instrument
for
Migrants
Defence
.............................
21
out).
Besides
the standard
types, in slang we distinguish some extra
1.3
Some Final
Reflections...................................................................
23
types. For instance, nouns may also be obtained from adjectives
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
(busy, queer), adverbs (down), proper names (Jack, Jane), numerals
(forty), pronouns (it) and interjections (wow), adjectives may be
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
obtained
from nouns (cuckoo, shoe), prepositions (on), and
Fabio Baggio
combining forms (mega), and adverbs may be, in turn, obtained
2.1 prepositions
International Migration
East Asia and
SouthFor
Eastalmost
Asia..............
27
from
(inside) orinadjectives
(dead).
any type,
we2.2also
distinguish
two
main subtypes, according to whether the
Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
base belongs to standard English or English slang. What follows is
Ethics andofMigration
Management.................................................
43
an2.3
overview
the slang
illustrative types and subtypes in the
formation
of verbs,
nouns, adjectives and adverbs.
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
3.2.6.1.
Verbs in the 21st Century.
3.
Immigration
Slang
verbs
derived
by aApproach.
zero affixThe
are Canadian
from nouns,
adjectives
or
The Need for
an Ethical
Experience
..... 51
adverbs.
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

3.1 World
Population
.............................................................
51
3.2.6.1.1.
The
pattern Increase
from nouns
is extremely frequent. Some are
nouns of standard English: e.g., oil bribe, souvenir (orig. Military)
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
take as a souvenir; steal, submarine (U.S.) put out of action in
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

an underhand or covert way, word (Austral.) speak to; pass word


Table
of Contents
to, and, from a compound noun, moonlight (orig. U.S.) do paid
work in addition to ones regular employment.
For the most part, however, they are slang nouns, as in chicken
(orig. U.S.) ( chicken cowardly person) fail to act from motives
of cowardice, chin (U.S.) ( chin a talk; conversation) chat,
chatter, coke (orig. U.S.) ( coke cocaine) drug oneself with
cocaine, dope (orig. U.S.) ( dope narcotics) stupefy with a
drug, fag (U.S.) ( fag a cigarette) smoke; supply with a
cigarette, funk ( funk cowering fear) flinch or shrink through
fear, goof
( goof a mistake)
make
a mistake,
graft ( graft
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
work,
esp.
hard
work)
work
hard,
grass
(
grass
a police
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
informer) betray (someone); inform the police about (someone),
heist
(orig.
(Rights
heist a hold-up, a robbery) hold up, rob,
1.
Ethics
andU.S.)
Human
steal,
(American
jazz sexual
intercourse)
sexual intercourse
in thejazz
South
Migration
Processeshave
....................................
15
(with),
jive (orig. U.S.) ( jive talk or conversation; spec.
Mario Santillo
misleading) mislead; talk nonsense, jug ( jug a prison) shut
Rights ............................................................................. 17
up1.1
in Migrants
jail; imprison,
naughty (Austral. and N.Z., rare) ( naughty
an1.2actInternational
of sexual intercourse)
sexual
intercourse
with, pansy
Instrument forhave
Migrants
Defence
.............................
21
( pansy a male homosexual; an effeminate man) clothe or
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
adorn in an affected or effeminate manner, rap ( rap a criminal
Bibliographycharge,
.........................................................................................
25
accusation)
prosecute, rocket (orig. Military) ( rocket
a severe reprimand) reprimand severely, shelf (Austral.) (
2.
Migration
Policies
and Ethics
in Eastupon,
and South
East(
Asia............
27
shelf
a police
informer)
inform
speed
speed an
Fabio Baggio drug) be under the influence of an amphetamine
amphetamine
drug.
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
Some such converted words are compound verbs derived from a
2.2 Migration
in ESEA............................................................
34
complex
noun,Policies
therefore
considered pseudo-compounds by
Marchand
101; cf.Management.................................................
3.2.1.3.4 here). Some examples include
2.3 Ethics(1969:
and Migration
43
fat-mouth (U.S.) ( fat-mouth one who talks extravagantly) talk
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
a great deal about something, freebase (orig. U.S.) ( freebase
cocaine purified by heating with ether) make a freebase of
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
(cocaine), king-hit (Austral.) ( king-hit a knock-out blow)
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
punch
hard or knock out, mainline (orig. U.S.) ( main line a
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
principal vein, into which drugs can readily be injected) inject a
3.1 intravenously,
World Populationsin-bin
Increase(orig.
.............................................................
51
drug
Austral., Sport) ( sin-bin an
area
set
aside
for
players
temporarily
withdrawn
from
a
game)
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
send (a player) off the field.
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

126

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Verbs converted from irregular nominal bases are especially


Table
of Contents
significant: e.g., O.D. (orig. U.S.) take an overdose of a drug,
from the initialism O.D., and snafu mess up, play havoc with,
from the acronym snafu ( situation normal: all fouled/fucked up).
3.2.6.1.2. The patterns from adjectives and adverbs are less
common. Verbs from standard adjectives are special work as a
special correspondent for a newspaper, attend continuously to (a
single patient), and total (chiefly N. Amer.) damage beyond repair
(esp. a motor vehicle, in an accident), whereas hip (orig. U.S.)
inform is from a slang adjective (hip well-informed).
Opening
Summary
..............................
11
VerbsConsiderations
from adverbs and
are Executive
fully commit
(a person)
for trial, off
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
(chiefly U.S.) turn off, shut down, kill, and out (Boxing) knock
out or defeat (an opponent), but also (orig. U.S.) expose the
1. Ethics and Human Rights
undeclared homosexuality of (esp. a prominent or public figure).
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

Mario Nouns
Santillo
3.2.6.2.
Converted
nouns
may.............................................................................
be derived from a variety of base categories,
1.1 Migrants
Rights
17
verbs and adjectives being the most frequent.

1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

3.2.6.2.1.
noun pattern is found uniquely with slang
1.3 SomeThe
Finalverb
Reflections...................................................................
23
bases: e.g., grind/lay ( v grind/lay) (an act of) sexual intercourse,
Bibliography
and
pop ( v.........................................................................................
pop) an injection of a narcotic drug. The base 25
is
complex (i.e. a phrasal verb) in clean-up (orig. U.S.) a profit; an
2.
Migrationfinancial
Policies and
Ethicscome-on
in East and
South
East
Asia............
exceptional
success,
(orig.
U.S.)
(the
victim of)27a
Fabio Baggio
swindler; an inducement, cut-out a person acting as a middle-man,
esp.
espionage,
drop-inin(U.S.)
something
is easy; easy
2.1in
International
Migration
East Asia
and Southwhich
East Asia..............
27
money, freak-out an intense emotional experience, esp. one
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
resulting from the use of hallucinatory drugs, hang-out a residence;
2.3 Ethics(Amer.
and Migration
Management.................................................
a lodging,
University)
a feast; an entertainment, hash-up 43
a
hastily
cooked.........................................................................................
meal, have-on (Farmer) a swindle; a take-in, hopBibliography
47
over (Army) an assault, knock-down something overpowering, e.g.
strong
liquor, (U.S.,
Austral.
and N.Z.) an introduction, knock-off
st Century.
3.
Immigration
in the 21
a The
robbery,
nosh-up
(Brit.)
a hearty
or lavishExperience
meal, pay-off
Need for an Ethical Approach.
The Canadian
..... 51
(Criminals)
the
proceeds
of
a
criminal
operation,
pig-out (orig.
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
U.S.) a bout of excessive eating; a feast, poke-out (U.S.) a parcel of
3.1 given
World to
Population
.............................................................
51
food
a tramp;Increase
a lunch,
rave-up a lively party, ready-up
(Austral.)
a conspiracy
or swindle,
ride-out
(Jazz) a final
chorus,
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
and Governance
.................
53
ring-in (Austral.) a fraudulent substitution, roll-up (orig. Prisoners)
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
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3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

a hand-rolled cigarette, rough-up an informal encounter or


Table
of Contents
contest, rub-out (U.S.) a murder, an assassination, run-in
(Criminals) a hiding place for stolen goods, sit-down (N. Amer.,
Tramps) a free sit-down meal, smoke-up (U.S.) an official notice
that a students work is not up to the required standard, sort-out a
fight or dispute, wipe-out (Surfing) a fall from ones surfboard as
a result of a collision with another surfer or a wave.
3.2.6.2.2. Nouns from standard adjectives represent a rather
frequent pattern, even if the semantic relation between onset and
outset is sometimes metaphorical or opaque: e.g., busy a detective,
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
..............................
11
frail (chiefly
U.S.) a woman,
mad Summary
(chiefly U.S.)
fury, anger,
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
mental a person who is mentally ill, moody (Brit., orig.
Criminals) flattery or lies intended to persuade or elicit
1. Ethics and Human Rights
compliance, previous (Brit., Criminals) a criminal record, ready
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
ready
money, cash, single (U.S.) a one-dollar bill, and verbal
Mario Santillo
insult or abuse.
1.1
Migrants
Rights .............................................................................
17
The
same pattern
with slang bases is found in gaga ( gaga
doting,
exhibiting
senile
decay;
mad)
a
doting
or
senile
person;
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21a
madman, grey ( grey white-skinned) a white-skinned person,
1.3queer
Some Final
Reflections...................................................................
23
and
( queer
homosexual) a (usu. male) homosexual,
which,
by contrast,
display a transparent onset-outset relation.
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
3.2.6.2.3.
AnPolicies
exclusive
provided
by Asia............
the shift from
2.
Migration
and slang
Ethicspattern
in East is
and
South East
27

proper
Fabionames
Baggio into common nouns. The name may be a family or
Christian name: e.g., Jane/jane (orig. U.S.) a woman, girl,
2.1 International
East Asia
and South
EastaAsia..............
27
girlfriend,
jasperMigration
(U.S.) ainperson,
fellow,
Jones
drug addicts
habit,
(U.S.) symptoms
of withdrawal from a drug, any intense
2.2 Migration
Policies in ESEA............................................................
34
craving or desire, Mary (Austral.) a woman, esp. an Aboriginal
2.3 Ethicsroscoe
and Migration
woman,
(U.S.) Management.................................................
a gun, and peter, with a variety 43
of
meanings
ranging
from
cant
portmanteau,
trunk,
or
other
piece
of
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
baggage to Criminals slang a safe or cash box, and from
st Century.
Australian
a cell
in a21
prison
to American slang a hypnotic drug.
3.
Immigration
in the
The
Ethical
Approach.inThe
Canadian
Experience
..... 51
TheNeed
shiftforis an
from
a nickname
Jack
( John
or James)
a
Christine Baghdady,
Richard
policeman
or detective
andVanderberg
Joe (Canad.) ( Joseph) a French
Canadian
other examples
with the -ie/-y suffix in 3.2.3.12).51
3.1 World(cf.
Population
Increase .............................................................
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
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2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

128

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

3.2.6.2.4. Another distinctive pattern is adverb


noun, as in down
Table
of Contents
a depressant or tranquillizing drug, in an introduction to someone
of power, fame, or authority, out an outpatient department in a
hospital, outside the world existing beyond a prison, up a
stimulant drug (esp. an amphetamine), (U.S.) a prospective
customer, and, from the comparative of soon, sooner (U.S.) one
who acts prematurely, (chiefly Austral.) an idler, shirker.
3.2.6.2.5. Less frequent but equally distinctive slang bases are
numerals (e.g. forty a thief, sharper, thirty chiefly Journalistic the
last sheet, word, or line of copy or of a despatch), interjections
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
..............................
11
(e.g. wow
a sensational
success),Summary
pronouns
(e.g. it sexual
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
intercourse), or prefixes (e.g. ex a former husband, wife or lover;
cf. ex-wife).
1. Ethics and Human Rights
in the Adjectives
South American
Migration Processes .................................... 15
3.2.6.3.
and adverbs

Mario Santillo
Conversions
into adjectives and adverbs are quite rare but are
attested
in
slang.
Adjectives,
for instance, may be obtained from
1.1 Migrants Rights
.............................................................................
17
nouns (e.g. shoe conforming to the dress, behaviour, or attitudes of
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
students
at exclusive educational establishments, cuckoo crazy
cuckoo
a silly
from prepositions (on under the influence
1.3 Some
Finalperson),
Reflections...................................................................
23
of drink or drugs), or, unusually, from combining forms, as in
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
mega huge, great, substantial, from the classical combining form
mega(cf. megastar).
2.
Migration
Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
Adverbs
are mostly derived from adjectives, especially when
Fabio Baggio
conveying an intensified sense (e.g. dead utterly, completely,
2.1 International
Migration in
andbeSouth
Asia..............
27
dirty
very, exceedingly),
orEast
theyAsia
may
fromEast
prepositions
(e.g.
inside
in prison;
cf. outside
above).
2.2 Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34

2.3 Ethics
and Migration Management................................................. 43
3.2.7.
Back-formation
Bibliography .........................................................................................
47
Back-formation
(called backderivation by Marchand 1969: 391)
is a rather infrequent mechanism in standard English. According to
st Century.
3.
Immigration
in the
Marchand
(1969),
this21mechanism
has only diachronic relevance: it
Needthrough
for an Ethical
Approach.
The Canadian
.....the
51
is The
indeed
a diachronic
approach
that weExperience
may derive
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
verb peddle (1532) from the noun peddler, pedlar (1377) (see
Aronoff
1976:
27). Bauer
238) rather considers back3.1 World
Population
Increase(1988a:
.............................................................
51
formation as a special case of clipping, and redefines it as the
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

formation of words by the deletion of actual or supposed affixes in


Table
of Contents
longer words.
In line with Bauer (1988a) and Plag (2003), I consider backformation the process of extraction of a new (simple or compound)
word from a non-existent base, which, however, is recreated
analogically. For example, editor appears to be a derivative from a
non-existent base edit, which is created by analogy with, e.g., (v)
confess ( confessor) or (v) baby-sit ( baby-sitter).
This word-formation process is quite frequent in slang. Examples
mainly include verbs back-formed from nouns (baby-snatch babysnatcher),Considerations
or, rarely, from
(lay back..............................
laid-back), and
Opening
and adjectives
Executive Summary
11
nouns
back-derived
from
adjectives
(with
-y,
-ed
or
-ish endings), as
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
in dill ( dilly), pea-brain ( pea-brained), Yid ( Yiddish).
Remarkably,
slang may
also delete a word part which does not
1.
Ethics and Human
Rights
correspond
to American
any suffix,Migration
as in (v) Processes
hoke ( ....................................
hokum) (see 3.2.7.1).
in the South
15
A wider
illustration of these patterns is given below.
Mario Santillo
1.1 Migrants
3.2.7.1.
Verbs Rights ............................................................................. 17
Slang
verbs
back-formed
from
nouns Defence
generally
delete the -er
1.2 International
Instrument for
Migrants
.............................
21
agentive suffix, as in grice ( gricer a railway enthusiast), hook
1.3 Some
Final
23
(chiefly
U.S.)
(Reflections...................................................................
hooker a prostitute) solicit as a prostitute, ring
(Austral.)
( ringer
the fastest shearer in a shed) beat (a shedful
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
of men) at sheep-shearing, and swamp (Austral.) ( swamper one
who
obtains Policies
a lift) and
make
(ones
way)
obtaining
a lift from27a
2.
Migration
Ethics
in East
andbySouth
East Asia............
traveller.
This
type
is
also
found
with
compound
bases,
such as
Fabio Baggio
baby-snatcher and gold-digger, which respectively back-form
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
baby-snatch enter into an amorous relationship with a much
2.2 Migration
Policies
ESEA............................................................
34
younger
member
of theinopposite
sex and gold-dig extract money
from.
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
As anticipated, the verb hoke (Theatrical) overplay (a part) is
Bibliography
obtained
from .........................................................................................
hokum speech, action, etc., on the stage, designed 47
to
make a sentimental or melodramatic appeal to an audience. Yet
st Century.
3.
Immigration
the 21in
there
is no -uminsuffix
English, hokum being a blend ( hocusThe and
Needbunkum)
for an Ethical
The Canadian
pocus
rather Approach.
than a suffixed
word. Experience ..... 51
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
Verbs from adjectives are obtained by substituting the inflected
form
of the Population
verb withIncrease
its uninflected
equivalent form, as in sozzle
3.1 World
.............................................................
51
imbibe intoxicating drink, deleting the -ed suffix from sozzled
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

130

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

intoxicated, drunk, or in lay


Table
of Contents
nothing, relax.

back ( laid-back relaxed) do

3.2.7.2. Nouns
Slang nouns are usually back-formed from adjectives with an -y
suffix, which is deleted in dill (Austral. and N.Z.) ( dilly
foolish, prob. a blend from daft + silly) a fool or simpleton,
dinge ( dingy) dinginess, drear ( dreary) a dreary person,
flake (chiefly U.S.) ( flaky crazy; feeble-minded) one who is
liable to act in an eccentric or crazy manner, glitz (orig. and chiefly
N. Amer.) ( glitzy extravagant) an extravagant but superficial
Opening
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
display, Considerations
grot (Brit. and and
Austral.)
( grotty
unpleasant,
shortened
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
from grotesque) an unpleasant, dirty, or ugly person, grunge
(chiefly N. Amer.) ( grungy unpleasant, bad) someone or
1. Ethics and Human Rights
something that is repugnant or odious, lair/lare (Austral.) (
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
lairy/leary
flashily dressed; vulgar) a flashily dressed man, one
Mario Santillo
who shows off, shonk (Austral.) ( shonky unreliable,
1.1 Migrants
.............................................................................
17
dishonest)
oneRights
engaged
in irregular or illegal business activities,
sleaze
(
sleazy
dilapidated;
sordid)
squalor;
dilapidation,
spike
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
( spiky of a particularly ritualistic or High-Church Anglican
1.3 Some Final
Reflections...................................................................
23
character)
an Anglican
who practises Anglo-Catholic ritual and
observances.
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
Less common types are from adjectives ending in -ed (e.g. peabrain
pea-brained,
aEthics
stupidinperson;
a fool),
or inAsia............
-ish (e.g. Yid
2. Migration
Policies and
East and
South East
27
Fabio
Yiddish,
a
(usu.
offensive)
name
for
a
Jew).
Baggio
Sometimes slang bases back-form more than one derivative. For
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
instance, the slang agent-noun joy-popper (orig. U.S.) an
2.2 Migration
in ESEA............................................................
34
occasional
takerPolicies
of illegal
drugs, back-forms, by deletion of the -er
suffix,
the
corresponding
verb
joy-pop
and
also
the
noun
joy-pop
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
(an inhalation or injection of) a drug. Similarly, the slang
Bibliography
adjective
rorty.........................................................................................
(orig. Londoners) coarse, earthy back-forms, by 47
-y
deletion, the noun rort a trick; a fraud, and the corresponding verb
3.
Immigration
in theshout
21st Century.
(complain
loudly;
abuse). However, such cases may also
The Need
for an Ethical
Approach.
The Canadian
involve
conversions
(v joy-pop
n joy-pop;
n rortExperience
v rort). ..... 51
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
Some cases still remain of uncertain attribution, although, from a
diachronic
semantic
point .............................................................
of view, they seem to be classifiable
3.1 Worldand
Population
Increase
51
as back-formations: e.g., crumb (1918) ( crumby 1859 dirty,
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

untidy) a lousy or filthy person, (v) duff (1869, Austral.,


Table
of Contents
Thieves) ( duffer 1851) steal (cattle), altering the brands.
3.2.8. Reduplicatives
In Merlini Barbaresis (forthcoming) classification, English
reduplicatives (or echo-words) belong to four main patterns:
Ablaut (or apophonic) reduplicatives, exhibiting vowel
gradation (i.e. a systematic alternation of the stressed vowel),
as in chit-chat, tick-tock;
Rhyming
reduplicatives,
exhibiting
rhyming
constituents
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
apophony
of the initial consonant, as in fuzzy-wuzzy;
Fabioand
Baggio,
Laura Zanfrini

Rhyming compounds, in which both bases are meaningful,

1. Ethics
Human
Rights
asand
in funny
bunny;
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

(or exact) reduplicatives, in which the two constituents


MarioCopy
Santillo
are identical, as in bye-bye.

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17

Slang reduplicatives are classifiable according to the same criteria.

1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

3.2.8.1.
Ablaut reduplicatives
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
English ablaut reduplicatives may be obtained from either a leftBibliography
.........................................................................................
25
hand
(handy-dandy)
or right-hand base (dilly-dally), or have no
existing base at all, as in zig-zag, with the two vowels suggesting
2.
Policies
and Ethics
East productive
and South East
Asia............
27
theMigration
two different
directions.
Theinmost
vowel
alternations
Fabio Baggio
are //~// and //~//, as in slip-slap and ping pong (Marchand
2.1 International
in East
Asia English
and Southablaut
East Asia..............
27
1969:
429, BauerMigration
1983: 213).
Many
reduplicatives
are2.2
slang
combinations.
Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
Slang apophonic combinations based on the first element
2.3 Ethics
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
include
ding-dong
a heated
argument; a quarrel and nig-nog (
nigger)
a black
or dark-skinned person, whereas the elements are
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
unexplained in jim-jams delirium tremens, ning-nong (Austral.
and
N.Z.) a fool,
a stupid
person (cf. nigmenog a fool, an idiot),
3.
Immigration
in the
21st Century.
tick-tack
applied
to
a
system
of telegraphy,
(Military,
The Need for an Ethical Approach.
The Canadianzig-zag
Experience
..... 51
chiefly
U.S.)
drunk.Richard Vanderberg
Christine
Baghdady,
3.1 World
Population
Increase ............................................................. 51
3.2.8.2.
Rhyming
reduplicatives
English
rhyming
reduplicatives
are twin
consisting
of two
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration
andforms
Governance
.................
53
rhyming elements, one of which reproduces the other by changing
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

132

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

its initial consonant. Rhyme is mainly obtained via familiarity


Table
of Contents
suffixes (e.g. -ie/-y, -sie/-sy, -ers, -dy or -ty), which playfully extend
the bases.
The largest part of slang twin forms have the first member as
base: e.g., argy-bargy ( argue) disputatious argument, arty-farty/
artsy-fartsy ( art) pretentiously artistic, easy-peasy (orig. and
chiefly Brit., Childrens) extremely easy, very simple, jeeperscreepers ( Jesus) an exclamation of surprise or enthusiasm,
killer-diller (orig. U.S.) ( killer) an impressive, formidable, or
excellent person or thing, pee-wee (Childrens) an act of
urinationConsiderations
(cf. wee-wee),
(Brit.) ..............................
( rump) sexual
Opening
andrumpy-pumpy
Executive Summary
11
intercourse,
tootsie-wootsie
or
tootsy-wootsy
(chiefly
U.S.) (
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
toots a woman) a woman, a girl; a sweetheart, wingding (U.S.)
a Ethics
fit or and
spasm,
a wild
party. The base is an initialism in okey1.
Human
Rights
dokey
(
O.K.).
in the
South
American Migration Processes .................................... 15
The base
is or underlies the second member only in nitty-gritty
Mario
Santillo
(U.S.) ( gritty) the realities or practical details of a matter, and
Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
in 1.1
zoot
suit (orig. U.S.) type of mans suit of exaggerated style
popular
in the 1940s.
1.2 International
Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
Twin words formed by merely fanciful sound clusters, and
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
therefore entirely unmotivated by linguistic signs, include hankyBibliography
.........................................................................................
25
panky
(prob. related
to hocus pocus) jugglery; trickery, heebiejeebie(s) (orig. U.S.) a feeling of discomfort, apprehension, or
2.
Migration hotsy-totsy
Policies and(coined
Ethics by
in East
and South
East Asia............
27
depression,
an Amer.
cartoonist)
comfortable,
Fabio Baggio
satisfactory,
ricky-ticky of musical rhythm: repetitive, monotonous,
soogee-moogee
(Nautical)
used
cleaning
paintwork and
2.1 International
Migrationainmixture
East Asia
andfor
South
East Asia..............
27
woodwork on ships.
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

3.2.8.3.
Rhyming
compounds
2.3 Ethics
and Migration
Management................................................. 43
Rhyming compounds are distinguished from the afore-mentioned
Bibliography
47
type
because, .........................................................................................
rather than having one meaningful base (the other
being its rhyme gemination), they are motivated by two bases. On
3.
the are
21stalso
Century.
theImmigration
other hand, in
they
distinguished from regular compounds
The
Need
for
an
Ethical
Thetwo
Canadian
Experience
51
because the relationship Approach.
between the
bases is
different .....
from
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
that induced by canonical rules of compounding, and no syntactic
paraphrase
identifiable.
3.1 WorldisPopulation
Increase ............................................................. 51
Slang reduplicative rhyming compounds are illustrated, for
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
example, by mellow yellow (chiefly U.S.) ( mellow inducing a
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

1339

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

pleasant euphoria) banana peel dried for smoking as a narcotic,


Table
of Contents
nitwit (orig. U.S.) a stupid person, poppa stoppa (U.S., Black E.)
( poppa a father, variant of papa, after momma, and stopper) a
person, esp. a man, and razzle-dazzle bewilderment or confusion.
In such reduplicative compounds, hardly any syntactic paraphrase is
possible, and no headedness can be assigned to any member of the
doublet, although identifiable as a meaning constituent, i.e. a
mellow yellow is not a type of yellow.
We can compare this set of reduplicative rhyming compounds
with a large number of regular slang compounds exhibiting a
rhyming Considerations
pattern, but and
which
comply
with ..............................
grammatical rules.
Opening
Executive
Summary
11
Examples
are
endocentric
chill
pill
(orig.
U.S.)
a (notional) pill
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
used to calm or relax a person, cop-shop ( cop policeman and
shop
place)
a police
station, gang-bang (orig. U.S.) ( bang an
1.
Ethics
and Human
Rights
actinof
an occasion
for....................................
multiple intercourse,
thesexual
South intercourse)
American Migration
Processes
15
popMario
shopSantillo
( v pop pawn) a pawnshop, rag-bag ( bag a
disparaging term for a woman) a sloppily-dressed woman, a
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
slattern,
and exocentric culture vulture a person who is voracious
for1.2
culture,
fender-bender
U.S.)Defence
( fender
vehicles wing
International
Instrument(chiefly
for Migrants
.............................
21
or mudguard) a (usu. minor) motor accident, gender-bender a
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
person (esp. a pop singer) who deliberately affects an androgynous
Bibliographyjelly-belly
.........................................................................................
25
appearance,
a fat person. In cases of endocentric
compounds, we have no difficulty in identifying the syntactic head
2.
and Ethics
in East
Migration
a chill pillPolicies
is a type
of pill
butand
weSouth
may East
haveAsia............
difficulty 27
in
Fabio Baggio
identifying
the semantic head because of its slang sense, i.e. a ragbag
not a type Migration
of bag, but
a type
woman.
2.1isInternational
in East
Asiaofand
South East Asia.............. 27
In rhyming compounds, the relationship between the bases may
2.2be
Migration
Policies
34
also
metaphoric,
as in
in ESEA............................................................
fat cat (orig. and chiefly U.S.) a political
backer,
sinand
binMigration
(chiefly Management.................................................
N. Amer.) an area set aside for players
2.3 Ethics
43
temporarily withdrawn from a game as a penalty, town clown
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
(U.S.) a policeman working in a village or small town, and in the
endocentric toy boy the younger partner of an older woman.
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
Sometimes the bases rhyme thanks to a hypocoristic -y suffix, as
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
in Christine
arsy-versy
( arse and versus) upside-down, contrariwise, silly
Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
billy (Brit.) (Billy is a nickname from William) a foolish or feeble3.1 World
Population
51
minded
person,
WavyIncrease
Navy .............................................................
(Brit.) the Royal Naval Volunteer
Reserve.
Abbreviation
is
another
way
to
make
the
bases
rhyme,
as
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
in fave rave a special favourite piece of music, film, etc., in which
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

134

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9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

favourite is shortened into fave, or in repple depple ( replacement


Table
of Contents
depot), in which the bases are shortened (rep dep), and then
extended (rep-p-le dep-p-le). These types have fuzzy boundaries,
i.e. they can be located between reduplicative and canonical
compounds. Their bases are actual words, but their shortening
confines them to extra-grammatical morphology.
The rhyming interjection hells bells an expression of anger or
annoyance, with an underlying possessive form, is a rhyming
phrase rather than a compound (see 3.2.1.4.5).
3.2.8.4. Copy reduplicatives

Opening
Considerations
and Executive
Summary
11
English copy
reduplicatives
commonly
have a..............................
basic constituent,

Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini


with
the second member being its exact copy. The following slang
copy reduplicatives have a recognizable base: boo-boo (orig. U.S.)
1. Ethics and Human Rights
( boob) a foolish mistake or blunder, chin chin ( v chin
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
chat)
insolent talk, dumb-dumb or dum-dum (N. Amer.) (
Mario Santillo
dumb) a foolish or stupid person, gee-gee ( gee a command to
1.1 Migrants
Rights .............................................................................
a horse
to go faster)
a horse, goo-goo ( googly) of the eyes 17
or
glances:
amorous,
never-never
the
hire-purchase
system,
no-no
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
(orig. U.S.) something which is forbidden or unacceptable, yen-yen
1.3 Some
Final Reflections...................................................................
23
(U.S.)
( Chinese
yn opium) opium addiction, yum-yum ( yum
anBibliography
exclamation.........................................................................................
of pleasurable anticipation) love-making.
25
The bases are extended in footy-footy or footsy-footsy ( foot)
amorous
play
withand
theEthics
feet, inJacky-Jacky
(Austral.)
( the pet
2.
Migration
Policies
East and South
East Asia............
27
form
of
Jack,
itself
from
John)
a
white
mans
name
for an
Fabio Baggio
Aboriginal, wakey-wakey (orig. Services) ( v wake) reveille,
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
yackety-yackety ( yack incessant talk) expressing the sound of
2.2 Migration
Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
incessant
chatter.
They
may
be shortened,
as in ju-ju ( marijuana) 43
a
2.3 Ethics and also
Migration
Management.................................................
marijuana cigarette and rah rah (orig. U.S.) ( rah, aphetic for
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
hurrah)
a shout
of support or encouragement.
Exact reduplicatives may be coined by onomatopoeic
3.
Immigrationofinsounds,
the 21stand
Century.
reproduction
therefore have no identifiable base, as
The
Need
for
an
Ethical
The
Canadian Experience
..... 51
in bling-bling ostentatiousApproach.
jewellery,
representing
the visual effect
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
of light being reflected off precious stones or metals, hubbahubba/haba-haba
(U.S.)
used.............................................................
to express approval or enthusiasm,
3.1 World Population
Increase
51
jig-jig (see jig-a-jig below) sexual intercourse, expressing
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
reiteration of short and jerky movements, mau-mau (chiefly N.

3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54


Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Amer.) intimidate, harass; terrorize, pip-pip goodbye, from the


Table
of Contents
sound of a motor-horn at departure, Woop Woop (Austral. and N.Z.)
the name of an imaginary place in a remote area, and yo-yo (U.S.)
a stupid person, a fool, from the earlier sense a toy that goes up
and down.
3.2.8.5. Marginal cases of reduplication
A small group of less prototypical slang reduplicative forms
exhibits a linking element, as in ding-a-ling (N. Amer.) one who is
crazy or insane, jig-a-jig (also jig-a-jog) sexual intercourse, and
in coordinated odds and sods (orig. Services) miscellaneous
Opening
and Executive Summary .............................. 11
people orConsiderations
articles.
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
Some binomials do not conform to the above patterns of ablaut,
rhyme or copy gemination, but exhibit a sort of internal phonic
1. Ethics and Human Rights
resemblance via assonance, consonance or rhyme. Such slang
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
binomials
with a lower degree of reduplication include, for instance,
Mario Santillo
hunky-dory/-dorey (U.S.) satisfactory, fine, jiggery-pokery deceitful
Migrantsmanipulation,
Rights .............................................................................
17
or 1.1
dishonest
lovely jubbly money, ram-sammy
(orig.
dial.)
a
family
quarrel,
razzmatazz
(orig.
U.S.)
a
type
of
rag1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
time or early jazz music (cf. razzle-dazzle), ridgy-didge (Austral.)
Somegood,
Final Reflections...................................................................
23
(1.3ridge)
all right, genuine.
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

3.2.9. Acronyms and initialisms

2.
Migrationand
Policies
and Ethics
East and
South
Asia............
27
Acronyms
initialisms
are inwords
coined
byEast
taking
the initial

FabioofBaggio
letters
the words in a title or phrase (see Marchand 1969, Makkai
1972,
Cannon 1989,
Algeoin ed.
andSouth
recent
such 27
as
2.1 International
Migration
East1991,
Asia and
Eaststudies
Asia..............
Lpez Ra 2002 and Merlini Barbaresi 2007). Still, they represent
2.2different
Migrationword-formation
Policies in ESEA............................................................
34
two
processes, since acronyms are words
pronounced
as full
words Management.................................................
(i.e. by applying the regular reading rules),
2.3 Ethics and
Migration
43
while initialisms are pronounced as sequences of letters (i.e. by
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
naming each individual letter of the abbreviated words) (see Bauer
1983:
237).13 Both
spelt with either capital or lower-case
3.
Immigration
in thecan
21st be
Century.
letters,
but,
intuitively,
only
initialisms
canCanadian
have dotsExperience
(see Plag .....
2003:
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The
51
127),
though
there
seems
to
be
a
tendency
towards
avoiding
them.
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
Thus, Nato/NATO /ne.t/ ( North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

Urbanization,
International
Migration
and Governance
.................
53
13 3.2
Cf. Lpez
Ra (2002),
who proposes
the term initialisms
for a general
category
comprising
acronyms (e.g.
laser) and
alphabetisms
BBC).
3.3 International
Migration
in Canada:
An (e.g.
Ethical
Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

136

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

an acronym,
U.S.A. /ju.ese/ ( United States of America)
Table
ofwhereas
Contents

is an initialism. Another comment concerns the orthographic basis of


acronyms, whose pronunciation depends on their orthography rather
than on the phonetic value of each initial letter in the original words,
i.e. the vowels in Nato are diphthongs, but the initial letters of
Atlantic and Organization are not (see Aronoff 1976, Bauer 1983,
Merlini Barbaresi 2007).
Although acronymic formations and initialisms are rather frequent
in standard English and English slang, their predictability and relative
productivity are still controversial issues (see Bauer 1983: 237-238).
The low Considerations
predictability ofand
such
formations
principally
stems from the
Opening
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
factFabio
that Baggio,
sometimes
they
may keep more than one letter in a word (cf.
Laura
Zanfrini
Aronoffs 1976: 20 syllable words). Hence, we may have
borderline
cases
between
1.
Ethics and
Human
Rightsacronyms and clipped compounds (see
in the South
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
3.2.11.3),
as inAmerican
wop (R.A.F.)
( wireless
operator)
a radio operator.
Santillo
OrMario
we may
have peripheral cases of initialisms which take more than
one
from Rights
the same
word, as in P.I. (U.S.) ( pimp), Q.T./q.t.
1.1letter
Migrants
.............................................................................
17
( quiet), T.B./t.b. (U.S.) ( tubercolosis) a confidence trickster,
International
Instrument
for Migrants
Defence .............................
21
TV1.2(orig.
and chiefly
N. Amer.)
( transvestite;
cf. St. E. TV
television).
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
Another reason for low predictability is that the phrase from
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
which
the acronym
is taken is treated with a certain amount 25
of
freedom to permit the acronym to arise. For instance, the slang
2.
Migration
Policies
Ethics in East
South East
Asia............
27
acronym
Wren
(and
Womens
RoyalandNaval
Service)
is made
Fabio Baggio
pronounceable by inserting a vowel e, so that it conforms to the
regular
phonological
patternsinof
English
(cf.South
WracEast
andAsia..............
Wraf below).27
2.1 International
Migration
East
Asia and
Still another reason is that the initialism may include entire
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
particles (e.g. coordinators or prepositions), as in U.S. of A. (
2.3 Ethics
andofMigration
Management.................................................
43
United
States
America),
or M. and V. (Services) ( meat and
vegetables).
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
3.2.9.1. Acronyms

3. Immigration in the 21st Century.


Slang acronyms are quite numerous. Some examples are dink (orig. N.
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51

Amer.) ( double/dual income no kids) either partner of a usu.


Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
professional working couple who have no children (cf. jocular
3.1 World Population
Increaseno
.............................................................
51
oink/OINK
one income
kids), DOM ( dirty old man),
fubar/FUBAR
/fub/
(U.S.
/fubr/,
orig.
Military)
(
fouled/fucked
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
up beyond all recognition) ruined, messed up, Nimby/NIMBY ( not
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

1379

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

in my back yard) used as a slogan objecting to the siting of something


Table
of Contents

considered unpleasant in ones locality, snafu/SNAFU /snfu/


(chiefly U.S., orig. Military) ( situation normal: all fouled/fucked up,
fogged in Marchand 1969: 453) confused, chaotic (also n), sug (Brit.)
( sell under guise) (attempt to) sell (someone) a product under the
guise of conducting market research, SWA(L)K ( sealed with a
(loving) kiss), viff ( vectoring in forward flight), Wrac/WRAC (
Womens Royal Army Corps), Wraf ( Womens Royal Air Force).
In most such examples, the acronyms arise by taking the first letter
of each word in the phrase. But this is not always the case. Compare,
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
..............................
11
for instance,
AWOL /e.wl/
( Summary
absent without
leave) with
Fabio
Baggio,
Laura
Zanfrini
Tewt/TEWT /tjut/ (Army) ( tactical exercise without troops) and
twoc/Twoc/TWOC /twk/ (Brit., orig. Police) ( taking without
1. Ethics and Human Rights
owners
consent).
In theMigration
former (AWOL),
preposition without
in the South
American
Processes the
....................................
15
provides
two
letters
(w,
o)
for
the
acronym,
whereas
in the latter (Tewt,
Mario Santillo
twoc), it provides only one (w). This leaves the question open about the
1.1 Migrants
Rights
.............................................................................
17
underlying
phrase
deriving
the acronym: that is to say, twoc may
plausibly
be derived
from taking
without Defence
consent.............................
instead of without
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants
21
owners consent, with no semantic shift of the derivative. As
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
anticipated,
this morphotactic opacity and the irregularity governing
theBibliography
formation .........................................................................................
of acronyms make them good candidates for extra25
grammatical morphology.
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27

3.2.9.2.
Fabio Initialisms
Baggio
Initialisms (or alphabetisms in Quirk et al. 1985: 1581; cf. Lpez
2.1 International
East and
Asia and
East Asia..............
27
Ra
2002) are Migration
likewise infree
not South
rule-governed
in their
formation.
The Policies
following
are slang instances: AC/DC, AC-DC (orig.
2.2 Migration
in ESEA............................................................
34
U.S.) (humorously alternating current, direct current) bisexual,
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
A-OK (chiefly U.S.) ( all (systems) OK), BLT (orig. U.S.) (
Bibliography
47
bacon,
lettuce,.........................................................................................
and tomato (sandwich)), D.T. (vulgar) ( delirium
tremens), G.I. ( galvanized iron, used chiefly in G.I. can), MCP
3.
in thepig),
21st m.o.
Century.
(Immigration
male chauvinist
( modus operandi), OAO (Military)
The
Need
for
an
Ethical
Approach.
Theoll/orl
Canadian
Experience
..... 51
( one and only), O.K./OK/ok (
correct)
all right,
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
fashionable, modish, O.O. (U.S.) ( once-over), O.P./O.P.s
(chiefly
U.S.)
( other
peoples
(cigarettes or alcoholic drink)),
3.1 World
Population
Increase
.............................................................
51
OPM (U.S.) ( other peoples money), P.B.I./p.b.i. ( Poor
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration(
andpretty
Governance
.................
53
Bloody
Infantry(man)),
P.D.Q./p.d.q.
damn(ed)
quick),
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

138

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

PFC/Pfc (U.S., chiefly Military) ( poor foolish/forlorn civilian),


Table
of Contents
Q.B.I. (R.A.F.) ( quite bloody impossible), S.A./s.a. ( sex
appeal), S.F.A. ( Sweet Fanny Adams, also F.A.) nothing at all,
TCB (U.S., Black E.) ( take care of business), W.P.B./w.p.b. (
waste-paper basket).
As anticipated, there are several irregularities in the production
of such formations. Some of these irregularities, however, appear to
be particularly remarkable. First, some initialisms are not obtained
from phrases but rather from complex words (e.g. B.S. bullshit,
DL down-low, O.D. overdose). Still, they keep more than one
letter of Considerations
the composite,and
and
precisely
the initial
letters of each
Opening
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
underlying
base.
Second,
they
tend
to
keep
the
initial
letters of
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
function words, such as over and the in over the top ( OTT),
though
are lessRights
salient than lexical words and less preferred
1.
Ethicsthese
and Human
bases
Third,
they doProcesses
so arbitrarily:
for instance, 15
in
in thewithin
South NM.
American
Migration
....................................
S.O.B./s.o.b.
( son of a bitch; cf. sob a pound) the initial letter of
Mario Santillo
the preposition of is kept, but the determiner a is not.
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17

3.2.10.
Blending Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
1.2 International
Blending
a common
derivational process in English. Blends, also
1.3 SomeisFinal
Reflections...................................................................
23
called contaminations or portmanteau words (after Carroll), are
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
formed
by merging parts of words into one word, as in smog, from
smoke and fog. Since they are made up of curtailed members,
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
whose original bases are often unrecognizable (Bauer 1983, 1988a),
Fabio Baggio
they are less natural than composites (having full bases) on the
2.1 International
Migration
in East Asia andtransparency.
South East Asia..............
27
basis
of the parameter
of morphotactic
Hence, they
are2.2
classified
theinlanguage
oddities by Aronoff (1976: 20),
Migrationamong
Policies
ESEA............................................................
34
and generally excluded from canonical morphological grammar.
2.3
Ethics and
43
Blends,
likeMigration
acronymsManagement.................................................
and initialisms, are not rule-governed,
since
they cannot
be assigned a regular specific pattern and their
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
final segmental make-up is unpredictable (Dressler 2000). For
instance,
we doinnot
exactly which part of a word is retained,
3.
Immigration
theknow
21st Century.
norThe
doNeed
we know
theApproach.
word is curtailed,
especially
when .....
there
for anwhere
Ethical
The Canadian
Experience
51
is an
overlap
betweenRichard
the first
and the second member of the blend,
Christine
Baghdady,
Vanderberg
as in slanguage ( slang and language).
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51
Yet blending exhibits some preferences. Blends are preferentially
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Governance
formed
by taking the
beginningMigration
(head) ofand
a word
and the.................
end (tail) 53
of
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

1399

14

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

another one (as in smog above). But also less typical blends exist,
Table
of Contents
which are formed by combining two heads (as in modem
modulator + demodulator), or a word with a tail (as in guesstimate
guess + estimate, fanzine fan + magazine) (cf. Thorntons 1993:
145-148 partial blends). In English slang, we distinguish
prototypical from partial blends.
3.2.10.1. Prototypical blends
Some slang blends prototypically consist of the head of one word
and the tail of another one. They are often adjectives formed from
two standard or colloquial adjectives having a similar or related
Opening
and Executive
Summary
11
meaning,Considerations
as in dilly (chiefly
Austral.)
( daft..............................
+ silly) foolish,
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
fantabulous ( fantastic + fabulous) of almost incredible
excellence, ginormous ( gigantic + enormous), grungy (chiefly
1. Ethics and Human Rights
N. Amer.) ( grubby + dingy), mingy ( mean/mangy + stingy)
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
mean,
stingy; disappointingly small (see pleonastic blends in
Mario Santillo
Cacchiani 2007: 109-111).
1.1
Migrants
.............................................................................
17
This
patternRights
is also
found in some slang nouns, as in glob (
gob
+
blob)
a
mass
or
lump
of
some
liquid
or
semi-liquid
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
substance and revusical (orig. and chiefly U.S.) ( revue +
1.3 Some
Reflections...................................................................
23
musical)
aFinal
theatrical
entertainment that combines elements of the
revue
and musical.
Bibliography
......................................................................................... 25
3.2.10.2.
Partial
andand
lessEthics
prototypical
2.
Migration
Policies
in East blends
and South East Asia............ 27

Partial
Fabioblends
Baggiobehave as typical blends, though one of the two bases
remains intact. The first base is a word followed by a word head in
2.1 International
East Asia
East Asia..............
27
kidvid
(orig. andMigration
chiefly inU.S.)
( and
kidSouth
+ video)
a television
programme
or video
made
for children (cf. rhyming compounds).34
2.2 Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
Examples of a word followed by a tail are to be found in gaydar
Ethics
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
(2.3gay
+ radar)
an ability,
attributed esp. to homosexual people,
to Bibliography
identify a (fellow)
homosexual person, sexational (orig. U.S.)
.........................................................................................
47
( sex + sensational), sexcapade ( sex + escapade), squadrol

3. Immigration in the 21st Century.


14 The
Need
for an Ethical
Approach. The Canadian
ExperienceDressler
..... 51
Hence
the German
name Kopf-Schwanz-Wort
(lit. head-tail-word,
Christine
Baghdady,
Vanderberg
et al.
1987: 126,
see alsoRichard
Thornton
1993). Dressler (in Dressler et al. 1987: 117)
explains that the beginning and the end of a word are more salient than what
3.1 World
Population
Increase
.............................................................
comes
in between.
Accordingly
a general
abbreviation device is to take the head51
of
the first member of a compound/juxtaposition/phrase and the tail of the last
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
and
Governance
53
member
but never the other
way round.
E.g. motor
hotel
has become.................
motel, but not
*torhot.
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

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9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

(U.S.) ( squad + patrol) a small police van, and in shagadelic


Table
of Contents
( shag + psychedelic) sexy, esp. in a psychedelic or retro way,
with a variant vowel a instead of e, in any case, both pronounced as a
schwa, at least in Amer. E. This latter variation is commonly found
across the few formations of the same type (e.g. funkadelic).15
The second base is a word preceded by a head in doohickey
(orig. and chiefly U.S.) ( doodad + hickey, also doojigger) any
small object, esp. mechanical, gazunder (Brit., humorous) (
gazump + under) of a buyer: lower the amount of an offer made to
(the seller) for a property, tab show (U.S.) ( tabloid show) a
short version
of a musical.
Opening
Considerations
and Executive Summary .............................. 11
The
word
a partial
blend is inserted within another word in
Fabio Baggio,ofLaura
Zanfrini
the humorous formation ambisextrous bisexual, from sex and
ambidextrous,
favoured
by the similarity between dex and sex.
1.
Ethics and Human
Rights
slangAmerican
blends simply
merge
where the
two words overlap,
inMany
the South
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
as Mario
in nerk
(Brit., deprec.) ( nerd + berk/jerk) a foolish or
Santillo
objectionable person, scuzz (perh. scum + fuzz, but also
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
considered
a corrupted abbrev. of disgusting) contemptible or
despicable
person,
sexpert (orig.
U.S.) (
sex +.............................
expert) an expert
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants
Defence
21
on sexual matters, squiz (Austral. and N.Z.) ( squint + quiz) a
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
look or glance, swingle (N. Amer.) ( swinging + single) a
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
swinging
single
or unaccompanied person, vidiot (orig. and
chiefly U.S., derog.) ( video + idiot) a habitual viewer of
2.
Migration
Ethicsgames,
in East and
South
EastSc.
Asia............
27
television
orPolicies
player and
of video
yatter
(orig.
dialect) (
Fabio Baggio
yammer
+ chatter) talk idly and incessantly. Sometimes the
overlap
is only in
pronunciation,
butand
not
in East
orthography,
as 27
in
2.1 International
Migration
in East Asia
South
Asia..............
Sloane Ranger ( Sloan (Square) + Lone Ranger) an upper class
2.2 Migrationyoung
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
conventional
woman
in London, and Trustafarian (chiefly
Brit.)
( trust
Rastafarian)
a wealthy young (white) person who
2.3 Ethics
and+Migration
Management.................................................
43
adopts aspects of the appearance and culture of Rastafarians.
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47

3. Immigration in the 21st Century.


15 The
Need for
an Ethical
Approach. The
51
According
to the
OED, -adelic/-edelic
(or Canadian
-delic after Experience
a vowel or .....
y) (

Christine has
Baghdady,
Vanderberg
psychedelic)
become Richard
an English
combining form obtaining adjectives with the
meaning embodying the quality denoted or implied (by the first element) in a
3.1 Worldway.
Population
Increase .............................................................
51
psychedelic
Yet its productivity
is debatable: first, it is attested in a small
number of formations (e.g. pimpadelic, scallydelic, etc.) which are mere
3.2 Urbanization,
International
and Governance
................. but
53
occasionalisms,
and, second,
it doesMigration
not reinterpret
psychedelic (secretion),
simply
abbreviates it, Migration
including itsinmeaning
the Ethical
new word
(see Mattiello
2007b).
3.3 International
Canada:inAn
Assessment
...........
54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
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3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
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not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Sometimes slang blends have an acronym or an initialism as one


Table
of Contents
of the two members, thus originating mixed formations, as in
Amerikkka (orig. U.S.) ( G. Amerika America + the initial
letters of Ku Klux Klan), buppie (orig. U.S.) ( black + yuppie),
guppie ( gay + yuppie) a homosexual yuppie, and guppie (
green + yuppie) a yuppie concerned about the environment.
3.2.11. Clipping
Clipping is a process which abbreviates a word to one of its parts.
The most common pattern is back-clipping, in which the beginning
of a baseConsiderations
lexeme is retained
(e.g. lab
laboratory).
Other possible
Opening
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
Fabio Baggio,
Zanfrini in which the final part of the word is
patterns
includeLaura
fore-clipping,
retained (e.g. phone telephone), clippings in which the middle of
1.
Human (e.g.
Rightsflu influenza), and clipped compounds
theEthics
wordand
is retained
in
the
South
American
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
(e.g. cablegram cable
telegram),
which
differ from partial
Mario
Santillo
blends because their bases have a composite rather than
independent
meaning
(see 3.2.11.3).
1.1 Migrants
Rights .............................................................................
17
As many present-day English colloquialisms show, clipping is a
1.2 International
Instrument
Migrants
Defence
21
frequent
process in
familiar for
language
(e.g.
auto .............................
automobile, bus
1.3
omnibus,
profReflections...................................................................
professor).
Some Final
23
It is also common in slang.16 In particular, it develops slang
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
terms of special private groups, in which an allusion is sufficient to
indicate the whole. For instance, American college students use frat
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
instead of fraternity, Oxford or Cambridge University students call
Fabio Baggio
an officer prog, abbreviated from proggins or earlier proctor, pecs
International
Migration in to
East
Asiatoand
South East
Asia..............
is 2.1
used
among bodybuilders
refer
pectoral
muscles,
post is27a
medicine
slang Policies
term used
in the place of post-mortem, prop is used
2.2 Migration
in ESEA............................................................
34
by criminals to refer to property (as in prop game, man, etc.), ump
2.3 Ethics
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
stands
for umpire
in baseball
slang, scorp and scram are military
slang
terms for
scorpion a civil inhabitant of Gibraltar and
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
scramble depart quickly.
Semantically,
clippings
do not add any new information to the
3. Immigration
in the
21st Century.
original
lexemes,
but, pragmatically,
express
a particular
The Need
for an Ethical
Approach. The they
Canadian
Experience
..... 51
attitude
of Baghdady,
the speaker
and lower
the stylistic level of discourse to
Christine
Richard
Vanderberg
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

16 Partridge (1933, in the OED), for instance, observes that slang delights to curtail

3.2abbreviate,
Urbanization,
International
and Governance
.................
53
(clip,
shorten)
words (see Migration
Jespersen 1942,
Marchand 1969,
Bauer 1983,
1988a
related positions).
3.3 for
International
Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

142

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

less formal speech. This allows the standard word criminal and the
Table
of Contents
slang word crim to co-exist and select different registers.
From the morphological point of view, clippings are however
unpredictable, in the sense that, analysing their form, we cannot
determine how much of the base word has been deleted (cf. spec
specialist vs. specification). Yet we can approximately determine
how much of it has been retained. Indeed, especially in backclippings (truncations), there seems to be a certain tendency to
shorten words at the end of the first (less frequently, second)
syllable, which normally carries stress. Hence, most clippings are
monosyllabic
or disyllabic
schizSummary
or schizo..............................
schizophrenic)
Opening
Considerations
and (e.g.
Executive
11
(more
in
Plag
2003:
116-121).
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
On the other hand, length and stress are not helpful criteria to
explain
of fore-clippings, which are not necessarily
1. Ethicsthe
andformation
Human Rights
obtained
by preserving
stressedProcesses
syllable within
a word, as gator
in the South
Americanthe
Migration
....................................
15
/et/
alligator /let/ attests.
Mariofrom
Santillo
1.1 Migrants
Rights ............................................................................. 17
3.2.11.1.
Back-clipping
Slang
back-clippings
are numerous.
TheyDefence
are primarily
shortenings
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants
.............................
21
of nouns and adjectives: e.g., caff ( caf), coke (orig. U.S.) (
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
cocaine), con (Criminals) ( convict/conviction, but also abbrev.
25
of Bibliography
confidant, .........................................................................................
conformist, contract, conundrum), cred ( credit/
credibility), crim (U.S. and Austral.) ( criminal), ex-con ( ex2.
Migration
Policies
Ethics
East and South
convict),
fave
(orig.and
U.S.)
(infavourite),
Fed East
( Asia............
federalist) 27
a
Fabio official,
Baggio esp. an FBI agent, fla(d)ge ( flagellation), flip
federal
(2.1flippant),
genMigration
(orig. Services)
(and
perh.
abbrev.
of general 27
in
International
in East Asia
South
East Asia..............
the official phrase for the general information of all ranks)
2.2 Migrationfacts,
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
information,
hyper
(orig. and chiefly U.S.) ( hyperactive),
hypo
( hypodermic)
hypodermic needle or injection, klepto
2.3 Ethics
and MigrationaManagement.................................................
43
( kleptomaniac), lat ( latrine), Merc ( Mercedes, now
Bibliography .........................................................................................
47
Mercedes-Benz),
Mex ( Mexican), mo (Austral. and N.Z.) (
moustache), narc/narco (U.S.) ( narcotic), Nip (orig. Military,
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
offens.) ( Nipponese) a Japanese, nitro ( nitroglycerine),
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
nuc/nuke ( nuclear), obs (chiefly Military) ( observation; cf.
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
obbo under suffix -o, 3.2.3.20), Paki (orig. and chiefly Brit.) (
3.1 World ped
Population
Increase
.............................................................
51
Pakistani),
(orig. and
chiefly
U.S.) ( pedestrian), perp (U.S.)
(3.2perpetrator),
post
(
postgraduate),
pug
(
pugilist),
rehab
Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
( rehabilitation), scally (chiefly Lancashire and Liverpool) (
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

scallywag) a roguish, self-assured male (esp. from Liverpool), seg


Table
of Contents
(chiefly U.S.) ( segregation), skell (U.S.) ( skeleton) in New
York, a homeless person or derelict, sod (coarse) ( sodomite),
spec (orig. U.S.) ( speculation/spectacle), stipe/stip (
stipendiary), terr (Rhodesian) ( terrorist), tick ( ticket), toup
( toupee), tranq/trank ( tranquillizer), trog ( troglodyte) a
lout, an obnoxious person, vag (Austral. and N. Amer.) (
vagrancy/vagrant), vent (Theatrical) ( ventriloquist), vet (
veterinarian) a doctor of medicine.
A few shortenings are verbs (e.g. frat fraternize, prep
prepare,
psych psychoanalyse,
vegSummary
vegetate
pass the time 11
in
Opening Considerations
and Executive
..............................
mindless
or
vacuous
inactivity,
esp.
by
watching
television),
or
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
interjections (lor lord).
Someand
back-clippings,
1. Ethics
Human Rightshowever, stand for words belonging to
different
syntactic
classes,
withProcesses
a consequent
ambiguity 15
or
in the South
American
Migration
....................................
vagueness
of the derivatives. For instance, cert stands for the noun
Mario Santillo
certainty, but also for the adjective certain, dif/diff for difference or
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
different,
fash for fashion or fashionable, glam for glamour,
glamorous
and glamorize,
homo
for Defence
homosexual
(n and adj),
1.2 International
Instrument for
Migrants
.............................
21
(il)legit for (il)legitimate (n and adj), perv/perve for perversion,
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
pervert or perverted, psycho for psychopath or psychopathic, recon
Bibliography
25
(U.S.,
Military).........................................................................................
for reconnaissance or reconnoitre, and sus/suss for
suspicion or suspicious, or for suspect (adj and v).
2. Migration
Policies may
and Ethics
in East and
South EastofAsia............
27
Some clippings
be exclusive
shortenings
slang rather
Fabio
Baggio words, as in boob (orig. U.S.) ( booby) a dull,
than
standard
heavy,
stupid fellow,
a lock-up
or cell,
dig (Austral.
and N.Z.)
2.1 International
Migration
in East Asia
and South
East Asia..............
27
( digger) an Australian or New Zealander, fag (U.S.) (
2.2 Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
faggot)
a (male)
homosexual,
flim ( flimsy) a bank-note, griff
(2.3griffin)
news;
reliable
information, hood (orig. U.S.) (
Ethics and
Migration
Management.................................................
43
hoodlum) a youthful street rowdy, hum ( humbug) an
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
imposition, a hoax, mack ( mackerel) a procurer or procuress; a
pimp, mech (N. Amer. and Austral.) ( mechanic) a person who
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
cheats at gambling games, spec. cards, mike ( microgram) a
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
microgram
of a drug, esp. LSD (cf. colloq. mike microphone),
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
mob ( mobile) the mob; the common people, mog (Brit.) (
3.1 Worlda
Population
Increase
.............................................................
moggie/-y)
cat, mong
(Austral.)
( mongrel) a person of low 51
or
indeterminate
status,
mush
(
mushroom)
an
umbrella,
from
the
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
shape, nig (derog. and offens.) ( nigger) a dark-skinned person,
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

144

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Pape (Sc. and Ir., derog.) ( papist) a Roman Catholic, peb


Table
of Contents
(Austral., now rare) ( pebble) a tough or indomitable person or
animal, pleb ( plebeian) a new cadet at a military or naval
academy, Pom/pom (Austral. and N.Z.) ( Pommy) an immigrant
to Australia or New Zealand from Britain, pro ( professional) a
prostitute, pud ( coarse pudding) the penis, rad (N. Amer.,
orig. Surfers) ( radical) remarkable; amazing, razz (orig. U.S.)
( razzberry, altered from raspberry) a refusal; a reprimand, roz
( rozzer) a policeman or detective, sawn (Austral.) ( sawney)
a simpleton, fool, scoot ( scooter) a fast vehicle, esp. a train or
car, simpConsiderations
(U.S.) ( simpleton)
a fool,
spaz/spas
(with voiced /z/)
Opening
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
(Fabio
spastic)
one
is uncoordinated or incompetent, swizz
Baggio,
Laurawho
Zanfrini
(chiefly Schoolchildrens) ( swizzle) a disappointment, tab (
tablet)
tablet
or pill,
spec. one containing an illicit drug, tab (
1.
Ethicsaand
Human
Rights
in thean
South
American
Migration
Processes
tabby)
(attractive)
young
woman
or girl..................................... 15
Mario
ManySantillo
slang back-clippings are now considered part of colloquial
language,
due Rights
to their
frequency in everyday use or among
1.1 Migrants
.............................................................................
17
members of the same group. They include, e.g., ag (chiefly N.
1.2 International
Instrument
Migrants
Defencebi.............................
21
Amer.)
( agricultural),
arbfor(
arbitrageur),
( bisexual, also
in 1.3
bi-guy),
brillReflections...................................................................
( brilliant), cat ( catalytic) a catalytic
Some Final
23
converter, dis ( disconnected) broken, not working, divi. (
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
dividend),
ex (
expense, always in pl., as exes), fab ( fabulous),
hash ( hashish), info ( information), Jag ( Jaguar, name of a
2.
Migration
Policies
Ethicsjolly
in East
South Eastcf.
Asia............
27
motor
car), jock
(and
jockey),
(and
jollification;
jollo under
Fabio Baggio
suffix -o, 3.2.3.20), ma ( mama), max (chiefly U.S.) (
maximum),
merc Migration
( mercenary)
a and
soldier
to serve in 27a
2.1 International
in East Asia
Southpaid
East Asia..............
foreign army, meth ( methamphetamine/Methedrine), Metho
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
(Austral.) ( Methodist), mo ( moment), obit (orig. Journalistic)
Ethics andoke
Migration
Management.................................................
43
(2.3obituary),
(orig. U.S.)
( okey), op ( operative/operator)
a Bibliography
detective; .........................................................................................
esp. a private investigator, pen (N. Amer.) (
47
penitentiary), pep (orig. U.S.) ( pepper) energy and high spirits;
liveliness,
phenom
(
phenomenon), phy (chiefly Brit.) (
st Century.
3.
Immigration
in the 21
Physeptone)
the
drug
methadone,
pi Canadian
(dated) (
pious), .....
plute
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The
Experience
51
(chiefly
U.S.)
(
plutocrat),
pol
(N.
Amer.)
(
politician),
preg
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
(orig. U.S.) ( pregnant), prog ( progressive/programme),
3.1 World(
Population
Increase
51
pros/pross
prostitute),
Prot.............................................................
(chiefly Ir.) ( Protestant), rec (
recreation),
seg (U.S.)
( segregationist),
( sovereign),
spec
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration andsov
Governance
.................
53
( speculative), specs ( spectacles), speedo ( speedometer),
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
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stew (U.S.) ( stewardess), stupe ( stupid), teach ( teacher),


Table
of Contents
thou ( thousand), trat/tratt ( trattoria), Uni/Univ (chiefly
Austral. and N.Z.) ( University), ute (chiefly Austral. and N.Z.)
( utility) a utility vehicle, vis (orig. Military) ( visibility),
Yank ( Yankee).
A very unusual type of slang back-clipping preserves only the
first letter of the base word, with a certain similarity with the wordformation pattern of acronyms and initialisms. This type is
illustrated by b/B ( bugger/bastard), D. ( detective),17 E (
ecstasy), G. (U.S.) ( grand) a thousand dollars, H. ( heroin),
K ( ketamine;
cf. Special
K, a punning
after ..............................
a proprietary name
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
Summary
11
forFabio
a breakfast
cereal),
and,
in
combination
with
a full word, by big
Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
C ( cancer) and big E (Brit.) a personal rejection or rebuff,
abbreviated
elbow.
1.
Ethics andfrom
Human
Rights
back-clippings
may shorten
initialisms
to their first
inSlang
the South
American Migration
Processes
....................................
15
abbreviated
letter, as in W obtained from W.C. ( water-closet) and
Mario Santillo
Y (chiefly U.S.), from the well-known initialism YMCA ( Young
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
Mens
Christian Association). They may also shorten reduplicative
formations,
as in fud
(orig. and
chiefly U.S.)
( .............................
rhym. reduplicative
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants
Defence
21
fuddy-duddy) an old-fashioned person, and heebies (orig. U.S.) (
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
heebie-jeebies) a state of nervous depression or anxiety.
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

3.2.11.2. Fore-clipping and other marginal cases of clipping


Fore-clippings
are far
less
numerous
slang.
Examples
are mostly
2.
Migration Policies
and
Ethics
in Eastinand
South
East Asia............
27
nouns:
e.g.,
gator
(orig.
U.S.)
(
alligator),
loid
(Criminals)
(
Fabio Baggio
celluloid), Nam ( Vietnam), nana ( banana) a foolish or silly
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
person, Scouse ( lobscouse) a native or inhabitant of Liverpool,
2.2 Migration
in ESEA............................................................
tache/tash
(Policies
moustache),
Tab (University) ( Cantab) 34
a
member
of
the
University
of
Cambridge,
tato
(
potato),
Ville
(
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
Pentonville, a Prison in London), za (U.S.) ( pizza). But there are
Bibliography
47
also
verbs (e.g..........................................................................................
niff chiefly Brit. sniff).
The middle of the word is retained in slang script (orig. U.S.)
st
3.
in esp.
the 21
(Immigration
prescription,
one Century.
for narcotic drugs) and tec ( detective).
The
Need group
for an of
Ethical
Approach.
The Canadian
..... 51
A small
(essentially
back-)clippings
notExperience
only abbreviate
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
the original word but also alter its spelling. Yet they are not proper
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51
Urbanization,
Governance
17 3.2
Cf. the
drug name DInternational
( Death) inMigration
A Scanner and
Darkly
(2006) and.................
D ( LSD)53
in
Dalzell
& Victor (eds)Migration
(2007a). in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
3.3 International
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

altered forms (see alteration in 3.2.14.5), since they do not vary in


Table
of Contents

pronunciation. They include chizz /tz/ ( chisel /tz l/),


Jeez/Jese/Jez or Geez/Geeze /diz/ ( Jesus /dizs/), jelly /del/
( gelignite /delnat/), mensh/mench /men/ ( mention
/menn/), natch /nt/ (U.S.) ( natural /ntrl/), noov/noove
/nuv/ (Brit.) ( F. nouveau riche /nuvri/; cf. clipped
compounds in 3.2.11.3 below), nuff /nf/ (orig. U.S.) ( enough
/nf/), ork /k/ (orig. and chiefly U.S.) ( orchestra /kstr/),
pash /p/ ( passion /pn/), phiz /fz/ (now arch.) (
Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11
physiognomy
profesh /prfe/ ( profession
Fabio Baggio, /fznm/),
Laura Zanfrini

/prfe n/), sesh /se/ (orig. Services) ( session /sen/), sheen


1.
Ethics
and(
Human
Rights
/in/
(U.S.)
machine
/min/) a car, and siff /sf/ ( syphilis
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
/sfls/; cf. syph).
Mario Santillo

3.2.11.3.
Clipped
compounds
1.1 Migrants
Rights
............................................................................. 17
Slang clipped compounds (called clipping-compounds by Marchand
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
1969:
445) reduce a compound to one of its parts. They are kept
separate
from
the
usual patterns of clippings because, like blends,
1.3 Some
Final
Reflections...................................................................
23
they are made up of two or more bases. Nevertheless, at the same
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
time they differ from blends because, while in blends the bases
have
an autonomous
in East
clipped
compounds
they were
2.
Migration
Policies andsense,
Ethics in
and South
East Asia............
27
originally
compound
members,
with
a
composite
meaning.
Hence,
Fabio Baggio
motel ( motor + hotel) is a blend, while pulmotor ( pulmonary
2.1 International
Migration
in East Furthermore,
Asia and Southclipped
East Asia..............
27
motor)
is a clipped
compound.
compounds
differ
from prototypical
blends (but not from partial blends)
2.2 Migration
Policies in ESEA............................................................
34
because one of their bases may remain intact.
2.3
Ethics
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
Slang
clipped
compounds
with the first element intact are after
(Bibliography
afternoon),.........................................................................................
common ( common sense), fag ( fag-end) the
47
end of a cigarette, hard ( hard labour), jock (N. Amer.) ( jockstrap)
an athletic
moon (U.S.) ( moonshine) illicitly
3.
Immigration
in the man,
21st Century.
distilled
liquor,
motherApproach.
(orig. and
( coarse
The Need
for an Ethical
The chiefly
CanadianU.S.)
Experience
..... 51
Christine Baghdady,
Richard Vanderberg
motherfucker)
an obnoxious
or contemptible person, natural (
natural
life), pay (Navy) ( paymaster) an official responsible for
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51
dispensing pay, settling debts, etc., skin (U.S.) ( skinflint) one
3.2 would
Urbanization,
Migration
Governanceor.................
53
who
skin aInternational
flint to save
or gainand
something,
(Brit.) (
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
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3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

skinhead) a youth (often one of a gang), and speak ( speakeasy)


Table
of Contents
a shop or bar where alcoholic liquor is sold illegally.
The previous pattern with part of the second element retained is
found in street cred ( street credibility) familiarity with
contemporary trends, fashions, social issues, etc., and Wingco
(R.A.F.) ( Wing Commander).
The compound may be reduced to a part of the first element, as
in artic ( articulated lorry), choco (Austral.) ( chocolate
soldier) a militiaman or conscripted soldier, lat (orig.
Bodybuilding) ( latissimus dorsi), mutt ( mutton-head) an
incompetent,
a fool, oppo
Services)
( opposite
number) 11
a
Opening
Considerations
and(orig.
Executive
Summary
..............................
partner,
a
counterpart,
peck
(U.S.,
Black
E.)
(
peckerwood)
a
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
white person regarded as poor, sub ( subsistence money) an
advance
of money,
torp ( torpedo juice) intoxicating liquor
1.
Ethics and
Human Rights
extracted
fromAmerican
torpedo Migration
fuel. Some
such abbreviated
compounds
in the South
Processes
....................................
15
also
involve
conversion: adj
n, as in feeb (U.S.) ( feebleMario
Santillo
minded) a feeble-minded person, or n
v, as in frag (U.S.,
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
Military)
( fragmentation grenade) throw a fragmentation
grenade
at ones superior
officer.
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
Clipped compounds with the second element intact are less
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
numerous, as the following examples show: bin ( loony bin) a
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
mental
hospital,
Groper (Austral.) ( sand groper) a jocular
appellation for a native West Australian, jug (orig. U.S.) ( stone2.
Migration
Policies
and Ethics
in East and South
East Asia............
27
jug)
a prison,
jail, Kraut
( Sauerkraut)
a German,
pike (chiefly
Baggio
N. Fabio
Amer.)
( turnpike) a road on which a toll is collected at a toll
gate,
twenty (orig.Migration
and chiefly
U.S.,
Radio) ( 102.1 International
in East
AsiaCitizens
and SouthBand
East Asia..............
27
20) ones location or position (cf. ten-four/10-4 message
2.2 Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
received).
With
a shortened
second element we have only shrink
(orig.
U.S.) and
( Migration
head-shrinker)
a psychiatrist.
2.3 Ethics
Management.................................................
43
The pattern with two shortened elements is particularly frequent
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
when the beginning of both elements is retained, as in des res (
desirable residence), Mespot (chiefly Military, now arch.) (
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
Mesopotamia), misper (Brit., chiefly Police) ( missing person),
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
rigmo
( rigor mortis), slomo (Cinematography, chiefly U.S.) (
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
slow motion), spag bol ( spaghetti Bolognese), sysop (orig. U.S.,
3.1 World Population
.............................................................
51
Computing)
( systemIncrease
operator;
cf. acronymic wop 3.2.9).
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
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2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

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9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Less recurrent patterns are found in B-girl (U.S.) ( bar-girl),


Table
of Contents
greycing, from the three-member compound greyhound racing, and
shouse (Austral.) a privy, syncopated form of shit-house.
3.2.12. Elliptic rhyming slang
Wilson: Im gonna ave a butchers round the house.
Ed Roel: Who you gonna butcher?
Wilson: Butchers hook look.
(The Limey 1999, emphasis added)

Many rhyming
slang formations
are noSummary
longer used
in their full form,
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
..............................
11

butFabio
rather
as elliptic
Baggio,
Laura forms
Zanfriniwhich often drop the final element (see
Kermas 2005: 134-135). For instance, in everyday conversation, the
fullEthics
formand
butchers
rhyming slang for look, is often reduced
1.
Humanhook,
Rights
to in
itsthe
elliptic
butchers,Processes
as in the ....................................
above quote. The main
Southcounterpart
American Migration
15
consequence
of such an ellipsis is loss of rhyme, and therefore of
Mario Santillo
iconicity between onset (hook) and outset (the rhyming referent
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
look).
Another consequence of elliptic forms is ambiguity, since
the1.2same
form may
correspond
to moreDefence
than one
referent, as 21
in
International
Instrument
for Migrants
.............................
apples, which is obtained both from apple(s) and pears (rhym.
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
slang for stairs) and, in Australian, from apples and rice/spice (for
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
nice).
Therefore,
only after contextualizing the elliptic form may
we distinguish the noun (as in up the apples the stairs) from the
2.
Migration
Ethics
in East and South East Asia............ 27
adjective
(as Policies
in shesand
apples
nice).
Fabio
SinceBaggio
back-clipping is more widespread than the other clipping
patterns,
elliptic Migration
forms which
drop
are the
2.1 International
in East
Asiathe
andrhyming
South Eastelement
Asia..............
27
most common, as the following examples demonstrate: barnet (
2.2 Migration
Policies
ESEA............................................................
34
Barnet
fair rhym.
slangin for
hair) the head, boat ( boat-race)
face,
brassand(
brass nail
for tail) a prostitute, Bristols (
2.3 Ethics
Migration
Management.................................................
43
Bristol Cities for titties) the breasts, China ( china plate)
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
mate, flowery ( flowery dell) cell, grumble ( grumble and
grunt for cunt) women regarded as objects of sexual attraction,
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
Hampsteads ( Hampstead Heath) teeth, iron ( iron hoof for
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
poof)
a homosexual, Khyber ( Khyber Pass) arse, lakes (
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
Lakes of Killarney for barmy) mad, crazy, mince ( mince-pie,
3.1in
World
Population
Increase
51
usu.
pl.) eye,
Moreton
Bay.............................................................
(chiefly Austral.) ( Moreton Bay
fig3.2
forUrbanization,
fizgig) anInternational
informer, Migration
oscar (Austral.
and
N.Z.)
(
Oscar
and Governance ................. 53
Asche, the Australian actor) cash, Pat (chiefly Austral.) ( Pat
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Malone) own, plates ( plates of meat) feet (cf. the full form
Table
of Contents
plate of meat for a street), potato (Austral.) ( potato peeler for
sheila) a girl or woman, rabbit ( rabbit-and-pork) talk (n
and v), Richard ( Richard the Third for bird) a girl or woman,
Sweeney ( Sweeney Todd for Flying Squad) a member of the
Flying Squad, tod ( Tod Sloan) own (in on ones tod alone),
turtle ( turtle-dove) a glove, twist (chiefly U.S., often derog.)
( twist-and-twirl) a girl.
Ambiguous elliptic forms belonging to the above pattern include
Jack ( Jack Jones for alone, or Jacks alive for five) and
Jimmy (
Jimmy OGoblin
for sovereign,
Jimmy Riddle for
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
Summaryor..............................
11
piddle),
whereas
the
following
forms
have
two
different senses
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
which developed from the same phrase: loaf ( loaf of bread for
dead
head),
raspberry
1.
Ethicsorand
Human
Rights ( raspberry tart for the heart or a
fart),
Rory OMore
for the
floor....................................
or a door).
in the Rory
South(
American
Migration
Processes
15
WhenSantillo
the full form is a single word, it may be reduced to its
Mario
initial part, as in amster (or ampster with intrusive p) (Austral.) (
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
Amsterdam
for ram) a tricksters accomplice, nav ( navigator
for1.2tater)
a potato,
tiddly
( tiddlywink)
drink, tom (
International
Instrument
for Migrants
Defencea
.............................
21
tomfoolery) jewellery.
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
The elliptic form may undergo a slight change in spelling
Bibliography
25
compared
with.........................................................................................
the full phrase, as in chiv(v)y ( Chevy Chase) the
face. It may also be contracted, as in titfa/titfer/titfor ( tit for tat)
2.
Ethics incase
East becoming
and South East
27
a Migration
hat, esp. Policies
with a and
possessive
a sortAsia............
of -s suffix
Fabio Baggio
(cobblers
cobblers awls for balls, elephants elephants
trunk
for drunk),
or it may
exhibit
a familiarizing
suffix, as 27
in
2.1 International
Migration
in East
Asia and
South East Asia..............
porky ( pork pie) a lie, rammies (Austral. and S. Afr.) (
2.2 Migration Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
round-the-houses)
trousers,
rubbedy/rubberdy/rubbidy (Austral.)
(2.3rub-a-dub)
Ethics and pub.
Migration Management................................................. 43
The second member is rarely kept in abbreviated rhyming slang.
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
An example would be kelly ( Derby/Darby Kelly) belly.
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
3.2.13. Reversed forms
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51

Reversed
in slang
mayVanderberg
appear similar to cases of semordnilap.
Christineforms
Baghdady,
Richard
This latter is a term coined in recent years (from a reverse spelling of
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51
palindromes) to refer to words and phrases which make sense when
3.2 Urbanization,
Migration
andaGovernance
.................
53
read
backwards: International
e.g., the term
live is
semordnilap
of evil.
However,
unlike
semordnilap,
which
has
a
different
meaning
from
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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150

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

when it is read forwards, in slang the word obtained is created on


Table
of Contents
purpose, and is only a different connoted variant of the original
word. Hence, yob was initially used in the sense of a boy, a youth,
but, in modern use, it has also taken on the derogatory sense of a
lout, a hooligan.
Slang reversed forms are typical of back-slang, i.e. a kind of
slang in which every word is pronounced backwards; as ynnep for
penny (OED; cf. French verlan in Mla 1991). Back-slang words
primarily belong to the language of criminals and are especially
used for reasons of secrecy: e.g. neves /nevs/ for seven a prison
Opening
and
Executive
Summary
..............................
sentence Considerations
of seven years,
and
rouf /rf/
for four
four shillings 11
or
Fabio
Baggio,
Laura
Zanfrini
pounds; a four-year prison sentence.
1.
EthicsVariation
and Human Rights
3.2.14.
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

ByMario
variation
Santillo I mean the slang formation mechanism which
modifies a word base by varying (part of) its spelling. It is an
1.1 Migrants
17
umbrella
termRights
for .............................................................................
different processes, viz. analogy (e.g.
Bananaland
Queensland),
(e.g. .............................
basket bastard),
1.2 International
Instrument formalapropism
Migrants Defence
21
metathesis (e.g. prad Dutch paard), letter pronunciation (e.g. gee
Final
Reflections...................................................................
23
1.3
theSome
initial
letter
of guy), alteration (e.g. Canuck Canada),
extension
(e.g..........................................................................................
nope no), and, sometimes, their combination (e.g.
Bibliography
25
jeepers, altered and extended from Jesus). The difference between
malapropism
and alteration
is that
the former
reliesEast
on existing
words
2.
Migration Policies
and Ethics
in East
and South
Asia............
27
(basket
an autonomous word of English), whereas the latter does
Fabio is
Baggio
not (Canuck does not correspond to any standard English word).
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
Variation covers a range of processes that are not merely
2.2 Migration Policies
ESEA............................................................
34
morphological,
but alsoinpertain
to the phonological system of English
(hence
marginal
in
morphology,
Dressler
2000).
For
instance,
letter
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
pronunciation is based on the pronunciation of word letters, which
47
areBibliography
reproduced.........................................................................................
at the written level, as in Beeb ( B.B.C.). Alteration
likewise reproduces dialect variants of words (as in loverly, from a
3.
Immigration
in the 21st
Cockney
pronunciation
ofCentury.
lovely), or contractions which are made in
The
Need
for
an
Ethical
Approach.
Canadian
Experience
..... 51
spoken English (as in wotcher
The
what
cheer?),
or otherwise
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
reinterprets borrowings from foreign languages (as in vamoose Sp.
Vamos).
ButPopulation
let us nowIncrease
explore.............................................................
each process.
3.1 World
51
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
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3.2.14.1. Analogical formation


Table
of Contents
Analogical formation refers to the creation of a new word using
constructive processes which resemble existing ones. Such
formations are often humorous, as in Bananaland (Austral.) (after
and to designate Queensland), glitterati (orig. U.S.) ( glitter, after
literati) the celebrities or glittering stars of fashionable society,
humongous (orig. U.S.) (after hugeous and monstrous) extremely
large, huge, jigaboo (U.S., coarse) ( jig, after bugaboo) a Black
person, Jixi (dated) ( Jix, nickname of Joynson-Hicks, after taxi)
a two-seated taxi-cab licensed in 1926, neatnik (chiefly N. Amer.)
(after
beatnik)
a person
is (excessively)
neat in personal
Opening
Considerations
andwho
Executive
Summary ..............................
11
habits,
orthopod
(Medicine)
(
orthopaedic,
after taxonomic
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
words in -pod foot, such as epipod) an orthopaedic surgeon,
prex
(U.S.,
rare)Rights
( president with subsequent alteration after
1.
Ethics
andnow
Human
rexinatheking),
landlord)
the ....................................
owner or manager of15a
South Randlord
American (after
Migration
Processes
gold-mine
on the Rand in South Africa, squillionaire/zillionaire a
Mario Santillo
multimillionaire, from two altered bases (squillion/zillion), after
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
millionaire
(see 3.2.14.5).
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

3.2.14.2. Malapropism
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
Malapropism is the ludicrous and often deliberate misuse of words,
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
esp.
in mistaking
a word for another resembling it (cf. folk
etymology in Aronoff & Fudeman 2005). Some English slang
2.
Migration
Ethics in (
Eastbastard),
and Southdick
East(
Asia............
27
examples
arePolicies
basketand
(euphem.)
detective),
Fabio (
Baggio
Jumble
John Bull) a Black mans nickname for a white man,
me-and-you,
a facetious
of colloquial
pronunciation
2.1 International
Migration adaptation
in East Asia and
South East Asia..............
27
/minju/ of menu, pencil ( penis), and jocular shampoo (
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
champagne), trick cyclist ( psychiatrist). The word to be adapted
2.3be
Ethics
Migration
Management.................................................
may
oneand
of foreign
origin,
as in matlow/matlo (Nautical) ( 43
F.
matelot)
a
sailor
and
olive
oil
(
F.
au
revoir)
good-bye.
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
The new word is a fictitious personal name or a name of place in
Adam
(orig. U.S.)
(
MDMA),
3. Immigration
in the
21st
Century.(sweet) Fanny Adams ( (sweet)
fuck
all)
nothing
at
all,
Gordon Bennett
( Gor
blimey),.....
jake
The Need for an Ethical Approach.
The Canadian
Experience
51
(orig.
U.S.)
(
Jamaica
ginger)
an
alcoholic
beverage
made
from
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
Jamaica ginger, Jerry (orig. Military) ( German), Maggie Ann
3.1 World
Population
Increase .............................................................
51
(Brit.,
Army)
( margarine),
Mary Ann/J/Jane or Mary Warner
(3.2marijuana)
marijuana
Urbanization,marijuana;
InternationalaMigration
and cigarette,
Governance Pompey
.................(
53
Portsmouth) Portsmouth (Football Club), Sam Hill (N. Amer.) (
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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152

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Hell), toc emma (Military) ( T.M., an initialism from trench


Table
of Contents
mortar), Victor Charlie (U.S., Services) ( Viet Cong) a Vietcong
soldier. Such formations usually have a euphemistic character (e.g.
Fanny Adams, Gordon Bennett), or they are used for cryptic
reasons (e.g. Adam, Mary Ann and other drug names).
3.2.14.3. Metathesis
Metathesis is the process that transposes sounds or letters in a word,
or, occasionally, whole words or syllables. Some examples are prad
(now chiefly Austral.) ( Dutch paard) a horse, rass (Jamaican,
coarse) ( arse), and yok (derog.) ( Yiddish goy, with unvoicing
Opening
Considerations
Executive
Summary
of the final
consonant) aand
pejorative
Jewish
term..............................
for a non-Jew. 11
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini

3.2.14.4. Letter pronunciation

1.
Ethics
and HumanisRights
Letter
pronunciation
the process which reproduces the pronunciation
in
the
South
American
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
of the initial letters
of a word
to represent
the whole
word, as in eff (
Mario
fuck),
geeSantillo
(U.S.) ( guy), key (U.S.) ( kilo) a kilogram of a drug,
pee1.1(
v
piss)
(cf. Quirk et al. 1985: 1582).
Migrantsurinate
Rights .............................................................................
17
This process is common after abbreviation. For instance, it
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
occurs
after initialisms (e.g. Beeb B.B.C. British Broadcasting
Corporation,
veejay
V.J. video jockey, by analogy with D.J.,
1.3 Some Final
Reflections...................................................................
23
veep V.P. vice-president), acronymic formation (e.g. okay/okey
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
O.K. oll/orl korrect, also reversed as kayo), or clippings (e.g.
deeMigration
D detective).
2.
Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27

Fabio Baggio
3.2.14.5.
Alteration
Alteration
is the respelling
of East
a word,
whereby
novel
item which
2.1 International
Migration in
Asia and
South aEast
Asia..............
27
alliterates or rhymes with it is formed. Slang amply instances this type
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
of variation process: e.g., Canuck ( Canada) a Canadian; spec. a
2.3 Ethics
and Migration
43
French
Canadian,
Chink Management.................................................
(derog.) ( China) a Chinaman, clobber
(Bibliography
clothes), crickey/cricky/crikey
( Christ) an exclamation 47
of
.........................................................................................
astonishment, cripes ( Christ, in the exclamation (by) cripes!), def
(orig.
U.S.) (indeath)
st Century.fashionable, dodger (Austral.) (
3.
Immigration
the 21excellent;
snodger
excellent)
good,
excellent,The
doozy/-ie
(orig.
and chiefly
N.
The Need for an Ethical Approach.
Canadian
Experience
..... 51
Amer.)
(
daisy)
remarkable;
amazing,
flick
(
film)
a
film,
pl.
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
the cinema, git ( get a fool, idiot) a worthless person,
3.1 World Population
Increase
51
Gorblimy/-ey
( God
blind .............................................................
me!), grift (U.S.) ( graft) the
obtaining
of profit International
or advantageMigration
by dishonest
means, groise
(Public
3.2 Urbanization,
and Governance
.................
53
School) ( grease) a hard worker, a swot (also v), hep (orig. U.S.)

3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

( hip fully informed or aware) well-informed, knowledgeable,


Table
of Contents
innards ( inwards) intestines, jiggered ( buggered) used in
mild oaths, juggins (dated) ( muggins) a fool, simpleton, lawk
( lack/lord) Lord!, leaf/leef (Services) ( leave) leave of
absence, furlough, lummy ( (Lord) love me, via lumme), luvvy
(Brit.) ( lovey) an actor or actress, mush ( mouth), nerts (orig.
and chiefly U.S.) ( nuts), nurd ( nerd) an insignificant or
socially inept person, pecker (chiefly U.S.) or pego ( penis), pod
( pot) marijuana, rookie ( recruit) a raw recruit, ruddy (
bloody) damnable, blasted, scarf (U.S.) ( scoff) food, shov(v)er
( chauffeur),
smack (orig.
( Yiddish
schmeck)
a drug, esp.
Opening
Considerations
and U.S.)
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
heroin,
squillion/zillion
(
million)
a
very
large
number of
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
millions, tarnation (chiefly U.S.) ( damnation), tits ( teat) a
womans
breasts.
1.
Ethics and
Human Rights
often accompanied
by shortening
of the base 15
or
inAlteration
the South is
American
Migration Processes
....................................
contraction,
e.g. of a phrase or composite word: e.g., chutty/chuddy
Mario Santillo
(Austral. and N.Z.) ( chewing gum), frosh (N. Amer.) ( freshman),
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
gaffer
( godfather) a foreman or boss, grody (U.S.) ( grotesque)
disgusting,
revolting,
guv (
as .............................
a term of address 21
to
1.2 International
Instrument
forgovernor)
Migrants used
Defence
a man, jaundy/jaunty (Nautical) ( gendarme) the master-at-arms on
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
board ship, klick (orig. U.S., Army) ( kilometre), kook ( cuckoo)
.........................................................................................
25
a Bibliography
cranky or crazy
person, moffie (S. Afr.) ( hermaphrodite) a male
transvestite, nabe ( neighbourhood), preem (orig. and chiefly U.S.)
2.
Policies
andshowing
Ethics inorEast
and Southesp.
EastofAsia............
27
(Migration
F. premire)
a first
performance,
a film, Prod
Fabio Ir.
Baggio
(chiefly
and Sc., derog.) ( Protestant), recce/recco (Military) (
reconnaissance),
(chiefly
U.S.
and
(Asia..............
mosquito), sob
2.1 Internationalskeeter
Migration
in East
Asia
andAustral.)
South East
27
( sovereign; cf. sov) a pound, strides ( trousers), wotcher (
2.2 cheer?)
Migration
ESEA............................................................ 34
what
a Policies
familiaringreeting.
The
altered
oftenManagement.................................................
represents a colloquial, dialect, regional 43
or
2.3
Ethics
andform
Migration
standard word pronunciation, as in Jock a Scottish sailor; any
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
Scotsman, representing the Scotch equivalent of Jack, ho /h/
(chiefly
U.S.) inathe sexually
promiscuous woman, reflecting a
3.
Immigration
21st Century.
r
pronunciation
whore
/hApproach.
/ frequent The
in African-American
usage,.....larn
The Need forofan
Ethical
Canadian Experience
51
Christine
Richard
Vanderberg
teach;
giveBaghdady,
(a person)
a lesson,
from a dialect form of learn,
loverly/lovally,
from a Cockney
pronunciation of lovely, meeja (chiefly
3.1 World Population
Increase .............................................................
51
Brit.) the mass media, from a colloquial pronunciation of media,
3.2 Urbanization,
Migration
andofGovernance
.................
53
missus
(regional) aInternational
wife or used
as a form
address to any
woman,
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
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2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

154

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

representing a spoken form


Table
of Contents

of the abbreviation Mrs, nah (Brit.),


representing a colloquial pronunciation of no/now, nigra /nr/ a
Black person, from a colloquial Southern U.S. pronunciation of
Negro, plurry (chiefly Austral. and N.Z.), from an Australian
pronunciation of bloody, polis (Sc. and Ir.), from a regional
pronunciation of police, sez from says, vulg. shaddup from shut up!,
Taffy a Welshman, from a supposed Welsh pronunciation of the
name David, zac (Austral.) a sixpence, from Scottish dialect
saxpence.
The altered form is an adaptation of a foreign word in au
reservoirConsiderations
( F. au revoir),
johndarm
( ..............................
F. gendarme) 11
a
Opening
and Executive
Summary
policeman,
kaput
(Zanfrini
G. kaputt) finished; dead or destroyed, nix
Fabio Baggio,
Laura
( G. and Dutch nichts) nothing, O.D.V. ( F. eau-de-vie)
brandy,
omee/omie
(Polari slang) ( It. uomo man) a landlord;
1.
Ethics and
Human Rights
in the South
Migration
Processes
....................................
15
a man,
potzerAmerican
(Chess) (
G. Patzer
inveterate
bungler) a poor
MarioaSantillo
player,
novice, san fairy ann ( F. a ne fait rien it doesnt
matter)
an expression
of indifference or resigned acceptance,
1.1 Migrants
Rights .............................................................................
17
scarper ( It. scappare escape) depart quickly, simoleon (U.S.)
Instrument
for Migrants
Defence
21
(1.2F.International
napoleon a
French coin)
a dollar,
swy.............................
(Austral.) ( G.
zwei
a two-shilling
coin or a two-year prison sentence, trey
1.3two)
Some Final
Reflections...................................................................
23
( Anglo-Norman trei, F. trois, Sp. tres, It. tre) three, vamoose
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
(orig.
and chiefly
U.S.) ( Sp. vamos let us go) depart.
2.
Migration
Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
3.2.14.6.
Extension

Fabio Baggio
Extension
designates the addition of one or more syllables to a word,
which
do
not
correspond
to in
any
existing
suffix.
of possible
2.1 International
Migration
East
Asia and
SouthExamples
East Asia..............
27
slang extensions are -bie/-bee/-by (as in freebie/freebee/freeby free)
2.2-pe
Migration
in ESEA............................................................
34
and
(as in Policies
nope
no; cf. yep). Extensions with previously
modified
bases
are found
in jazzbo/jasbo ( Jasper) a person;
2.3 Ethics
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
spec. a Black person, and jeepers (orig. U.S.) ( Jesus) a mild
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
expression
of surprise,
delight, etc., but the latter cases remind 47
us
of the respective suffixes
-o
and
-ers
illustrated
in
sections
3.2.3.20
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
and 3.2.3.7.

The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51


Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

3.2.15. Word manufacture and fanciful formations


3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

Word manufacture (a term used by Bauer 1983: 239, after


3.2 Urbanization,
Migration and Governance
53
Marchands
1969: International
452 word-manufacturing)
consists.................
in creating
words
ex
nihilo,
with
no
morphological
motivation,
as
in
Kodak,
an
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

3. Grammatical and Extra-grammatical Morphology

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

arbitrary word invented by Mr. G. Eastman for trade-mark


Table
of Contents
purposes. In ordinary English, this process is commonly used in the
formation of brand names and scientific words. A slang example
illustrating this process is scag/skag (U.S.) a cigarette (stub),
heroin, which is neither an acronym nor a blend, but a term of
unknown origin.
The origin of fanciful formations is likewise unknown. They
have no recognizable base, in fact, but a fantastic odd shape, which
mostly reproduces a blurred indistinct meaning, as in Amer. whangdoodle denoting something unspecified. Fanciful formations are
mainly nouns:
e.g., lallapaloosa
(U.S.)
something
outstandingly
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
Summary
..............................
11
good
of
its
kind,
skeezicks
(U.S.,
dated)
a
good-for-nothing,
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
slumgullion (chiefly U.S.) muddy deposit in a mining sluice,
spondulicks
(orig. U.S.)
1.
Ethics and Human
Rightsmoney, cash, whifflow (Nautical) an
unnamed
gadget.
But some
such formations
may also belong to15a
in the South
American
Migration
Processes ....................................
different
syntactic category, such as verbs (e.g. skedaddle go away
Mario Santillo
or depart hurriedly), or adverbs (e.g. lickety-split at full speed).
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17

1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

3.3. Conclusion

1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23

This investigation on slang word-formation mechanisms and patterns


Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
has confirmed my expectations about the grammaticality of the
phenomenon.
On theand
one
hand,
someand
slang
formations
appear 27
to
2.
Migration Policies
Ethics
in East
South
East Asia............
exploit
re-activate many canonical derivational and compounding
Fabioand
Baggio
patterns of standard English. They can be assigned to conventional
2.1 International
Migration
in EasttoAsia
andofSouth
East Asia..............
27
morphological
rules
and conform
many
the universal
preferences
on2.2
naturalness
established within NM (Dressler 2005). On
Migrationparameters
Policies in ESEA............................................................
34
the other hand, many slang formations expand the potential of word2.3 Ethicsmeans,
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
formation
developing
new patterns that exhibit various
violations
of basic
properties of morphological grammar and fail 47
to
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
correspond to many of the parameters on which traditional
derivation
and incompounding
are based, becoming less preferred
3.
Immigration
the 21st Century.
The Need
for NM.
an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
choices
within
Christine
Baghdady,
Richardwe
Vanderberg
In defence
of my claims
have explored the preferential suffixes
of 3.1
slang
(i.e.
-ie/-y,
Brit.
-er/-ers,
rarely -ock, Amer. -eroo/-aroo,
World Population Increase .............................................................
51
Austral. -o), with a familiarizing rather than derivational function. Such
3.2 Urbanization,
Migration
and Governance
.................
53
suffixes
are in factInternational
used to convey
morphopragmatic
meanings
(see
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

156

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Dressler & Merlini Barbaresi 1994, 1997). We have also seen


Table
of Contents
slang expletive infixes (e.g. -bally-, -blessed-, -bloody-,-bloomingand -fuckin(g)-), used for additional emphasis, and a set of
abbreviatory operations (acronyms, initialisms, blending, clipping,
elliptic rhyming slang) and other extra-grammatical mechanisms
(reversed forms, variation) which create colloquial or in-group
variants, but no new words.
In relation to the structural properties of slang formations, the
patterns so far observed seem to validate the various generalizations
made on the extra-grammaticality of slang (see 3.1.2). For example,
the variability
of the baseand
category
andSummary
of the derivatives/compounds
Opening
Considerations
Executive
.............................. 11
is abundantly
confirmed,
and
it
is
in
fact
much larger than admitted
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
for standard English. Virtually all grammatical classes of words
(including
particles,
1.
Ethics and
Humanproper
Rights names and interjections) can be bases of
slang
formations,
and a Migration
majority can
be outputs.
Aronoffs (1976)
in the
South American
Processes
....................................
15
Unitary
Hypothesis is clearly contradicted by this promiscuity
Mario Base
Santillo
with regard to input category (Zwicky & Pullum 1987: 336; cf. Plag
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
2004),
and so is Scalises (1988) Unitary Output Hypothesis.
Furthermore,
slang provides
exceptions
the Word-based
1.2
International Instrument
for Migrants
Defenceto.............................
21
Hypothesis (Bauer 1979), due to the irregularity of the bases, which
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
are often smaller (abbreviated), or larger (combined or inflected)
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
word
forms rather
than autonomous words, with a consequent
morphotactic opacity and obstruction for the output perception or
2.
Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
interpretation.
Fabio
TheseBaggio
irregularities are counterbalanced by slang uniformity in
functions
and effects,
which
are mostly
or intimacy, 27
if
2.1 International
Migration
in East
Asia andfamiliarity
South East Asia..............
not irony, sarcastic opposition, or exclusion. My conviction is
2.2 Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
indeed
that slang
uses new
morphological patterns patterns which
I have
tried and
to categorize,
since they represented descriptive gaps 43
in
2.3 Ethics
Migration Management.................................................
morphology (cf. Bauer 1988b) to serve a cryptic function. Newly
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
coined words formed by means of unproductive irregular
morphological mechanisms obstruct ease of perception, and
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
therefore word access to outsiders (see Aronoff & Anshen 1998).
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
They
are therefore deliberately used by speakers to stop people
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
other than in-group members from understanding their private
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51
speech.
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
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4. Lexical
Organization and Disorganization
Table
of Contents

Opening
Considerations
andover
Executive
Summary
..............................
It has been
stated over and
again that
slang, much
more so than 11
Fabio
Baggio,
Laura
Zanfrini
other language variants, has a tendency towards the creation of a
lexicon of its own. (Sornig 1981: 22)
1. Ethics and Human Rights
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

4.1.
TheSantillo
slang lexicon: hypotheses and aims
Mario

1.1 main
Migrants
.............................................................................
17
The
aimRights
of this
chapter is to establish whether the slang
lexicon
organizesInstrument
conceptual
material Defence
in accordance
with the
1.2 International
for Migrants
.............................
21
factors and dimensions of the lexicon of standard English, and can
1.3 Some
Reflections...................................................................
hence
be Final
viewed
as one of its sub-systems, rather than 23
an
autonomous
dynamical
system, with its own internal organization,
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
or, more plausibly, disorganization.
My investigation
therefore
to and
determine
whether
the slang
2. Migration
Policies and
Ethics aims
in East
South East
Asia............
27
Fabiosystem
Baggio exhibits a certain regularity (in terms of schemata,
lexical
regular
patterns, rules, structures, etc. which act as constraints for
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
the system behaviour), or whether there is no rational logic that can
2.2 Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
predict
the system
dynamics.
After a closer investigation on this
topic,
I
would
like
to
give
an
answer
to
the
following
questions:
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43

Is there.........................................................................................
any organization within the slang lexicon?
Bibliography
47
If so, is this organization the same as found in standard

3. Immigration
the 21
English?in Or
isstitCentury.
rather an independent self-regulating
The Need
for
an
Ethical
Approach.
The Canadian Experience ..... 51
organization?
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

If not, what else?

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51


3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

158

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

I can anticipate that no generalizations are possible for the whole


Table
of Contents
slang lexicon, but tendencies can be identified within specific areas
of slang and for certain slang terms.
My core hypothesis is that slang refuses the standard organization,
and either develops a different one, with its own forms, dimensions
and interactions among the system components, or substitutes it
with disorganization, showing a tendency towards randomness and
unpredictability.
A finer-grained analysis is in order now.
Opening
Considerations
and Executive Summary .............................. 11
4.2. Lexical
organization
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini

The key question from which my research starts is How are words,

1.
Ethics and
Rights
meanings
andHuman
concepts
organized within the slang lexicon?.
inSemantic
the South theories
Americandevelop
Migrationvarious
Processes
....................................
15
approaches
to meaning

Mario Santillo
description
and lexical organization. Two approaches which appear
particularly
relevant
our semantic description view the lexicon 17
as
1.1 Migrants
Rightsto
.............................................................................
structured into either semantic fields or conceptual frames. Within
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
semantic
field theories (e.g. Grandy 1992, Kittay 1992), words
applicable
a Reflections...................................................................
common conceptual domain are organized within
1.3 Some to
Final
23
semantic fields by paradigmatic relationships (synonymy, antonymy,
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
hyponymy, meronymy, etc.), called meaning (or sense) relations.
Meaning
relations
members
of South
selected
of lexical
2.
Migration
Policies connect
and Ethics
in East and
Eastsets
Asia............
27
items:
the names of the days of the week (Monday, Tuesday,
Fabioe.g.,
Baggio
Wednesday, etc.) can be defined by means of the part of
2.1 International
Migrationthat
in East
Asia
and to
South
Asia..............
27
relationship
(meronymy)
they
hold
theEast
word
naming the
entire
cycle of seven
days,
i.e. week.
2.2 Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
By contrast, within frame semantics (Fillmore 1985, Fillmore &
2.3 Ethics
andwords
Migration
43
Atkins
1992),
are Management.................................................
not related to each other directly, but by
way
of their .........................................................................................
links to common background frames (also called
Bibliography
47
domains or knowledge schemata). That is, in a frame-based
st Century.
description,
theinabove
would be related to the more complete
3.
Immigration
the 21terms
The Need
for an Ethical
Approach.
The
Canadian
Experience
..... 51
system
of Calendric
Terms,
including
common
nouns
(day, week),
as Christine
well as Baghdady,
the namesRichard
of theVanderberg
days (Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday,
etc.),
specialPopulation
categories
such as
fortnight and week-end, and wider
3.1 World
Increase
.............................................................
51
categories (month, year).

3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53


3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

4. Lexical Organization and Disorganization

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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Barsalou (1992) provides a further development of the fillmorean


Table
of Contents
notion of frame as consisting of attribute-value sets, structural
invariants and constraints. In his view, frames are not rigid
configurations of independent attributes, but they are rather dynamic
relational structures whose form is flexible and context-dependent.
In line with Barsalous (1992) model, Bertuccelli Papi & Lenci
(2007) describe the frame as a dynamic structure whose format is the
emerging result of external pressures, not built in relation to some
pre-established intention, but rather resulting from the interplay of
different sorts of constraints, both intra-linguistic (syntactic,
morphological,
textual) and
(encyclopedic
knowledge,
Opening
Considerations
andextra-linguistic
Executive Summary
..............................
11
contextual
input,
cognition).
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
In Bertuccelli Papi & Lencis (2007) approach, organization
therefore
entails
the existence
1. Ethics and
Human
Rights of redundancies, i.e. schemata, regular
patterns
and rules
that act
as constraints
for....................................
the system behaviour,
in the South
American
Migration
Processes
15
allowing
us to capture the spectrum of word meaning modulations,
Mario Santillo
and to reduce the amount of information necessary to describe the
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
system
itself:
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
Organization enables the system to stay away from total randomness,
1.3
Some
Finalstates
Reflections...................................................................
makes
some
impossible or highly improbable given certain 23
constraints, and reduces the overall complexity of the system.
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
(Bertuccelli Papi
& Lenci 2007: 18)
2.
Policies andwhether
Ethics in
andlexical
South system
East Asia............
27
LetMigration
us now investigate
theEast
slang
accepts this

Fabio
Baggio
type
of structural
organization, and, if so, whether its behaviour is
in 2.1
anyInternational
way predictable
describable
in terms
of established
Migrationand
in East
Asia and South
East Asia..............
27
meaning relations and regular patterns.

2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

4.2.1.
Organization
via meaning
relations
2.3 Ethics
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
Within
an organized
lexical area, each lexeme (or micro-system)
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
can be first of all described in terms of its relations with the other
st Century.
system
components.
from Croft & Cruse (2004), the
3.
Immigration
in the 21Moving
primary
paradigmatic
relations
thatThe
I have
foundExperience
useful for.....my
The Need
for an Ethical
Approach.
Canadian
51
research
include:
Christine
Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
Relation
of identity,
similarity
or synonymy (X equals Y, 51
as
3.1 World
Population
Increase
.............................................................
in happy = glad);

3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53


3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

160

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

of opposition or exclusion (X is the opposite of Y),


TableRelation
of
Contents
in which X and Y may be:

Simple antonyms or complementaries, bisecting a domain


into two subdomains (dead/alive, girl/boy);

Gradable antonyms, denoting different degrees of some


property (long/short, good/bad);

Reversives or directional opposites, denoting changes in


opposite directions (rise/fall, up/down);

Converses: describing a relation between two entities from


alternative viewpoints (employer/employee, parent/child);

Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11


Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini

Relation of inclusion: hyponymy (X is a kind of/type of Y, as

inand
daffodil
> Rights
flower), and meronymy or partonymy (X is a
1. Ethics
Human
in thepart
South
American
Migration
of Y,
as in arm
> body).Processes .................................... 15
Mario Santillo

4.2.1.1. Synonymy
1.1 Migrants
.............................................................................
17
Synonymy
is aRights
relation
of affinity which links two phonologically
different
words having
a very
similar meaning.
In English slang
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants
Defence .............................
21
synonymy is a profuse phenomenon. Consider, for instance,
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
examples (21)-(24), all drawn from BNC:
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

21. Heroin (smack, horse, H, Chinese when combined with


cocaine it is called a snowball). May be sniffed, or burned
Fabio Baggio
and then inhaled (chasing the dragon) or injected.

2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27

2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27

22. Cocaine (coke, snow, freebase, crack). Psychologically


2.2 Migration
Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
addictive.
2.3 Ethics
Migration
43
23.
LSDand
(acid,
trips,Management.................................................
blotters, blue, smileys). A powerful
hallucinogen.
Few
try
it
more
than
once.
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47

24. From left to right: amphetamines (or speed); cannabis

3. Immigration
the 21st Century.
(grass, in
marijuana
or pot); hashish resin (which is derived
The Need
Ethical
Approach.
Thecannabis)
Canadianand
Experience
..... 51
fromfor
thean
Indian
hemp
plant like
ecstasy tabs.
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

3.1 WorldLyons
Population
Increase
.............................................................
Following
(1977),
the meaning
of an expression (sense) is51a
property
of
language,
and
is
not
to
be
equated
with the
object 53
or
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and
Governance
.................
concept the expression may be used by speakers to refer to
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

4. Lexical Organization and Disorganization

1619

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

(reference): i.e., the Morning Star and the Evening Star have
Table
of Contents
different meanings (senses) but both refer to the planet Venus.
Similarly, the slang expressions smack and horse have different
senses, but both refer to heroin, i.e. denote heroin in the real world.1
Extracts (21)-(24) above show that each standard drug name (i.e.
amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, heroin, LSD) corresponds to a
set of slang terms. For instance, heroin is called Chinese, H, horse
or smack by drug addicts, cocaine is often referred to as coke,
freebase or snow,2 and cannabis as grass or pot. Such slang terms
can be considered exact, absolute or perfect synonyms because they
have theConsiderations
same referentandinExecutive
the real Summary
word, belong
to the same
Opening
..............................
11
syntactic
category,
and
are
therefore
mutually
substitutable,
or,
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
more precisely, they are interchangeably used in drug addicts
3 On the other hand, they are not exact synonyms to
conversations.
1.
Ethics and Human
Rights
theincomparable
standard Migration
English words.
Cf.: .................................... 15
the South American
Processes
Mario Santillo

25.
Tests were
being
carried out on suspected drugs thought 17
to
1.1 Migrants
Rights
.............................................................................
include heroin, ecstasy, cocaine, LSD and cannabis. (BNC)
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

Some
Final
In 1.3
effect,
none
of Reflections...................................................................
the standard drug names in (25) can be substituted 23
by
a slang
co-referent
without making the sentence appear anomalous, 25
as
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
in Tests were being carried out on suspected drugs thought to include
4 South East Asia............ 27
2.
Migration
Policies
and
Ethics
East and
heroin,
ecstasy,
*snow,
LSD
and in
cannabis.
Fabio
Nor Baggio
are the afore-mentioned slang terms exact synonyms for
other
slang
wordsMigration
used in aindifferent
may highlight
2.1 International
East Asiacontext,
and Southwhich
East Asia..............
27
different shades of meaning. For example, junk, a slang word
2.2 Migration
Policies
ESEA............................................................
34
referring
to drugs
in ingeneral
or heroin in particular, assumes
negative
connotations
which
are
not
present
in
H
or
smack,
and
it
is
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
in fact used by non-addicts, as in (26):
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47

Lyons (1977: 207) definesstthe denotation of a lexeme as the relationship that


3.
Immigration in the 21 Century.
holds between that lexeme and persons, things, places, properties, processes and
The
fortoantheEthical
Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
activitiesNeed
external
language-system.
2 See
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
hyponymy
( 4.2.1.3)
for crack.
3 According to Lyons (1977: 202), two expressions are fully synonymous over a

3.1 World
Population
51
certain
range of
utterancesIncrease
iff they.............................................................
are substitutable in the utterances without
affecting their descriptive meaning.
3.2 Urbanization,
Migration
and Governance
.................
53
4 With
regard to this,International
Partridge (1947:
289) claims
that most slang
words are
unconventional
synonyms
of conventional
words.
3.3 International
Migration
in Canada:
An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

162

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

26. Its an article on junk, he said. Junk? Drugs. Its for the
Table
of Contents
features department. (BNC)
Synonymy in slang is a rather intricate sense relation, and many
factors may enter at play when establishing whether or not two
slang words are totally synonymous. For instance, the geographical
collocation or the origin of the words under examination may
determine their perfect (vs. partial, near or quasi) synonymy. In
fact, two different regional variants are not mutually substitutable.
Compare furphy with scuttlebutt in (27)-(28) below:
Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini

27. The persistent rumour that they were introduced to check


ragwort is a furphy. (OED)
1. Ethics and Human Rights
28.
scuttlebutt
their contracts
not yet signed and
in theThe
South
Americansays
Migration
Processeswere
....................................
15
Mariothat
Santillo
the pair were holding out for better terms and conditions.
(BNC) Rights ............................................................................. 17
1.1 Migrants
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

Both terms have the same meaning/referent i.e. a false report or


1.3 Some Final
rumour
but Reflections...................................................................
furphy is Australian slang, while scuttlebutt 23
is
American
slang,
or
at
least,
it
was
originally.
Hence,
the
two
words
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
are not perfect but partial synonyms.
On the other
hand,
motormouth
and South
big mouth,
which both
2. Migration
Policies
and Ethics
in East and
East Asia............
27
originated
and
are
used
in
American
English
to
mean
a very
Fabio Baggio
talkative or boastful person, are perfect synonyms, as (29)-(30)
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
show:
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

29.
Stow
motormouth,
she said, smiling sheepishly, and
2.3 Ethics
andit,Migration
Management.................................................
43
drink your coffee. (BNC)
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47

30. You big mouth! Get out! Get out of here! (BNC)

3. Immigration in the 21st Century.


The Need
for an
Ethicalwhich
Approach.
Canadian
Experience
..... 51
Another
crucial
criterion
may The
determine
perfect
synonymy
is
Baghdady, form
RichardofVanderberg
theChristine
morphological
the words. For instance, the two
adjectives
fubar
and
snafu
meaning
confused, messed up are both
3.1 World Population Increase .............................................................
51
American acronymic formations (see 3.2.9.1), and therefore
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
perfect synonyms:

3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54


Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
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4. Lexical Organization and Disorganization

1639

31. This was my grandfathers and it works just fine...


Table
of Contents
wristwatch, on the other hand, is still FUBAR. (OED)

My

32. Last week U.S. citizens knew that gasoline rationing and
rubber requisitioning were snafu. (OED)
Following the same criterion, the lexical phrases dogs breakfast
and dogs dinner meaning a mess are likewise synonymous:
33. He cant make head or tail of it... Its a complete dogs
(OED)
Openingbreakfast.
Considerations
and Executive Summary .............................. 11
FabioThe
Baggio,
Laura Zanfrini
34.
influential
Georgian Group described the main frontage
of the scheme as a dogs dinner yesterday. (ODMS)

1. Ethics and Human Rights


in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

andMario
so are
the exocentric compounds oddball and screwball used as
Santillo
nouns to denote an eccentric or odd person or, attributively, to
1.1 Migrants
Rights
............................................................................. 17
mean
eccentric,
strange:
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

35.
Bernie
was
seen as a bit of an oddball although not by me.
1.3 Some
Final
Reflections...................................................................
23
(BNC)
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

36. He was a scientist, but whether brilliant or a screwball


nobody
ever knew.
(OED)
2. Migration
Policies
and Ethics
in East and South East Asia............ 27
Fabio Baggio

4.2.1.2. Antonymy
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
Antonymy is a relation of sense oppositeness between two words.
Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
In 2.2
English
slang,
however,
this oppositeness relation is not always
between
two
phonologically
different
words,
but
may
also
be
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43
between two different uses of the same word. That is, the same
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
slang
term can
assume two opposite senses depending on the
context: e.g., the slang adjective chuffed, commonly used with the
3.
Immigration
in the
21st Century.
positive
meaning
pleased,
satisfied, is sometimes used in the
The Need
for an sense
EthicalofApproach.
Thedisgruntled,
Canadian Experience
..... 51
contrary
negative
displeased,
as respectively
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
in (37) and (38):
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

37.
Im really chuffed
(pleased)
this is the
third goal
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migrationbecause
and Governance
.................
53
Ive scored in half an hour as a striker this season. (BNC)
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

164

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


9

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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

38. Dont let on theyre after you, see, or shell be dead chuffed
Table
of Contents
(displeased), see? She dont like the law. (OED)
But, clearly, these two pragmatically distinct uses of the same slang
word cannot illustrate prototypical antonymy.
Another remarkable aspect concerns the relationship between
the standard and the slang sense. In fact, the slang sense of a word
may turn out to be diametrically opposite to the standard sense of
the same word. Thus, if bad in standard English means lacking
good or favourable qualities, and is therefore the contrary of good,
Opening
as in (39):Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini

39. There were bad times as well as good. (BNC)

1. Ethics and Human Rights


in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
Santillo
in Mario
English
slang it is assigned the opposed meaning possessing an
abundance
of favourable qualities, as in (40):
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17

1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

40. I say read these poets of the Seventies. They got something
1.3 Some
Reflections...................................................................
23
badFinal
(good)
to say. (OED)
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

More prototypical slang antonyms are complementaries, expressing

2.
Migration
Policies
Ethics
East and South
East given
Asia............
27
two
alternatives
that and
exhaust
theinpossibilities
in some
domain,

Baggio
as Fabio
male and
female counterparts of the same concept. The following
pairs
of
excerpts
this opposition
2.1 Internationalshow
Migration
in East Asiatype:
and South East Asia.............. 27

2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

41. And the other homeboy (group member)? Boyle asked.


2.3 Ethics
and aMigration
He got
gun and Management.................................................
shot himself right in the head. (BNC) 43
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
42.
Homegirls
(a form of address), for once forget you got
class, See a guy you like (from the song Doowutchyalike,
st
3. Immigration
OED) in the 21 Century.
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51

43.
Its Baghdady,
not his fault.
that Paula Bristow Lady Muck
Christine
RichardIts
Vanderberg
(pompous woman) herself. Who does she think she is?
3.1 World
Population Increase ............................................................. 51
(BNC)
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

4. Lexical Organization and Disorganization

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

44. Hey, Lord Muck (pompous man)! May


Table
of Contents
honour of introducing ourselves! (OED)

1659

we have the

45. The other rumour she heard was that she was a drag queen
(a male homosexual transvestite). (BNC)
46. [She] had experimented once with a drag-king friend (a
woman dressed up as a man), passing as a man on the
street. (OED)
47. For all those for whom Baywatch just isnt enough, 7
Sports World Beach Volleyball Championship in Rio de
features and
sun Executive
and sand, Summary
bronzed babes
and beachboy
OpeningJaneiro
Considerations
..............................
11
(display
Fabiobeefcake
Baggio, Laura
Zanfrini of sturdy masculine physique), and
occasionally a little sport. (BNC)
1. 48.
EthicsInand
Human Rights
flickering
torchlight the scenes probably appeared to
in themove.
South Some
American
Migration
15
of them
clearlyProcesses
included....................................
cheese-cake (display
Mario Santillo

of attractive females) and leg shows. (OED)

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17

It 1.2
is perhaps
interesting
to observe
that one
term.............................
of each couple 21
is
International
Instrument
for Migrants
Defence
coined first, and the other is formed, often humorously, as an
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
antonym.
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
Slang adjectives
can also be complementaries, as way-out far
removed from convention and, after it, way-in conventional:

2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27


Fabio Baggio

49. Many artists have sought refuge in way-in or way-out


2.1 International
Migration in East
Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
religious conversions.
(OED)
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

Reverse
terms,
the same for opposite directions on some
2.3 Ethics
and expressing
Migration Management.................................................
43
axis, are exemplified in (50) by the slang verbs gazump of a seller:
Bibliography
47
raise
the price.........................................................................................
of a property after having accepted an offer by (an
intending buyer) and gazunder of a buyer: lower the amount of an
3.
Immigration
in the
21st for
Century.
offer
made to (the
seller)
a property:
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

50. The risk of disappointment through being gazumped, or in


3.1 World
Population
Increase
.............................................................
51
the current
property
slump,
gazundered. (OED)
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

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not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

4.2.1.3. Hyponymy
Table
of Contents
Hyponymy is a relation of inclusion, say, X is a hyponym of Y iff
the meaning of Y is part of the meaning of X and X is a logical
subordinate of Y. The more general term (Y), called superordinate
or hypernym, may be the head of a compound, and the modifier
may determine the kind of Y the whole compound represents, as in
St. E. apple juice (X) is a type of juice (Y) (see Lbner 2002: 8587).
This hyponymic relation is illustrated by the slang head, taking
on the meaning of a drug addict, and its subordinate terms, with
the modifier
specifyingandthe
type ofSummary
drug or..............................
substance one 11
is
Opening
Considerations
Executive
addicted
to,
namely:
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
1. Ethics
andhead
Human
acid
an Rights
LSD addict
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
Mariocoke-head
Santillo a cocaine addict

crackhead
one.............................................................................
who is addicted to crack cocaine
1.1 Migrants
Rights
17
hophead an opium-smoker

1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

meth head a habitual user of methamphetamine

1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23

pill-head a person addicted to pills

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

pothead, tea-head or weedhead one who is addicted to


marijuana.
2. Migration
Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
Fabio Baggio

Of2.1
theInternational
subordinate
terms above,
some
a relation
of coMigration
in East Asia
andstand
SouthinEast
Asia..............
27
hyponymy (e.g. acid head and meth head). Others are themselves in
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34
a hypernym-hyponym relation (e.g. coke-head and crackhead),
2.3 Ethics
and Migration
43
because
crack
is a typeManagement.................................................
of coke. Still others are in an identity
relation
(e.g. pothead,
tea-head, weedhead), because pot, tea and
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
weed are three synonymous drug names for marijuana.
The resulting
semantic
networks form a logical hierarchy or
3. Immigration
in the
21st Century.
taxonomy
which,
moving
from
Lyons
295)Experience
model, we
The Need for an Ethical Approach.
The(1977:
Canadian
.....can
51
represent
schematically:
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

4. Lexical Organization and Disorganization

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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Table of Contents
acid head

crackhead

coke-head
hophead
HEAD
meth head
ill-head
Opening Considerations and pExecutive
Summary .............................. 11

Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini

1. Ethics and Human


pothead Rights
weedhead
tea-head
in the South American Migration
Processes .................................... 15
Mario Santillo

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17


Figure 1. A taxonomy of drug addict slang terms.
1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

This
that every slang compound with head as 23
its
1.3 does
Some not
Finalimply
Reflections...................................................................
second element belongs to the taxonomy illustrated in Fig. 1.
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
Compare
acid head with the offensive term dickhead in (51) below:
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27

51.
you go down to the woods today, make sure its not the
FabioIfBaggio
Forest Of Dean. Because every angel-dust dealer, acid
2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
head, mushroom freak, rugby player and total dickhead in
2.2 Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................
34
the world
lives there,
apparently. (BNC)
2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43

in which dickhead is not a type of drug addict, but a type of


Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
person, even if the general category person includes the
subcategory
drug
addict.
3.
Immigration
in the
21st Century.
The
case
of
head
is Approach.
not isolated
slang. Some
analogous
The Need for an Ethical
Thein
Canadian
Experience
..... 51
examples
include
closet
queen
a
secret
male
homosexual
and drag
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
queen a male homosexual transvestite, which specify the type of
3.1 World
Increase
queen
malePopulation
homosexual
one.............................................................
is referring to, or muscle Mary 51
a
muscular
homosexual,
whichMigration
is fromandthe
hypernym
Mary 53
a
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Governance
.................
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


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168

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

homosexual, or else rag-bag


Table
of Contents
bag a woman.

a sloppily-dressed woman, from

4.2.1.4. Meronymy
Meronymy (or partonymy) describes a part-whole relationship
between lexical items. Starting form Lbners (2002: 97) meronymy
of standard body part terms, I have constructed a similar meronymy
of slang body part terms. However, since some standard items have
no slang comparable form (e.g. body or trunk), I have organized the
slang meronymy as follows, with some items remaining unnamed
(hence, indicated by variables Y and X):

Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11


Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini

lug ear

1. Ethics and Human


lamp eye
lemon Rights
head
in the South American
Migration Processes .................................... 15
Mario Santillo

clock
face

sniffer nose

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17


kisser mouth

wing arm

1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21


1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
Y body

melon

chopper

Bibliography .........................................................................................
25
breast
tooth
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
Fabio Baggio

X trunk

breadbasket
stomach

2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27


2.2 MigrationwPolicies
heel leg in ESEA............................................................ 34
bender

2.3 Ethics and Migration Management.................................................


43
knee
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
Figure 2. A meronymy of body part slang terms.
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
The
Need for an
Ethical Approach.
Canadian
Experience
51
The
incomplete
meronymy
in Fig. 2 The
shows
that, although
the .....
slang
Christine
Baghdady,
lexicon
lacks
some Richard
lexemesVanderberg
that the standard lexicon owns (cf.

lexical
gaps
in Lyons
1977:.............................................................
301), meronymic relations can 51
be
3.1 World
Population
Increase
established with other co-meronyms and subordinate terms (e.g.
3.2 Urbanization, International
Migration
Governance
.................and
53
lamp-sniffer-kisser
> clock), which
areand
mutually
interrelated
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

4. Lexical Organization and Disorganization

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

therefore give organization and stability to the system. The same


Table
of Contents
terms are also relevant from a cognitive perspective. Indeed, they
activate a series of metaphors (e.g. lamp = eye of a lighthouse,
wheel = leg of a car, wing = arm of a bird) or metonymies (e.g.
bender, chopper, sniffer, etc.) which can help us identify additional
patterns of organization (this aspect will be expanded in 4.2.2.7).
Let us inspect more closely how meaning is assigned to slang
terms, and which cognitive operations are necessary to retrieve it.
4.2.2. Organization via regular patterns
Words denote
concepts.and
In line
with Fillmores
(1982, 1985) frame
Opening
Considerations
Executive
Summary ..............................
11
Fabio Baggio,
Laurasome
Zanfrini
semantics
model,
such concepts are related by human
experience into frames. Hence, words index or evoke a frame (in the
1.
Ethics and Human
Rights
speaker/hearers
mind),
and the interpreter invokes that frame to
in
the
South
American
understand the underlyingMigration
concept.5Processes .................................... 15
Mario
Santillo
This is, per se, a very nave simplistic view. In fact, a person who
encounters
a slang
word
for the first time and invokes its standard
1.1 Migrants
Rights
.............................................................................
17
frame of reference, will not necessarily understand the word
1.2 International
Instrument
Migrants Defence
.............................
21
meaning,
since the
concept for
conventionally
associated
to that word
does
to the concept that slang associates to it. For
1.3 not
Somecorrespond
Final Reflections...................................................................
23
instance, if the word bread is traditionally related to the Food Frame,
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25
in slang it would be rather related to the Commercial Transactional
Frame (cf. Petruck 1996), since the concept it denotes is money.
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
Conversely, it is possible to retrieve the actual slang meaning via
Fabio Baggio
explicatures, calling upon complementary (co- and con-textual)
2.1 International
Migration incalling
East Asia
and
South East Asia..............
27
information,
and inferences,
upon
supplementary
information,
e.g.
by Policies
metaphorical
and figurative extensions (cf. Sperber 34
&
2.2derived
Migration
in ESEA............................................................
Wilson 1986). Inferences may indeed activate a sequence of
2.3 Ethics
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
cognitive
operations
allowing
our mind to associate the slang item

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47
3.
Immigration
in the 21st Century.
5 Croft
& Cruse (2004) propose a dynamic construal approach to conceptual
The Need
forthe
anidea
Ethical
Approach.
Theseems
Canadian
.....they
51
categories.
Since
of fixity
of meaning
to be aExperience
mere illusion,
Christine
RichardConstrual
Vanderberg
formulate
the Baghdady,
Dynamic Meaning
Hypothesis, according to which meaning
is not steady but context-sensitive, and each lexical item is associated with a body of
3.1 World
Population
Increase .............................................................
51
conceptual
content
(a non-semantic
entity called purport) transformed into
contextualized meaning by means of a series of processes (construal operations).
Urbanization,
International
Migration
.................
53
As3.2
a result,
the categories
are inherently
variable,and
andGovernance
created on-line
as and when
needed.
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

bread with its slang meaning money. For instance, a proportion


Table
of Contents
such as:
bread stands for < physical survival >
LIKE
money stands for < economic survival >
which implies that slang meaning is not, at least not always,
assigned arbitrarily. As a corollary, slang words are not randomly
chosen to denote such meaning.
What Considerations
I expect to find
a closer
examination
of the slang
Opening
andfrom
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
lexicon
is
a
set
of
regular
associative
patterns
which
will
enable us
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
to reduce the complexity of the system, imposing structures and
levels
organization,
and to enhance the predictability of its
1.
Ethicsofand
Human Rights
dynamics.
In particular,
I expect that
some ....................................
slang items (signantia)
in the South
American Migration
Processes
15
pertaining
to the same conceptual domain will exhibit some
Mario Santillo
stability in their association to implicated meaning (signata).
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
The lexemes that I have identified and selected to verify such
hypotheses
include
items for
referring
animate
and inanimate
1.2 International
Instrument
MigrantstoDefence
.............................
21
concepts, namely:
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23

drug addicts;

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

homosexuals;

2. Migration
Policies
and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
foreign
people;
Fabio Baggio

attractive women;

2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27

drugs and narcotics;

2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

alcoholic drinks;

2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43

body parts.

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47

They have primarily been chosen on the basis of their relevance in


terms
of frequency
and
productivity within the English slang
st Century.
3.
Immigration
in the 21
lexicon.
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Let us now
proceed
with Vanderberg
the examination of these lexical sets.
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
3.1 World
Population
4.2.2.1.
Terms
for drugIncrease
addicts............................................................. 51
Terms
used
to
name
drug
addicts
appear and
to exhibit
three.................
main stable
3.2 Urbanization, International
Migration
Governance
53
associative patterns, specifically:
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

4. Lexical Organization and Disorganization

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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Object Pattern: drug addicts are named after the drug or


TableThe
of
Contents
substance they are addicted to;
The Action Pattern: they are named after the precise action
they perform when taking the drug, substance, etc.;
The Instrument Pattern: or after the instrument used to
perform the action.
4.2.2.1.1. The Object Pattern is itself distinguished into two subpatterns. The first includes terms derived from general names for
drugs and narcotics:
Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11
Fabiodopester
Baggio, Laura
Zanfrini
( dope
drug which is not specifically named)

one who uses or is addicted to drugs,


1. Ethics and Human Rights
druggie/-y one who takes or experiments with illegal drugs,
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

a drug addict,

Mario Santillo

junkie/-y/junker ( junk any narcotic drug) a drug addict,

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17

narco ( narcotics) a drug addict.

1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

Access to the above terms is clearly more direct when the object is a
1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
standard
word (e.g. drug, narcotics, though abbreviated into narco)
than
when it is.........................................................................................
a slang word, such as dope or junk. This statement25
is
Bibliography
likewise valid for terms derived from specific drug names:
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27

cokey/-ie a cocaine addict,

Fabio Baggio

hoppy an opium addict,

2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27

muggler ( muggle marijuana) a person who smokes


marijuana,

2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

2.3 Ethics
Management.................................................
reeferand
(Migration
reefer marijuana)
one who smokes marijuana,43
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
schmecker
( schmeck heroin) a heroin addict,
st Century.
snow-bird
( 21
snow
cocaine) one who sniffs cocaine,
3. Immigration
in the
The Need
an Ethical
Approach.
The Canadian drug)
Experience
..... 51
speedforfreak
( speed
an amphetamine
a person
Christine
Baghdady,
Vanderberg
addicted
to anRichard
amphetamine
drug,

3.1 World
Population
.............................................................
teaman
( tea Increase
marijuana)
one who smokes marijuana. 51
Urbanization,
International
Governance ................. 53
For3.2the
respective drug
names, Migration
see also and
4.2.2.5.
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
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Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang


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172

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

4.2.2.1.2. The Action Pattern is primarily based on actions performed


Table
of Contents
by drug addicts when they inject or inhale the object (drug):
popper/joy-popper ( v pop swallow or inject (a narcotic
drug)) a drug-taker,
sniffer ( v sniff inhale cocaine through the nose) one
who sniffs a drug.
In-between terms which, besides to the action, allude to the object are:
glue-sniffer a person who inhales the fumes of plastic
cement for their narcotic effects,

Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11

Fabiosnifter
Baggio,(
Laurasnifter
Zanfrinia small quantity of cocaine inhaled

through the nose) a cocaine addict.

1.
Ethics
and Human
The
following
terms Rights
allude to actions connected to the experience
in
the
South
American
Migration Processes .................................... 15
of drug-taking:
Mario Santillo

freak ( v freak out undergo an intense emotional

1.1 Migrants
Rights
.............................................................................
17
experience,
esp.
under the influence of hallucinatory drugs)

a drug addict,
1.2 International
Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
tripper
(
v trip (out)) one who experiences hallucinations
1.3 Some
Final
Reflections...................................................................
23
induced by a drug, esp. LSD (cf. (down) trip the experience).

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

4.2.2.1.3. The Instrument Pattern associates the drug addict to the


tools used for the injection, especially the hypodermic needle of the
Fabio Baggio
syringe:

2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27

2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27

hypo ( hypo a hypodermic needle or injection) a drug

2.2 Migration
addict, Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

needle
a drugManagement.................................................
addict who takes drugs by injection (cf.
2.3 Ethics
andman
Migration
43
St. E. needlewoman).

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47

4.2.2.2.
Terms for
homosexuals
3.
Immigration
in the
21st Century.
Terms
used
to
name
homosexual
people
likewise
exhibit .....
some
The Need for an Ethical
Approach. The
Canadian
Experience
51

regularity.
They are indeed
after three preferential semantic
Christine Baghdady,
Richard coined
Vanderberg
patterns:
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

The Attitude Pattern: which concerns the ways and manners

3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration behaviour;
and Governance ................. 53
that characterize
the homosexual
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

4. Lexical Organization and Disorganization

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Action Pattern:
TableThe
of
Contents
and acts;

1739

concerning the homosexual practices

The Instrument Pattern: concerning the sexual organs


involved in homosexual intercourses.
4.2.2.2.1. The Attitude Pattern is the most productive in associative
slang relations. The predominance of homosexuals over lesbians
and their natural distinction from heterosexuals makes their attitude
be characterized by the features of effeminacy, delicacy and
anomaly.
Opening
and Executive
Summary
The Considerations
effeminacy feature
associates
male..............................
homosexuals 11
or
Fabio
Baggio,
Laura
Zanfrini
effeminate men to female proper names, especially nicknames
(see also 3.2.3.12):
1. Ethics and Human Rights
Lizzie, Mary,
molly,
nancy, nelly,
in theJessie/-y,
South American
Migration
Processes
.................................... 15

Santillo
or Mario
to general
appellations normally used in slang for women or girls,
which
however
presuppose
previous knowledge of their slang use: 17
1.1 Migrants Rights
.............................................................................

quean (cf. slang


a woman,
a female),
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants
Defence ............................. 21
queen
theReflections...................................................................
effeminate partner in a homosexual relationship
1.3 Some
Final
23
(cf. slang an attractive woman; a girl-friend),

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

tart the young homosexual companion of an older man (cf.


slang Policies
a wife and
or girl-friend),
2. Migration
Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
Fabioweeny
Baggio(cf. slang a girl).

2.1 association
International of
Migration
in East Asia
and South
East Asia..............
27
The
homosexuals
names
to standard
(pro)nouns
denoting
female
gender
is
more
explicit:
2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

queenie/-y,

2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43

she-male a passive male homosexual or transvestite (cf.


colloq. female),

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47

sister used
byst Century.
homosexual men to denote a fellow
3. Immigration
in the 21
The Need
for an Ethical
Approach.
The Canadian
Experience
..... 51
homosexual
(cf. St.
E. brother
used between
friends
or
Christine
Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
fellows),

3.1 World
Population
Increase
.............................................................
wife the
passive
member
of a homosexual partnership. 51
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

The delicacy feature associates homosexuals to terms which exhibit


Table
of Contents
the same feature, such as names of flowers, or of breath, food, etc.
that is light or soft in character:
flit (cf. a light touch),
pansy/pansy boy (derog.) (cf. the flower),
puff or its variant poof (cf. puff a short impulsive blast of
breath or wind),
pretty-boy (cf. pretty good-looking, esp. in a delicate way),
twinkie/-y
(cf. Twinkie
a brandSummary
of cup-cake
with a creamy
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
..............................
11
Fabiofilling).
Baggio, Laura Zanfrini

The feature of anomaly rather connects homosexuals to terms

1.
Ethics
Human Rights
which
areand
intrinsically
or extrinsically related to strangeness, such
in
the
South
American
....................................
as supernatural
beings,Migration
deities, Processes
unexplainable
events, or 15
to
Mario Santillo
adjectives
denoting something strange, peculiar, etc.:

1.1 Migrants
17
fairy (cf.Rights
one.............................................................................
of a class of supernatural beings, in popular

belief supposed
to possess
magicalDefence
powers),
1.2 International
Instrument
for Migrants
............................. 21
freakFinal
(cf. Reflections...................................................................
a sudden causeless change or turn of the mind),23
1.3 Some
moffie .........................................................................................
( hermaphrodite a human being in which parts
Bibliography
25

characteristic of both sexes are to some extent combined) a


male transvestite,
2. Migration
Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
Fabioqueer/-ie
Baggio (cf. queer strange, peculiar, eccentric).

2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27

4.2.2.2.2. A less widespread pattern, the Action one, relates


2.2 Migration
in ESEA............................................................
homosexuals
toPolicies
their usual
acts and behaviour, commonly viewed 34
as
out2.3ofEthics
the ordinary
by heterosexuals.
This pattern originates such
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
words as:
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47

pronk ( v prank dress in a smart, bright, or ostentatious

manner)inan
or effeminate person,
3. Immigration
theineffectual
21st Century.
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
shirtlifter,

Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

sod ( sodomite) one who practises sodomy (cf. sodomy


an unnatural form of sexual intercourse, esp. that of one
male with another).
3.2 Urbanization,
International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

4. Lexical Organization and Disorganization

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

4.2.2.2.3. Similarly infrequent is the Instrument Pattern, alluding to


Table
of Contents
the sexual organs involved in homosexual intercourses:
bum-boy ( bum the buttocks) a young male homosexual,
esp. a prostitute,
jocker ( jock the male genitals),
pussy (cf. the external female organs).
4.2.2.3. Terms for foreigners
Foreign people are mostly renamed with critical or offensive
intentions.
The slang terms
to obtain
such effects
pertain to the
Opening
Considerations
andused
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
Fabio Baggio,
Laura Zanfrini
following
patterns:
The Product Pattern: which is related to the product (e.g.

1. Ethics and Human Rights


food) typically consumed or used by foreigners;
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

Name Pattern: related to their most common Christian


MarioThe
Santillo
names;

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17

The Appearance Pattern: related to some distinctive feature


of their physical appearance.

1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21


1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23

4.2.2.3.1.
In accordance
with the Product Pattern, foreign people are
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
associated with terms for food or similar goods which they
habitually
use,
or areand
reputed
2.
Migration
Policies
Ethicstoinuse:
East and South East Asia............ 27
Fabiofrog/froggy/frog-eater
Baggio
(offens.) a Frenchman,

2.1 International
Migration
East Asia
South East
27
herring choker
a in
native
or and
inhabitant
of Asia..............
the Maritime

Provinces,
a Scandinavian,
2.2 Migration
Policies
in ESEA............................................................ 34
Kraut/Sauerkraut,
sausage a German,
2.3 Ethics
and Migration Management.................................................
43
macaroni,
spaghetti an Italian,
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
pea-soup a French Canadian,

3. Immigration in the 21st Century.


Spud Islander ( spud potato) a native or inhabitant of
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51

Prince Edward Island, which is noted for its fine potatoes,

Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

Woodbine an Englishman, esp. a soldier, considered as a


habitual smoker of Woodbine cigarettes.

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53


3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

4.2.2.3.2. Another quite recurrent association, which I have called


Table
of Contents
the Name Pattern, correlates foreign people with their most frequent
male proper names, especially in their hypocoristic or pet forms:

dago ( Sp. Diego) a Spaniard, a Portuguese, an Italian,

Fritz ( Friedrich) a German,

Heinie ( Heinrich) a German (soldier),

Hymie ( Jewish Hyman) a Jewish person,

Ikey ( Isaac) a Jew,

Opening
Considerations
andIrishman,
Executive Summary .............................. 11
Pat
( Patrick) an
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini

Sammy an American soldier.

1. Ethics and Human Rights


4.2.2.3.3.
The American
Appearance
PatternProcesses
is based....................................
on some of the most
in the South
Migration
15

salient
Mariophysical
Santillo features of foreign people, e.g., the colour of their
skin:
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17

blacky a Black, a Negro,

smoke (offens.) a Black,

whity/-ie/-ey a white person,

1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21


1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

the shape of their body:

2. Migration
Policies(derog.)
and Ethics
in East andesp.
South
Asia............ 27
grease-ball
a foreigner,
oneEast
of Mediterranean
FabioorBaggio
Latin American origin,

Migration
or 2.1
theInternational
form of their
eyes: in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
Migration
roundeyePolicies
a European,
2.2
in ESEA............................................................ 34
Ethics
slant-eye
a slant-eyed
person, esp. an Asian,
2.3
and Migration
Management.................................................
43
slope/slopy/slopehead
an oriental; spec. a Vietnamese
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47

(from Asians stereotypically slanting eyes).

3. Immigration in the 21st Century.


The Need
forfor
an attractive
Ethical Approach.
Canadian Experience ..... 51
4.2.2.4.
Terms
(young) The
women

Christinewomen
Baghdady,
Vanderberg
Attractive
areRichard
often called
by bizarre, curious names, esp. in
young
peoples
slang
(or .............................................................
slanguage, see Stenstrm 2000,
3.1 World
Population
Increase
51
Mattiello 2005, forthcoming b). The terms used by young men to
3.2 Urbanization,
International Migration
and Governance
................. 53
define
a womans attractiveness
mainly belong
to:

3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54


Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang. A Description of its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology
2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

4. Lexical Organization and Disorganization

The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Appearance Pattern: connected to


TableThe
of
Contents
attractive womens physical appearance;

1779

some feature of

The Attitude Pattern: connected to some feature of their


behaviour;
The Effect Pattern: connected to the effects they can produce
upon men.
4.2.2.4.1. Following the Appearance Pattern, attractive women are
named after their good-looking aspect:
beaut
( beauty)and
a beautiful
outstanding
person or thing,
Opening
Considerations
ExecutiveorSummary
..............................
11
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini

doll a very beautiful or attractive woman,

dolly/dolly-bird
an attractive and stylish young woman (cf.
1. Ethics
and Human Rights
girl).
in thebird
South
American Migration Processes .................................... 15
Mario Santillo

4.2.2.4.2.
A far
more
common association is found between
1.1 Migrants
Rights
.............................................................................
17
attractive women and their attitude, hence, the Attitude Pattern.
1.2 International
Instrument
Migrantssex,
Defence
.............................
21
According
to people
of theforopposite
beautiful
women often
show
a puerile,
attitude, as in:
1.3 Some
Finalimmature
Reflections...................................................................
23
babe an.........................................................................................
attractive young woman,
Bibliography
25
bimbo/bim/bimbette a young woman considered to be

2. Migration
Policies
and Ethics
East and
South East Asia............ 27
sexually
attractive
but ofinlimited
intelligence.
Fabio Baggio

They are generally weak, frail, and may love cuddles:

2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27

jelly a pretty girl,

2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

snuggle-pup/snuggle-puppy/snuggle-pupper an attractive

2.3 Ethics
and
Migration Management................................................. 43
young
girl.
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
They
may be supple
or sensual:

fox an attractive woman (cf. foxy),

3. Immigration in the 21st Century.


elegant:
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
Christine
Baghdady,
Richardwoman,
Vanderberg
queen
an attractive

3.1 Worldeven
Population
sometimes
clever,Increase
acute: ............................................................. 51
3.2 Urbanization,
Migration
and Governance ................. 53
cutie/-ey anInternational
attractive young
woman.
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

But they normally attract men by their sexy attitude:


Table
of Contents

sex kitten a young woman who exploits her sex appeal.

4.2.2.4.3. The Effect Pattern associates attractive women with the


effects they produce upon men. For instance, they commonly rouse
mens sexual desire, hence the names:
hottie/-y a sexually attractive person (cf. hot of a person
(originally a woman): sexually attractive),
sexboat/sex-bomb/sexpot a sexually exciting person, esp. a
woman.
Opening
Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini
Metaphorically,
they also tempt mens appetite, and are therefore
comparable to tasty, delicious food, e.g.:

1. Ethics and Human Rights


woman,Migration
esp. an attractive
girl,
in thecookie
South a
American
Processes
.................................... 15

Mariodish
Santillo
an attractive person, esp. a woman (cf. dishy very

attractive),
1.1 Migrants
Rights ............................................................................. 17
peach an Instrument
attractive for
young
woman
(cf. .............................
peachy attractive,
1.2 International
Migrants
Defence
21
desirable),

1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23

pippin an excellent, pleasing, or beautiful person (from the

Bibliography
25
name of.........................................................................................
the apple),

tomato
an attractive
girl.
2. Migration
Policies
and Ethics
in East and South East Asia............ 27
Fabio they
Baggio
Lastly,
may have strong, negative and destructive effects on
men,
also useMigration
the following
2.1 who
International
in Eastlabels:
Asia and South East Asia.............. 27

purler aPolicies
beautyin(cf.
earlier sense a knock-down blow), 34
2.2 Migration
ESEA............................................................
ripper
an
attractive
young woman,
2.3 Ethics
and
Migration
Management.................................................
43
smasher.........................................................................................
a very pretty or attractive woman.
Bibliography
47
4.2.2.5.
Terms for
drugs
narcotics
3.
Immigration
in the
21stand
Century.
Drug
represent
of theExperience
richest lexical
The names,
Need foras
ananticipated,
Ethical Approach.
The one
Canadian
..... 51

areas
of slang.
ManyRichard
associative
patterns can therefore be identified
Christine
Baghdady,
Vanderberg
relating terms to their referents, the most stable being:
3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

The Appearance Pattern: concerning the prominent features


which characterize the external aspect of the drug;

3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53


3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

Constituent Pattern: concerning the constitutive elements


TableThe
of
Contents
of the drug;
The Way/Instrument Pattern: related to the way the drug is
taken or to the instrument used for its taking;
The Effect Pattern: related to the effects produced upon the
drug addict by the drug inhalation or injection.
4.2.2.5.1. The Appearance Pattern associates the drug with some
feature of its aspect, such as colour, consistency/texture, quantity/
weight or shape. The following terms evoke the drug colour:
Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11
FabioAcapulco
Baggio, Laura
goldZanfrini
a variety of marijuana grown in the vicinity

of Acapulco,
1. Ethics and Human Rights
black bomber an amphetamine tablet (see also 4.2.2.5.4),
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

tar a pure form of heroin originating in Mexico,


Marioblack
Santillo

brown sugar
a drug consisting of heroin diluted with
1.1 Migrants
Rights .............................................................................
17
caffeine,

1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

French blue the name for a non-proprietary mixture of


amphetamine and a barbiturate,

1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23

Bibliography
......................................................................................... 25
grass marijuana,

greenPolicies
marijuana
of poorinquality,
2. Migration
and Ethics
East and South East Asia............ 27
Fabioice
Baggio
a potent, crystalline form of the drug methamphetamine

(from the Migration


drugs colourless,
appearance
(like
2.1 International
in East Asia crystalline
and South East
Asia..............
27
crushed ice) during the manufacturing process),

2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

mellow yellow banana peel dried for smoking as a narcotic

2.3 Ethics
43
(fromand
theMigration
colour ofManagement.................................................
the peel),

Bibliography
47
minstrel.........................................................................................
a tablet containing amphetamine, coloured black

and white (fromst its black-and-white colour, with reference


3. Immigration
in theand
21 White
Century.
to the Black
Minstrels, a troupe of British variety
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51
entertainers of the 1960s-70s),

Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

mud opium; heroin (cf. slang coffee, esp. strong or black


coffee),

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

3.2 Urbanization,
pink lady aInternational
barbiturate,Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

haze LSD,
Tablepurple/purple
of Contents

purple heart a tablet of the stimulant Drinamyl,


rainbow a capsule containing the barbiturates Amytal and
Seconal, one end of which is red and the other blue,
red/red bird/red devil the drug Seconal; also, a tablet of this
drug (coloured red),
snow cocaine; occas. heroin or morphine,
white morphine, an amphetamine tablet,

Opening
Considerations
and Executive
white
stuff morphine,
heroin, orSummary
cocaine,.............................. 11
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini

yellow jacket a pentobarbitone capsule.

In Ethics
some and
suchHuman
terms, Rights
the colour of the drug is included in its name
1.
(e.g.
green,
white),Migration
so there Processes
is an overt
association with 15
its
in the
Southred,
American
....................................
MarioIn
Santillo
aspect.
others, the association is instead covert, mediated by an
object
having
the same colour as the drug: e.g., grass and
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
marijuana have the same green colour, and snow is as white as
1.2 International
Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
cocaine
is.
The
following
names more or less explicitly allude to the drug
1.3
Some
Final Reflections...................................................................
23
consistency or texture:

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

angel dust the drug phencyclidine used as a hallucinogen,

2. Migration
and Ethics
in East
and
East Asia............
27
grass Policies
marijuana
(cf. the
leaves
ofSouth
marijuana
with herbage
FabioinBaggio
general),

2.1 International
in East
and South
Asia.............. 27
Indian hayMigration
marijuana
(cf. Asia
hay grass
cut East
or mown),
2.2 Migration
Policies in ESEA............................................................
34
rock a crystallized
form of cocaine,
2.3 Ethics
Management.................................................
43
sugarand
a Migration
narcotic drug,
esp. heroin,

weed marijuana;
a marijuana cigarette.
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
The quantity or weight of the drug is instead evoked by:

3. Immigration in the 21st Century.


charge
or injection
of The
a drug;
marijuana,
The Need
foraandose
Ethical
Approach.
Canadian
Experience ..... 51
Christine
Vanderberg
loadBaghdady,
a dose ofRichard
narcotics,

3.1 World
Increase
51
mike Population
a microgram
of a .............................................................
drug, esp. LSD,
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
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4. Lexical Organization and Disorganization

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

five dollars worth of a drug (cf. a five-cent piece


Tablenickel
of
Contents
and U.S. slang trey a three-dollar packet of a narcotic),
piece a quantity of a drug approximately equal to an ounce
in weight,
weight an illegal drug (cf. slang a measure of an illegal
drug).
Lastly, the drug shape is suggested by:
crack a potent, crystalline form of cocaine broken into
small pieces (cf. a break or breaking of various kinds),

Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11

ofZanfrini
various narcotic drugs in crystalline form,
Fabiocrystal
Baggio,any
Laura

line a dose of a powdered narcotic, esp. cocaine, laid out in

1. Ethics
and Human
a thin
line for Rights
inhalation,
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

a pill of a drug, spec. a barbiturate or amphetamine,


Mariopill
Santillo
purple heart a tablet of the stimulant Drinamyl,

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17

rope marijuana (cf. a quantity of some material twisted


together in the form of a rope),

1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21


1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23

stick a cigarette made with marijuana,

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

tab ( tablet) a tablet containing LSD or another illicit


drug.

2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27


Fabio Baggio

4.2.2.5.2. The Constituent Pattern is relatively less productive. It


2.1 International
Migration
in East
and South elements,
East Asia..............
27
associates
the drug
with one
of itsAsia
constitutive
generally
the2.2
chief
one, asPolicies
in: in ESEA............................................................ 34
Migration
acid and
theMigration
hallucinogenic
drug LSD (cf. LSD Lysergic acid
2.3 Ethics
Management.................................................
43
diethylamide),

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47

bromo a dose of a sedative drug containing a bromide


mixture,in the 21st Century.
3. Immigration
The Need
an Ethical
Approach.
The
Experience ..... 51
coke for
cocaine
(from
the leaves
of Canadian
coca plants),
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

dex/-ie the drug Dexedrine,

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

meth methamphetamine/Methedrine taken as a stimulant

3.2 Urbanization,
International Migration and Governance ................. 53
drug,
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

morphine,
Tablemorph
of Contents

poppy opium (cf. the opium poppy or its extract used as a


medicine, from the flower).

4.2.2.5.3. The Way/Instrument pattern creates an association


between the drug and the drug-taking process, alluding to the
instrument used (needle), the action performed (snifter, snort), the
passage of the injection (main line) or of the inhalation (nose
candy). A more complete list includes:
main line an intravenous injection of drugs (cf. slang a
principal vein, into which drugs can readily be injected),
Fabio Baggio, Laura Zanfrini

Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11

needle a measure of a drug for injecting (cf. a hypodermic


1. Ethics
and Human
injection
of anRights
illegal drug),
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

nose candy a drug that is inhaled through the nose; spec.


cocaine,

Mario Santillo

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17

schmeck ( Yiddish schmeck sniff) a drug, esp. heroin,

1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

snifter small quantity of cocaine inhaled through the nose

1.3 Some
Reflections...................................................................
23
(cf. vFinal
snifter
sniff),

snort a.........................................................................................
dose of cocaine or heroin which is taken by
Bibliography
25
inhalation,
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27

spike a drug injected (cf. slang a hypodermic needle or


syringe used for the injection of an intoxicating drug),

Fabio Baggio

2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27

sugar LSD (taken on a lump of sugar),

2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

tea marijuana brewed in hot water to make a drink,

2.3 Ethics
and Migration
43
toot cocaine
(cf. Management.................................................
slang inhale cocaine).
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47

4.2.2.5.4. The Effect Pattern is a profuse one, as a result of the


3.
Immigration
in the
Century.
variety
of effects
that21astdrug
can produce upon its addict, and also
for an Ethical
Approach.
The Canadian
Experience
51
of The
theNeed
speakers
point of
view. Drug
users tend
to stress.....the
Christine
Baghdady,
Richard
Vanderberg
immediate stimulant or tranquillizing effects that a drug has,
while
non-users
ratherIncrease
focus their
attention on the negative aspects
3.1 World
Population
.............................................................
51
of drug-taking, mainly destruction, intoxication and dependence.
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
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2008 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy

4. Lexical Organization and Disorganization

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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

The destructive effects of drugs motivate many slang adjectives


Table
of Contents
meaning intoxicated, as frequently observed in the literature (see
Eble 1996, Munro ed. 1997), but also many drug names, such as:
bang a shot (of cocaine, etc.) (cf. St. E. a nuclear
explosion, slang excitement, pleasure),
black bomber an amphetamine tablet,
bomber a marijuana cigarette, a barbiturate drug,
dynamite heroin or a similar narcotic (cf. a high explosive
prepared from nitro-glycerine),

Opening Considerations and Executive Summary .............................. 11

a dose
a narcotic drug (cf. a blow given to
Fabiohit
Baggio,
Laura of
Zanfrini
something aimed at),

1. Ethics
and
Rights
jolt
aHuman
quantity
of a drug in the form of a cigarette, tablet,
in theetc.
South
American
Migration
(cf. an abrupt
shock orProcesses
jerk), .................................... 15
Mario Santillo

pop an injection of a narcotic drug (cf. a blow, a knock).

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17

Other negative effects of narcotics are a sort of foolishness, which


International
is 1.2
hinted
at in: Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21
1.3 Some
Reflections...................................................................
23
goofFinal
ball/goof
pill (a tablet of) any of various drugs, spec.

marijuana
(cf. slang a silly or stupid person),
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
loco weed marijuana (cf. Sp. loco mad, crazy),

2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27

but, above all, intoxication and inevitable dependence, as in:


Fabio Baggio

junk any narcotic drug, esp. heroin (cf. rubbish),

2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27

fix/fix-up a dose of a narcotic drug (cf. a position from


which it is difficult to escape),

2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43

scat heroin,

Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
shit/shite
an intoxicating or euphoriant drug.

AsImmigration
expected, the
effects of drugs (e.g. euphoria, happiness,
3.
in positive
the 21st Century.
liveliness,
are alluded
to inThe
a number
terms typically
The Needvigour)
for an Ethical
Approach.
CanadianofExperience
..... 51
used
by insiders:
Christine
Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

ecstasy
a powerful
synthetic
hallucinogenic drug (cf. the
3.1 World
Population
Increase
.............................................................
51
state of being beside oneself, thrown into a frenzy or a
stupor),

3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53


3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

dust cocaine,
Tablehappy
of Contents

joy-pop (an inhalation or injection of) a drug,


pep-pill a pill containing a stimulant drug, taken to increase
a persons energy or enthusiasm (cf. pep pepper energy;
liveliness),
speed an amphetamine drug freq. taken intravenously,
speedball a dose of a drug, esp. a mixture of cocaine and
morphine (or heroin),

up/upper
a drug and
which
has a stimulant
euphoric effect.11
Opening
Considerations
Executive
Summaryor..............................
Zanfrini about the depressant or tranquillizing
WeFabio
can Baggio,
imply Laura
information
effects of some drugs in:

1. Ethics and Human Rights


down/downer a depressant or tranquillizing drug,
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

Mariomojo
Santillo
any narcotic drug, esp. morphine (cf. magical

power and the use of morphine as a narcotic analgesic).

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17


1.2 International
Migrants Defence ............................. 21
4.2.2.6.
Terms forInstrument
alcoholic for
drinks
Alcoholic
represent another prolific lexical area of slang.
1.3 Some drinks
Final Reflections...................................................................
23
Many of the associative patterns established for drug names are
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
actually
suitable
for this area as well (e.g. appearance, constituent,
effect), while other patterns are developed specifically to name
2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27
drinks. Overall, we distinguish the following patterns:
Fabio Baggio

The Nature Pattern: connected with the main features which


characterize the intrinsic nature of the drink;

2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27

2.2 Migration
Policies in ESEA............................................................
34
The Appearance
Pattern: connected with the features

characterizing
the Management.................................................
external aspect of the drink;
2.3 Ethics
and Migration
43
The Constituent
Pattern: connected with the constitutive
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
elements of the drink;

3. Immigration
in the
21st Century.
The Effect
Pattern:
involving the effects upon the alcoholic
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51

or drunkard after too much drinking;

Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

The Container Pattern: involving a container-for-contained


(metonymic) relationship.

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53


3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
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4. Lexical Organization and Disorganization

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

4.2.2.6.1. The Nature Pattern focuses on the intrinsic nature of


Table
of Contents
drinks. For instance, some drinks are characterized by their
unlawfulness:
Sneaky Pete an illicit or cheap intoxicating beverage (cf.
sneak one who robs or steals in a sneaking manner);
by their poor quality:
lunatic soup alcoholic drink of poor quality (cf. lunatic
insane),
scrap iron an alcoholic drink of poor quality (cf. iron

Opening
Considerations
Executive
Summary
..............................
11
which
has alreadyand
been
wrought
and broken
up or cast aside
Fabiofor
Baggio,
Laura or
Zanfrini
re-casting
re-working),

smoke
cheap Rights
whisky,
1. Ethics
and Human
in thetarantula-juice
South American
Migration
Processes .................................... 15
inferior
whisky;
Mario Santillo

by their strength:

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17

alky (illicit) alcoholic liquor,

1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

heavy-wet malt liquor (see also here below),

1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23

jolt a drink of liquor (cf. a blow in boxing),

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

King Kong cheap alcohol (cf. the ape-like monsters


strength),

2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27


Fabiopanther
Baggio juice strong, esp. bootleg, liquor;

or 2.1
by International
their wetness:
Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27
heavy-wet
maltinliquor,
2.2 Migration
Policies
ESEA............................................................ 34
wet liquor,
drink.Management................................................. 43
2.3 Ethics
and Migration
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47

4.2.2.6.2. The Appearance Pattern focuses on the external aspect of


drinks, especially on their colour, quantity, and, less frequently, on
3. Immigration in the 21st Century.
their
in drug
names,The
colour
may beExperience
included in
Theconsistency.
Need for an As
Ethical
Approach.
Canadian
.....the
51
name
of
the
alcoholic
drink
(as
in
pink
lady,
red
ink),
or
it
may
be
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg
implicitly referred to by calling the drink by the name of an object
World
Population
Increase
.............................................................
51
or 3.1
thing
having
the implied
colour
(as in neck-oil beer having the
same
colour
as
oil)
(see
Bertuccelli
Papi
2000).
Only
rarely
does
3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53
the colour refer to the reddening of the nose caused by excessive
3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54

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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

drinking (as in nose paint intoxicating


Table
of Contents
names centred on colour includes:

liquor). A list of drink

amber fluid/liquid/nectar an alcoholic drink of an amber


colour, spec. lager,
black and tan a drink composed of porter (or stout) and
ale,
neck-oil an alcoholic drink, esp. beer,
pinkers pink gin,
pink-eye
cheap or
alcoholic..............................
drink (cf. red-eye
Opening
Considerations
andhome-made
Executive Summary
11
Fabiocoarse
Baggio,fiery
Laurawhisky),
Zanfrini

pink lady a cocktail usually consisting of gin, egg white,

1. Ethics
and
Human Rights
and
grenadine,
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15

red biddy a drink consisting of methylated spirits and cheap


red wine,

Mario Santillo

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17

red ink cheap red wine,

1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

Red Ned inferior red wine or other similar drink,

1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23

rosiner ( rosin resin) a drink of spirits; a stiff drink

Bibliography
.........................................................................................
25
(from the
colour of resin, gen. yellow or brown),

tincture an alcoholic drink,

2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27

intoxicating liquor, esp. beer (cf. the colour of oil of


Fabioturps
Baggio
turpentine),

2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27

white lady a drink of methylated spirits,

2.2 Migration Policies in ESEA............................................................ 34

white lightning inferior or illicitly distilled whisky,

2.3 Ethics and Migration Management................................................. 43

white line alcohol as a drink,

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 47

white mule a potent colourless alcoholic drink.

st Century.
3.
Immigration
in the 21on
The
following names,
the contrary, are centred on the quantity or
The
for an Ethical
Canadian
size
ofNeed
the alcoholic
drink,Approach.
generally The
a small
one: Experience ..... 51
Christine Baghdady, Richard Vanderberg

middy a medium-sized measure of beer or other liquor,

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

shortie/-y a short drink,

3.2 Urbanization, International Migration and Governance ................. 53


3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54
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License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

( sip a small quantity of some liquid) a sip (of


Tablesippers
of
Contents
rum),
spot a drop of liquor (cf. a small quantity; a drop),
stubby a short, squat beer-bottle (cf. the adj of the nature
of a stub; short and thick),
taste an alcoholic drink; alcohol (cf. a very small quantity,
a sip).
Drink names may also allude to the drink consistency, as in:
sauce
alcoholic liquor,
Opening
Considerations
and Executive Summary .............................. 11
Fabioslop
Baggio,
Laura
beer
(cf.Zanfrini
liquid or semi-liquid food),

suds beer (cf. soapy water and the beer froth).

1. Ethics and Human Rights


in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
Mario Santillo
4.2.2.6.3.
The Constituent Pattern associates drinks with one of
their
basic
constitutive elements. This pattern is not very productive
1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17
in English slang, but some examples can illustrate it:

1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

hop beer (cf. a plant used for giving a bitter flavour to

1.3 Some
Reflections................................................................... 23
maltFinal
liquors),
Bibliography
25
pine-top.........................................................................................
cheap or illicit whisky, formerly flavoured with the

new shoots of a pine tree,

2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27

torpedo juice intoxicating liquor extracted from torpedo


fuel.

Fabio Baggio

2.1 International Migration in East Asia and South East Asia.............. 27

4.2.2.6.4.
By Policies
contrast,in ESEA............................................................
the Effect Pattern appears much more
2.2 Migration
34
prolific. As previously remarked for drugs, the effects of alcohol
Ethics and Migration
Management.................................................
are2.3
distinguished
into positive
and negative. The positive effects 43
of
drinks
range from
stimulant and euphoric to fortifying:
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
giggle-water intoxicating liquor (cf. a giggling laugh),

3. Immigration in the 21st Century.


joy-juice
alcoholic
drink, The Canadian Experience ..... 51
The Need
for an
Ethical Approach.
Christine
Baghdady,
Vanderberg
lightning
gin;Richard
any strong
alcoholic spirit (cf. enlightenment,

illumination),
3.1 World
Population Increase ............................................................. 51
moonshine illicitly
distilled
liquor,and
esp.
whisky (cf.
pleasant
3.2 Urbanization,
International
Migration
Governance
.................
53
distraction),

3.3 International Migration in Canada: An Ethical Assessment ........... 54


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The electronic edition of this book is not sold and is made available in free access. Every contribution is published according to the terms of Polimetrica License B. Polimetrica
License B gives anyone the possibility to distribute the contents of the work, provided that the authors of the work and the publisher are always recognised and mentioned. It does
not allow use of the contents of the work for commercial purposes or for profit. Polimetrica Publisher has the exclusive right to publish and sell the contents of the work in paper
and electronic format and by any other means of publication. Additional rights on the contents of the work are the authors property.

( eau-de-vie, lit. water of life) brandy,


TableO.D.V.
of Contents

popskull inferior whisky (cf. colloq. v pop give birth),


speedball a glass of wine, spec. when strengthened by
additional alcohol or spirits,
stiffener a fortifying or reviving alcoholic drink (cf. v
stiffen make stiff or rigid, e.g. by means of starch).

The opposite negative effects amount to destruction and risk, as


exemplified by:
jollop
strong liquor,
or a drinkSummary
of this (cf.
slang jalap type
Opening
Considerations
and Executive
..............................
11
purgative
FabioofBaggio,
Lauraobtained
Zanfrini from a Mexican plant),
mothers ruin gin,

1. Ethics and Human Rights


poison alcoholic liquor (or drink),
in the South American Migration Processes .................................... 15
Marioshooter
Santillo a measure or drink of spirit, esp. whisky (cf. slang

a shooting instrument, a gun or pistol),

1.1 Migrants Rights ............................................................................. 17

snake juice/poison whisky; any alcoholic drink,

1.2 International Instrument for Migrants Defence ............................. 21

sting strong drink (cf. the wound inflicted by the aculeus


of an insect),

1.3 Some Final Reflections................................................................... 23

Bibliography ......................................................................................... 25

wallop alcohol, esp. beer; alcoholic drink (cf. colloq. v


wallop beat soundly).

2. Migration Policies and Ethics in East and South East Asia............ 27


Fabio Baggio

4.2.2.6.5. The Container Pattern establishes a metonymic relationship


2.1 International
Migration
East
Asia glass,
and South
27
between
the container
(e.g. inthe
bottle,
etc.)East
andAsia..............
the contained
(i.e.
alcoholic
drink in
inside
it), as in:
2.2the
Migration
Policies
ESEA............................................................
34
jar aand
drink
of beer,
2.3 Ethics
Migration
Management................................................. 43
long-sleever
( long-sleever a tall glass) a drink contained
Bibliography
.........................................................................................
47
in a tall glass,

st Century.
3. Immigration
the 21(cf.
shant a in
drink
a pot of drink),
The Need for an Ethical Approach. The Canadian Experience ..... 51

tankBaghdady,
a drink (usu.
of Vanderberg
beer) (cf. an artificial receptacle used
Christine
Richard
for storing liquids in large quantities),

3.1 World Population Increase ............................................................. 51

tube a bottle or can of beer (cf. a cylindrical body used to

3.2 Urbanization,
International