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In order for an aircraft to rise into the air, a force must be created that equals or

exceeds the force of gravity. This force is called lift. In heavier-than-air craft, lift is

created by the flow of air over an airfoil. The shape of an airfoil causes air to flow

faster on top than on bottom. The fast flowing air decreases the surrounding air

pressure. Because the air pressure is greater below the airfoil than above, a resulting

lift force is created.

The pressure variations of flowing air are best represented by Bernoulli's equation.

The Bernoulli equation is written as:

where:

rho = density of the fluid

V = velocity of the moving object or fluid

To understand the Bernoulli equation, one must first understand another important

principle of physical science, the continuity equation. It simply states that in any given

flow, the density (rho) times the cross-sectional area (A) of the flow, times the

velocity (V) is constant. The continuity equation is written as:

where: P = pressure

V = velocity

A = cross sectional area of flow

Using the Bernoulli equation and the continuity equation, it can be shown how air

flowing over an airfoil creates lift. Imagine air flowing over a stationary airfoil, such

as an aircraft wing. Far ahead of the airfoil, the air travels at a uniform velocity. To

flow past the airfoil, however, it must "split" in two, part of the flow traveling on top

and part traveling on the bottom.

The shape of a typical airfoil is asymmetrical - its surface area is greater on the top

than on the bottom. As the air flows over the airfoil, it is displaced more by the top

surface than the bottom. According to the continuity law, this displacement, or loss of

flow area, must lead to an increase in velocity. The flow velocity is increased some by

the bottom airfoil surface, but considerably less than the flow on top.

The Bernoulli equation states that an increase in velocity leads to an decrease in

pressure. Thus the higher the velocity of the flow, the lower the pressure. Air flowing

over an airfoil will decrease in pressure. The pressure loss over the top surface is

greater than that of the bottom surface. The result is a net pressure force in the upward

(positive) direction. This pressure force is lift.

There is no predetermined shape for a wing airfoil, it is designed based on the

function of the aircraft it will be used for. To aid the design process, engineers use the

lift coefficient to measure the amount of lift obtained from a particular airfoil shape.

Lift is proportional to dynamic pressure and wing area. The lift equation is written as:

where S is wing area and the quantity in parentheses is the dynamic pressure. In

designing an aircraft wing, it is usually advantageous to get the lift coefficient as high

as possible.

Drag

Every physical body that is propelled through the air will experience resistance to the

air flow. This resistance is called drag. Drag is the result of a number of physical

phenonmena. Pressure drag is that which you feel when running on a windy day. The

pressure of the wind in front of you is greater than the pressure of the wake behind

you. Skin friction, or viscous drag, is that which swimmers may experience. The flow

of water along a swimmer's body creates a frictional force that slows the swimmer

down. A rough surface will induce more frictional drag than a smooth surface. To

reduce viscous drag, swimmers attempt to make contact surfaces as smooth as

possible by wearing swim caps and shaving their legs. Likewise, an aircraft's wing is

designed to be smooth to reduce drag.

Like lift, drag is proportional to dynamic pressure and the area on which it acts. The

drag coefficient, analgous to the lift coefficent, is a measure of the amount of dynamic

pressure gets converted into drag. Unlike the lift coefficient however, engineers

usually design the drag coefficient to be as low as possible. Low drag coefficients are

desirable because an aircraft's efficiency increases as drag decreases.

Weight

The weight of an aircraft is a limiting factor in aircraft design. A heavy plane, or a

plane meant to carry heavy payloads, requires more lift than a light plane. It may also

require more thrust to accelerate on the ground. On small aircraft the location of

weight is also important. A small plane must be appropriately "balanced" for flight, for

too much weight in the back or front can render the plane unstable. Weight can be

calculated using a form of Newton's second law:

W = mg

where W is weight, m is mass, and g is the acceleration due to gravity on Earth.

Thrust

Propulsion involves a number of principles of physical science. Thermodynamics,

aerodynamics, fluid mathematics, and physics all play a role. Thrust itself is a force

than can best be described by Newton's second law. The basic form of this law is:

F = ma

which states that force (F) is equal to mass (m) times acceleration (a). Acceleration is

the rate of change of velocity over time. Thrust (T) is produced therefore by

accelerating a mass of air.

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