You are on page 1of 21

St : Fe

I. Khi qut chung v nguyn t st

K hiu nguyn t : Fe
S th t : 26
Nguyn t khi : 55.847
L nguyn t nhm d (e
ho tr lm y phn
lp d).

Khi qut chung v nguyn t Fe

Mng tinh th v cu hnh ca Fe


Cu hnh e : 2/8/14/2
1s22s22p63s23p63d64s2
V tr :- Nhm VIIIB
- Chu k : 4
-Bn knh nguyn
t : 0.13nm
Mng li lp phng
tm din.

Khi qut chung v nguyn t Fe

II. Tnh cht vt l


L kim loi mu trng
hi xm, do, d rn, d
ko si.
tonc = 1539oC
tos = 2770oC
L kim loi nng : d =
7.9 g/cm3
St b nam trm ht v
d b nam trm ho nn
c lm li ca ng
c in.
Tnh cht vt l

III. Tnh cht ho hc


Nhn xt :
Khi tham gia phn ng nguyn t Fe c th nhng
2e phn lp 4s hoc nhng thm mt s e phn
lp 3d cha bo ho ( thng l 1e).
St l mt kim loi c hot ng ho hc vo loi
trung bnh.
Tnh cht ho hc c bn ca st l tnh kh v
nguyn t st c th b oxi ho thnh ion Fe2+ hoc
Fe3+ tu thuc cht oxi ho tc dng vi st.
Tnh cht ho hc

1.Tc dng vi phi kim


a. Tc dng vi oxi
Khi t nng, st chy trong oxi v bn to ra
nhng tia sng gy nn bi nhng vy ht Fe3O4
c t nng.
3Fe + 2O2 = Fe3O4
Trong khng kh m :
4Fe + 3O2 + nH2O = 2Fe2O3.nH2O

Tnh cht ho hc

b. Tc dng vi cc phi kim khc.


2Fe + 3Cl2 = 2FeCl3

Tnh cht ho hc

2.Tc dng vi axit


a. HCl , H2SO4 long : oxi ho Fe0 thnh Fe+2
Fe + H2SO4 = FeSO4 + H2 
Fe + 2HCl = FeCl2 + H2 
b. Vi H2SO4, HNO3
- HNO3 v H2SO4 c ngui lm cho st b th ng.
- HNO3 , H2SO4 nng v HNO3 oxi ho Fe0 thnh
Fe+3.
t0
Fe2 (SO4)3 + 3SO2  + 6H2O
2Fe + 6H2SO4
Fe + 4HNO3 = Fe(NO3)3 + NO + 2H2O
Tnh cht ho hc

Tnh cht ho hc

3. Tc dng vi mui
- Fe c th y c kim loi ng sau n trong dy
in ho ra khi mui.
- Trong cc phn ng ny st b oxi ho thnh ion Fe+2
Fe + CuSO4 = Cu + FeSO4
Fe + HgCl2 = FeCl2 + Hg
4. Tc dng vi nc
3Fe + 4H2O
Fe + H2 O

t < 5700C
t > 5700C

Fe3O4

+ 4H2 

FeO + H2

nhit thng Fe khng tc dng c vi nc.


Tnh cht ho hc

IV. Trng thi thin nhin, phng


php iu ch v ng dng.

1. Trng thi thin nhin


)L kim loi ph bin nht sau nhm.
)Tn ti ch yu dng hp cht.
)Nhng thin thch t khong khng gian ca v tr
ri vo qu t l st dng t do.
)Nhng qung quan trng nht l :
- Oxit st t Fe3O4.
- Hematit hay oxit st Fe2O3.
- Limonit hay oxit st nu Fe2O3.nH2O.
- Xiderit FeCO3.
)Khong vt pirit FeS.
Trng thi thin nhin

2. iu ch
)iu ch st tinh khit :
to

3H2 + Fe2O3

to

2Al + Fe2O3
2FeSO4 + H2O

2Fe + 3H2O

dpdd

Al2O3

+ 2Fe

2Fe + 2H2SO4

+ O2 

)St k thut :c iu ch bng cch dng than cc


kh st oxit trong l cao.

iu ch

3. ng dng

St c vai tr ht sc quan trng i vi s


sng ca sng ca ng vt, cht hemoglobin (
hng cu ) c trong mu lm nhim v vn ti
oxi i khp c th duy tr s sng ca ng
vt l hp cht ca st.

ng dng

ng dng

Hp cht ca st c vai tr ht sc quan trng trong


k thut :
+ Gang xm : Dng c cc b my, v lng
+ Gang trng : c dng luyn thp.
+ Thp cng : c dng lm cc dng c, mi kt cu
v chi tit my.
+ Thp hp kim : c tnh cht c hc cao chu nhit v
khng r c dng lm ng ng, cc chi tit ca
ng c my bay v my nn.

ng dng

Bi tp cng c

Cu 1: Vit phng trnh phn ng khi cho st tc dng


vi Cl2 , HCl?

2Fe + 3Cl2 = 2FeCl3


Fe + 2HCl = FeCl2 + H2
Clo c tnh oxi ho mnh do n chuyn c Fe0
ln Fe+3, trong khi Fe tc dng vi HCl ch thu
c mui st II.

Bi tp cng c

Cu 2: Hon thnh s phn ng:


Fe

FeCl2

Fe(OH)2

Fe(OH)3

FeO

FeCl3

Fe + 2HCl = FeCl2 + H2 
FeCl2 + 2NaOH = Fe(OH)2 + 2NaCl
4Fe(OH)2 + O2 + 2H2O = 4Fe(OH)3
to
FeO + H2O
Fe(OH)2
2Fe + 3Cl2 = 2FeCl3
2FeCl3 + Fe = 3FeCl2
2Fe(OH)3

to

Fe2O3 + 3H2O

Bi tp cng c

Fe2O3

Bi tp v nh
Cc bi tp trong sch gio khoa v mt s bi trong
sch bi tp.

Related Interests