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CUPRINS

- COEEPXAHI,IE - CONTENTS

MONOGRAFIE

-

MOHOI'PAOUfl

- MONOGRAPH

BAJIEHTI4H AEPIATIEB (Kuwuuey), O CKI4IIETPAX.
sTrOAbr B 3Ar{r4Ty MHfpArIr4OHHOrz KOHrIEnUr4Lr M. fkrMEyTAC

- -

_..____.

r. krcToPVA vI3vrlEHVrA CKLIIIETPOB B KOHTEKCTE OEIIT4X 3HAHI4IZ |IO HEOIII4Ty
PAHHEIZ BPOH3E BOCTOT{HOilUIOfO-BOCTOT{HOIZ
l. llepno4 1-srft (ao KoHqa 50-rrx rr. XXn.)

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-

EBPOIIbI

7

2.fIepuoa2-oit (60-e - 80-e rogrr)
3. Ileprao4 3-uir (90-e ro4u)
4. Cocro.flHHe npo6leulr

il. I,ICTOT{HI4KT4LLI4X BHEIIIH'' KPZTI,IKA
III, IPOEITEMA KIIACCVOI,IKAT{UU <<VI> TT4IIOJIOfkM.__._
l. I4g onrna xlaccuSnxa\Anr-Trtrorornr

_.__

---..-...33

_

2.14cnosa (o [poueAype) unu - a6crpar<qua o6 a6crparcrax
3. 14 eilre - o xlacuzSHKaqr.ru nlutu rutonornu
4. PealucrnqecKhe I4 cxeMarl,IqecKr4e HaBepDrvrfl, - Kareropuq-TVn

___....___...._.....40

ArTu

rcareropuu-rnnu?

5. Klacca$r.rKar@fl uarepurufi Ha ocHoBe Bz3yanbHoro Bocrrpu.trTHr rr,rop$olornreoKr4x nprBHaKoB
6. KnaccuQnKalln-a uasepttuit Ha 6ase Qoplra;rrno -crarucrvqecKlrx MeroAoB
7 . Rtaccu$uKaql4t naneprunfi Ha ocHoBe Koppenruilr4 MerpllqecKLtx noxasarerefi

8. Kpr.rrepnu nepuQuxaqu u r<laccnQuKarlulr
9. Vlrorq rclaccu$nrcaulrn 14 Borrpoc KynbrypHoro KoHreKcra

rv. o ovHKuI4oHAnbHoCTI4

HABEPIII4I>I

90

1. llpegnapnrenbHbre 3aMeqaHn.s
2 . OyHxqr,roHzln bHoe npeAHiBHaqeHlre HaBepm

v. KvJIbTyPHAt OyHKtlI4rI

uit w tu [pocrbre KoHcrararru[
CKI4nETPOB 14 MOAE JIb VIX B O3MOXHOIZ

APXEOJIOfU3AI\VII4 (no gaHHrru roMepoBcKoro

enoca)--__

______-__.-_-_101

BsoaHoe
1.

fovepoacrczfi enoc: npo6leva ncrorrHr4KoB

2. Xe:lrr 6oron
3. Cxranerpu cMeprHbrx

4. Cr<uuerpu
5. Cxranerpu

B

ycnoBrarx lrrzpuofi

B

ycnoBurx TporHcxofi sofir{sl

)rfl43Ht4

6. Crulerprr B cr4creMe puryana Bracrv
7. I-(apcr<ar BJracrb lt cKr4rrerpbr B cncreMe (HacreAoBaHus)
8. MoAenr Bo3Moll(Horo AenoHl,IpoBanns. axeircxux cKfinerpoB B apxeonofr{r{ecKr.{x KoMrrJreKczx

VI. O 3HAKAX-CI,IMBOIIAXU BO3MOXHOCT'X

UXPACruI4OPOBKLI

133

1. O sFraKax H cr,rMBoJlax. KaK TaKoBbrx

osl{oxHocrn pacKpbrrtrr coAepx aHyrfl, 3HaKa-c}tMB oJra
OBPA3A I4nkI- PAC[rO3r{AHLTEVTCXOAHO|O
1 . I4croprzorpaSzvec rae perpocneKqar4
2. rllrcroesre [apaMerpbr o6pasa norxaA]r
2.

B

vIL ZAEHTI4@T4KATJVIA

CMbTCJTA____________________--138

3. K nonpocy o6 yclonHocrflx r,{ cxeMarr,r3Max
4. Haaepruu.rr-cKu[erpbr KaK grHorpaQuvecrcue o6rerrsl

JII4TEPATYPA----..-

sTUDil

157

- l4CCnEflOBAHl4t

- RESEARCHES

ILIE BORZIAC (Chisindu),PAUL HAESAERTS (Brusselles), VASILE CHIRICA (Iasi),
CADRUL CRONOSTRATIGRATIC AL PALEOLITICULUI SUPERIOR DIN SPATruL CUPRINS
iNrnp cARIATII oRiENTALT $TNISTRU
_._..._.._.._.__..._168

4

pevi.stn

Arheoloqiri ,lerie nnui

VALERfU BUBULICI, SERGIfi I KURCIAT Ov (C his indu), CERCETARILE ARHEoLOGICE
DE SALVARE iN CURTEA BISERICII ADORMIREA MAICII DzMNULUI DIN CAU$ENI
iN vane ANULUT 2oo4
PATR|MON|UL GULTURAL _ KyIbTypHoE HACnEEnE
CULTURAL HERITAGE

402

-

SERGIU MUSTEAT A 1CN4NAU1, ARHEOLOGIA INTRE $TIINTA, CADRU LEGAL
$r TNFRACTTLTNE ._.____

RECENZil gt PREZENTART DE CARTT _
PEqEH3l4]A ]A RHIA>KHOE OEO3PEH]4E PAPER AirO EOOK REVIEW
RECENT RESEARCH IN THE PREHISTORY OF THE BALKANS, PUBLICATIONS OF THE
ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF NORTHERN GREECE, NR 3, EDITED BY D.T/.GRAMMENOS,
THESSALONIKT, 2003, 544 PAGINI, CAPIT)L INTR2DUCTTr (iN LrMBA GREAC{
$r ENGLEZ{ ).
CRISTINA BULAI (Iaqi).

428

VALENU LEAHU, CULTURA TEI. GRUPUL CULTURAL FUNDENII DOAMNEI, PROBLEME
ALE
EPOCII BRONZULUT iN MT]NTENIA, MINISTERUL EDUCATTET
CERCETLNT,INSTITUTUL
$I
R)MAN DE TMCzLIGIE. BIBLIITHECA THRACoLocti,q, xwl/lil, 2003, 343 p., 88 pLANgE,
BIBLIOGRAFIE SELECTIV,{, ABREVIEKI, RESUME, LISTE DES ILLUSTRATIzNS. CLAUDIA
Aa

SERGIL] MUSTEATi, POPULATIA SPATIULUI PRUTI-NISTREAN iN SECzLELE
VIII-x.
EDITURA PONTOS, CHI$INIU, 2005, 404 PIG. SERGI MATVEEV (ChigiNdU)....

1

433

CONSTANTIN HAITA, SEDIMENTOLOGIE $I MICROMORFOLOGIE. APLICATII IN
ARHEOLOGIE, EDITURA CETATEA DE SCAUN, BUCURESTI, 2003, 114 P., ]2 PZ. CATALIN

NICOLAE

(Bucurepti).

a7,1

IN MEMORIAM

439

LISTAABREVIERILOR-CIII4COKCOKPAIIIEHITfrT-LISToFABBREVTATI6N

44;

INFORMATII $I CONDITIILE DE EDITARE AREWSTEI

ARIIEOLOGICE

IIHOOPMAII.TflId ycnoBl4g uI3IlAJrAfl ApxEoJrornurEcmoro

)KypHA]rA

442
443

INF'ORMATION AND CONDITION OF PUBLICATION IN THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL

MAGAZINE-

^A^

HdvucoNot\t

- BuavdJoHolN - f tJvucoNourl

Revislo Arhcolooiei ,lcrie noui

O CKINETPAX.
SrtoAur B 3At4t4Ty MilrpAqroHHor t(oHqEnqhn M. l-r'rrusyrRc
BAfl EHTI4H

.[reTnuea, Kuutrlra

Pa6oma npodoncrcaem cepun emrcdoz, noccnt4eHuux oepurluxotluu n4uzpa7uouuoir KoH4eruluu M. fuv6ymac. tr4ccnedoeauue 4eruKoj4 nocznuleHo atHanu3y, cucme^4amlBa1uu u uHmepnpemaquu KanteHHbrx cKunempo6-uaoeputuil enoxu
oHeorume IOza Bocmorluou u lOeo-Bocmovuoit Eeponu.
The paper continues a series'of the etudes, devoted to the verification of the Migration Concept of M. Ghimbutas.
The survey is completely devoted to the analysis, the systematization and the interpretation of the s'tone sceptre pommes
of the Eneolithic of the Eas,tern and the Southeastern Europe

<Xpauu uac focnodu, om mexyqeHuKor...))

H. fyuuren <Moaurna Macrepa)).
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)rce 6pe'Mn He ynycKamb us eudy moit 6onee o6uqeu u,uuoeoo6pasuoti censu, Komopyto n o6nsau, HuqeM He cMyt4ancb u
uu neped veM He omcmynat, npocnedumu eo 6cex MeJtbuailwux ee pa36em6reHLnx>

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cro,rs o6revustfi noror HayqHbrx 1ucxyccnit, crolr o6ruupHufi cnucorc crarefi vnh cloqwarbHbrx oD/coB
a6:aqee a 6olsruux li MaJrbrx vouorpaQuqecKlrx A3AaHUflx.
flpour,ro oKo,rlo 80,rer c MoMeHTa oco3HaHHbrx ny6nnrcaquit flepBbrx HaxoAoK. Hurue r.l3BecrHo orcolo 40
no4o6altx o6tercrloe, a cflrcoK Hcropaorpa$r.recrcux pa6or onpeAeneHHo nepeBarrtzJr 3a HecKoJ.rrrco cor 6u6laorpaQHuecKHX eAHHzq. flprvent, TeMa qBHo Ha B3nere. Begr rolrrco 3a rrocneArtue 5-6 ner Mo)r(Ho [epertl{cJ'I}trb He MeHee 30 pa6or, [ptMo anl4 orlocpeAoBaHHo 3arparhBaroulux pa3nuqHble
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rcpafiHznan cocraBnqrculuMA 3Ty lleilor{Ky oneMeHTaMu, T.e. Me)KAy MoAenLrc oflo3HaHHoro 14 peaJrr,HblM tBJreHHeM

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ocHoBHblx npo6lev, HenpeMeHHo uphcyrcrBylorqux s,'rrc6ofi pa6ore, nprMo HJILI KocBeHHo 3arpafnBaro4efi
paccMarpaBaeMyro Kareropr4ro HaxoAoK. A ranreuuo:
1. flpo6nenaa Mecra H BpeMeHI4 oAoMauHnBaHH.s irouraAu 14 eeLlcnoJrb3oBaHVe Irte BepxoBoH e3Abr (HaBepuur - rz:o6paNeHar 83Hy3AanHofi ,roura4z);
2. llpo6,relra HaqarbHblx 3TarIoB coqua,ruuofi crparnszrcaquu cKoroBoAqecKHX o6rqecra Bocroqsofi

Eaponrr

rz Bo3Hr{KHo BeHVfl, Bo)KrecrB (Hanepurar
- vHcvrlrnLr ztacru);
3. flpo6neva 3Kc[aHclr]i crerlHbrx o6urecrB Ha 3arraA B cpeAy ApeBHe3eMneAerbqeoKr4x 1uyurruza4ufi

Kapnaro-lloAyHaBbt u Ealrcau (pacnpocrpaHeH14e cKrnerpoB
Tpu npo6leMbl 14 Kalrrafl Lr3 H:zX fno6iurbHee Apyroft.

pe3ynb'rar sxcnauczz).
sce oHrr BMecre (ue cvnra.a Apyrt4x, Mo)Ker
6rtrs ue MeHee :Haualrux) - flo tIoBoAy v Ha ocHoBaHulr BecbMa orpaHuqeHHofi rto ,rucneHHocrrj, Ho BecbMa
cneqzQuuHofi rcareropu v MarepvanoB.

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ou rcJeesay(fdeHgo ,(Vozden x eVouder ro Voxedell 'godrerrtedeu emrqs xlqHHerculedeu sn ,tuloYxuv ou
utvHeHt, xlqHsl,Iu4tou WeItHegLIr[sdeH fttsHHeueJcol] rcre,,(endervedex'nrcogsfieresoVeucol xI4 g 'goVot,tdeu
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fISvfrHO)l E Eodrf U14)C H]4HShAetAHkldOLClA'l

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Ta6n.

1

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n ny6 nnxa{uu cxeMaruqecK ux (.) n pean

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H

brx

orxpurnan).

2-5 i Xlonxoso I

26
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28
29

i X,ronxoso 2
Marixon

30

floresrte pa6orst, Haqarbte, fJIaBHbIM o6pa:olr, [ocne llepeofi uaponoft eofiuur, y)Ke Ha flporr)Keaur'r 30-x foAoB corlpoBo)KAarorcq [epBbIMa norrblrKaMn no HX ocMbrcJ]eHr,to. ZnresHo rofra
6rrrh aurAe'leHbl ocHoBHbIe 143 Kynbryp Heo-3Heo,rlura paHuefi 6pouerr Kapnaro-lloAyHaBbr, TaKue rcar<: Eo.rn,

Bngpa, fyveluHuqa, Celrcyua, Kyrcyreus-Tpuno,rrr , Koqo$eHr, f,rnua tIt w
ap. O4uaxo, onnpa.rrcb Ha
raMtrHllKH, xapaKTepr4crHKa 3TnX Kynr,Typ, ocBexleHHe BOrrpocoB ux feHerHrleCKOfo, TepphToplta,rlbHofo ll XpOHonOfUqeCKOfo
oOOTHOUI€HLIfl, KaK 14 eCTeCTBeHHO, BKJIIOqarra s Ce6g
MHo)I(ecrBo HeorpeAenennocrefi u cxeMaru3rvron (Nestol 1933; Schroller 1933; Schmidt
1932; passek
1935; Berciu 1937 ; 1939).
B o6qux qeprax' cxoAHa.s ct4TyawIl ua6ruo4aerc t u npvrneHuTeJrbHo rc creunofi sone BocroqHofi Eeporlbl' fipocrHparcueilcs or HHsoeseg flStuat 4o Cenepuoro Kaerca3a u IOxHoro |lpnypatw. Heclrorpa
Ha
MHo)KecrBo HoBbIX orrcprtrafi (lantrruanu, BblAeJIeHHbre BnocneAcrBLlLr B Kynbrypy
Cpegnwia Cror II, n,1ofLJ'IbHI4Ku Mapuynolr, Halsgur Ii ap.) Lt [ollblroK rro ocMr,rcJreHr4ro KynbrypHo-xpoHonornqecrcofi
r.j ricropnuecrcofr ct4ryalJ:'4t4 (Kpyrnon, flo4raeqrczfi 1935; Pln<ou 1936;Vecceu,
[ereu-Konareacxufi 1935: I4eccen
eAHHHqHble pacKoIIaHHble

lepaoro v3raHuq Bo,'rrruorz coeercrcoft 3nuzr,role rutu (1927, 604-626).
O6uas oueHKa cocrosllr4e zsauuit o6 apxeororaqecrcofi cr4creMarrzKe Ha KoHeq 40-x ro4oa
nyrrlxe Bcefo
orpDKeHa B 3aKjlroqeHue x 5-lry vBrarnro [epeBeAeHHoil ma pyccxrzfi q3[,rK
l43BecrHofi rcuarn f. rlafirua:
M ToMe

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'aeeb,{rc xrgHHesrcaxdor 6uV orgHHeheHgeHvedu 'oH>KotrNtog '<tqdouor eIqHHer B)r)

)IB>l xI4 rot,(rvedr nulexurgfu rqdorse'eseyseyuVurig tr4 r\ror4mdeguH c oo KtsrrsuJcouoc n,{xYoxua fre r,{x
-arg,tu oHr'zdors'elNoou HW?EoJ orcJrlf '(S'8rJ 't6I'Vt6I ncse4run6l)'" XX xeYor x-09 s etle eroxo ndu
oJoHHeYLIeH oH4er',{rc '(7'y'cud) (elen:) cHe[€B su rumdesuH oJoycahure]\loxc orutledrcorruu rouv 14 ro
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nenYed3 uJrlrroeH d,{rqu{x o{qrcoHH?soYe[Jxu 4emr,Xr oHqrrer]zcoHJo ]rrcehro onaraouc,(go offrqg org 'ed
-orxuQ <<o.rondenszrVH€g) oJoI reeslqt€u v€r 'oloyc4euodae-ousredrHefr IorHuHrznoV Yorr scereat,tdrer{c
-ced oHnrolcou rsseHXVol-oruude>I A:afiee:ar:aguh xumaensedE Hrlnorfiose u rr.rHeuaonurc uwergodl aoY
-oJ xtqsovodoc oY xeroged xH[noretugogo xecs os aycehnrxpdu 'ou, 'rxeQ ror rnHehlrlHs reeaux,{uceg
'(tgz'trc'Z96I) eaocotdg'y'y un|edroHorlrgetro{errgogo rqH4os eucou 4emveilrqs s r.t HrK€H
oH)Kow i{vHeno orfilvox3 '(gV, 'ZS6t Vr4u6) (noHn ouuamdasoc K)LuneoHoLuc nuntudox anfugo n 'K)waaH
-awtn oHHamdasoc ndot['arQ[dp I nxnDtow noue tn soxnoc{x xnHq[aQulo anHzsrqQztt>tadau awnuqrkad g
'wuawendQ noHn nlm Mout K)utnioHuo ilrnatow noxox x 'qLunDoHDMc{ oup{dru Luaosrqg out)oh 'sodosl xtqu
-snd aqno s qtuDsodnungwox oH)rcow nxnDtow nxnoctx apHqtraQuto oruh 'rqHtrouatr oxq[au.l)Dtt argltHDQ acg))
z |tN 'l lnunlol

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llpucralluoe BHI'IMaHHe apxeonoroB n grofi KareropLrn HaxoAoK npHXoAr4T.lrrlrrrb c MoMeHTa orKp6rrat
nepBblx pearlrcrl4qecKux HaBepnuit, uaitgeHHbrx y)Ke B npoqecce pacKonoK. Pevs v4er o cKr4rrerpax n: CglKyua H oeleleneHr.

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Crcnnerp zs Ce,rrcyua (pnc. 3, 1) 6un uafi4eH r ceur.r6pe 1920 r. Z. AugpneruecKy npr pacKorKax oAHouMeHHoro loceJleHl,rt ua uy6uHe oKoJro 0,4 rvr (Andriegescu 1929, I-2). Cnycra 30 ner
Bepuy 6ruo
ycTaHoBJ'IeHo, qTO 3To nOCeJIeHue BruIroqaeT BOceMb pa3HoKynbrypHblx a pa3HoBpeMeHHbtX ropl43oHTa
(Berciu 1961, 161). Cne4ya nepnuvHof rry6tuxaryuu (Andriegescu 1929) u cBr4AererrbcrBaM B. .{yrranrpecxy
(Dumitrescu 1955, 930) ra
Bepuy (Berciu 1961, 158), AH4pueruecKy Ben cBorr pacKorrKn 6es yqera crparurpa$nu a 6e: Slrxcauvld ypoBHfl 3arIeraHns MarepharroB. Crrycrr 30 ler, T.e. rocJre yroqHeHu-s crparrrr-pa$ua naurrHuua, !,. Eepvy orHec cKunerp K ropr43oHry Cemyua D anu ropr.r3oHTy IV (Berciu 1954, 542), a
B. ,{yuurpecKy rlepBoHaqaJlbHo, cr{uraJr qro oH nponcxoAr.{T rz3 fopu3oHTa BpeMeHH fyuelrHnqa A a qenona (Dumitrescu 1934, 199), uo rro3)Ke cB.rr3zur HaBepuae c ropu3oHTona fyuersnaqa B (Dumitrescu 1955,
930). Tarc qro, BorIpeKLr lxutpoKo pacnpocrpageusofi roqKe 3peHu.r (Cs,rrcyua IV), aonpoc o AocroBepHocra

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crpararpaQuqecKnx ycttozuir Haxo)KIeHV.s groro HaBepmz.r Saxrzvecrur ocraercr orKpblrbrM.
Crcunerp as Oe4eleruenr (pHc. 3,2) 6stt eafiaea s 1928 f. rpu pacKorKax H. Hecropa HenoapeAcrBeHHo cpeAll ocrarKoB pa3pyureHHoro (or rrolr(apa)) )r(Hnr{ula Kynbrypbr KyxyreHr (no nocle4yroult4M oflpeAerIeHhrM erana Aa - Andriegescu 1929,4; Nestor 1933,45; Dumitrescu 1934,187).

B

1928

r.kl.

AuapueurecKy, npeAcraBJlrq o6e eru HaxoAKlt Ha

VI MexgyHapoAHoM

KoHrpecce fro rrcro-

Oclo,

o6:s.scHser prx KaK uso6pa-x<eHur HeonpeAeneHHoro <6onee anu MeHee rfiaumacmuuecKozo, )KllBorHoro, BocxoA.srlefo K TpaAurI[rM rruureoJrntrqecKoro r4cKyccrBa (Andriegescu 1929,6-7).
B saqa.ne 30-x roloe B. flylrzrpecKy, yqurbrBar ycnoBnr HaxoxAeHnfl 3rHX xe HaxoAoK, arpu6yrupyer

pvr{ecKl'tM HayKaM n

fyuelruuqa-KyxyreHr. O4HonpeueHHo, corrocraBrts. HX co cKynbnrypErurtra, yBepeHHo uaeruru$ngvpyer Lrx KaK z:o6paxeuur rnrrrrorroraMoB, rrplr-

LIX K HeoJrllrur{ecKoMy ropla3oHry

nuvz

r'rso6pa>KeHuflMvI vt3

-gda ,(nor x xrirHJcesrvt'uvtcco4 ?JO{ Hr4Hoged:ou xlssodxo ,{ltergodl u otacc.{vca[ s Jo?horfvs etqgdeus
frceuoll 'fi"aoreuderelr uwrudoJer?) nr rrqH:a h yeJeuot]ced 'lter c ercer {g '(OO 'O16 t ncsodo4) ,{vceduut
-,(Y g 4ouHexorEedl'uurtet.;edrdersz v rcJerHorxc eltdoQ 4ouxodorco Er sces a dorse 'rsl.?uderen sfv
-Hng,(g '(tVS'VSSy'dY a ncse;lltunq) zurqoeH Kounu.rdfn vthvtreH qrcoHxon€og renHdro 'rurrqdruo eucorl
Vol rrc,(uc uvVoxeH oJcow IramsHrecol',{vcedrnm,{V'g'(OlO1 ncsedo4) wrqsuerd,(yvou oursg snHegedrou
',{xcelo11 '['oucerro3 'wtsusdxro rcrrrurco ruHegedrou ederyedex o coduoa oH '(t 'cnd) rcenrsedxoc rder
-HOaHLI qJceh 'wedurHeuHz l,utsueedgooHsed rcoJemsuVxosoduoc 'runegedrou olousem,(deud ou4en,(rc eia
onuVoxcnodu ono eedrore uH'?hrulc") eiz eurrtdeguH eoycehr.rrcutseed eoaoH orrqdyro orlsg'J 6t6I g
'
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-rrodos rnmdeseH ellrcehtaJu^exc a ouvcel.urcuveed orr,'wor o gucrqn rtz)KerveHudu r(dorce11 '\4 oHHer\ul
'neHo)eH 'eHot Aoxcnuuregudl 4oHdaaec >r rrVoxcoa e)K)er '(96 'Zt6t lpFuqos) fuvrln;;1 'J oHcarr
-oc '4odorov nvorcz '(4ruurelurue;) uxmr{yed orscenndu c 4oxr,rlredex rcrorXsnderyedex rHer.,(x,{y euar
rj)IHHrKWeu ou' 'fnolou n elne eeHquer[rhorYedu ,(dorse qcrtljKffsuJcYedr zrerruduu nr6 'r<rHo[ go]cKHJ
-tregndl rrV olcHJcostu 'Bcotr r,rnn rVegVer\] rqsoffoJ 'uVsedr 'eztnorexedgotu'unmdeeen etsuQdonoot etqH
-Voxc €H eItH?I ttaHa relnudgo 'utnrclseudet;el l uwnllcreuuJe c ruHoraeJcofioc xlt gnrodu rcre€alqtp)ctqs Ho
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-dowooe oJe ogl4 'r,rtsuQdoltoor ) rcoolnrcouJo eH )e) 'ogoco reeaHdruwcced so qHericg eu ahmdeeeH ex
eo)tcehilr?ftex3 'L{owt IqsoIroJ ezuexedgoelr',(dotse on'oyesVo'eeffio{rffseJcVedu'Vmrftldy gn eHmdeseH a
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pacKo[aHHblM
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leva Mypeuynyil H nepBbrM KypraHHbrM KoMrrreKcaM,
Ho
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Ef=:14.:a-a

Puc. 4, Haaepu.rue u uHBeHrapb h3 pa3pylleHuoro norpebeHun y Kacuuva.

Ifto6onurno noAqepKHyrb, t{To rlpl.r [onHoM pa3Hornacun B TpaKToBKe
[paKTLIr{ecKH BCe aBTOpbI OKa3ZLI|hob eAHHbrMr.r B Bonpoce

H3o6poKaeMbrx x(r,rBorHblx,

o $yurcrlaouiLJrbHoM Ha3HaqeHurn Bcex 3T}lx cBoe-

o6pasHslx cxeMarnqecKl4x a peuulucruqecKHx HaBepunfi, oAHo3HarrHo onpeAeneHHbrx KaK [peAcraBn.flloqae
colluirnbFryro cHMBonaKy: (3HaKH OTJIt{r{I4t)), <<I1HCrltHI1.Lr BilACTLl, [pHHaAne)(aque BO)KI'M)), (OKe3JIbr) U np.
3ro rutseuue B piBHbIX TepMhHax - floHflTu-flx flpacyrcrByer y Bcex aBTopoB u 6rrlo noAAepxaHo, B ToM qr,rcJIe, 14 f. Hain4orvr (1952, 203, 206)I .
3auepureurze trepBoro nep]roAa, KaK y)Ke orMeqzurocb, rrp]rxoAuTc.s Ha cepeA:aHy - BTopy]o nonoBaHy
50-x roAos. 3ro npeur I,IHTeHcI,IBHoro aHiul[3a r{ nepeocMblcreHv.fl craptrx, AoBoeHHbIX, t{, B oco6eHHocrLl, HoBbIX MaccoBbIX froreBbrx ltccneAoBaHrzil noclenoeHHoro recflTnrern.fi. 3ro BpeMs nocreneuHofi
nupa6orrcu rnaBHbIX KoMIroHeHToe nepaofi o6rqefi KoHrle[q]rr4 craHoBJreHr.i.s, ocHoBHbrx 3TaroB t4 TeppvtTopu€ullHblx oco6esuocrefi ryrrrypHo-IacropHqecKoro pa3BnTv.fl o6rquocrei Heo-3HeoJrhra - pauHefi
6poHsrr Ha BceM rport)KeHr4a rora Enponu or BocroqHoro Cpe4ra:eMHoMopbq Ao KaeKaga nllpuypatsn.
B o6o6rqeHHoM BuAe cocraBntrorrlue eroft Hoeofi KoHqerrunn 6uln pt:roxeHbl B cepvL,t aHarrvrwrecKux
AoKnaAoB [peAcraBHTelefi pasHsIX crpaH n pefHoHoB, r43Jro)KeHHbtx Ha cocrorBr]reMcss 1959 r. r lpare
MeN4yuapoAHoM cfiMno3llyMe, nocBrrqeHHov npo6,reMaM Heo-3Heonr4ra Eaponrr (L'Europe...1961).

t [ocae

AByKparHoro nepeBoAa MecroHaxox4eurze @e4e,reueHb (Fedelegeni) B pyccKoM nepeBoAe xnr,trz f.9afinAa

rpaucQopvzpoBut.rrocb g <<@elr.ueleceHLr>>.

-rowceH 'orh 'oHJrqilogorlf 'ruHerrosJc4re ox wdoQ xuycehVosorovc anrna ted es onHesrcern,,{ruuedu 'srcet[
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rnV ogfrfc olour'nQuheuc 'oJoHredgoeoac yutus,nd oJorroyesoJoHrt oJelrrolXYercou u YvIHeusoHurc oHest

<rsed> s Isd^rsIrf>t HoHWr oI4HOcoHrO 'l
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-eN eH ea[ vuvfieYeduo eusesedJcoduced eoHsrruzdouldder eoxodum oonraffdgoog oHYfdr u ruHesoslceln
-,(c srcoHsfforlrffV '(lutucxerunoy awlqHH?Jdfy etnoleYergoedn arlrl oHqllort4hortrxcl4 xpvr,IHhorcu xlzvcohr,IJ
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r,rrc?hro 14 xr4rcs')se;-odeae3 u 'xu>rc4euffi'-oreudey n rq'eede s uwruHeso"JfiY"o;11::?":*:t"f:
eeHer r Atrr4 eeyog c rsuodag foHborcog rcHoe o{,$ruercocer.r Hrc?hro u orfiurerc o{ca HrcoHv(orc 4el[9o s
xurno{€srsregxo 'gorHeudea xlsHsrp}ott osrcexoHr r reehorrrrs I4 euHu€rosrcefn,(c eoHq[ern[V eeuog oVgudo.t
prferlut ed{rsr,{x yeu^wr KeHLcesEVr eeHed orn 'oHersouerc,,{ ortrg r,usdorox ydeYonug'aooxeuuttox xI<IHHBJ
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:Gtet urrerel) ex€ou o)rqrro)rceH .(yzrcnderyedex ol{suou 4etrrst4hfrou '11 JorC nIrHVed3 ltdfrsr,{x
o{zHerevrss fnonnelercou t4 oJnrrirdyro x ureaudu rtoged r{re 'eHos KoHueJcoceu UeH v onHegrcVedc
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refflrvoxf u yqued(udJl oJoHXO{ u Bsexsu) o.roHdeae3 oV rsaeHKVoU ro rruodag 4oHhorcog eJO{ <Irceh
reHrreJc 'x?YoL x-gg s 'alcsdeus EVJoJ enznsudr err<rg rqHos Hond,{,r,rr,(x Kogoco - UIHla esrcahuv g
'('Verc v 6El'196I vecce1 i'Vauc n VT,I'eI96I:'Yauc A 661'1961nlsreg l'Yetscu 88 'I96I'C
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-esoHtehcu owec B eY 'U:aHeuaK xtqncueprdy xrslreeYorrg?H xlrHhorcu u tsHrnudu ro{KHc699o 14 oHHesrcrea
-.r.ooc ersdoro:l '('du z uym.,{yed orqcenndu c evuwedex 'uvunedev reaodr{nm) sotrcIdderen nudoJerex urll
(naaerco.r6r1 u uudrueg 'uuderrog 'lluHlslt,,(4 nnrnHegedrou flr,uqgodxo c Iqc>Ielfll Iov elqHHu.tdr(v 'er'Wilc
-ey 'grftr,(medfyq er'e[) aocxerunoy xrsHhorcos - xrqH[ero xrqanrrehro eeHew HUV eeuog rsaenfVoll o.t
-o)csurlcoJo{ a Heyrr"g xrsusrudrHatr oV zndeQndeu 4our,orcos ee ro - eHo€ 4oweusadrultccud s nehHeugr
-ou c aHel eds os ro{eYuurloc HaHelloHro lllovcenuloroaodx s vr4HerItar elqgcnazdv Hr€ ecg '€raroeH€ Kerc
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orfur.orcoe-odagec an4ud; Bffrrsercvadu rcsodueHEoll oJeHVed3 oV reudey xrqHhorcog ro nznanedrcodr
-ced weosc a redorol 'esroundl-rHerfxXy qrconrngo ruHdfuqr{v HJcoHrc?h s eHuuszdu 4uHuaoeedgo xux
-eL f,Lr nrr4Hvo 'rsHewfx4o FoHirr"hsHosdeu HweIreVedn ue a vxxvmsvHedrcoducud oHHeuorcou 'xBdfrcufv
Bcxufno{ehursud urcer,ro 'xrqsVoxc Hrc€hro esJcex(oHr r os euHe)<edro xumtremen 'UultuVedr xavcmudv
-osaF,derc xrsHHesr?Hemrqs enrLtssed eoxqrarusoYoffcou u eoHsrqdedrreH eoHhnHe.Ido ro{rIrgercoc geosc
arfc ou rqHor gor reesadret,lrcced err.rrroeH€-oeH tsr.rHusoredgo ersnd,{rsfffx eurrtorfYercou ersHaoHco ecg
'(eget 11961 nrcreg :t9Ot'C,rer8.roeg :t9Ot :gE6t uru€Fereg i7961 uruz;erug-pnolefpuety i7p61-pp61
uezlnSl-rcu8og :096 I ?l?io[W) rqreudexudlf oroHhorcog oV u]rseucoro{ ro H Eecl4ro11 oV uutredl Bondea
-oC ro IoHJJoacr4 '11-1 oaonedey - mzdy - oaer'dur3 - II-I oncecedll nrconlngo 4ond,(rqrr{v g euFrexedro
ene<rgo rlroHrrou eerogh€H s eemVemeH 'earc4roox oJetflrVoseuodu yutus€,ed oHest eoHqruh?H oJerflotru
-aurcYedu 'rsaeur(Vo11-oreudey H esodrcoXrorr oJoycHeyfi"g urJr^re€ rorrffsercoc Ho€ xn)er ea ,(uVg
'rlrcoHtflgo arril rqHot ersHdfucrXv
erqnanrged oHHesrceh?v eav re€holns BrHoHr.rrHov o.roxcgeuodsg eJOFI ceH oJerlor,(cederuu AAHc.>I<BL
-odu necs €H ?rlrroeHe-oen,txoue s raH?sosrc4r€ox lndod xvtnrEoaenodu Bralto{rose z erlHeffeoH?JJ
.

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14

Revi,sta

Arheologicd.

Se,rie noud

pt

Ha MHo)I(ecTBo cyqecTBoBaBuIHX TofAa B apxeonorHr{ecKofi cucTeMaTtrKe JIaKyH, LrcXoAHbrM, HaH6onee
BepotrHblM 3nuUeHTpoM $opvzponaHh{ 3rofo cfleqfi$uqecKofo KynbrypHoro flBreHr,r.fl 6ruo npz:uauo
<Hutruee lloeontrcae u cmenHbte o1nacmu K locmoKy om HezoD (Mepuepr 196I,169-172).
2. Bropoe BalKHoe o6cro.flrerscrBo, orqerJrrano cQoprrayJrr4poBaHHoe H.,fl. MepneproM r{yrb ro3xe np.rrMar nphqacrHocrb HocureJreil creuHsrx cKoroBoAr{ecKr,rx Kynbryp Bocrouuofi Eeponsr K rrpoqeccy KynbTypHoro npeo6pasonaHvlfl v) B KoHeLrHoM cqere - K flocrerreHHoMy, rroJlHoruy nepeoQopMneHl4lo 3eMJIeAenb-

qecKHX Kynsryp 3HeoJrura Kapnaro-lloAyHaBbs. a Ealrcan B rrenoM (Mepnepr 1965).
Tar<Hvt o6pa:ou, lpo6,reua cooTHoueHLrq KynbrypHrrx o6rquocrefi Balxano-llo4yaaur u llpnrcapnar-

cKofr 30HI'I, c oAsofi cropoHbl, H crerrHbrx o6ulnocrefi Bocroqsofi Eaponu,

-

c 4pyrofi, [peAcraBnrrou{Hx

ABa pa3HbIX MApa - MLrp 3eMneAeJrbqecKllx t4 IlIilp npeuMyulecTBeHHo cKoToBoAqecKrTX KynbTyp c nocneAyIoulHM .qJlurenbHblM orHocHTeJIbHo caMocro.f,reJrbHbrM pa3Br4TrleM 3Tr4xrpa4vu1ufi., a raK )Ke Borrpocbr Haqull]bHblx 3TanoB manuo4eficrBr4t 3TIIX MapoB c rrpuopl4TerHbrM 3HaqeHueM poJtl{ crefiHbrx cKoroBoAqecKnx
o6qecrn n npeo6pa:oBaHvtur 3eMJreAenbqecKrlx Kynbryp 3HeonfiTa u, e oco6euHocrr,r, Ha araAVLl trepexoAa or
3HeoJIHTa K

3[oxe 6pou:tt, 6rutu nltpa6oraHlt orHocurerbHo

He3aBucr,rMo, c oAnofi cropoHbr, AJrr 3eMJIeAenbqecKoro 6lorca Kynbryp Ealxauo-Kapnaro-llo4yHaBb.rr, a c 4pyrofi - cner\varLraraMr [o crerrHblM cKoToBoAqecKHM Kynbrypau Bocroqsofi Eaponur, a ux BbrBoAbr BfloJrHe cofJracoBbrBaj;rucb Me)KAy co6ofi.
KauecrseFlFro HoBbIe, BbIf,BJreHHbIe Ha rrporrDreszra 50-x foAoB crpyKTypHbre coorHorrreHur apxeonofuqecKltx peuv'tit, Bbl3BiLnI4 qerurfi [oroK gucrcyccuil flo caMbrM pa:uoo6pasutrna
$yH4aMeHTuurbHbrM BonpocaM
BOCnppLsTItt IIoHtTat ((apxeoJlorltqecKat KynbTypD), ero cOoTHofieHI4s, C AeTepMI,{HIrpyrcqHM KynbTypbl

c 3THo-coUuaJrbHbrMLr t4rrvt o6rqe-nylrrypHo-HcropuqecKrlMr4 Kare4ucxyceuv DpnBefii K BBeAeHnro B HayKy o qeJroBeKe raKnx npuHr\vrrvaruuulx, Ha uofi
B3rJIqA, nouxrni1 xarc xos.{ficrBeHo-KynbrypHrril run nnw vrcropvrco-etrorpa$uqecK[e o6lacra (JIeanH, 9erlpHpoAHo-l-eorpaSavecr<una QaxropoM,

ropvflMn.

3rz

6orccapoe 1955; KHa6e 1959; @oprr,rosoe 1959), Koropbre AoloJrHurenbHo t4 caMocro.qreflbHo noATBep)KArurr4
BbfABrl Hyryro ror4a (n 50-x ro4ax) KoHUenql{to apxeonoroB o cyqecrBoBaHuvr KaqecrBeHHo pzr:Hbrx (KyJrbTypHbtx MapoB)) u BnocreAcrBar4, rrocJre AJrnTeirbHbrx o6cyxq4enrlfi, rerrn B ocHoBy rclaccz$urcauuu Kynbryp HapoAoB MHpa B IIenoM (9e6orccapon, He6orcaposa 19J7,192 u crcl.; Perueroe 1980; Apyrroaoy 1982;
CeNaeHos 1994; flepLlnu1994 H MH., MH. Ap.).

llolstrrcoft o6rqeucropuqecKol-o

ocMbrcJreHHq HoBbrx, BblrBr.fleMbrx Ha

npornxeaau 50-x foAoB apxeo-

noraMu crpyKTypHbtx ces:efr u orHoIIIeHuil rueN4y 6rorou crerHbrx - BocrorlHo-espoleftcrcux n 6:rorconr
3eMneAerbqecKl.rx Kynbryp <Crapofi Erponsr> cJreAyer, BHe coMHeHue, paacuurpt4Barb r.r [epBbre uz pa6or
M. funr6yrac (Gimbutas 1956, 196I; 1963), Koropbre rrpn Bcex cxeMaru3Max r4 ycnoBHocrrx, r43Har{uurbHo
KpHTLIqeCK?I BOCTIpI4H.'ITbIX MHOTHMn C[eqziurltcTaMr.{, BfIoflHe AorrycKiinH npeAno)KeHHble 3TzM aBTOpOM
o6t.scHeFll{q, aa6nolaeMbre B apxeonofLrqecKl,Ix Marepzalax reHAeHu}rH o xapaKTepe coorHorueHr4fl paccMaTpnBaeM brx Kyn brypHbrx Ml,tpoB.
Paspa6arstrarculatc.fl B nocreBoeHHoe Aecrrunerne KoHrre[qfir coorHo[reHlzr apxcorofr.rqecKr.tx pezrnbHoctefi, ece 6oree tr 6oree rtoATBep)Itqa]oqLrx 3HaquMocrb crerrHoro BocroqHofo Qaxropa e npeo6pa:osa-

Kynbryp Kapnaro-floAyHaBbr, He MorJra He orpa3HTbcq Ha Bonpoce o6 uHrepnpera- crcunerpoB, xor.s qt4cJleHHocrb rzx 3a gro Aec.rrraJrerhe BbrpocJro Bcefo Ha oAHy e1uHnr\y.
OAHuu u3 nepBbIX Ha la3MeH-srouyrccq cnryauurc orpearlrpoBan ne4yu1rzfi rro rcM BpeMeHaM cneunaJlltcr B n3yrleHnlr Kynbrypbl KyxyreHr B. [yvrarpecxy. OrraeaBrr]ucb or paHee [peAno)KeHuoii rpaffionrce
cKl{nerpoB (Dumitrescu 1934), B. lynrvrpecKyy)Ke e 195 1 roAy B ycrHoM BbrcryrrneHuD Ha3acerauuwLlscr4ryTa Acropuv Arca!ev:au Hayrc PyvsIHua, KparKoe pe3loMe Koroporo 6ltrto eKrroqeHo B 3aK,.rroqurenbHyro
qacrb MoHorpaQzu ,,X363uteuts" (Dumitrescu 14 Ap. 1954, 54I u cle4.), BnepBbre craBzrT Bonpoc o Bocror{HoM crertHoM - ttpollcxo)KAeHzll cKhnerpoB l.t rrro oHt4, BHe coMHeHut, uzo6pa>rcaror co6ofi JlouaAuHbte
foJIoBbI. OcHosulle apfyMeHTbl aBTopa: MHo)KecrBeHHocrb cBllAereJrbcrB B rronb3y aHTeHcHBHbrx cergefi uocnleteit Kynbrypbl Kyxyrenr-Tpr4noJrbe c BocroriHbrnau (crenHsluu) xyntrypaMlr BrrJrors 4o Kaerca:a (Mapaynorb, Ha,rsvux, loltzucnoe 14 Ap.); o6ur.rfi crenuoft - Bocror{Hbrft o6nnrc norpe6a,rluofo KoMnJreKca il3
Kaczvuu, o6pa4 LI I,IHBeHTapb Koroporo BHe coMHeHr.rr BocrorrHoro rrpoucxox<AeH:afl.; caMa r-IoKzuIAga\r4fl,
KoM[reKca e lo6pynxe, cocraBJrqrorqat opraHur{ecKoe rrpoAonxeHrze crerreft Bocro.{Hofi Enpontr, KaK 14
HI'IH 3eMneneJlbqecKux
III4I'I HaBepunit

Apyflrx HaxoAoK a: CsrrcyUsl n @e4elerrleHb, npu6laxeHHbrx K srofi (crenuofi) :oHe.
OcHoaaFue AJII I,rHTep[pera\vr4 lr:o6paxeHHbrx xnBorHbrx cKr.r[erp us Kacuvuu. o6tagarorqufi uaz6oltmeil peatucrllrlHocrr,ro H cxoAcrBoM c roloaofi JrorxaAn. lonolHure,rrHlrfi apryMeHT npocrar aacoquauvffi
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nolxaAb

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BpeMeHaM

KaK eAI4HCTBeHHO BO3MO)KHa.f CpeAa OAOMaITIHHBaHLLq rOIXa414, XOTfl) HaITOMHHM,

3ro noJIo)KeHHe - He 6olee qeM

Haxo)KAeHu.fl Bcex
fopr43oHTy.

qro rro reM

He eeprzQraqupoBaHHoe rpaAr.rUl4oHHoe MHeHr.re, Caegy.r ycnoBr,rflM

rpex peanucrrrqHbrx HaxoAoK, BpeMr ux 6stroeaFruq orueceHo aBTopoM K AoycaroBcKoMy

'(Iueccaq'y'V

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'fxcedrraw,ft' 'g woHHzaodzrrtlndoQc onqreradusVedn eenud 'aodleuHvc r{r4HunuHorr s ruHeussrc
-Eedu o.togos nuserwdoQo wonsuerehHovo BH €lfruugou oHHesrcelrlfc u aorcurruuheuc xrrvcHrqrur(d orprn
-vead otfirsfferfirvor reteH sff?rrrrqs 'uaucexudll floHY€Irs€ s - e)oroos BH orteretr ororrsdvro '9erxe141-rr
-xede1 oz efueuvvc vnlrcxuug(n oH 'HuH€HE ornsod,( fnonneoaotr uffusosrcresrooc H]cehrtrxzQ runado ay
-hor KoxcehrzQedrozdorcz c aodJeuuxc ,{Voaou or eHocceI4'V'V HrdrreJeduderua v yuHeumre lteed fltoreou
oHHeIlI4'sodreuuvc trneugodu eHHeVHs eosoH eosc uuxousz,(xcedrnru,tp''g llodorol s'qJmem€g€X 6lrH
-eueco[ t4t4Hz,Vta lllo>lcer.nQedrogont ur?heu v BcwemBr4soroJ o t4 1J,BHE 'rcreen,(ced'Ho JoItoH'ahlthc?)
eCverul^Iov woHHesoxuffgr(uo H worlsdyro go L?Hr eH Hecsel4 'v'v Hcr4uoy,(d eysorortrou ndr 't4aJ'eJ'c

EI4

eH rafsrcar v?v 'wer ftrNe61 '(ZS 'Zg6t ueccepl) <4oxcderceAr)) HrrH vr>rrAehy BoHHesrcYoasnodn qoHYo rufr
-vfVodu eH oJe vlIl,e'RA|.vYedr resd,{rqri(y pHVo qculfuc€dro)) xHH a orh 6ox?HYo 'ruhol{lo 'eczxaey oLou
-deae3 u nnntsltf4 urulroeH€-oeH Be€ssc xrsHdfusr,(y xrqrurdu r.ir rpsJcqrrereYusc xfi reerlrhc 'trr4HersoroJrr,r
xH ercen WoHxonsos o coduoa nrcrrqdxro rerrserco doray '(rqHnsc r4ur4 Hege>t rsuexedgoeu xrun,{rc xedr
xecs os) '.(dorgu oHc€rrJoC 'soArurouorrur4J vvne>r<edgoeu xudrrunesye xuycHrcwr(d s qreVug arcoH)Kol,t€oe
surodu a Bcre€slqtexclqa Ho oHHewedaoHYg 'uunereduderHu r urycsouowco-hHog 'V'J uosnexorrVedu

sHrodu reex€dsog HecceH 'y'y 'snemeretre@ rz utr.(xre3 tu nwyumdesuH c eo rrrseJcouoc z {yEoxes ,(re
r,(xnrg,{g 'GV'ZS6t uecce14) <rsVs,( vrt.;ler. eE - fcoH eH ,{>rconou u tl'g(t erqryfursg e'vYemou anHexedg
-otlt uE o.ra rrHudu)) I4n)caorrowco-hHog 'y'1 dreullxc 4umauaodneadeuresHu '(Z-I0IT, oN 'rrHr.r - e)Kururi
-dg a rcruHedx aHrsH) r{uccod soVodeH nraQedlonre 4ee,(4 I r)trox?H uuneru,(rcou radl '(g 'cud) xeyceu
HeV4eH rrsg gorvenl-arxedel eu dreunxc ALr>t:,eha:rllzrr?ed 'oHJcea€r4 ye)

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-deruu noroarer4neuc wrrvcHrqltfd ?onne>rorvedu znneruedyvou I er{HehuHr eoHqrr?nrulhuudu oJemsetru
-Ireoa '9erxetr,q-arxedel su edrernvc uuYrctuug(n goHHefnrscou 'euecceT 'V'V r4<rJeJc erer'{ ee9 u aotrcnd
-ereru {nte xl<IHrceacli EEH[eHe av BVoxlz..,{xcedrultrft' 'g ouerogedeed onsg aodreruxc rrltergodu eL'tHeYus.
eosoH o:,h 'euHewLlna ltnredgg '@VS-yVS '196l 'Ie ]a ncseJlrrunq) (eoVr,rxzHoyddo) ?cu>ts€) oV qrorus trw
-edr{rqrr(v LtnIfIHrreJc oc rqaeH,(Vo11-oreudey d,(rs[,(y xr€Bsc o ror.(srccrereVzsc ercens ercdorox 'medleu
-fl)tc I lHvcer'urclrreed qrcoHHewedsoHVo xfi raeyc.(I|ov eHffofla 'tr{trflHeffs€Jctredu wnoso ltnsxedu nyadr
-os l4)pr qrruo ',fucedrnrurft' 'g 'nrnmdes8H r.u4vcohr,tr?nexc u[JoJ r,uqHJcosth ) screlnedgo ourrftrog
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Revista Arheolosica. Serie noud

flepruv

A.A. I4eccesa orpearr4poBan l. Eepuy, npnr{eM, oAHoBpeMeHHo B AByx pa3crarbtx (Berciu 1954; I954a, 348-352). O4uarco, He oroBophB qBHo npl,rHaArexasrufi B. {ynlnrpecry
tlpl4opl4Ter no cyrl4 HoBofi KoHIIenqIrI4, crtrbv !. Eepvy BbBBaJru cnpaBeAnuBbre Bo3MyrrleHu.fl rrocreAHefo,
BbIpDKeHHbte B crarbe, ony6lurcoeauHofi cnycr.r rog (Dumitrescu 1955). Karc 6u ro un 6sr-qo, He3aBHcr4Mo or
Ha ry6nl4Kauulo

Hbrx

apryMeHTaunlr, sa orAenbHbrMr.t HcKrroqeHusr,tu o6a aBTopa Qopn,tynrapyror a6colrorHo coBrraAarcrlle BbIBogt't. LI BbIBoAbt 3TH B coBoKylrHocrn, BHe coMHeHufl, cne1yer paccMarpuBarb KaK oKoHqareJrbao c$oplrupoBaBrxyroct Ha rlport)KeHl4?I nepBoro [epl{oAa KoHIIenrIHrO Boclpl,trr}rr n aHTepfiperar\w, oTKpbrrbrx 3a 3To
BpeMr :oovopQ nrrx cKr,rnerpoB.

Ocsonnr,te MoMeHTbI srofi roHrrenqHrl, eo6pas[efi e ce6s Hau6o.[ee parraoHaJrbHbre Mbrcrur p€r3Hbrx aB-

flonoxeHurM.
1. Bce peiu[crl4r{ecKue cKarlerpbl He3aBr.rcr,IMo or HX Teppr4TopuzrnbHoro pacflpocrpaHeHug. orHocr4reJIbHo oAHoBpeMeHHbt H [peAcraBJr*or eAHHyro (KyJrbrypHy[o rpaAur-tr4ro> (Qopuyla, 3auMcrBoBaHHar y
A.A. I4ecceHa) (Berciu 1954, 541;Dumitrescu 1955, 928-933).
TOpOB, MO)IGO CBeCTLI K CneAylorqaM

2. llporacxo)I(AeHl4e cKunerpoB, t4x l{3roroBJleHue 14 pacflpocrpaHeHr4e cBq3aHo co crerrHbrMra, Bocror{HbIMII IIJIeMeHaMu, HocllreJlrMlt KypraHHbrx oxpoBbrx norpe6euufi (Berciu 1954, 542; 7954a, 349;
Dumitrescu w Ap.1954, 544; Dumitrescu 1955, 929, 933).
3. floqe,reuue cKHnerpor n Kapnaro-llo4yuanse flBrqercs pe3ynbraroM nepnofr Mhrpa\vrLr crerrHbrx,
BocroqHblx rIJ'IeMeH B 3ry 3oHy (Berciu 1954,546;7954a,348-350; Dumitrescu 1955,933), MrlrpaUua, noArBep)KAalouleilcs u ApyrI4MLr MarepaarraMu KaK B Kynbrype Celrcyqa (Berciu 1954,542;1954a,348), rarc H e
Kynbrype Kyrcyrens (Dumitrescu 19 5 5, 932-933).
4. Bce cKurlerpbl npeAcraBn.fltor crn;ru3oBaHHbre uro6paxeunr norxaAlr (Berciu 1954, 541 v cne1;

1954a,349 wcrca.; Dumitrescu 1955,928 n cneA.).

5. Ha6nro4aeMble Ha peztrtncrl,IqecKux aKnnerpax AorronHzTeJrbHbre KopHcLvreHmaJtbHbteD uorunrr (Kacl,lMr{a, Tepercnu-Mexre6, @eAeleueur) oro6pa-xcaror co6ofi y:4evusrfi na6op (vurc,rs, caMocrorreJ'rbHo BbrcKzBaHHat ra f.A. EoH.r-OcNaoloncrcun) B3Hy3AaHHoir lou;'a1u (Berciu 7954, 541, 543, 545; 1954a, 348 u
cneA.; Dumitrescu 1955, 928).

6. Bce :oovropSurte n:o6paxceHr{r [peAcraBr.rrror co6ofi HaBeprJ]Hs.,3aKpeu.qBrxvecs sa yAnrrHeHHbrx
pyKotrKax. (DyuxquoualrHo, o6paureHHbre B ToreMr.rqecxne Soprurr, oHrr cJry)KLlJIl.{ KaK uHcprrHm coLILraJnHoil sracru - cKl4rlerpbt, [pI,IHaAJre)KaBnue poAonneMeHHbrM BoxA.sM u npeABoAr4Ter.sM (Berciu 1954,543546; 1954a, 349-350; Dumitrescu 1955, 933).
7. flo.flsreune L{ pacnpocrpaHeHLle cK}InerpoB KaK uHcr4fHuil eracru 3HaMeHyror co6ofi aKTr.{BLr3arIHro
IlnH ycJlo)KHeHue coqzanlHblx orHolrreuuh ga 3Tarre Murpal1law kr rsaznrogeftcrBns, HocrTelefi npuuutrx crerIHbIX pI MecrHbrx - 3eMJreAeJrbqecKUX Kynbryp (Berciu 1954, 546; 1954a,349; Dumitrescu 1955, 933).
E4uHcraeuHoe cyilIecrBeHHoe pa3nuque Bo B3fJr{Aax 3THX aBTopoa o6Hapyxr.tBaercr rarrrb B Bonpoce o
AarLIpoBKe cKhnerpoB. llo I. Bepvy BpeMr 6rrrogaHuq cKurerpoB, a coorBercrBeHHo l.{ cB.fl3aHHbrx c HX pacnpocrpaHeHlieM npoueccoB nphxoAurcs Ha rcylsrypHufi ropu3oHr <fyuenuuut4a f - Cenrcylla I - Ryxymeuu
f (:fopodcrc - Ycarnoeo)> (Berciu 1954, 544, 545; 1954a,349). B orrrilqne or Hero, B.lylrzrpecKy cqzrzur,
rlro noqBreHHe cKltnerpoB, KaK ?l caM npouecc Mflrpaqtzu crefiHblx nJreMeH, rrprrxoAuTct Ha
QIzuar $a:lr KyKyreHb A -Kyxyrenr AB alu B, uo B lro6ou cnyqae - paHee Ycaroncrcoro fopr,r3oHra (Dumitrescu 1955,
932-934).

O6parul,r eue pa3 BHHMaHLIe, qro c rncro rro3HaBareJrbHofi ToqKr.r 3peHr,rr nrpa6orauHa.s K cepeAvHe
50-x roAoe XX s. KoHuenqu.s B rroHuMaHuv Lr uHTeplpera\nu cKnrrerpoB, rrpeAcraBJlrna co6ofi He qro HHoe,
KaK npuBeAeHHe 3HaHnft o6 orofi Karefopr,rfi llcroqHL{KoB B coorBercrBne c KatlecrBeHHo u3MeHilBIUuMHcg
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1966; l97l;Hammond 1967;1976; Ecsedy 1979;1982;1983; Gara5aninlg7l;1974;Iovanovl(,1979;Tacsh
1983; ToaopoeaIgTg;1986; Roman 1981; 1981a; 1981b; Mepnepr 1965;1.978a-6; 1980; 1982;1984 n MHorue, nnorue 4p.).
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BceM nporr)KeHfiu gHeoJrura. OAHarco, KaK r,r B cnyqae orAenbHbrx 6arrcaucrcux Kynbryp, AJII nepuoAa KyrcyreHs A-TpurroJrbe B1 e pasnzruu erok o6u-(socru 6brrz nn.seJreHbr Kareropr4lr MarepuiuloB, cBuAereJrbcrByrourue o KaKHX-To qy)r(Abrx rznQranurpaqr4rx c BocroKa, Bbr3BaBlrrrx 3aMerHble KynbrypHbre 63MeHeHI.{q u
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crpen z uHofo opyxrilr l.r, a oco6eHHocrt4, txt4poKoe pacnpocrpaHeHr4e c 3Toro nepnoAa Kynbrypbl ecrecrBeHHo n ncKyccrBeHHo yKperneHHbrx nocelenufi (Florescu 1966; 36enosuq I9l5; Mapxeeuv 1981).
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pesrco o6ptrBaercr (Eefilexvz 1978; Cy66oruH 1983), a Ha ee Mecre, KaK rroKzl3rl[r.I MaccoBble pacKorIKI4 KyplaHoB, notBrqercq qelsril pqA HoBbIX, He vMeIoIIIHX MecrHbIX rpaluunh 3HeorI4TUqecKI4x KypraHHbIX KoMrrrreKcoB rrzna CyropoBo lrrl4 6olee rIo3AHI{e (Anexceena 1976; lepravee 1986).
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vHalre rpr43HaBiulcr BceMH BeAyqt4Mr4 cneuuiurr4crarr,ru (Comga 1963;1972;1974; I978;1980; Dumitrescu
1963; 1980; Dodd-Oprilescu 1978; 1983; Dinu 1974;Dragomir 1979;1982; Moeua 196l; l98l; Mosura,
9e6orapeurco 1969;36eHonnq 1976; Anthony 1986 ra rntr. run. 4p.).
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r4nu Tr.rrroB naM.srHuKoB (Eepexaercrnx, HnxueMnxafiroecxux, Hono4aHuJloBcKl.lx, Cyeopoacrcrax a np.) u

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rloyocfqs eeffog pH HefnBrclqn oH 'uwextogvdeed ultrqsredynor u wwvnilldvro nnecs Be fembVerc
oHsrreJehrltHe 'curKgruH1 '141 ,{ au 14rrr.rg 'xsrzHexedrcs xrqnHesodzSodrdeun.-r eniqces a HoneBJErf Er4 e>r<eY
crcfu 'r4hnuenHo) L(naLu)onQodnu xnuunzd(xt (xe)eHroe (xrs)FoHnorzledrnw o ultttuenHox r.{Hu{x
'yq f rau
Aexs uuHe>Knodu pH ore Kor re€srirrp ged*d osr{h4orc€H rr4HsrroHcogo ruV rvH?soHco cerfgltu-1
urrsg 'codloa Bc4alnoreaumedueH 'uorcodl 4oHVedeno qruaodzr,(ndo$c egec ollroa€ou y s,JeYE LI
'rsuodag r4oHhorcog lreuo4ed r rrgHileJc nl<rHhoJcos v 'erehc I loHhaHox
a 'ltwutflBvoxcog 'Hlnttr],tledlHlrl u[]t vwr:aHeaoHylzHodu 'Hlrecqrfrltfi r4r rrqHuerc xrqHH?Belqa '4nHeaoeudgo
-adu xrsud,fusrXl xuueed eeHer r r4uv eeuog ccettodu 4wseed xfi>tcehzJorroexdu xare HI,IHemoHJooc I nuetrus
'Hnexdogoro nnlsdoroyeH c',{tNeoac-ou rqJcurrpt4rreuc r4J€ ecs orh'rueuanx.(duH90 oHHet\lslieH IqIr ltore ndg
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-oexde rhHemoHrooc nrecoduoa orr soJorroexdz-aorcr4rBzneflc xurnfVea utradc soYoJ x-08-09 nuuexrrodu
uH eums?goltsg 'ruxexoffou erqHsonco Hregudu rgtr{'oHlconxdeaou Hrcuhro srcfu L1 oudeltw{c 'xurq
'WoIrert a rveuodg feuued
-er,r4tr
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Hor^reuarircsH )eJ nJcoHJceh a 'trqeexaexVedll 14 ur€>ts€) oJoHuerc ?rr4rroeH€ xed.(rcufv o coduos rclrurco
'rsuodag goHhorcog eror d,(rsufx u)r{Jer{ercr4c exrogedeed g nroHege r{rgg€rlc eerlogn€H sr4 L,{trHVo 'eYond
-ett oJore nnnexrrodu ]recg eH oln'{ntot x oueazdu hw?)l4HJrlll€u LurH)cehHoffecou euuexedgeuedu eog
erroHlr vr 166I '"'rsd,{rsr,(x enHaedfi''9):6L6I or4uu]heH '.9761 aauru,(141) aocxerr
-rJou r4rhou'(en.rfdv

-hroy xIqHHaJd,(y xrcHrveQQe xlsrrsdvro ogrcaxoHr\r eH rdronceH 'orh 'qrnrel lro oH rf,qrrer '[teuoxu11
'KuH€sosrc4reox nrdoQ xr4ycehVosorolc oHHesJceln,{lruedu - rqHot Keca rrv xuxcer'nQutl
-enJ ylaHeHedrcoduced orelnol{Yercou u ruHesoHvHHeos edrHeItane oJoHVoxcH oHqfferncoHro sororoexdu
svuedt,(xr,or oretrxdearVou or.rJcoHrrou 'r4rceugo KoJe s vlrtrelrctlrr-vnauc utturfdV nruu.rorlt n (7961) o>t
-nedre11 '1'y'('Verc n 1tZ'VL6I$uqlqg) HHeveg';;1 '('tserc v t1l'016I) nlruaxrefl'14'g eoHHEXdeVVou
v (ZL6I :eget :tg1t) 4oao>ragug 'Z'A eonnesodhr,{ltdoQc oHuou eeuogrieH 'euHeHW ore 'rqlruos€t z Iqu
-odag 4our'orcog eJOFI nueJc - uYemoff nun€)urce],{oV 4our'nadeu BJcer r unfruture)or o ecoduos a aoJou
-oof,oel?u enHeHr^r 'trzHeHrruoc ena 'onrg urdeude6l 'y'H t4lanuefruoy uVonderr oJoHqrrerrirV oJor€ vv.He>r<tsL
-odu necs EH AemaesosrcVoucoJ aodorxeQ xrqHx(€s rfl hruHVo ou, 'rrnaegov eH rtgreH ,{ltoHHeee>rc y
'(dY u t86I :086I :Vtet:Ztet i9961 rdeudery) roged xuoac rn xnroHhr oa wordeudentr 'K'H xrqHH?a
-rqsoHOogo onrudxonVoex

'uexrug a rqgeu.{[og-oruudey d'(rqrfv

xuvcehcueVenruesedaedV nzHeaoeedgo

-edu s r4JcoHtrtgo Bore ne[eJr4coH rruod o ecoduoa a oH 'r4rcoH[ngo 'Hrcergo Ko)rcohr4dorcn-oud,{rsr,(>r 4ou
-r{rausedV - aLIeJc ruV Konr'uQnrreilc rrlHe>t<orc ucoduoa o)qffor eH rcre?c?) uHe[eJO gouaud s osJcsrer
-BoJOgo oJ€ oJh 'qmnr NuHr\loueH '(tg-eS'666I uDleruesseA) erdeudel4'y'H HunuenHov gosotpg rqnn,{seoc
eHroilg pllltig vllk't Hreveuaoc o{<rJcoHuou uvu uuseodrcou xt4 etqHaoH3o 'llt,{c ol 'orh 're€hol,{ro oHredx
-oHVoeH onnenadgoHYo 'sodorse xrqneed xenexc e yuhedos.tlrodu rexuxgo 'eldsno ltoxcer.rzQedlondorcu
weosc s ?trJo) 'Hlzvewecc€d 'g'64 aedr fltoreoll 'erdsuda;41 'K'H lar4fiDennoy .,(,rosedu zruYxdeaJYo[ rsg

ot

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20

caMofo M.fapauraur4Ha, raK n Apyrnx rcfocJlaBcKl4x ctrelll4zull4cron (Garabanin 7971; 1973; 1974:' Brukner,
Jovanovid, Tasid 1974; Jvanovid 1979,381 H cneA.; Tacuh 1983).

s
2
Pr,rc.

6. Haeepurua c SanraH:

1

-

Cyao4on, 2

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-flpaua.

MeNIy reM, yxe B HaqaJre 60-x roAoe pe3Ko MeH.rrer cBoro roqKy 3peHns. B aHTeptrperaluu cKl,InerpoB
Eepuy.
Eqe ueAasHo KareropuqHo orcralrBar HX Bocror{Hoe - crellHoe npoucxoxAeHl4e, c saqalou 60-x
[.
foAoB A. Eep.ry rpaKryer pearlrcruqecKr,re cKunerpbr KaK uso6paxeuue co6arc, a ux npol4cxo)Iq4eHl4e orHocvrr 3a c.rer greftcrco-anarolnficKax BJrurHuft. 3ro MHeHr{e BrrepBbIe BbrcKa3blBaerct B MoHorpa$uu, orry6tuKosauHofi s 1961 r. (Berciu 1961, 129,148,536), a 3areM, co BceMH apryMeHraMn, B cneuHzultuofr cra.rse,
BKrroqarcqefi n noruyro rryr6rnrarluro clyuaftHo safiAeusoro e 1960 r. 6,ru: Pexteso (puc. 6,2) n Eonrapuz
HoBofo peanucrauecKofo cKr4rrerpa (Berciu 1962). Karc cre4yer r43 KoHTeKcra 3TLrx pa6or, ocnogHofi npwrv'
uofi pesno lr3MeHnBtrrnxcr BrnrAoB 3Toro aBTopa sBmucb npeABapr4TeJIbHbIe pe3ynbrarbl pacKonoK Ha roceJleHr{H gepuaro4a <Dealul Sofiio, Mareprrzrnbr Koroporo 4eficrnnrelrHo o6HapynotBaror cLIlbHbIe aHarotuitcrcue r4rrr{ BocroqHo-cpeArceMHoMopcK}re BrntflHvs (Berciu 196l; 1962; B.pty 1962). OAsaxo qerKoe
pa3rpaHraqeHze MHoroqucJreHHblx pa3HoKyJrbrypHbrx KoMIrJIeKcoB 3Tofo rIaM.srHHKa ([pHBeAIxee K BbIAeJIeHHro rpex caMocrorreJrbHbrx Kynbryp t{epHano4a I, r{epHaso4a II u tlepHaBoAa III) npousourJlo HecKoJIbKo
no3x(e (Morintz, Roman I 968; Berciu, Morintz, Roman 197 3).
Arcrleurrapyq BHr4MaHue Ha ro)KHbrx - ereficxo-aHarornficxux BJrnsHr4rx B KoHl-JloMepare KynbrypHo eue
HepacqneHeHHbrx MarepklaJroB) yr{HTbrBar HepaBHoMepHocrb reppHTopHzlJtbHofo pacflpeAeneHut cKfinerpoB rrrrb Ha 3anaAe, oAr4H Ha Kasrcase - !.Bepvy cBq3brBaer HaBepuur PyurutHzu, MarceAouuvt a Eolrapuu c vecrHbrM KynbrypHbrM ropu3oHroM 9epuaeoga-Esepo-[oHrs Ctaruna. K srolty xe KynbrypHoMy roph3oHry
aBTop orHocur A caMV norpe6alrubre KoMnlreKcbr x3 Kaculrvn, .{eeHr u 4p. 3a cqer to)KHbIx - asaroluircKHX BJrr4.rrHufi, nepegae[ruxcr uepe: Kanxt3, o6'stcus,er aBTop r{ HaxoAKy pearucrurlecKoro cKlI[erpa u3
Tepexru-Mexre6. O6parqaer na ce6fl. BHnMaHue [oJrHoe yMan*vrBaHvte B 3Trrx pa6orax cxeMaruqecKax cKI4rrerpoB (Berciu 1967, 536; 1962; Bepuy 1962,395).3ro uuesue aBrop coxpaHrr Lr B rocneAyrouux pa6orax
(Pippidi, Berciu 1965; Berciu 1966).

fopar4o 6olee nocleAoBarenbHbrM B cBor.rx y6exAeuu-ax oKut3iulct B. flyuurpecrcy.lI B crarbe, rAe oH
KoMMeHTr4pyer orKpbrrtre rorocnaBcKofo cKurrerpa (Dumitrescu 1962), ra B flocJleAytotlrl4x pa6orax, B Koropbtx
1i.rurbtBarorcq [ocneAyroillfie HoBbre orKpbtrlrfl, B. lyuurpecKy no npe)KHeMy BVLlztr B peall4crl,IqecKl4x cKI4nerpax nso6paxeuu-r JrorrraAu, no-BltALrMoMy, B3Hy3AaHnofi. OH paccMarpr,{Baer I4x KaK tBreHae, cBt3aHHoe co

Kyryrenl A, so:rrlo>tcuo, orqacrH Kyr<yrenr AB. L{x npplcyrcrBne B apeuure 3eMJreAerbqecKax Kynbryp anrop o6r,rcH;rer KynbrypHblMlt e:aulaoAeftcrBklrMr4 srnx o6qecrs
Ha ypoBHe csxseir a B3anMoBJrzsrtuir - B cn) {ae Kynbrypbr KyrcyreHr-TpzrroJrbe, vrvl }Ke KaK pe3ynbrar rny6uuHrrx rpoHktKHoBeuuir - B cJr).^{ae KyJrbryp HzxHero llo4yuanrr u Balras (Dumitrescu 1963; 1972; 1974,
258 u cnep,.; 1980; Dumitrescu, Balomey, Mogoganu 1983, 116 v cneg.; Dumitrescu, Vulpe 1988, 40).
crerrHbrMr't cKoroBoAaMV, Axrvrpyer r,rx BpeMeHev

-eglsfl

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woHHeuovced 'etrzua>K s 'J S96I s oJouHetr4eH'(g'rundl

'96I '0L6I selnqurrg) tg erroladl

eVoudeu (1'g cud) JeJ Hoxcsoeadeg ,{ rnnerecon c dreuuyc Hlrxcehurarrlexc n ro€Hr,rwour{ erssdeua ex eHC)
'scorugumo eH nrrce 'urercy '('dV a 6L6I :LL6I :qt.t;t'Et L6l i9161 selnqung) cerfgr,ural'yq roged mor,{grad
-re wlqHHel^ledleH rcrl4soHuJc 'nuYtuYedJ- 4onuetdfu gorlervcoH 'soxaHYgcs Veu?s-oJor z Vuuee pH rcxnfrr
-o{pJIzsV ,ftrros or,,(sdeu xralnorfdprdrco{uua 'sodrerurc ewer udreudery'f'H rrroged 4ore noYoxrss J
'xerogzd xaoac xzlnor,{Vercox xocs os sresvstpd reV,{g dorae ,(ysorxedr Xre
n (gt-S1 '9961 rderr
-deru) y sHer,(xXy fYoudeu oJetnoilsrcrosJooc '<<Yeue0-oJol u Jo{ ?H Honerru xlxcdowoudenzdl-odeaec un,(d..lr
xlqHqffofto ruHexnsVodu> oresued eorroglreH esrcqffereYusc )e) - ecseH,{YoLI a H xeH?yri"g en eunesudr:r
-odlcud xH e 'sodleunxc (xtzxcennrewexc n) xnxcer'arcuuued uuHetrxoxor4odu noHr,orcos - nroHleJc o uHr4Hernr
-edu-1 '141 ra ,(xcedrnlt(X' 'B enHeHrr reesrDKdetdfou oHnedes,( rdaude141 'y'g 'nnrsuuvu r4wnrr, reJerrouc€d
'Gtet) enaxtr,fi1 'g'g 14 RoaeHXVzL"H'1
eroged q H?cHUo ongodVou lller€s B '(I'8I'cud'991 'r,rradg 'Og'VL6I) erdendetr4l 'y'11 uz|udroHon s HBsodL
-udrcorrrz rlrg etsadeua dreuux3 'rqdxo u)Irerco edrernyc uH rceumslrnsdxoc u urgalqtexX ore eH oHHe€
-co) 'Kerc€ugo fo)cao:edeS 14 novcsemrsgUK>I aqr,nnedrou en eHerd.,(x o.rossem,(dtud tq'rr9 orYXg xe>l
'uuVoxcuodu a soVoJ x-gg ,{xVoxeu olftrger'fffc urffs?rcVedn (1'7'cud) dniunre€xe ex Kraxcaemrrg4,{y
'narmdaseH c enuagadrou '27 uetd(x'edexdy

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-aHVd6 'Hrrhru3) ruHe[soJoJtt4 oJoHrcen ],ltezleYtLt rorpruho dreuu>rc e 'ruou{otudoJ hlrqHr rreHaedY eaueg
-ed.rou rorrreYeduo youoxced rqdorae ',{>rvoxeu r,(dzurenno>l'(V-E'L'cud) rurdoQ foHtruaen4s Vr(coc 4nn
-nuexdv or.uxdeVoc (Z
xrsdoroy tu eeH)KaH'rrlrreged.ror xu.rfdY€aV oJemseaededeu'1 oy runegedlor
"trt)
(17 aefiK>t) o.toHHerdfv rderHesnz rrerooc a rr-rYoxs 'oHrcesen te>t '(7'7'cr.rd) dreuuxc ur.rxcuadexdy
'e)I{tou olqro)Ic
-eH xlqHHesoxnrgfuo'lrdexdy eH r{ rer,{w oJo)csemrqgg,{y en xedreunyc o revu rae4'(9 I'5961)
urdeudey4l 'K'H eqrero s rasfiuwdoQHn KousrerudesVedu oL rqHrcesrr4 vuelJ'ereedu woHr]eJc - woH
-horooa s xlsHHeV4eH 'xnlcelzrullrexc eed rore eH 'sodreunxc uyvoxeH erqsoH eaV errHYedeng
'('Verc vr 6V'Lg6t :Oge t :grcI :VL6l '.7761eSwoX) ummoy
enexdaVtou LeYKg godreuHyc ruhereduderHu 6€HgoVoIf

'g xerogd a u utusted oHqlrerrorcorlEc

r.l

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't lnwnlo/l

22

cKoBbIM (1971, 192, puc. 2,4), z ocraBrrreMc.l 6eg

roqnoro pucyHKa A orvaaHr4t (flauuneHrco,lllv,arr'iir 7972,

8, puc.2,4).

B anrycre 1970 6rrn orKpbrr uonrrft peanncruqecrcufi crcnnerp, npollcxoAnu\ui,t a: norpe6eHut7 rcypraHa 1 (pwc.9,2) sropofi rcypraHuofi fpyrnbr y c. Cyeopoeo (p-u Vzv,aut, o6,r. Olecca, YnpauHa). @parMeHTapHbIe AaHHbIe o6 srona HHTepecHoM KoMnJ'reKce pa:6pocaurr no pa3HbrM HcroqHHKav (LUuauu[,
tlepHrrcon, Arercceesa 197La,234;19716;
lauureuro, lllvarnifi 1972,5; Arexceeea 1976,178;1992,26 n
cle4.) a rcpafiHe flporuBopeqnest. K co)KaJreH]to, t433a HH3Kor-o ypoBHr Qurccaqun Marepr.raJroB npn noneB6rx pacKonKax, Borlpoc o xapaKTepe 3Toro norpe6eHur (rpyuroeoe, nepeKpbrroe 6olee [o3AHHM KypraHoM; KypraHHoe - _ocHoBHoe r4nr.r BnycKHoe; coorHorxeHne c KaMeHHbrM KpoMnexoM r,r [p.) $axrnuecrca
OCT€LIIC' OTKPbITbIM

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Kynbrypbr KyryrensA-Tpranonse 51.1- Eepesoecxaq l-3C,
Surpneneu:ru, 3-4 - O6srpu:enu 1-2,5 - Quruoueuru, 6 - Moroueulru,
7 - Xopa ge Cyc, 8 - PyxuHoaca.(MacLura6 - xpole 1-ro).

Puc.8. Haaepurn vsapeana
2

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HaxoArca 3Tofo BbIpa3I,ITeJIbHoro oKr,rrrerpa flocnyx(Hna rroBoAoM Anfl HanvaaHrzr Lr3BecrHofi crarrH B.H.
,{auuleuxo, cyilIecrBeHHo aKTyaJra3uponanrueI Bonpoc o cKunerpax. Crarss 6ul,ra nepsoHaqaJTbHo ony6nuKoBaHa Ha yKpaI4HcKoM .n3brKe coBMecrHo c H.M. Lllvarluen,t ([aHnneurco, Llltrauifi 1972), a qyrb fro3x(e, c
He3HaqplreJlbHbIMI{ a3MeHeHHqMu,6slta IIeJIHKOM BKjrroqeHa n nonorpa$r4ro rro 3HeonHTy Yrcpauusr ([anu-

' Eyayvn B Te foAI'I 6lz:xo cBq3aHH6rM c I4.A. Alercceeaofi, qacro KoppeciloH1t4pyl, Mory 3acBrlAereJrbcrBoBars, qro B
1910 r. eil enepaue B xl43Hll npurtLnocb caMocrorrenbHo Konarb KypraHbr trpn troMor{li 6yru4osepa, Muorne r73 Hae
tlpolxnl4 qepe3 3To I{ 3HarcT, rJTo 3To o3Harraer. He r.rveg HaBbtKoB, 6eg onrrtHttx rroMouIHr4KoB, h.A. AaerceeBa ucnbtTLtBaJ'la HeMaJ'lble cJ'IoxHocTI4 n tpuxcaqnz MarepnaJloB, qro n cKa3aJrocr ua c-na6oi .rloKyMeHTrrpoBaHHocTr{ BbrrBreHHbrx
KOMI]JIEKCOB

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-edvf rsINdoQ etsu[oxc l(zxou-tsuurcelrll erqgeHr{ody erqunanzrr,( 'naerftg ersHvLraorcedy lsoxzrodv uun
ffefuc uvauheHov?H etqnqrol,(edr irsdonor erqgeHnedy arsuneaoSzurnVou ersHqro.r,(edrtrou) rru<,(do ltdoQ
xlqHYoxc '4Lruegedrou xtquHerdfv t4vr4'u xlqgorHfdr xqurrour,rVo eHHorfsrou :oHHehrr.{ E 'eJHtrooH€ oJoHUorc
esrcHl4Ye woudfuqri,{v u uuxedgoeosc o erdeudetr4l 'K'H oreVr4 xnlnoretrxdesJVol zrcouufxogoc s ,sor
-enderen 4udolerux xHvcehl4Jouoaxde xrcHredvHov dryouc ror qceB resodnlruwfcodn erqgdaua ,Hr.{c oil ,ex<
Hg '('dV tz uvseHxedeg 'eduxdy) rrxroaol ar exuHrrr\luu 'rqHodorc 4o.r,{dv c e '('dv fi osoHfucraa3-odreg
'exsoul4H€troaog) rraodueHvolf 'rqsodorc foHVo J'vwe>rLlHLvw?u c phwzc?)-osodoar(3 socyeffuwo) orrJc
-YoxJ eoH4er'tqssadF eH euHe:rt.AHa ruredgo ogoco erssdeus oxnerzHufi' 'H'B oJh 'or 'owHvo ,eouaerl
'(foeeecxeuv'I fl

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-ercca nwut(dY t4 acvIJesq€ftvctcg ax,( 'orcetr{a wv vJlcoHilfeVro ox 'rnHex<ouolt Hre ecg '((rliHeaoH)LfoJc
elqHHeos etqudrrXled) xnmaeslqstqs 'r4r4nedoaurodu xrqHqrpznoc yuveuuc( ccefiodu fogoc rorfdnoaffoq
-mnc 'soV?rrx l,l socvelrtrwov xlqreJog r renHoltsroil u yuxc(do oJoHr]nJoHr€d lrevHauud.lcoduced lruyodum c
Advden'I4rcaug l4AHJvIJHt4 vux 'tqdleuuvc eH€rru woHst?HIIoc B 'rqvte goaoxdaa rrv erzH?sotqroucl4 ee uuV
-?mor gouuer',(dradu Hetllerrrr xIqHUoJc K eur*men qogoc ror,{durHeltfyoV 'anLorooroereu 14r!lcHH€V c KYyd
-eH 'tsdreuuvc eHEIru htoHHearcareox-oHdr(rsrXx g 'dflsr-r,(x xrqruerc ueroJtrcoH r414cHeuc>t€ fi raHeaoHxltH
-odu rersu.{sed - nevreg u naeu,(Vo11-oruuduy er.eede lrtoycencueYerrner s ellarcr,{cHdu xz e '(rnHevx
-oxcnodn oJovcf,?va€)-o)cuLIucevHdu eenr,or>> 'enHouatr eoHhorcog og,(,r{c - rqdreuzxc iudoger-r oroHnevg,(
o.ronnewed eunexudgoro -- rqanrow erqHqrurHerlreudo elqncrerrlHffouo[ lnEemor rznexedgoon - (enxcer.
-t{Julllexc H 'euvcenurczreed n) t<dreuzlc :xr,rH eH erqHs?rrJ 'cerKgltnl 'JA[ e)urcuuLtrc ) extllJg rarconnnd
-oJoJe)l ou e 'erdefldohl 'K'H I/!€[ltuJ€s tqHn,{aeoc oHroflrr edorge lrVourrg ',,(rcuruultetrc ,{noVxey oHJces€H
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z'.tN I lnunlol

roBbre noABecKH (uo B.H.

laHuleuxo - ncurnu), xort I4x $yuxuuoua,rbHat

rpaKToBKa He rloArBepAl4[acb

frocneAyrc IllHM H OTKpblTLlfl MLl.

HarcoHer1, B.H. [anr,ueHKo BnepBsle o6parnl BHI4MaHae Ha ro, qro 3HeoJIhr Iofa BocroqHoil Eaponrr
HJrr.r (cJIo)KeHHe ApeBHegvgofi SHeoJrr{Tuqecrcoil o6lacrr4) Brurroqaer e ce6q ABe orHoctirerbHo caMocroqrerbHbre esaH1{oAeficrBy}ouue Me)rqy co6ofi JrnHprlr pa3Barut, xors ax apryMeHTaUI4q BecbMa pacrlnblBqara

6orlruulr rpyAoM (,{annleHrco I914,3014 cJIeA., 87 n clel.).
llocneqyrculee AeclrrHnerue o3HaMeHoB€utocb Aalssefiunlt 6rtcrpsttll pocroM qncfleHHocru cKl{rlerpoB
(Ta6n. l). B 1972 r. ABa HoBr,rx cxeMarr,rr{Hbrx cKunerpa (prac. 8,3-4) 6run orxpurst clyvafruo Ha rloBepxHocrrr pa3pyrxeHHofo )KranHUIa roceJreHlrr repr4oAa KyxyneHs A2-3 O6trprueur (Brudiu I975). Ha era xe roAbl
rrpqxoAr.rrcr orKpblrue cxeMarurtecKoro cKarlerpa u3 Ertp,releurrr (przc. 8,2), naitaeHHoro clyuafiHo 6ru:
rocereHuq c KyKyreHcKofi rcepanrurcofi ueyrovueHHoro replioAa (Brudiu, Coman 1979). B 1980 r. rry6nranyrorcr ABa HoBbrx peiurr4crl4tlHbrx cKurrerpa, o1vtH l.r3 Koropbtx (puc. 6,3) - ctryuaituaq HaxoAKa 1973 rola
6,ras c. lpawa e Eo,rrapnu (Ghetov 1980). Bropofi cKnnerp ag @uruoneurru (pnc. 8,5). OH 6lln HafiAeH s
1967 roly 11pu pacKonKax MHofocrofinoro naM.r{TH}rKa c Marepniuauu KyryreHl Az-r - fyuenruu\a Az,
MoHreopy u rp. Ho caM cKnrrerp o6napyxeu n 4ouHofi qacru {MbI rlepuIoAa Ilareua (Harfuche, Bobi 1980).
B 1978 foAy orKpbrr H BcKope ony6lurconaH cxeMarl,rqecnufi cKltrlerp (puc. l0,l-2), npoucxoAnqzfi u: norpe6enur Il! 108, llepeoro XsansrFrcr(oro MorI{JIbHurca (Aranoe, BacHrEeB, flecrpurcora 1979, l5l 1990,44;
puc.2l,5; Baculr,en 1981, Ta6r. 20,18). B 1980 roAy cran H3BecreH o6lottot< cxeMaraqecKoro cKlinerpa
14

BocnpuHl4Maercr c

(prac. 11,1), uail4eHHoro B 1969

r.

Ha floceJreHsn KoHcrasruHoBKa (Krzaurrco 1980,25), ouy6lurconauHurfi

HecKoJrbKo rro3)Ke, BMecre co cryvafiuoi uaxoAttoil (puc. ll,2) 60-x foAoB 6rug r. Pocroea (Knaurrco 1988).
B 1983 f. BBoArzrc.s a uayvustil o6opor cxeMarnqecxnft crunerp, clyuafiHo safiAeuuufi s 1964 r. y Moro-

rrerlrb (pnc. 8,6) e PyurrHzu (Dodd-Oprifescu, Mitrea 1983, 69 r,t c,re4.). t{yrl nosxe ny6,raryerce

cxeMa-

rnqecrcufi cKlrnerp (puc. 8,7), saftAeuurrfi B rMe Ha rlocereHnI4 rrepl4o1a Tpuno,rle B1-Kyrcyrenr A2-3 Bepxuze Xopu e Mol4aeun (leprauen, Coporcnu 1986, 54 rz cne4.). B nocleAseM crtyqae, 6laro4apx uuQoplraq7i,dB.A. Kulurr<o, BTopaLrHo BBoAr4Tc.fl e o6opor pauee ony6lltrcosaFlFlstfi,3a6snttit, HecKoJIbKo cnoeo6pasHrlfi cxevaruqecxufi cKunerp uz fiauuttozrcu (Tana )Ke, 58, pac.2,ll).

;iit

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c sodreuayc xrqHrH€LrdeaoHeed alrHemoHrooc r,\roHqrer4dou.rdder a vunuvxed eg '('dY n 8L6I
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sersc ot,{HVoxcu Br nruu.,(rcrqs osr,ytdo.rere>r rur (19'9961 uuxodo3'aer'e.rde[') nrlruzxodoJ'K'g c eqrerc
'(drrultesxe Fa)csamlc94,{y) asxuoaog woxcdew
WemEH a '4eurleltdoQnn emrsa 4ouHerex,( reJerouJed

-"J I oJ-aVJ aodreuHyo xn)coharer{exo eIrHeaoHyI4HeoB eoHr(ow€og ut qcaregrqt€)ctqa oHx{odorSo um<toes
(91'rrurzdg '66-6g'tg6l) ydtnyll'14 u ,{ycefiudlg-VVofii 'y 'ruuegedrou oro)lcHHduxdy BI]He)t{orou oroxc
-ehHJotioHodx nnsereVeduo g I4t\rlrr4HeJhoHeed ,{xuor c et<ul49c HJcehJo 'edlauuxc H e)HHqruJot t WoxcHIqr
-€sX o 4enlrultdoQHn reJ€rJoucud e11 'Ar4ueYilt xHJ€ enHotrxoxczodu ooHhoJcos €e scttl?t€xolss tr\llqHfi)
-odo3 'K'g {oJerrrroy c rqn u 'nLeulfo>t euycHrslN,{d u 'esouLed r,noxcgen,fi'-oruudey a 4nmdeaeu xnxceharc
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wlqHsoHco ou tsHnr(ggoc eHUoLla 'xrHnpruged xrqHrcuh xtcdoroveu udu 'Aet:e:rc xnre aodorae trVoalss '(xItH
-nu:roauead 0I H xl<rHhfirer{exc E1 xrrdorox sn 'edleunva tZ - 9961 Hnxodo3 'aer'u.rde[' ixtsnnurcurceed
0I H xr4ycehnrerrexc 6 xrsdorox sa'godleur)rc 6I - E86I ee4ltr\l'ncseiudg-ppoq) xovoxsH worcnh ^lcHsod
oHqfferlaoHugudu reLz:rouced 'ederxedex oJetrrgo eerrog nqruJc esY urusaes 'yoVox€H xur€ HJcoHHeIrcI4h
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Cxo4uyro [o3r,rllr{ro, B Ayxe B.H. {aHHneHKo,

80-x roAoe [.f. TeteruH, pBKacuvqa-Cynopooo, B - Apxapa, C

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renvB:l.rkrir cKunerpbr Ha rpr4 orHocr.rreJrbHo caMocrorrer'rbHblx

rvna: A

-

- XnzumrHcrc-KoHcraurraHoBKa (Telegin 1987).
Brrcryna.a nporl4B KoHqenqrzu M. fzrvr6yrac, pe3Ko rrport4Bononoxuyro roqKy 3peHr4q tro Bonpocy o
cKurlerpax saHsr A. Xoficlep. Orpuqax paHHrolo A
KoMnJreKcoB us Apxapsr r.r Cynopono, a c 4pyrofi cropoHbl, cofiocraBJltr (HecouocraBl4Mble c rurroJ]orr4qecKofr u $yurcqnouan6Hofi roqKr4 3peHHr) KoH+r{rypa-

ualo cxeMarlr{ecKxx KaMeHHbIX na epnufi c KocrgHbrMlz rIoABecKaMn c nzo6pa:xetrs.Mv ((yroK> Lr3 Morr4,'rbHLrxa Cre:xee, A. Xoilcnep npeAJraxr4n paccMarpuBarb cKrrrrerpbr KaK rpy6sre vMMlaTagHA noc,reAHnx. YqzTbIBat KonzeecrBeHHoe pacfipeAeneH].re a orHocr{TerbHo paHHroro Aary 3K3eMnnflpoB r: 06orprueur n BupJI3JIeIIITs, aBTop ctruTar 6olee Bepo.flTHbIM rlpoilcxo)KAeHlre cKnlerpoB rz3 Kapnaro-lloAyHaBbfl c nocJreAylorglrM ax pacnpocrpaHeHr.reM Ha BocroK (H2iusler 1981, I l4-ll5; 1982,107-l13; 1985, 33-36). MHenne o
3anaAHoM npohcxoxAeHua cKliflerpoB c nocneAyrorqhw vtx paclpocrpaHeHneM Ha BocroK 6uro elrcrca3auo u
B.A. CaQpoHoBbrM (1989, I95,196 r cnes.).
Ouepe4urre HoBbre HaxoAKrr cKznerpoB 6rr;ru orrcplrrbr LUn ony6:ruroraHbr Bo nropofi noroeuHe 80-x
roAoB. Cpegu rrocneAHrrx - paHHee orKpblrbre, y)Ke ynoMrHyrbre, cxeMarvqecrzfi cKrarrerp c KoucraHrunoscKofo roceJreunl (puc. 11, 1) u raK)Ke cxeMarr{qecrcufi crcunerp (pnc. Il,2)6ez roqHbrx yctloznir. Haxo}KAeHHq, fiocryrtustnuh g Pocroecxufi nry:efi e 60-x roAax (Kzxurxo 1988). ,{ea uoesrx cKr{rrerpa - oAr.rH cxeMaru'tecrcvit unropofiycnoBHo-peilrr4crr{qecKuit(puc. l2,l-2) -6lrwrorKpbrrbr e 1985 f. Bpa3HbIXnorpe6eHLIqx 3HeoruTnr{ecKofo fpyHToBofo Mofr{JrbH}rKa Ha XronKosoM fopoAnqe (Manor 1987). B rov xe roAy
eu1e oAHH cxeMaruqecrcufi crcunerp 6rrn orKpbrr y .{xaurap, e KanN4rrrcuu, B 3HeoJrhrr{qecKoM norpe6euun,
coBeprrreHHoM B ecrecrBeHHoM BcxoJrMJ]eH]ra, corrpoBoxqqaBrrreMcr pasuoo6pasHblM KpeMHeBbIM IIHBeHTapeM
(puc. 13,1). Kolrrr,reurupyr 3Tor KoM[JreKc, aBTop pacKonoK oBr3brBaer ero c r]aMtrHuKaNrz HogoAaHVJIoBcKofo rlrfla. Kacaqcr )Ke cKr{[erpoB B qeJ]oM, B coorBercrenu c co6creeHHofi rcosqenuuefi o6 Hrqoenpoleil-

crcoii npapo4uae, B.A. Ca$ouon onpeAeneaHo cKroHqercfl K MHeHr,rro o6 ux sogFrLrKHoBeHI,In Ha 3anaAe c trocneAyrorqvM pacflpocrpaHeHneM Ha BocroK (CaQoHon 1989, 196-197).

'::i :;;i: i i i t, tli I ti i i i;i ;t ; t t t tii't
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14 cocyA XeanutHcrotz Kynbrypbt t43 pa3Hbtx
norpe6eHufr rpyHroBoro Mon4nbHhKa Ha ropoAuUle Xnonxogo.

3aaepruar xapaKTepucrl4Ky r4cropvr vt3yrreHn.r cKrrrrerpoB B KoHTeKcre o6uux zuartuit Ha fipors)KeHnll
3Tofo Ar'nrrenbHoro rrepnoAa (60-80-e m.), uem:.r ue o6parurr BHvrMaHufl Ha oAHo upuHllllnnanbHo BzDKHoe
o6croqrertcrno. HeoAuoKparHbte, IleJreHanpaBJreHHbre norrbITKH rro aHuur,r3y H ocMbIcJIeHlIIo cKl4rlerpoB
([aunneuxo, fllvar,'rifi 1972; laturreHKo 1,974; Dodd-Oprilescu, Mitrea 1983; lepraven, Copoxran 1986),
rrplrBenu 3Trrx uccJre4oearelei K BbrBoAaM, BrroJrHe Bnr,rcblBaroullrMcr B KoHllenqurc H.M. Mepnepra, M.
lrar',r6yrac r,rJu4 Toro xe M. lapauranuua B Borrpocax o ponr4 crenHoro $arcropa e npeo6pasoBaHuu 3HeoJILITzqecKtzx ApeBHe3eMneAerbqecKux Kynbryp Kapnaro-floAyHaBb.rr n Barrcan. HerarzsHoe xe orHolxeHve ro-

ro xe A. Xoficrepa (Hiiusler 1981; 1985, Ap.) utu B.A. CaQoHona (1989) r< cauofi KoHuenulzz M. fuuSyrac,
KaK u ecrecrBeHHo, [pr.rBeno 3Tt4x rlccneAogare,'rei K rrpnHlluflI4ulrrbHo rlporr.rBorronoxHblM B3fJrqAaM B TpaK-

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3
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sodreuzvc xlsaoH rI4HeIruoxBH ewurd oletnoildnccedrodn oJorllec 14 oHHeflrcrosrooc e 'HuHeeoverc
-cu xlqseffoil ?Neqgo orusetledvoc ,ft,roveed v oreszdu ore 'rqsodoro KoHVo J 'oxqror eH r,r EsrcH€drcodu
o.touc4euodaeoHhorcos nnroroexde eH 'nJcoHuegoco tl 'trcoLemsuredro ltoeedgo Nrchtrdu 'dJJC oJemsr.rg
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'4ouueaeua 'fvsorvufu xH BH aoErff.lgg r4nneendrrol 4oxeed Voudeu ore 'tr{er c arceng 'noffen s godreunyc
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n:_ norpe6eurfi lroru;mHnxa Xearlrucrc II, pacrcorraHHoro lI.E. Bacarseeum (2002 , 72. pvtc. 1,25) (puc. 16,12)' cxemaru.{ecKr,lfi cKurrerp, rl4eHrH$nquposaHHsrfi B.C. BoqrcapeBbrM u H.fl. Mepueproru cpeAl4 KoJIJIeKUHH MarepuanoB 3anoBeAHHKa <Apxaun>. OAuravr u3 nocrreAHr4x crirJr H3BecreH e 1998 f. pezurlrcrlrqecnufi
cKl,{rlerp (puc. 15,1), cryuaftuo o6uapyxenHslil 6nus c. Kafipar<luq Ha rore Mo,rAoesr (Pyccea 2003).

Puc. 15. |ocnegxre il3 HaxoAoK: 1 - Karaparnnn (no H.!. Pycceey),
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TotlHo, Ho Koropble, TaK vJTv HHarre, onpeAeneHHo cBr3aHbr c ttoceneHlt.sMn Kynbrypsr Kyryrenb, H ((rro aHaJIOfHH) c paHee ynoMrHyrbrMH TpeMq AocroBepHbfiitu, urpu6yrupyerc.fi locle4Hefi.
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Lichardus, Lichardus-Iten 1993; 1998 u Ap.). Buecre c reM,
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rpol43olllnu 3a sror KoporKl4il nepl4oA Bo
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tn4unuy lgg4).
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ro-flo4yHanbq npt{3HaBaJtvcb B TeqeHI{e 3Toro rlepu
tggt; i994a-b; 1998; Roman, Dodd-Oprilescu, Janos 1992; Roman 200I, 174 HaSoIIi, Popovici 1992' 79,
(Mantu
Hagotti 7991 ,I19 u ap).OAsarco,, Pyror"vvr, ecilv cyAt4Tb no rAerbHblM NlouorpaQuqecKHM
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KofAa MeHee o6ocHonoHeHToB 14114 Tt4rIoB fraMtrHr,tKoB. Conponox4aqcb MHoxecrBoM HoBbIX, KorAa 6o,tee,

Irpouecc 3Tor'

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2000a; Telegin l99l; TereraH, Tntoea 1998; Te,qervH v Ap.2001; Korosa 1994i,
rerl.rH 1990; l99l;
A;1er

2002; Rassamakin 1994; 1999; KHquIKo 1994; Heriurafi,'Io 1996; 2000 n Ap.), u o raMqrHurcax flpe4uafrrconcxofi n Mailxoncrco7 rcynlryp llparcy6aurE.r, CenepHoro Kasxa:a n,'Iu 3axaeKa:u (TprlQonoe 1991; 2001;
naHexaea 1992; Kopeuenigzfi 1993; 1995;2001; fefi 2000; Kyuruapena 1993 tj MH. Ap.) H, pa3yMeercn, lloBo.rl)Kbt
M-srHuKax Cavapcrofi, XsaFrtrucrcof, PennHcrcofi n uuslx Kynbryp crerlHoro I] JlecocreflHoro
(Merpert 1991; Mopryuora 1995; IOArau 1998; lpevos, IOAuH 7992;Bacu:tree, OeunHHaKoBa 2000; Bacr4,'rbeB, Ky:ueqon, Typeurcuft 2000 r lp.).
BropOe o6crOsrelrcTBo, coAeficTByloqee o6rqevy ([epenonoxy) B oUeHxe cnequQl{Ku 3HeoJlara
crengoft 3oHbt, Hocnr, .r 6tt cKurzur, Ka3yucrhrtecrcrafi xapanrep. Ouo cBt3aHo co c[eul4zulbHblMl4 lIccJIeAoBaHeraruBHoe orHolueHtrflMLt qepe[a nouaAu rs ,{epeuexvl, ilo3AHs,A Aar}rpoBKa Koropofo cHarliula Bbl3BitJ'Ia

3ToHlle Ko BceMy KoMrrneKcy ocreoJrofnqecKplx ocTaTKoB paHee npu3HanoE - AoMecTItllnpoeauHofi JIoIIaAn
ro roceJ,reHua (Levine 1990; Anthony, Brown 1991). 3aren roA coMHeHue 6ul rocraBreH carvt $ar<r o Bo3voxHofi AoMecrlrKaU12'A troura1.1 B 3[oxy 3HeoJnrra. Z, r rcoueuuoM cqere - caMa npaBoMepHocrb tlzuleo3ooJtorhqecKl4x MeroIoB e nn4eurn$uKa\r4v hnr4 pa3rpaH:a.veHvv ocrarKoB Aurcoii nouraAl4 or oAoMa[]HeuHofr
(Benecke l994a-b; Levine 1999; Spassov, Iliev 1998 u Ap.; Tenerl4u 1997; lly'rrcoe, Xypasnee 2001)'
B conorcynuocrn o6a orMeqeHHbrx o6cro.srerbcrBa npeAorlpeAenl{nll nolsuil pasno6ofi Bo B3rrflArx

cneuua,THcroB, KaK Ha ypoBHe Bocrrpu.rrrnr apxeororuqecxofi TaKcoHoMI4H, ee HoMeHruIarypbI I4 coAep)KaHHq'
3rux
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(feft
I
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Kar 6ur ro Hrz 6ulo, Becb gror rcoporxufi [epuoA pa3BopaquBiucfl tloA AoMI4HaHTofr rpa4uquoHHux

uleh H.A. Mepnepra (Merpert 1991; Mepuepr 2003) ra M. f rau6yrac (Gimbutas 1994), HaueArIl'IX MHorhx
rooneAoBaretefiu 11o Bonpocatr cnequ$urcu, ceoeo6pa:I4.t creflHoro <Mupa>, u B tloHnMaHI'IH efo I4cxoAHbIX
r4croKoB (Xnalrrnglc lloeolxre), ?r B BI/.A}H:'1.?- o6rqeft HarrpaBneHHocrl4 KyJlbrypHo-reHeruqecKlIX [poqeccoB (c BocroKa

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na aana4), u B oueHKe ponr4 crerrHoro $arcropa n npeo6pa:oBaHul'{ ApeBHe3eMneAeJrbqecKo-

(Ky:rvnHa 1994; 1996-1997 ; 2000; 2004; Telegin l99I; Tereruu I99l; 1997 ; 1999; 20006; TereBacursen,
fr.rH r.r Ap. 2001; Heuurafilo 1996;2000;2002;Bacumes 2002; Bacnlrer, OsqrHul4rcoea 2000;
u
2000;2003
Dergachev
2003;
2000;
Brown
Ky:ueqor, Typeqrrafi, 2000; Anthony 1995; 1997; Anthony,
ro

apeurna

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38

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ll - llepexognae - ycnoBHo KaHHenppoBaHHbre HaBepuJuq c no4BaphaHraMu A: 3 -Ssrpnenelt.trb, 4 - O6srpu.reus 1;

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BeprrxanuHar crpenKa - HanpaBneHxocru uop$onorhqecqKoro
r BpeMeHHoro pa3Br1l4n (or npocroro - r cnoxtorrly).

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ero norpe6eHnl4 cocyAy (puc.7,2-4), BcerAa r4 BceMu cqr.rrzrJrocb nosAHefturan,t. C noao6uoi rpaxroercoil
ct{HTzL'll{cb a A. Xoficnep, ra B.A. Ca$poHoo, u E. foae4apur-la u Ap. A ecru 3Tor raK, To BaprraHT ApxapuHcrnft nrtcrynaer no3AHefiuruu, eMy rrpeArxecrByer BapvaHT KaHHenropoBaHHblx a, coorBercreenHo, Xtar rr n c ru fi B ap vaHT

uit, uauatrustit.
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200I,129), qeM Bce ocrzlnbHble HHoKynLrypHbre rraMrrHrrKl4 3HconHTa, coAepxaqne Apyrue 6oree no:4Hre
cxeMaTr.rqecKhe vIV peaJ]zcTHqecKfi e HaBepmuq.
Taxana o6pa:olt, t{ro cHlr3y BBepx, r{ro cBepxy BHr{3 - pe3yJrbrar o4zu (pzc. 19). Cpegn rroArvna cxeMaTI4qecK[x narepurufi ApenHefiurzM Bblcryrraer XsanrrHcrufi uapuaut, orHocureJ]rso 6olee no3AHaMrr Bbrcrynalor HaBeprllut Bttpreueurr-KoncraHraHosxa-B:reHbcKoro BapLraHTa H nogAuefiuvrMvt - HaBeprxhq
Apxapnucrioro BapI4aHTa.' He oco3HaB Balr(Hocru Tllnor'Ioro-gBonroqzoHHofi uaupanaeHHoarn B ocHoBe rrpanulrHoi uaccn$zraryuu, !.fl,. Telernu, TeM He MeHee, p;artpaBtnbHoe olpeAeJreHze rrpoucxolqqeH:afl3Tnx
Hanepurzi. flocxoltxy, oH HcxoAI4JI r43 ux xpoHororn.{ecKofi coorHeceHHocrz - a6crpaxrHtre, caMbre paHHLIe, cxeMarur{ecKlre c KanLIyfoM - caMbre no3AHae. E. lone4aprzqa ra E. Kafi:ep, a, opneHTr4py.scb Ha HLrx, n
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oco3HaB BaxHocrl. eroro o6crotreJlbcrBa, BMecro rofo, r{To6br [pr43Har6 6a:oeofi, ucxo4uoil
Sopurofi a6crpaKTHoe HaBeplxve ns XearltHcKa, npeAnoqJrH B KagecrBe raKoBofo KaHHenroposaFrHrlil 3rceMflnrp rz: Xopa
4e Cyc (Govedarica, Kaiser 1996,76,789; Burtanescu, Jurcanu 1997,81), orueceunrrfi un,rn xe K rrpoMexyToqHoMy Bapl.{aHry. Clegcrnae rrpoucxo)KAeHrle HaBeprxuh sa zanale. A no ncefi ,roruxe lrx ]Ke r-nacclr$raKarJLrr4, HanpalxuBzrnct - BocroK, Xearl rrlcx.
Paccrrlorpuu cefiqac rIoATpt[ pearncr[qecKux HaBeprxuil.Llx 3aMerHo MeHr,ue - l4 eKgerannf,poB (Ta6t.
2), uo B To )Ke BpeM.s oHH 3Har{HTeJIbHo pa:noo6paaHee. B orJrnq}re or cxeMarur{ecKlrx, npr Bn3yurbHoM paccMorpeHlrl,I KparHocrb o6pa:oeaunblx LrMra fpyfin nnu rroArpy[rr, Ha neprrrfi B3rJrrA, He croJ'rb oqeB]rAHa.
Cnegyt rr,rop$onoraqecKIzM rIpLl3HaKaM, B. fone4apaqa pa3Aenr{n orr4 HaBeprxvs. Ha rpn BapvaHTa rr. ps,r\
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o[peAeneHuI4 Bo3Mo)KHofr nocle4oaaTerbHocTl,I 3TI4x rpyn[, HV TeM 6o,ree B IIOHIIMaHLILI Borlpoca zx coorHo[IeHI4.fl co cxeMarlrqecKuMtt. A s qelou, yrlurbrBaq ux KoJlaqecrBeHHoe upeo6la4auue B 3aDaAHoM apeille,
aBTOpbI paccMarpHBator lrx coorBercrBeHHo KaK 3aIIaAHbre IIo lpoucxox(AeHr4ro c locneAyroqr.rM pacnpocrpaHeHueM Ha BocroK (Govedarica, Kaiser 1996,72AcneA.; Govedarica 1998).
B pa6ore [r.A. TercrvtHa Bce peanncrplqecrcue (Harypzurncrur{ecKrze) Hanepur}lfl paccMarpnBarorcr BKyrle, BMecre. llpaaAa, B TeKcre aerop o6pau{aer BHr{MaHrre (Ha Qaxr vpe:nruaianofi npuMr4TkrBHocru $optrtr
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9-i3) noua4alor Bce HaBepIxHq, Koropbre, [oMlrMo orMeqeHHbrx Bbrrue Aeruurefi, xapaKTepr,I3ylorcq eule AotloJIHI4reJIbHbIM opHaMeHroM - ro nil pe3HbIM, ro JILI penbe$HblM (CgnKyrla, CyBopoBo, TepeKnu-Mexre6,

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Kar 6st ro HH 6ttlo, tlycrb ycnoBHo, Ho Mbr [paHHMaeM rroKa 3ry cxeMy, qro6rr lBurarbcfl rzlrrbrr1e c
teu, v.Io6lt no3)Ke cHoBa BepHyrbcr K 3ToMy Borrpocy. A galrrartc t 1an:o.:ue B HaureM cnyqae o3Haqaer norlblTarbct oflpeAennrbcq B Bonpoce o Bo3MOXHOM COOTHOTTIeHT{|4 14 B3aLrMOCBr3r4 CxeMarr4qecKux u peulhcrurrec Kr.rx Haeepruzft .
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Br43yanbHoM,

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tsdreweduu envcenlrdrBn 'rogud osrcex{oHr,t uH r
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eH xqdorov el4HemoHrooc 'Kl{mdossH xrqHhr,rrcuueed u xuxcohar?nexc 4errore€B)orr xu>tcer,adren xrqHsoH
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xu A t4LrJotroexde s aoxeHtadrr xlqHHegrcehlzrox elul[ere oJoHHerlo€Hreltdotp IqVorew etrHredxHoy
'(9f l'Sf I'80I '8661 deu.rHell;1) ("'qrcos
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'ltuHeVxdeal( fxole or,{Hr'uure g elne ltonnerogedlqg 'tr{oHrcegtu eH rcreVxus tolxeqgo 'xuxcehuJouoex
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14IUf IVTVXOU Xt4X9l hl4dlt1 r 1414htsUf ddO)

fsoHco vH 4ilmdrEVH sl4hv)14o14ccvu)l 'z'lll
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oa ',{rruoreog 'derxudex 4rqHsuue:tgfc rncos 'eheHr4 uuw >[vL 'xrcdorov eunereVeduo oH 'ureresoVauccu urrqrro
Jo rlrcr4s?t noyuren xsdoroy qner,edeu 'golenc€d xr4fnor,(srcJ.earooc 6ffV .{nndreru s xrqHHo)Ko[?t 'xeyeHtzdu
o o)quo)c 'HoHxorc oHsrreYedrr n 4orcodl u <urqg J€xow redorox 'u;tssl uruerannQQeo>r ncud er'ftrdoQ o ox
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oJv
rqsodorc oc sud rore eH 'eV 'rcreewfsed eexr4Voraw goHH?aotqroucr4 y rr4H€her{€r uIr rsrn(or r€og
' qJes"yoV qcou?sogodJ t4 orh'eHdeg ?Woxc reHHontrevr4Qlaccerx'rHhEHt
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z tN 'l lnLunpl

69

Rpvistn

Arhpolnoiri .lprip nouh

Zrarc, paccvrorpuM coorHo[eHr4e rrerbrpex ocHoBHbrx Merpr4qecKr{x rroKa3areJrefi cxeMarr,IqecKux v peaJTHCTUqeCKUX HaBeprXHfi B HX pa3nuqHblx COqeTAHVrflX, B COBOKynHOCTT{ XapaKTeptr3ytoulnx tIpOnOpqUU [I
cTaJlucTHqecKae oco6eHHocru 3Tr,rx, Ka3zurocE 6br, caMocrof,TeJrbHblx KareropHfi HaxoAoK.
Ha Pucyure 22, ua KoppeJrrquoHHoM rroJre conocraBJreHbr ABa ocHoBHbrx MerplrqecKlrx noKa3arerr: MaKcaMrulbHac E:rr'Ha uaeepnzfi (puc. 22, fopa3oHTirJrb) z uarccuua,rbHar' Nwt:aa r4x rrepeAHefi - nuueBoft tacrw (puc.
22, yepruxutr). Kax cneAyer r,rs rpaQnvecxoro oro6pa)KeHn r, rro orMeqeHHbrM Merpr,rqecKr,rM rroKunareJl{M rir
cxeMarllqecKlre u peaJll4crrzrtecKlre HaBepilns nporBnqror ce6.s rcarc orHoclrreJrbHo KoMrraKTHbre rpynrrbr, rlMeroIrIHe Bblrf,H),ro-DnvncoBzAnyrc KoH$r4rypaqrao. O6e rpyr[rr4poBKu r.sroreror K eArrHofi nprMofi ';.uuuu (ocu),
o6napyxHnatorqefi Hx [pcM]'ro B3aprMo3aBr4ct4Mocrb c rroJro)Kr4TeJrbHbrM KogS$uqHeHToM Koppenqquu. Boree
rofo, o6e fp).T[br B cBolrx rconQr,rrypaunxx 6oree qeM Ha 2, 3 neperpbrBaror Apyr Apyra, o6loe4lattss, e ce6e (n
erovr lole) noAaBnrllouree 6oruuuucrBo n cxeMarr4qecKr.D( npeuwlcrvlqecKlrx HaxoAoK. Ilttutru croeaMlr, o6e
fpynrrbr [porBnqror ce6.s rcar pa3Hble rroAMHoxecrBa oAHofo Lt rofo xe MHo)r(ecrBa.
Hanpanurarouluecr r4HTep[perauuw. Cnegyx cKoppenupoBaHHbrM roKa3arer-flM, cxeMarrrr{ecKne A peumcrI{tIHbIe lg.aBeprn:al. n QyrxrryloHzrJrbHo-TLtrroJrorlFrecKoM orHoureHr.ru oAHopoAHbr, foMoreHHbl. Our,r o6HapyzcraBalor eAuHoe qApo 14 eAr.rHyro o6lryro 3aKoHoMepHocrb n HanpaBneHHocrb pa3Br4Trar. yqI4TbIBzuI creneHb B3aI4Mo[epeKpbrBarorlefo noJrt 3J]JIHII0OB, HaBepru[IJI B qenoM oAHoBpeMeHHr,r, a, Qlile[ys HanpaBJIeHHocTa ocl4 (or nepeceqeHr{Jr ocefi rcoopAuHar rc nepra$epvrv, K BepxHeMy rrpaBoMy }Tny Koppenqrlr4oHHor-o norx) nsauuonepeKpblBarouluxc.fl gJrJIlIIIcoB, o6urar reHAeHuzJl vu.pa3Bkrrvr. or Mzlnopzl3MepHbrx K orHoclrrenbHo KpynHbrM.

Puc.22. CoorHoureHue Haeepururi no MaKchMaflsHofi 4nuHe (ropusouranu) na gnrany nrqeaorl vacru (eepruranu).
1 - peanrcruqecKr4e, 2 - cxeNrraril.{ecxre, 3 - HaBepuJr4F oco6urx Qopru (pacuuQpoara HoMepoB cru. - Ta6n. 3).
Ocu-crpenxa

-

HanoaBneHHocrb pa3Bhl4F.

O6paularor Ha ce6q BHaMaHr{e, BK;rroqeHHbre B KoppenrqrroHHoe loJre cBoeo6pa:uue HaBepIxI{t us !a(puc.22, Ne 23), I4rpeHs (Ils24). flo ngqrllM Merpr4qecKaM napaMerpaM oHH rronHocrbro BbIrIaAaIor
u3 ((aKTHBHofo rroJrr)) rrro cxeMaruqecKltx, qro pealucrl4qecKux Hanepruzfi.
A6corrcrno uAeHTnr{Hyro Kaprr4Hy, a, coorBercrBeHHo, 14 cxoAHyrc uHTep[peraqaro, o6uapy)KldBaror
HIIJIoBKI4

cxeMarur{ecKue r{ peanl4crl4qecKlre HaBepruus B r4HoM coorHoilreHr4r{ Merpr4qecKux noKzuarerefi: rcoppenil\Lrr4

4lvHrr nepe4Hei, lzqenofi, vacrz (ropn:ouranr) c MaKcrrMzrJnHofi errcorofi, nepe4Hefi uocosofi qacrn. Kax cre4yer a: PucyHrca23, to 3TlrM rroKa3arerqM o6e sra pa3HoBHAHocru o6napy)MBalor ry
xe rauefiHyro rpyl[prpoBKy B Tofi )Ke, oAr,rHaKoBo opueHTupoBaHHoft, 3nnr{ncoBr4Auofi rcou$uryparlrrr4, c
B3arIMHo nepeKpbrBaroulzMcq eAHHbrM rroJreM. Hanoneq, KaK r.r B rrpeArxecrByrouleM cryqae, floJrHocrbro BbInaAyr no B3qrblM napaMerpaM a3 (aKTr4BHoro)) rroJ.rr HaBeprxr4r us .{aHnronxn (J\! 23), I,4lpew (Nb 24),. u e
MaKcLIMzInbHoil

sroM

cnyqae

HaBeptuue

u: Ko4averca

(Ne 25).

n pearyrcruqecKue HaBeplrnut ilpu Koppenflr\uLr IByx
ApyrHX nap MerplzqecK]4x noKa3arelefi. B o4uou crytae,3To coorHorxelprc 4r'uHs luqenofi uaclu nanep:lrzit
(puc.24, roprl3oHTanb) ua nucory ee :a4uefi, roroeHoft (puc.24, neprarans) qacrefi. A eo nropou cJD/qae, coor3arrerurte pa3nwrut o6uapyxunarcT cxewarwrecKile

'5vtj,[aeed qrcoHHeusedueH rlxuodrC '(0 'uge1 'nc EodanoH e)sod*r4mced)
rtdoQ xrqgoco chmdeseH - e 'en)cehhrenexo - Z'ert\cannrxvtupod - 9
'(suarrrdae) suereeerou oJoHsouoJ lrocrcs eu (suerHoerdor)
urceh [osehhu aHruv 4oHcuey{t4cxen ou 4umdeeeH enHenloHLooJ'vz'Jud

/zi

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- Z'eillcehnrouueed - ;

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uJ-ceh 4oEahhu

exruu

eH (sueruoerdor)
qroHsuenr4gxer,r ou 4umdeeeH ar4HamoHroo)

'tz'cud

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rolrlrgrodu xrroil xrqHHovfirffeddox us xrch{rc xl{ogo g nxe}rendr

(rrernoeudot'g7 'cud) (oJoHsouoJ)

eI<IHHeheI

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Iro 'tlcolteeler'oconl4e€g os l]rnrn

en (srexurdes'gZ'cnd) ecxsYtta ((oJosocoH)) Iqroctqs enHemoH
^rocrss

IL

Z'rN t lnwnlo/l

Pnc.25. CoorHoruenne HaeepuJt4i no Bbtcore HocoBoro (roprasoHranu)
(eeprnranu).
oco6utx $opttrt
3
HaBep[IJl4n
cxeMat[.{ecxne,
(pacur,r$poeKa HoMepoB crr,r. - Ta6n. 3). Crpenru - HanpaBneHHocrb pa3Bl1rl4r.
Ha Bbtcory ronoBHoro noKa3arefle

1

peanuctvl ecKhe, 2

Ho .rro [prlHuunuzunno. Bo-nepBbrx, B o6onx cnyquux 3JIJII{[coBl4AHbIe rpynrlnpoBKll [o-ilpexHeMy
rpyra, r.e. o6Hapy)Kr{Baror eAHHoe [oJre, eALIHoe tApo. B nepnou cryqae 3oHa

B3auMHo flepeKpbrBarorApyr

B3auMHofo [epeKpbrBaHvte 3HasvrerruHee (pnc. 24), yo BTopoM oHo MeHee 3Har{ureJlbHo, Ho oHo rlpt4cyrcrByBalr(HbrM o6cro.flremcrBoM flBrsercs ro, tITo e o6onx anyqanx 3nJII{[coBuAHbIe rpynnripoBKn rro HarpaBJreHHocrn oceft rarc 6sr egaIavHo pacxoAqrcs azroo6pasuo, 6u$ypuupy{ or o6Irlero a4pa
r4lru B3avtMHoro HzuroxeHr4r K BepxHefi - npanofi neprarfeprau Koppentq[oHHoro rIoJIt.
Baxuocrl orMeqeHHbrx o6croqrerbcrB 3aKJrroqaercq B ToM, rrro nMeHHo Ha ypoBHe KoppentIIHI{ clequQuvecnnx pa3rur{HTenbHbrx MerpI,IqecKI{x noKasarerefi cxeMarl4r{ecKne L{ pezrnucrur{ecKne HaBepuut HafnrAHee Bcefo nporBJlqroTcg KaK ABe pa3Jrr4qHble pa3HoBt4AHOCTV, pA3BABaIOilIUeCt, OAHaKO, q3 eAI'IHOTO qA-

er (przc. 25). BropuM

pa-ocHoBbr B pa3Hbrx HanpaBneHH.sx H orHoc[TeJrbHo oAHoBpeMeHHo. flpuuent, ylqvrbrBafl B3a]IMopac[ono)KeHHocrb rpy[n u ux luueitnyro opveHTarluro, o[peAeneHHo MoxHo yrBepx,qarb, tITo Idx o6rqee sApoocHoBa HaxoAVTc.s B froJre B3auMoHzL[o)KeHI,rq fpylln, B 3oHe oTHOCuTeJIbHO M€UrOpZI3MepHbIX nanepruzfi u e
Aalunefiuelr 3BonroqraoHupyer B cropoHy yBenvrv,enns pa3MepHbIX nonasarelefi.
Kar a [pe)Kle, r,r B 3Trax AByx cnyqarx o6paulaer ga ce6g BH]tMaHI4e ucruIroquTeJlbHoe IIoJIo)KeHHe Ha
KoppeJrrr-lnoHHblx rroJrrx uaaeputi nz lauutrosrua (Nr 23),LIrpeur (J\b 24) 14 B MeHbrtefi creneuu - us KoAaqeKa (J\b 25), Koropr,re, c yqeroM r,rx naopSo,'roruqecKor-o cnoeo6pa:uf,, orMeqeHHoro paHee, onpeAeneHHo
AoJrxHbr 6uru ucrclroqeHbr rr3 paccMarpuBaeuofi Kareropur4 HaxoAoK.
I4rarc, no4neAeM [peABapr4TenbHbre ATorH. Koppelxqur v aHaJwa-vlHTepnperaunq ocHoBHbIX 3aKoHo-

uepHocrefi fiporBneHuf, 6agostrx MerpuqecKrix rroKa3areJrefi cxelraruqHblx n peiulucrt4qHblx HaBepIIII4fr, xaK
a6conroruo aBToHoMHbrx napaMerpoB, rro3BoJrqror cQopuylupoBarb cneAylotuae rlpnHulrtrvanbHble BIIBoAbI.
1. Hecnrorps Ha crvtJrvrcrur{ecKrle pa3rvqul, cxeMaruqecKue A peaJwIcrl4qecKlae HaBepIxHt n QyurcqnoHILIIbHO-TI,InOJIOTHT{eCKOM OTHOIIeHHLI OAHOpOAOBaq, rOMOteHHaq Kareropull, oI.vIH Tr4ll, npe4craeleunHfr
pa3HbrMrr rroATHnaMu:

2. Ouu o6HapyNrararor eAHHoe rApo, eAr,rHoe r.{cxoAHoe 3BeHo, cocraBrtq caMocro.lreJlbHble Mop+onof Hqec KI{e v IV cT t4IracTaq ecK He n}jHwt pa3BATVA ;
3. O6e pa3HoBnAHocrn, orrroqKoBaBrrlllcb or eAHHoro s,4.pa, B 4alrHefiureM pa3BllBalorct caMocroqTeirbHo, oAHoBpeMeHHo Ir B pa3nvr{Hblx cTtrJIt4cTI,IqecKHX HanpaBreHuqx;
4. Haptay c paHee o6HapyxeuHoft eAunoii HarrpaBneHHocrbro rraop$olornqecKofo pa3Br'tvs cxeMarvr{ecKlz'x vt pe€uLlcrr,rqecKhx HaBepruufi (or [peAenbHo npocroro, o6o6rleHHoro, K ycJro)KHeHHoMy, Aerzrn]r3upo-

'soreudeJuhr xlqwe?sqdruhlcced r.{udoJeJ?) err roretr€rrrqs oHHeffefoduo rurrere€exou
r'ruxcer'r.rdrert oII 14 htl4xcehr4Jclilrfirc-oJoroQdom ou u 'qcorer,ewro ex,{ uex 'etsdorox '(xer,u[oy 'snefuy4 'ulaorl4uef)
xetrr{rger xlrre s ruHeHoilr€x orqHHOarJHrVa

wdo$ xngoco <rumdeaes) oumolrraprcYadu 'uxhoJ ndr lsHer,orrxJr.r

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r

'sorHer lor r xtsr{eemed oHsueJeaoVerc
-orr oJodrc ovcruo)IceH reeho{rxs H ornduHehc fltour,rve ox rilg yey rcrof€r4maed ?d^Velodu ure uwe3
'LlelfeJ?gevol xuxcauudren ruHetreson nrcoHder roHoxet erqwe?Vo{ugeH oHilre,,(tlrrr oHHes
-rcVedcouen uH (xlsHHesodureddoxc) xrlHneceHrooc 'src4osc xlsHcrp,{rcyorHo) vuLr 'A xr.rxcehuJcarurc
-oloroQdolt - xl<IHHearcehs) xrqHv I4trv xel- e;hrrzHe ?HoJrr[o[ oroneedgoeosc esJcehey s qrnx,{ffc r{V,(g
hremgeHqlrBv q ercdoro\ '.(VZ-ZZ 'cud) uwrnlredrcortllru vwrqHrcearfl err,,( rcrue,{squoucos orore rlr['
nnlrelrdoQur4 cpH gerno{fcederHr 4entr
'

-rreddox 4oxcennQedr qorcodu rclrur'used:o rqlr sceVo'urcoHVrlrreH noHqrewuc)€w ruHohoucogo xrretr
a 'oxenVg 'etvvere eYorenr oJo)cehrrrclrr?rc-oH<rrpwdoQ xulrendu xrsHsud s 'fwoH€d-ol uHeffsroa[n,(co
iruirg rexow 4ercondewoHo>ter ces xutnorfcederun enuqdxced u uu\rctu$udes 'qcoruaewro ex.( xey
'deuedex 4ruru>rdeaoduoes - 4rsr,ftrxwur re?J
-edgo arcsreretuxoV er lerczc oJh 'reeheHto oJe V 'xrr-{Hexedrss xH lroHqre,{rcxoJHo) a rr
"loxcehntrcr4rIkr:rc
-oronoQdow s u 'nrovcehvdrew s u :eueuderurr oJo)conuduuwe rHneusrodu erqnrconrn,(c
ecs BH rcrerH
-edrcodnced u dsrxedux Unlngo e'(4uxcenudrelt) FoHrcoxcotruoHVo - 4uHuodorcoHVo eH rncoH qrcoudelr
-oHo>tuc pnec orh 'qruheHoo reVfg Ferere€e)ou eraHetreilsoc eoneeYuxo ore 'r,,rrer o eJcer rs o11 'zrcondew
-oHo)?€ erirHrcearu exf sruYdesrtrolr oHyffoV 'rqHodolc KoHVo c '4uIueEner wrrJer?te)on lttsHmd ou xIsH
-nen,,ftrot elrHetsBuaoc 'eeur(nc no)er s, 14'qeue:;et?xou xnxceaudrelt xrqHrcestu enerctzc s xuHVercol euH
-eVesoil qredrowc,(Yedu lrexon eeuedeg rstrN 'esJcl4orlc H ?rlrcehev fcoduog .,(wossuV eulnorfarcresJooc oH
-reayetr? suffeveduo osrxaddoy u cod[os cuu 4Hlnorfcedeuru qoHu vfivr ror seaodur,firdoQc oHqffagedu 'or
'oxdeg eHeffetreduo srcoHdelloHoy?f, ?r€ otn 'ungoucK vtdu u 'qrcogdsnoHovug yelal'lawesorc unr<rHl4
'rnHeYegou xli qrcoHxol Itoa qreVugVedu z rsrHer rer€ ontrlorrrsercoc BH 'q.l-cosdenosoreg
,{re 'ee qJusrqVurycced 'sresodureYot,t 'e'l 'qlesodu|rfveY Jerrorrf,orr orh 'l{er oH}€s egec ou ontuc 'sodl,am
-udeu xrsHHeaoduszreHeodn eu ,{lnrosYo ou qm}rrr xrqnseretredrro ex?V src.(x 'EercoHdewoHoxut gJerflgo
eHH?Hr og 'ruhxfVHn or€ - xrqHH€V xuxcennduuwe aunetngogo 'xrqHHuV xrzvcenudrew - xvvcewrdullte
nrcoHu,{yosoc uutteredlldernz r,r rr,rHefflgogo arerqrr(eed s rqHoffsrrqa I4rcoHdewoHovee weH elqHrcesstr4
'rHer row
Hr4Yo erne rcreesr4druwcodu onseuetseduo ed,{venodu pore a 'lter fExe141
ArsHsuevtrvrnsndu
' arcosdeltonov?o'nr€drelreden lu.r.r{dE ou
HoHHelrsrr<a'ax,,( 4oH
-Jcesrpl nn[uxuQHdes osrcYedc eoH)Kor^rsos oHHearcHHVe - irrce srcgoac xIsHsrefucveJHov v xl<IHHesrceh
-e>t el{Hehelfazdu uplHemoHro wo>tcehvVoren g fworeou oHHer\rH 14 'urcoHdel IoHo)€€ alsHVoxc 'unIlsatrHer
ersH[oxc rruxfdeHgo oH)croV orqrcoHx(eg€hea c Hlttssdeu c xr4HVelrcou el4HemoHrooc 'oHqueresoYerrC
'aot,?Aderew xaxcenudulw€ xrqHvoxcv ex xer gJc4osc xrsHsrre^rcverHo) r4Itv 'kr xlqHHegrcohuv - xlqHrc
-oHIn,(c xrqHn xr{JoHr r H hrrrreretg)olr wl4re eusrcresrooc eoHlfou aeHew vfiu eexog ro{uJuffouVedu otqrcoln
-rlvoxgoeH c urcosdeltoHoxec wedrenedefl wnxcer,udren ou erirHHereVeduo 'udoudne orh 'I tror a oue['
'uI I?SJC4O8C U ItnPArCeh?)
rznrrsHqre,(JsyorHox v[14 'a Hwl{)cehl{rcHur{rc-oJorJoodow 'e'LruvHe I^Iore s I4I IIqHHugo€iI[oucH eH 'uI uqHI,I
oHsnslrunrrHudu c (4ererueexou xvycenudren - eer,firc wem?H a 'e'r) sJc4oac 4ercoudeltoHovet xIiIHHer
-grlqs 6uV xrqHHzao0quolcH ex,{ LtuHemoHrooc eH ucstuodrc oH><troY uHo 'Hr.,fu orouuedgcn ro on}tcnaut
-eu 'oxeHtrg '4ercoudelroHo>t€t emrqs xlqHHeher rro rznnexuQndes vrcoH)Kor{toa elqHtsd ror,{arcetn,{3
'FanHevHer-HarcoudemoHoy?r xrqHHersrrqa fyuredyHov qrrqdvced oHs{rerev rclteedercou cBhIec V

uvnv\van3 cvrD{

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')lovox€H xrqnees

-zdrencced ruHemoHrooc eolcehr,rroronodx u eo)rcehurener-oHd,{rvfdrc (y7 'cud) ewexc goHHoun?v
-uQzccurx s erqHHerra?rcredu nxcer'nQedJ n erqHHeusrrqs eeHed roruYxcdearEou orsrcoHlJou n oH<IUer
-Borcohr?c oH 'rer,edogurodu eH o)quor eu 'xrucoudonoHo)Bs 'xruDHeYner xlsHsoHco xu a 4Hmdeaeu
xnycehnrcnrceed u xuycehur?rrexc 4erer?t€>tott xzyceundrem xl<Iso€Bg xedlsren KnHurehoc xI<IHha[
-teduw\tuteddox eccerlodu s erqHHersrrqs'eHaodr( woHHelngogo Ilow?c eH elqrrcs'ruoeedgo IILIveJ
'

sodertsgd xtc HHeHrr(dxX

eerrog nrumdeaeH x gumdeaen xlqndensedol,.ew ro - yur:ua;tod xu orulsaVHor gercoHYtzsoHeed xl4re xl4ogo
ruV orr(HHesJct4ogc 'or,ftngo /fuVo emo qrusrrqs unroatou gelfeJem)oil xuvcenudrert tl4reHe '(,ft,loHuea
e 'tN

EL

'l lnwnl0l

74

1. Ooplry,rnpoBKa Bo[poca - onpeAeJ'reHr,re lrcKoMoro. ZcxoAsofi noclurnofi sAecr Mo)Ker rrocnyxr,rrb
,rrc6oe u3 yrBeplr(Aeuwit - KaK BepHoe, TaK A orua6oqHoe, n6o o6rerrr4BHocrb Merpur{ecKux noragareleft c
Heu:6exsocrblo npeAnoJrafael B ilepBoM cny{ae no:nrr4sHrrft, a Bo BTopoM - orpuqare,'rlnrtil orBerbl.
2. OnpegeneHue Kaqecrs fi csoficre, aAeKBarHo coorBercrByroruhx peueHr,rlo KoHKperHo cQoprvrynnpo-

llpoule

A)vrrv KoHTeKcryzrnrHrrx csoficrBax, Hau6o,ree [o,'rHo coAep)Kaqux e ce6e raHQoprraaqulo, ueo6xop,rrMyro Ane orBera Ha trocraBJleHHbre Bottpoclt
Flalo, paccMarpuBaeMafl Kareropu.fl MarepaanoB xapaKTepr3yercq BecbMa ofpaHuqeHHbrM crurcKoM qro
rr,ropSo,roruqecKltx, ttro KoHTeKcryztrlbHtIX ceoficrs. Ho, c 4pyrofi cropousl, Mo)Ker 6ttrs uneuHo nogroMy
oHH, 3TH KaqecrBa u ceofrctna, KaK yBIIAI,IM Aaree, MHofo3HaqHst, no,ruuuQopMarl4BHbr r4 3aqacryrc cnoco6BaHHoro Borrpoca.

foBop.rr, peqb LrAer o vopQo,toraqecKlrx

Hbt (oTBeThTb) oAHoBpeMeHHo Ha pa3Hble Borrpocbr.

3. .{e4yxqrzfl urv rrpolt1e - MoAen]rpoBa*ue Bo3Mo)KHoro noBeAeHUr orceneKT]rpoBaHHbrx r(aqecrB
cnofrcrs B nore Br43yzulbHo ua6rioAaenrbrx rro MerpuqecKnM rrapaMerpaM 3aKoHoMepHocrefr.

r,I

4. CoorueceHr{e, BKrrroqeuue oro6paHHbrx Kar{ecrB H ceoficre B (fror'I}IfoH) H3BecrHbtx 3aKoHoMepHocrefi vt oueHKa flonyqeHHbrx - 3pr4Mo Ha6ruoAaenrrx n rpa$raqecKoM r4cno;rHeHzrr pe3ynbraroB. 3Aecr sosMo)KHbl ABe cnryarlnu. -floluoe r4Jr4, cKa)KeM, qacruqHoe (ne 6yaeu sa6rtsarr o6 orpaHnueHHocrl,I - c,'ra6ofi

perrpe3eHTaraBHocrr{ ncroqHzKoBe4ueorcofi 6a:rr) coena4eHne BBeAeHHbrx B Harrr noJrr4roH KaqecrB It
ceoficre B ocHoBHbrx reHAeHIILIsx rlo orHorxeHuro K MerpHr{ecKprM. Bropar cl4Tyar\us. - He coBnaAeHae reHAeHrlll4. A sro osHa.raer, qro ru6o upoqeAypa BbrilonHeHa HeKoppeKTHo, lu6o ucxogHoe yrBep)KAeuue 6utro
HeBepHblM x Hy)KAaerctr B KoppeKTupoBKe. Kax 6ur ro Hu 6rrro,He3aBnevvto or Bo3Mo)Ksofi rcoueqHofi caTya\w4 Bcr 3Ta lpoqeAypa Ha Bcex ypoBHrx cBoero [poxoxAeHr4fl vr, B oco6euHocrn Ha 3Tarle oqeHxra QuHa-rrbHbrx pe3ynr,TaroB, HeMuHyeMo npeAfionafaer HeoAHorcparuufi Bo3Bpar K I4cxoAHoMy MarepnaJry, a rropofi - r.{ Bbrrror'rHeHHe ps.Ia AorroJrHr{TeJrbHbrx aHilrruTr4r{ecKax onepaquft, Koropbre 3apaHee rpyAHo [peAycMorperb. Z ero ecerAa cneAyer yqurbrBarb s 6lrtrs K 3ToMy foroBbrM.
ltt uauarra flpoBepr.rM xpoHono]-flqecKyro HarrpaBreHHocrb pa3BrlTur HaBepuuft. Cnegyt [posBneHLIIo
ruerpnqecKnx rroKa3areJrefi, t,t cxeMar]rqecKue A peuil4crwr{ecKze HaBeprxpr.f, pa3BnBarorcs napaflnenbHo tlo
ep.uvoit 3aKoHoMepHocrr4 or orHocureJ'rr,Ho M€urbrx Qopru n yKpyrrHeHHbrrvr. Ha Bcex pncyHKax 3Ta HarIpaBJTeHHOCTb OTptDKeHa OCeBbTMH CTpenKaMH COOTBeTCTByIOUIAX rpynnr4poBoK, llAyuIHX oT JIeBofO, HUXHefo
yfna KoppenrIlHoHHblx nolefi, rc aepxHe[, npaeofi nepuQepuu.
flocro,rsry peqb uAer o BpeMeHHoM [apaMerpe, To npoBepry:rofi 3aKoHoMepHocrz, ecrecrBeHHo, sJIeAyer ocyqecrBuTb Ha 6ase xpoHonofnr{ecKnx AaHHbrx. llpuvenr, Arq 6orsflefi Har,r.sAFrocra AocraroqHo HcfroJrb3oBarb AaHHbre o naMqrHzKax, 3aHr{Malorqzx rcpailue orAzrleHHbre Apyf or Apyfa xpoHonorl4tlecKl{e not3ur]]jr4, T.e. ApeBHeHIrlte - no3AHeltmve.
Mu pacnoraraeM AaHHbrMr,r o qerbrpex 6eccnopuo ApesHeftruax KoMrrneKcax, coAepxal{I4x LI}ITepecyrcque Hac HaBepttrt,t.r. Bce oHr,r cBr3aHbr c XsarrrrFrcxofi rcylrrypofi, 4rx xoropofi HbIHe ]r3Becrua 6oruttra-fl
ceput a6cotrorHbrx 4ar. Barxuo, r{To cpeAu 3TVX HaBepruuit umetorcs H cxeMarvqecKl4e (Xnalstttcr 1, XsaJ.rbrHcK 2a, X,rorxoeo 1) rz I4aH peanvcruqecrcail (X,louxono 2) erserrlrlapu. C apyrofi cropoHbr, uosAHefirtuMu rro orHolxeHuro rc Xeansrucrcofi KyJrbrype Bbrcryuaror, BHe coMHeHVfl, Bce KypraHHbre LIn14 KypraHHoxo,'IMoBbre norpe6eHra-r co cKlrrrerpaMu, orHochMbre HbrHe 6oruusucrBoM cfleq]tan]icroB rc HonoAantzroecxoil rpylne. Cpe4z Hr4x, K cL{acrbro, TaKXe flMercTct r{ KoMrrJreKcbl 14 c pezlJlr,rcrnr{ecKuMn (Kacnu.ra, Cyeopono, Kor<6eper), 14 KoMnJreKcbr co cxeMaruqecKr,rMr4 (lxaHrpa, lllrqxoecrcofi u nosAueftruuuz - Apxapa)
HaBeplxl4Mr4. K nocre4urlM, BrorHe Nro)KHo orHecrr4 a <Kyil6unescKr4fi) 3K3eMnJrtp, TaKxe, [o-BI'tAHMoMy,

nit az p aspyn eHHo f o KypraHHo ro norpe6euu.u.
Ecrs Aevoscrpr4pyeMa.s MerpvqecKuMr4 rroKa3arerflMla 3aKoHoMepHocrb B HanpaBreHHocru Haaepruafi
BepHa, To coorHeceHHble c xpoHonofltqecKzMp{ AaHHLIMH Apeeuefiuue KoMfIJIeKcbr c HaBepuLItMu AoJI)KH;I
3aHqrb B coorBererByrourLtx rpyrrrrupoBKax Ha Haurax pncyHKax rcpafiuee HrDKHee (reaoe) noJroxeHne, a
np o l4cxoAnrl

ro:4nefrurze

- rpaftuee BepxHee (npanoe) iloJto)KeHue
O6parrzlrca K Hnnrccrpaqurlr (pzc. 26-29), coAep)KaulnM Koppenqur4lo rapHblx (paccruorpeHHux nuture)
Merpar{ecKHX noKa3arer'refi c oroeopeHHbrMr4 xpoHonorr{qecKuMr,r fiapaMerpaMu. 9ro o6uapy>r<ueaercq? Karc
u cneAoBano o)KuAarb, e KDKrofi t43 rroAfpyln Hanepuruft sau6oree paHHr.re xpoHonornqecKne KoMrrrreKcb!
Xna,ruucttofi r<y,rlryprr, coAep)Karlpre HaBep[r4fl, gaHglrvt KpafiHae JreBbre - Hr{)r(HVe fio3Lrr\trkr, a nosAHefi[He
KypraHHble KoMrlneKcbr - xpafiuue rpaBble, BepxH[e [o3HIrHLI. CreAoeareJrbHo, BbrtBJIeHHag tto MerpnqecKHM rloKa3arer.f,M HanpaBneHHocrb pa3Bnrrzr HaBepuufi nepua, u6o oua AeficrenrerbHo orpoKaer co6oro
xpo H on otpt qecKyro 3 B or'rlollnro srux u aaep ruufr .
t To
ecru, peql, hAer o roM xe fipaeMe, qro 14 npr{ nepefpy[flrrpoBKe KoMnJreKcoB Ha rrpeaMer
ptAoqeHHocrr.r npn o6pa6orxe Qopn,ta,rrHo-crarucrltrtecKr4 M 14 MeroAaM14

LIX

Tl,IroJ]ofrFtecxofi yno-

xI'I rBglqd)IJo'tr{Hvcehl-Irel4texc WlqHqrruJco ) o{nHemoHJo oil (gI '/I
rsdrrultes)e euycHrirrusx erirHvox
"N)
-Jn - evmvensodV xrer'firc xecs og 'ur,rarer eulnor,(Verc ovHur il4Hs Bgoc ?H roretnedgo 'wHre c A€rsc g

(euser-^""oo"o,fo'lffi :ft','i:3ff :i,X'i;,'J,X'"Hl".q"r,""n,renexc-r.
-e
- fosocoH fuoctqe eH
'erm4auUeou q'ehmuaHsadU
:t4nuua.l.eee)ou trnl4xcehhlouotodx c (suelrrdee

'cuel-HoetadoJ

-

r4rceh 4osehuu ennuV) eodrer{edeu xuycer,rdren auHemoHroo C 'LZ

'cud

f*t

3-Z- |
c-I-o
'(lt o11) euvcehurcflreedu (OZ ea)cehrzrur^rexc oHHesrcgoc eH (7'1 oaoxuory) rydfrrrf>r
"trf)
4or€ xeu?J€ xunVeou eH or-eYJ sco{,(no{rIrgregrea0?d 'orudec or,(ycennlorouuJ o{cs rotesrqdyro n oHHes
-Jcgoc (St
)cHIqII"sX I,t (/I
vcHr<rl?rrx uumdeseH oHHenz xan uradc or''xrsdora og'4odfurrfx
"N) Z
"iV) I
ItoxcHI<IIrEaX c oHHeI Ifi qrusrirersc re,,(Veuc 4umdeauu azgeY>xoxczodu oltec ot,r, 'xrssdeu-og 'soYostsa xrqH
-xee Vrd etfle rcre?aumedueH oIqJcoI IltEoxgoeH c glrHemoHrooc ex xvr;e aH - oHqllerueexou ott 'og
'ct utaeed qrcoHxeueedueH

-

eluadrc-scg

'(0 'uget 'rrrc
eodenou
eleod$rmced) enrcertnrcrueed - Z'ev\cel'vrenaxc - L
'eumf
q'ermIeHsedV - e :Iy\t6uareeerou un]t)oeh[Jouolrodx c
eH?eou
(suerurdee - urceh 4oeehru {snuV es
eHruV BeHcuer{u3)eur) eodreuredeu xrycar'rdrey\t euHemoHl.ooC 'gZ 'cl4d

'quelHoe[doJ

-

z tN t lnwnlol

Revista Arheolosicd Serie noud

16

psA, B A€rJrbHefirxeM ronyaralor rrprMonnHefiHoe pa3Bhrne (puc.26; 21; 28 JreNs 17, 18,20). Pealncrzqecrcue
HaBeplIHt TaoKe AeMoHcTpI4pytoT [IptMonHHefiHoe pa3BuTlae, HO CaM MOMeHT IlepeXOAa oT llcxoAHofo 3BeHa
(Xb 17,18) K co6crBeHHo peurJ'rucrqecKnM - BecbMa cxeMarr,r3npoBaHHblM (N114), nepBoHar{arbHo KaK 6yaro
6ur ceqgaH c HeKoropbrMr4 MoAr4OlrKarIr4qMH pa3MepoB B cropoHy I4x yMeHbueHLrfl(puc.26;27;28, Is l4).

,{auurte

3TI4 BecbMa

[oKa3arerrbHbt, Ho floKa qro oHpt flpocne)KeHbl JIHII]b tIo eAI4HutIHoMy cnyqaro.

- 1-C
: -2 -d
o

b

a

6
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lo15
rsi-/

l0

crn

Puc.28. CooraoLueHue MerpilqecKux napaMerpoe (4nrHa nnqeeota qacrh

- ropl43oHranb
noKa3aTenqMu:
BeprhKanb)
c
xpoHonorhqecK4Mt4
a -4peeHetiure, b - nos4HeiLuue.
1 - cxeNaaru,{ecwe. 2 - peanhcrhqecKile
(pacuraSpoeKa HoMepoB crrl. - Ta6n. 3). Crpenru - HanpaBneHHocrb pa3BHrtle.
Ha Bbtcory ronoBHol4

A cefiqac [poBepuM Apyfoe o6cro.srentcreo. Karc xopottro lr3BecrHo, B cBoeM pacnpocrpaHeHl{I4 I'I tro
cTunHcTpIqecKUM pa3HoBr4AHOCTf,M lr fro qI{CneHHOMy COOTHOTTTeHUTO HaBepIXr4.tI OnpeAeneHHo pacrlaAaloTcg
Ha ABe KpyrrHble oaMocToqTeJrbHbre reppr4Topr{anbHbre 3oHbr, pa3AeneHHble ceBepHblu flpnaaoeueu n flptzqepHoMopbeM, fAe 3Ta HaxoAKH rroJrHocrbro orcyrcrByror. OAga H3 3Trrx 3oH - BocroqHaq, Blolloqaer Aocra-

u Huxuero llosorxr.s a Cenepnoro flpe4ranrca3bfl, o6uel.uts,s,
13 cxeN,raru.{ecKprx tr Bcefo nHrrrb rpll pealprcrur{ecKnx HaBeprxua..{pyryro,3arIaAHyIo 3olry, flpeAcraBrqlor
HaxoAKlr u3 Kapnaro-flo4yHansr u EarKaH, rAe 3aperr4crplzpoBaHo l1 pea,rncrrzqecKux 14 8 cxeMarnqecKnx
ranepurufi. llpuven, B 3ToM cJtyqae, ecnu cxeMarrzqecKue HaBepnvs fipt{xoAtrat fJIaBHblM o6pa3oM Ha apean Kynbrypbr Kynyreut A - Apzyurg-Tpulo,re Bl (cenrs a: nocsltu). To pe€Inucrt4qecKue coorHoctrc.fl [perzMyrrlecrBeHHo c apeai'raMr.r Kynbryp fyuenr,Huqa-KapaHoeo VI u Kpnno4ol-Cs,rryua (ceur H3 oAHHHaAuaTV pearvarr4rrHbrx Ir Hn oAHofo cxeuarauHoro).
roqHo pa36pocaHHble HaxoAKr{

H3 CpeAHefo

Karc useecrHo, uMeHHo r{HcJIeHHoe coorHolrreHae rlocJry)r(Hno Iz eule rtpoAoJtll<aer c,rry)KtlTb frIaBHbIM apryMeHToM, c oAttoil cropoHbl, AJrr BbrABrrxeHr4.rr zurbrepHarnBHbrx rorreK 3peuvfl. B Bonpoce npoucxo)I(AeHruI
qro cxeMarr,rqecKnx, r{To peaJrlrcrulrecKr4x uaeepurufi (eocror-sanaA). A c 4pyroir - Anfl AonyqeHnf, Bo3MoxHofo caMocrotreJlbHoto Bo3HI{KHoBeH}t.g orr4x cKr4[erpoB u e :anaguofi, I4 B BocroqHoh goFlax

(Govedarica, Kaiser 1996; Burt[nescu, Turcanu 1997; MaHsypa 2000 n ap.).

flponeprzu [ocreAHee

crosreJrbHoe Bo3HHKHoBeHHe

Ma

AorryueHufi. OAHoepeMeHHoe I4JrI{ pa3HoBpeMeHHoe, Ho caMou pa3BVTve cxeMarlrqeclKklx vl, Lrnr4 peanl'/rcrl4qecKfix uanepuafr B pa3HbIX Becb-

r43 Bo3Mo)KHbrx

xe

B pa3Ho_KynbTypHblx KOHTeKCTaX, HeMHHyeMO IIpeA[Onat4, Lrrvt B vrx fipottopuuqx. CreAoeareJlbHo, ecJl]l
KynbrypHo-3oH€urbHbre lapaMeTpbl c MeTpHqecKuMI4 IoKa3aTeIqMU, TO

BecbMa oTAzlrreHHbrx pefr{oHax, Aa K ToMy

raer 6olee nJru MeHee 3aMerHble pa3nvqvg. B r4x pa3Mepax,'
cooTHecTr4 3Trj rrpocTpaHcTBeHHbre

-

I Bcno,rasar,r no sroMy rroBoAy rrpr.rBeaeHHylo Bbl[e
urlTary ra: pa6o'mr
Hbtx KaHoHax)) cxeMarhqecKilx HaBeDLuuil.

<D.

BypraHecry n C. I{yprany o qro66r pa3nilet4flx B (pa3Mep-

-r(eed 'org '4nmdeaeu (xuxcenzrcurceed H xa)cohltrur{exc u) xlsHrrerco xecs rIrv LtnrqHvoxca ezmszxfrrc
-ou'rtv'rdoQ elsHHerrgogo oHcuevedu'etqlcodu
euused
eouogr4eH
org'lrdo$
xtquEoxcr.r rumdeaull .1
'rsmr(d'I elsFraoffc,{ edtsJ,et' uH ol,Dlcehprrcwreed v ekDtcehrler\]oxc 14 ramdegeH
ecs h&ruevre d,emtrem^ity
-

-

'wrqsdaltsudosnfdy y xrqrew ro r.{r{HemoHro rlro)Jenadrew
a e 'nendoQ wIqHHeH)KoIrc,( v xtqsnetnoduf xrqrcodn ro rcJo{e€nsc€d rqg orv,{g yey rumdeseH 'w€)tuHtndrl
r,{uxcehl,IJotroQdow rKVeuc 'qcorghel lro exf xev 'ogS4 'tnyvaeHor rtt4 l{rcHdeweed xu ahmdeg€H arcoH<r[eg
-e4des foaolfl4rc ol4arcregJooc ote 'evdegodu rzxorVou eodoroy 'ogrcqfferroJcgo eorr>("a 'aeu[erco11
'

rr>KUoaou aod,,{rc[r{y

4olcHIqIrBgX c fqH?0rgc 'KL]HoHI.{oc eHa 'xlqdotov a)oJcn '4umdeaeH xzr€ uefferv)oH ],1 r4eIteJjeYaoc nehc
-Hellc)e nuu weulrcdJul I xlqHHegttqs 'x?cce[odu - xBgJcqfferrorcgo xl4ycehzdorcu 'xlqHqreuloo xr<Igoco or
-xfi)I€) s qrexcl4 re,{Verc 4umdeaeH xHJ€ HHHeHedrcoduced woHs|Jur4dorudder a4unnuted euHeHcrirgo oJh
're,,(Varc uVo{cro excx"J 'lnexenendn (,{noudfurrfx) finro.r,{dE ou a (,{r,ronsrerzdorudder) .{wosEo ou rd rqH
-nVe uuo'oHqreresoYelrJ 'bcreehorlrxca xerc>teJHo>t xtqHdr(rsr,(y xrsHged g xuHot xlsHsed a 4amdeaen ruu
-egoHvHHtos oJoHqfferrorcon€c nrcoH)r{o^€oq o ezHefflr{uov - oHVo Jeuh?Hto ore V ')oYoxeH xrsHdewged
-oHu,{dv uVedc u xtcndewgedorelt zYedc a ror'{grcr,(czdu zxVox?H elqHtrBrr€€ u etfrHhorcos H :€HEo xrer,,(rc
xecs oB rufIHeVHeJ retngo V 'HI4nHeYHaJ KeIngo eHaodr( €H qrTrnrr ctnY(c waxow rqn aorezderult zxdogrsa
llrcoHqlforl4haHteH ef,-€rl orh 'sleatrgee re,,(Verc eH oH 'socuuffre xutnorr(arcrearooc hrcuh 4oHqredruatt
uttu xttu4udeQudel engzdx s - n?xVox€H wlqHhorcos ) o{r.rHemoHro ou xrqHVetrur nasereVeduced woHHea
-Jcehlllrox s. uut uuted etsdoroveH qrI,IJe^e0 oHxon 'aoyH,{cad sr.I 4IqtDKe) s roqrevrrJs oHqfferer ruHs urce
'e>K oHheHo>t'efl '4umdegeH uufd: xnvcehlrrcnrr.rrc Bcxulro{rtreYrqs &r 4otrx{") xrsHHusomdgo 'aocllrrre
uLrHaxrrodl mecs 3H eunereYeduced eoudewoHged oHq[err4coHro ror,(dudrcHor{eV fiytrox€H elgHhorcos r.l
elcHVetr€€ '4erelut?>lou xuxcer'tzdren rrrHerer'oc elsHduu ersHs"d xfirrrorrrsercVedu 'xrur-,Krc xedrcreF, xecg

og '(€t-08 'czd) arcKoac xu)cehndran z xrqHcrcudouadder

quev

vr.rueceHJooc lNerersff,{eed

x rcnuredgg

'snrueeed qrcoHneueedueu nyuadrO (t 'u9e1 'nc eodawou ereodSrmced)
'ar4)rgehulcr4uead - Z 'eilr3ohnrey\raxc - L'ermIeHUeou - q 'eumrpaueadU- e
:ilwBUeL-eoexou 14nr4xoehulouoxodx
(sueruoendoJ
c
fuocrce eH
[oHgouo.r
ehHemoHJ_oo J' 62' ru d
ilrdae

-

r41ceh taoeocoH

eroctse) eodrawedeu xrxcer'udreyrt

lUJB

lti ' t,d;'oz,

n-?,- f

e-r-.
'fill<rHhogHIno

sruHeudu rer{Verc euseln,{uoV eoHYoxcrl 'xearcoxonlrVon - xuysodlruu.{d.r lrrtrreretp>tou ar\rnycenndralr
xIsHHeaosdgo s 4euere€?)oil xtsHqrezdorHdder-osd,{rqrr(y nznereVeduced woudeltoHaed oHqrerncoHro
ndu's'r'eeF'(uc lroHgurod[ g'a)sodu[u,(d.l erqsqrerrorcow?c oHqrrerr{coHro )u)i (arcexouwVol en fnoYx
ol) xrrrou xlqHHoLrnrreddov eH ycs;"u>K(dengo rsH)Kfotr erflHt4 uuu >tel-VvVoxuH orqHhoJcog ]t orsHYellet
-ex
LL

e

rJ^l-Tlnlanlol

78

Revista Arheolosicd. Serie noud

Meercq, HaBep[uq

r.r3 MomJlbHr,rKoB XBzrnbrHcK

1 u XBaIbrHcK 2 (puc.

19,I, lZ

I4JIH

tlo [pI4Hf,TOfi,

eAHHOfr

HyMepaur4r, NeNl 17-1 8).

Prc. 30. Corxoulexue MerprqecKrx napaMerpoB
Ha AnhHy

a

-

(uarcnnaanuHaA AnvHa

-

ropr43oHTanb

nuqeeori qacrn - eepruxanu) c reppyrropuanbHo-3oHaflbHbrM nonoxeHheM:
BocroK (Bonra-flou, flpe4xaexasue), b - 3anag (Kapnaro-flo4yxaaue).

1 - cxeuaruq ectAe, 2 - peanucrr4qecKue,
(pacLuu$poeKa HoMepoB cnit. - Ta6n. 3). Ocu-crpenKa - HanpaBfleHHocrb pa3Brrt4f,.

v rils p.sAa cxeMarr4qHbrx 14 Lnfl. ps.ra pearacrur{Hblx HaBepIxHt o6o6ilIeHpxaa
Llz
cxeMarnqecKlrx
croAa no[aAaror HaBep[rflr, nropQonorzqecKn nau6olee 6luerne K xBaQopna.
,'IbIHoKHM. 3ro n:Aelvr c rroAoBzIJIbHbIM ceqeHueM Ir rpaneHuofi noAKaHHenlopoeaunofi rloBepxHocrbro
(Buplenenrrl r.r O6slpureur 1 - puc. 19,II, 3-4, coorBercrBenno JtlsNe 4,I2). YcloBHo cloAa Mo)KHo, noBHArrMoMy, BKJrrorJHrb r{ HaBeprr}re zg Bereur (Nl 5). Hz ptga peartr.{crl{LrecKux B 3Ty rpylny flonaAalor HaI{6oree ynpouleHHble HaBepnuq ug X,ronxoso2u Apny-a (puc.20,I, l-2, uJllr coorBercrBeHHo NIJ\b 14 u 1).
2. Hau6orce y[pouleHHbre

urrx

o-1-o

|

-2-E

ab

{ _aT l -

sti

)r,

(,_,,
Pnc. 31. Coorsoureuue MerpuqecKr4x napaMerpoe (gnuua nuqeaoi qacrh - rph3oHrarb
Ha Bbrcory Hocoaoi - eeprraxanu) c reppilTop[anbHo-3oHanbHbtM nofloxeHreM:
a - Bocrox (Bonra-floH, l-lpe4raerasue), b - 3anaA (Kapnaro-flo4yuaaue).
1 - cxeMarnqecrue,2 - peanrcrilt{ecKne pacuJr4Qpoexa HoMepoB ou. - Ta6n. 3).
Ocu-crpenra - HanpaBneHHocrb pa3Burl4q.

:v\re[Hoxouou r\ilgHcueHoe
quexil.ldae fiJ.ceh

-

4oeoooH

r c (eueuoerdo: - 40ueouoJ fuoctqe eH
edeu xnycahfidren ersemoHrooC 't0 .ct4d

;t

'@

Lt,

qB

n-z* )
o-l-r
'((,'ZI'V't'
'9 oNoN oHHesrcresroolLrrrvr'11'97'cud ) coy eYXrrnug'ruemeueye6 'w,tr>teduey,ewedft!
L'tI
- xr.Drcetzreureed eyydtu V'(gI 'g'L,t- o.f{oN oHHesrcJ.es
e'(g'L't oy) araonrzrHercHo)'ct{3ey udoyJ'361 rexcaoeedeg:rnm

'oaaxa4'qJmeHoI4J-16'xedegxoy eir wrmdes?H
-Looivtur4

6-9'II'61

'cud) (sorcod)) e)r{)Br

a 4elnoilarcamVedu ,,ftrxelt ezHev{orou eonnor,{xewodil xl{rrtorewkl{e€ 'ndoQ xqntroxedel rumdeaeg
' yutnaeed
crcoHHeueeduex
ntuedr3
'(0 'u9e1 'nrc sodanoH exeodQmced)
eurcanrucuuead
Z'ev\2e.'vLenexc
'(eseeHIVol-oreude;1) Ueuet - q '(aseexeerUadl 'nofii-eluog) rotcog e
-

.6

L

:u\reuHexouou t^ilcHcueHoe-oHcuehdornddar c (suexnrdes - foHsouoJ fuocrce eH
cuerHo0r4dol - l,tr3eh 4osehru euuuu) eodrewedeu xuvcehrdran a[HemoHloo)'zt,'ay'd

.J

()I

--?N '/
t3/

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sro

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os4
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4. llpe4e:6uo ycno)KHeHHbre HaBepuus.Vs pflAa cxeMar[rIHbIX c]oAa florlaAa]or Bce HaBeplxufl ApxapuH2, <Op4xoHHKI'IA3e)' X'lonrcono l,
cr<oro o6nurca-Apxapa, [3raurap, <Kyfi6srureer, Mo.ortr"rurr, O6rtpurenr

LllrsxoscKofi(pac. 19, IIII4;IHcoorBercrBeHHol\bJ\b2,6,g,1I,13,14,20,2I)I4,Bo3Mo)KHo,PyxuHoaca(l''lb
Bce HaBeprxr4r c AorronHpIreJIbHbIMI{ OpHaMeHTanbHbIMIt MOTI4BaMI',I: c3'lrcy{a,
)Ke peanHcrHr{Hbtx

16).l4zpfiAa
5)'
Teperurr,r-Ment"d, Cyuopoeo, Cyno4ol, Kocuvva (puc.20,III, coornercrBeHHo J\bNs 10, 11, 9, 8,
tr'lop$o'lornveco6ofi,
Me)KAy
Ec,qn o6a ortan"nnorx BbIIue o6croqrerucrBa BepHbI, To, coorHeceHble
COBTIaCTb c lr3cKr{e fpynnbr, B l4x [ocJreAoBaTeJr[,HocTIr oT I,ICXOAHbIX K rlpeAenbHo ycnoxHeHHbIM' AOIX(HbI
MeHq[BocTbto I4x pa3MepHbIX IIoKa3uterreit, oT llpeAenbHo MzuIbIX K yKpynHeHHblM pa3MepaM'
Coorneceune 3Tyx ABlx noKa3arerefi npeAcraBneHo Ha Pncysxax 34-37 - Karc cle4yer I'I3 cKoppenupo)Ke cxorHylo reHAeHBaHHbrx AaHHblx, o6a orueqeHHbrx flapaMerpa o[peAeJIeHHo o6uapy>xuraror oAny u ry

ns Errple,reurru, O6ltpureHb I'I BsreHr (Taru x,Ne)\b 4, 12,5)' Hr't
(eeepx n arpaeo) cneAyror HaBeprxur npoMe)r(yrouuofi rpynnsr (Tavr x, Nl.ll'o 3,7,I5), a [ocJIeAHI4M - yc,.ro)r(HeHHbre apxapuHcKoro o6luna (NeNb 13, 14,2,9,21 n p,p'
BeHHo cxeMarr,rqecrcnx.

3ro

HaBepuru.q

:tsJ:F

Puc.34. CooruoLueHue MerpuqecKhx napaMerpoe (uaxcuvanbHatl AnIHa
Ha AnhHy

nnqeeoti qacru

-

-*?- -

ropusoHTaflb

aepruranu) c MopcponoruqecKnMil fpynnaMta:

-

a-npe4enbHoo6o6u.leHHure,b-ycnoxHeHHbre,c-nepexoAHute,d-cnoxHbleQopvst.
1 - cxeyarrq ecxue,2 - peanhcl4qecxue (pacunpoBKa HoMepoB cM. - Ta6n. 3).
Ocu-crpenra

-

HanpaBneHHocrb pa3BilTl4n.

B coBoKyrlHocru peiull4cruqgblx HaBepunh, cpegw Koropblx
(puc'
Han6olee yfipo1qeHHbre, HaBprlur M€ubrx Qopru, flpaxoAsrct ua rcpafiHee HuxHee, JleBoe flone ?JIn[rfica

O6colrorso ro xe caMoe ua6lroAaercr

r,r

34-37NsNe 1,74);BBepxrnBnpaBouMcneAylorrlpoMexyrorrHatrpyrra()'&J\!2,4,12,3,13uAp'),a:arena

fpyrna ycno)KHeHHrrx (No 1 0, 1 1,5).

qTo pezull4cTr{qecKHx
Taxpru o6pa:ona, o6rqaq orHocHTerbHaq reHAeHUvfl pa3BvITvlg qro cxeMarHqecKlrx,
uaneprurail u no uopQoJrofr4qecKlrM 14 tlo MerpvtrecKnM [oKa3areJ'IqM noJlHocrbro coBrlaAaer'
Buecre c reM, Herb3t He orMerplTb Ll psA I4cKJIIor{eHHfi. Tax, B qacrHocrtr, KaK BHAHo u: Przcyurcos 3436, npu orHocr,rre,lrbHofi uepr.rQepufiuocru 6olrrunHcrBa HaBeplxldfi apxapzHcnoro o6ruxa oAHo v3 HIdX XronKoso 1 (N 20) oKrl3anocb B fpyrne Manopa3Mepssx. K nocJIeAHI4M, orlpeAerleHHo rqforeer u oAHo L3
KaHHenrcpoBaHHblx uaeepurufi H3 rrpoMe)KyroqHoir rpyrlnbl - KoHcrasrI4HoBKa (Ils 8). lloAo5noe )Ke IIoBeopHaMeHToM, Ho
AeHae o6uapyxznaer r.r oAHo r.r3 peanHcrr4qHbrx HaBepuafi, otlrutualoqeecq ycnoxHeHHbIM

ronaAalouree B rpyrny Manopa3MepHblx - Cyno4ol (Tarr'r x<e, Its 8).
OrueqeHnsre pIcKJIIogeHI4.g Mox(Ho o6r,.flcHurs JILIITIr reM, qro z cxeMarl'IqecKue 14 peanvcrrr{ecKlze HaBeprnr4q pa3BaBaruab or npocrbrx K cnoxHbru Qopuau, a B MerpuqecKoM orHoIrIeHHLt - or Mzl.JIbIX K yKpynHeHHbrM pa3MepaM. Ho o6a gr17 rrapaMerpa a cnoefi sBonroquil vtMelrlr orHocuTeJlbHrtft xaparrep, AonycKarctlwi4 ra qacruqHoe cocyuecrBoBaHr.Ie pa3HoBapuaHTHbIX, pa3Hopa3MepHbtx oK3eM[nqpoB. I4rta'ae roBopt, He

' YArAAeed qrcoHHeusedueH
- n)uedlc
'(g 'uget - 'wc eodawoH eeod$umced) anxcar'nrcnuead - 7'ewceautenoxe - !
'rsndo$erqHxouo-p'ersrUoxedeu-c'elqHHeHxouo{-q'enuxefngogoosqueVedu-e

:nneuur{dr ilwr4roehnlouoQdon c (suelrardae
cuerHoendo.r

-

-

foHsouol fuocrce

eH

r4tceh 4oeehnu exr,tuU) eodrenedeu xryconudrew euHemoHrooC .ge .cr4d

./_iu
sro i

| 4.ie \
l.n.{^"i6s

lo?

t0.)

I

Jqa

E-g- e- r

o-o-r-o

(e user

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-

^" "";:l'##"ffi:::i5i::l#ffjo'"-]9",,""hr4re!!exc
'tsndoSercHxouc-p'arcHUoxadeu-c'ercHHeHXoucA-q'ersuuelngogooHcueUedu-e
:uneuu{dr }rhrr4}cehrJouo$don c (suexurdae - uo€o9oH fuocrqe eH
- r,r]ceh Llosahl,tu euuu?) eodrenedeu xrxcanndraul arHemoHrooC 'gt 'c]td
L

cuerHoe[dor

org

s5 8I- o

'(1 snemdlrgg) 4umdeaeH xrrycehrrJ?r rexc oHHesrcgoc rrV nusHr,zexde c <ercenrs)) (7 suemdrsgg) eznfrc ,Nodors oz e'(7 oaoxuouy) 4oltdorp 4zmdeaen xu)cehr.{rcnrceed wV 4ounHexdu goH
-netnodu,( c <rtoVrd>> rsHeVF?H (1 oaoxuory) sur,rtrc wosdeu s erHeudes o.roxcnzdexde rnmdesen Hneruedg
ort eum4eHVeou 'lsg qcorpsex 'eVr 'qsemdrsgo (rvHeuecott)) i v e\nHquLlJoI I oJovcsoxoux c Hr rexYox?H unlelo(rcc rw,(str rcreeY>r<degrYorr eHrrors osrcqfferrorcgo or€ tr4 'xrqHhuJcnteed eYud zu oJr' 'xrqHhulur rexc
eflyd eu orr' nmuvudoQ zmlsnr'orr$relrodu kruvvrrnHHed c,(trrduH qresosrcelflr(coc urroln eHroua rsdrffumeo
-ve xv elqHqravJo oH 'Hr{esurow ur^rrqHqrBruemeudo Hr rrqHHeH)r(orc,,( eeroguun c rumdeseH rcro{rffsr xrirH
'xrqHhr4rsr^rexc oHHesrcgoc fvrd s 14 r4r rum4eHYsou 'xrgHvoxcn - xr4vcHrqff?ax rsJr,rhc

-r'urcurzed fvrd s

14

e

t8

'tN I lnrunlol

82

t2^ lol
Xrl 1

rf'olx-

Puc.37. CoorHoureHue MerpuqecKrx napaMerpoe (eutcora Hocoeofr qacru BeprhKanb Ha Bbrcory ronoeHotl - roph3oHTanu) c tr,topSonortaqecKhMl4 rpynnaMh:

a-npeAenbHoo6o6u.lenuute,b-ycnoxHeHHbre,c-nepexoAHute,d-cnoxHbtecpopMbl.
1 - cxeuaruqecrue,2 - peanucn4qecrue (paculr$poBKa HoMepoB cM. - Ta6n. 3).

c

Puc. 38. OroHqarenuHaF cxeMa rttnononilA uaaepuui, rx reHerilqecKofo
A
B

-

B

-

14

xpoHonoruqecKoro coorHouJeHue.

ucxoAHure, npeAenbHo o6o6uIeHHure $oprr,rur (XaanutHcxufi eaphaHr);
ycnoxHeHHute Qoptttut (a pcay cxeMan4qecKux - BapraHT Sutpnsneu:ru,

-

prAy peanrcrrr{Hbrx

-

Bapr4aHr Xnonroeo-AphytuA);

C nepexo4Hure Qopruur (e pn4y cxeMarhqHbrx - ycnoBHo KaHHenppoBaHHbte
t4nn BapuaHT KoHcraHruxogxa-BsneHu, B pFAy peanhcrxr{Hbrx - Bap[aHr - flparraa-Oe4eneuess);
D - npe4enuHo ycnoxHeHrure Qopvur (e pnay cxeMarrvHbrx - ApxapnHcxni eapnan,
a peAy peanncrrr{Hbrx - BapuaHT Kacuvva-Cyeopoao).

'eerIBV 6cI leHdes offle Isn wlsdoro) v 'urcoHxerVenradu
4ondr{rqrr(y uru ercyerHoy o:oHd,{rsfffy
xH ro oHqlJeJHcoHro€eg 'urcosl4hHol,{€r,r novcehvrorosodx-oJolIo[vr wr r]nQedrooJ rI xtqHHo]@dro oHsHrye
-r9o '4umdeseH vI4lLrsted orosseweds-oHHesrcHedrcodu uccettodu urcoHHeus?dueu Halngo 9o reVe sr,ed orn
'oI4H?I IuHs sed etne olurnedgg 'rtanenedrcoduced u wtr:us;ed oJoHHesroHedrcodl orefiorfVercott xr4 qrcoH
-HersedueH orf,fngo - tcHodorc Ho.r,{dv c e 'KuHesoH)rprHcos oJoHxoweos xra oudorudder oilnYoxcu ,rqsodorc
{oHVo c 'srl4lfeVedxo o)JoII wexon ttw 'otogoc flxelt oIsHH?V Irre rcoHrooc 'or 'egrcHedrcodn I a
oH
'I,IHetr{
-eds oa ovq[or eu 4trHuelnedgo 'ccehodr ore eur;usted eoxrcs ,{ysroycou y 'rranex(duHgo ee oJcer^ xovox
I4oI6(e) enHe)I(ouor eoxcenuQedJoeJ kr oHrceatn oHdesorcoV wEH r reJ c ercenrs o11 'xr.rHYeou xrst^rec oV
-eH

alrr

xugHed xIiII IBc ro :ilJcoHqreresove[col orfHnelteds xvr v 4zmdeauH cun xztnor,(cederslr KHHeHentv etqHHesrc
-ehg) elrHHedrlng H I IeeH€ onnereYeduo ceh4ec rqw 'piuJouoxnr XoHHeJogzdeed rdetro.reug 'lrer ,,(Irxcetr41
'(rnmdaaen erucehl4Jcllllued ovqror rqHrces€H evr 1*ruxrug n eraeu,,(Yo11 rcr{odorc
4orfdv c ? 'r4vrmdespH xa)c
esreuduxudl eonr'orcog) rqsooVou el*rsud e)I(ev H (4orr(df c - eqseH,{Volf-oJex
-ehI4rBI Iexc nel4H€trPugoedu c

-

-dey 'trxodorc
c suvae) u erxcroaoll) rqnoe er+rsed JBuaroro(deHgo xsdorot eruresedrcodrced 'lnrzmdea
KoHtro
-uH I^lHm?H oHHesrc4oac a oHHesrcgoc oJ]^ 'r.{Is{Husdoged - Wr+rslsdedu vrA r^trritrrs€dedl]eH rArIiIHJy?uwo) <[rqg
lerxow 4Isdo,rox 'rzseHedrcoduced uuede HlrnHeueVeduo H rzHetDl<oxcuodu oJrer r eoHJrdnnoy eonnereVeduo r.e
-u.rerouYedu 'eneltoneQ oJoHd,,{lsrr{v esrcehe>t g - ur4l wlr>trcta 'eet+ted qcorBhewro ex<,( yex 'orr, 'tr{o.t a ore['
'uuruatnd noHHesrcHedrcodlI xz 9o coduos oJ€ xoYox?n uudo.reruy cen 4etnor,,(c
-ederHz elrreHe oJoHI loHors€ oH<rreJrrcoHro

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[aM.flrHHKl4 HoeoAaHunoBcKoro rur]a, KyJrbr]?a Kynyreus A - Tpznonre E 1, Kynbrypbl Kpznoqon-C3nKyuKofo
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f'lpnpogHure gouur: 1 - pxHae rpaHhqa necocrenh, ll - roxsas fpaHilqa crenu, lll - rpaHhqa nony-nycrblHvl.
Apeanur Kynbryp x xapaKTep naMFrHt4KoB: 1 - florpe6anbHbre KoMnneKcbr 14 noceneHus XeanutHcxoi xynuryput (Ha rapre
'lA-CpegHeaonxcKaq, 1B-Ceaepo-KacnrticxaqhlC-Bocro,{Ho-KacnrfrcKaerpynnbt naMtrHl4KoB); 2-florpe6aflbHble
KoMnfleKcbt h KnaAbt Hoao4aHunoBcKoro KynbrypHoro runa (Ha rapre 1A - BocroqHag, B - sanaAHac rpynnut).
Apeanur hHbtx Kynbryp (Ha xapre): 3 - <,QorvrarironcKar); 4 - Cpe4necroroBcKaf,; 5 -KyryreHu A -Tpunonue B1;
6 - 6enrpaA-An4enu - l-yrvrenbHhqa - Kapaxoeo Vl; 7 -KpraeoAon-Cenryqa. VcnoaFtute o6osHa.leHilR 4nn uaeepulutl:
3 - cxeMaril.lecKue u peanrcrrvecKhe HaBepuJt4s B 3aKpbtrbtx norpe6anuuurx KoMnneKcax; 4- taeepu.lns c noceneHnti,
5 - cnyvarir.rute HaxoAKl4. Crpenxra - HanpaBneHHocru uopQonoruqecKoro n npocrpaHcrBeHo-BpeMeHHoro pa3Bxrhfl Haaepuruft (no Pnc. 39 u KaPre 1).

Coneprueuo nHbrM:a npeAcraror rrepeA HaMH HaBepurrrs B KoHTeKcre [aM.srHHKoB Kynbryp Kapnaroflo4yuasr.a nlu Ceeepuoro fIpeAKaBKa3b.n. 3Aecr osu o6nap eHbI (<rrpocro) Ha noceJleHnsx vnu 6rv3 lelax
(Errpn:nerurb, Mofotueurt, O6r,rpuleHb 1, 2), cpegu KynbrypHblx ocrarKoB (Aplry-A, PyxuHoaca, flceueBa.fl llonsHa), ua noceleHr,rrx c pa3HoBpeMeHHbIMkt KyrbrypHbIMI4 ocrarKaMlz (Ce,rrcyua, Cyeo4o,r, KocraHraHonrca), B sBHo nepeornoxeHHoM cocro tuuu (@uruoHellrrb - rloceJleHrre Kynbrypbl Kyrcyreur A, no n lue
J.rareHcKofo epelrenu).

Eolee rofo, uMeHHo Ha apezrnbr 3THX Kyrrbryp flpnxoAtrc.s nce pa:6uure

vrv

(nopqeHHble) HaBeplxuq

c,,reAaMr4 BTopr.{qHoro r4cnonb3oBauur (BrrpneJlerrrrb, KoHcranrunoBKa, MafiKofi, flceneBar llon*ra). Croxe
BrrtrcbrBarorcs, v eILuHcrBeHHLre rroKa rpr,r HaxoAKr4, [poucxoAqulvre vB )KuJrvxI Kynbrypbr Kyxyneur A
Aa
- Tpunolre E I (Eepe:oscxa.fl fOC - or6ar, (DeAeleuresb - nepeo6oxNen) vrJrr xe H3 .f,Mbl (Xopa 4e Cyc no.noezuxa). Zusruu cJroBaMu, npr4MeHr{TenbHo K rraM.rrrHnKaM vnu apeuraM srHX Kynbryp MbI HH B oAHoM
cnyqae He HMeeM cvrya\vrv, AocroBepHo yKa3brBaroqefi sa Bo3MoxtHylo HenocpeAcrBeHHyto KynbrypHo-

co

QyuxquouanbHyro HMnnarrrapoBaHHocrb 3Tr,rx nasepruuit B MecrHylo KyJlbrypHylo cpeAy. 14sce 9To rIpHroM,
apeuurbr Bcex ornx Kyrrbryp, noMrrMo uasepruuit, o6uapy:Nuralor B ce6e, e 6oluuefi vJII4 MeHrueit 'ruc-

rrro

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-eH 'ruHe)KorouYedl qmr4u oJ6 'rsYosrqs eH efrte org 'rsaeH,(Vo11-orerde) v rgoe)sexYed11 d,{rsu,{v xuvc
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oloycer,sdorcu-oHd,(rsr,(y otowec srooHHerrs?duen or,{rngo re,{dprrxer{ed zHeuerc foHHeueVeduo s
'(7 erduy) erdeu Aonneusercoc en 4umdeaeH xnre KnHersrodu oJoHHeaJcHedrcodu srcoHHeusedues o*,
'or,rzrcXuov eHrofls ol 'rqccefiodu olosd,(nu,(x oretngo ,{vzror otfxsHalruw rgec s reuduga o{qJcoH<I[er
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-esx soyl4HJrrrBU ro ror?fnorruareseed 'eyuedrc 7 er;deSl ?H r€HHeceH€H orh 'ol4Huntntts orutnedgg
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'IA osoHPoe)I
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a rcJo{errltseed z qresouirg ro{e}(ffoVodu yumdase+ nJ€ 'xrnfl€vnQrzVolt xztnorftreucoil xuoao g'Z
'(vI'2, erduy) rqd,(rqrr{y Kore soxuHrrner 4ouufdr Ko>rcxroaenYed3 c rcro{"aliltrsc

osneraveduo aso 'lreyVoxzH I4lrgHrces€n eHIqH rXYeuc 'wer,ud11 'rqd,,(rqrfv novcHlqresX 4elJerucoH xudVes
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68

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90

Revista Arheolosicd. Serie noua

tv. o ovH Kql4oHAnbHocTl4 HABEPIIJ h'1
lV.1 . flpeABApHTEnbHbtE 3AMEqAHL'|fl
Pacrcprrrue KynbrypHofi Synxqr,ru(ufi) a crarHuQuKarnBHocrvl, T.e. ugefino-o6pa3Hblx :uaveHtlfi, 3aJloxeHHbtx B r,rHTepecyrculHx Hac KaMeHHbrx HaBepu,rflx, BHe coMHeHI,Ifl, cocTaBJ'If,eT HaLIoOJIee CnOXHyto ll
TpyAHopa3perxuMyro rzccJreAoBarenbcKyro 3aAaqy. 3ro o6r.flcHqerc.f, TeM, qro Ha ypoBHe apxeMbl Bce ocHoBHbre Bo3MoxHbre xapaKTepvcrvKvt nro6ofi coBoKyrrHocrlr KoHKperoB Hoc{T BbIBoAHofi xapaKTep. klustwu
cJroBaMH, B3.STbre B KOHTeKCTe VCXOAHbTX )"rpaqeHH6rx KynbTypHbrx r{ coqraaJlbHo-HcTopl{qecKl,Ix KaqecTB I,I
cu:efi, paccKpbrrr4e rrocneAHzx Bo3Mo)RHo nI,IIIrb rlocpeAcrBoM JrorIlqecKVX pacyxAeHufi vt, r4Irv qepe3 npl{BJrer{eHr,re cropouuefi rzHQoprr,raquu (K,'refi H I 99 l, 3 5 1, 3 5 6).
BnolHe Bo3Mo)I(Ho, r{To uMeHHo B cLrny orMeqeHHblx o6croqrerbcrB, HecMorpt Ha MHo)KecrBo LlcropraorpaQravecrux pa:pa6oroK, Borrpocbr KynbrypHofi QyHxquu(uit) nanep:ll:afi u vx cMbIcJIoBofi <Harpy:rcr>,
KaK flpaB]rno, BaerAa H Ao rrocneAHero BpeMeHa cBoAun]rcb K npocTblM KoHcTaTaIIUtM-AeKJrapaI\vsM, IrljrrreHHblx M€Lno-M€LrrbcKl,r HaAne)Karqefi apryrueHTar\vu 14, vlrv o6'sl'claeuuit Mex<'4y reM, perreHl4e npeArlonafaeMbrx 3aAaq lrMeer rrpuHrlHnnalbHoe 3HaqeHvte, Ta]K KaK or r4x paccKpbrTur np.flMblM o6pasou 3aBncHT npaBlr;rbHoe Bocflpnsrve KaK caMHX uanepruufi - B KaqecrBe KoHKperHbIX apxeoJloruqecKl,rx o6t,exron, rax u
oTpDKeHHbrx B HI'X KynbrypHblx, corlt4alrbHbrx 14 HcTopr,rqecKr{x [poqeccoB, xecTKajl rsaunroo6ycloBJleHHocrb Koroprx c seo6xoAr,rMocrbro rrpeAnoJraraer B3anMocoruracoBaHHocrb IIX Bo3Mo)KHbIX TpaKToBoK KaK
Ha ypoBHe KoHKpeTa, TaK Ha ypoBHe corlHzrnbHofo, HcTopr{qecKolo.
fus.uauuru o[peAenrrMc.s c ocHoBHbtMH HarrpaBneHr4qMn rror{cKa v flocneAoBareilbHocrb]o pemaeMblx 3aAaq.
Hcxo4ntrv, orrrpaBHbrM rryHKToM wtn - Do JI.C. Klefiny - (nepBa.[ cry[eHb 3HaqeHvA apxeMbl) flpeArlonafaer o[peAeJreHne QyHr<qzouanbHocrlr, r.e. QyuxuuoHa,rbHoro Ha3HaqeHu-s AaHHoro apreQatcra - (ero TIpHHIII-

tlro,
Qyuxt4uu>> (KneiH 1991,354). B cs.s:n c 3THM, HanoMHlo,
ec;u4 B ucropuorpaQzqecrcofi uacru pa6orbr Mbt, BcJreA 3a HarrruMa npeArxecrBeHHzKaMu, ceo6o4no olepnpoBalll
ru4zurbHoe coorBercrBrre BbrrroJrHeHmo

raxofi-ro

no orHo[reHuro K uHTepecyrorqefi Hac Kareropr4u MarepvuroB TaKI4Mrl nowtrtAr.Mvl, KaK ((cKn[erpbD) IrrII4 ((xe3Jrbr)), To, flprrcrynnB r< pa:pa6orrce nx uaccn$uKarlnu ra rrzlroJror]ru, Mbr orKa3aJrucb or gTlrx IroH.urllfi, ncnolrsyr
6olee y:xrafi rro 3HaqeHnro repMrzH - (HaBeprxnr>. IlpuereueHze 3Toro repMuHa, KaK y)Ke orMer{zulocb paHee,
onpaBAaHo reM, qro oH xapaKrepr,Byer oAHH u3 TexHlrqecKrrx lapaMerpon Qynxquu HarrrHX o6rerroe - Ltx KoHnOXa,,qrui, JIIrrub CaMOfO II.C.
cTp)'KTHBHOCTb, BnOrHe OqeBUIHITO An-S Kzl)KAOfO CneqnZUIr,rCTa, 3a

'rCruIIOqeHVeM,
Knefina (1990). Mex<ay reM KaK TepMHHbr cKr,rrrerp, )Ke3n o6o3Haqaror
corluuubHbre KareropurLt - vlnct4rHnu Bracrr{, a caMo no ce6e 3To KartecrBo etue HurKofAa Hr,rKeM He aprryeHT}rpoBaJlocb.
Bcq nocreAyroqar [porleAypa alnarvsa uarepruufi qenr4KoM 3aBVcLrr or oKoHr{areJrbHoro olpeAeneH}tc

r'tx QyHnqr.roHulnbHocrt4. Ecln anpuopn (a sra anpvopHocrr QaxruvecKr4 y)Ke 3zlno)I(eHa B caMoM Ha3BaHvpl
pa6oru) npeArrono)KuTb, qro lrHTepecyrcqlz'e Hac o6rexrsr AeficrsurerbHo npeAcraBrqlor co6ofi vIHcr4rHAA
BJracrl,r, T.e. Hocrr e ce6e 3HaKoBo-cuMBonnr{ecKyro Qynnqrzro, To coorBercrBeHHo r,I HanpaBneHHocrb nol4cKa B pacKpbrruv vrx r;'taqetuir n cMbrcJroB rronHocrbro 6yaer npeAorrpeAerrflTbcfl cnequQuroft u lorurcoft,
ceoftcreeHHofi sHarcoelrM cncreMaM. A rarcosrre, orMeruM cyry6o npeABaprrreJrbHo, rrpeArroJlaralor rIoucKlau
pacuz$poeKy, no xpafiueh Mepe, Tpex ocHoBHbrx rapaMerpoB - Syurcqufi (KnefiH 1991,355).3ra onpe4eJreHr{e no6pa:urerssoit utru HKoHZT{ecKoi Qynrqnra vrv yrHbrMV cnoBaMr4 z4euruQrararlraro o6pa:a }I(I4BorHoro, BbrceqeHHofo B HaBeprxurx. Bropoe - 3To paccKpblrae co6crgeHso 3HaKoBbIX Qyuxqzra - zHaqeHni4 u
cvrrcna(oa) uaeepuruii, BKJrror{r4TeJrbHo: KoMMyHl,rKarr4BHbrx, caKpzllrbHbrx, coquzurbHblx H np. 14 nocleAHee orrpeAeneHl4e 3cTeTuqecrcofi QyunquLt r4nv, [poue roBopt, - BoccraHoBJleHue I43Har{€t.IbHoro sHelxHero o6nuKa HaBeprxr.rft

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B orrlu.{tae or Bcex paHee paccMorpeHHbrx, Borrpoc o Kynbrypuofi QyHxquu - [peAHa3HaqeHr4r{ LIHTepecyrcqvx Hac KaMeHHbrx HaBeprxldfi (u cxelraruqHbrx v peanrlcrr4qecxux) - eAlrHcrBeuuufi, rcoroprtft, 3a eAvHHqHIIM hcKrlorreHrreu (KreftH, 1990), BcefAa u y Bcex ficcJreAoBarerefi noryurzn oAHo3HaqHyrc rpaKToBKy

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Hanepruufi HuKorAa, Hr,rKeM n HvqeM He apfyMeHTr,rpoBzurcq. O.rear.rAuocr
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s, e 'vs:ledfet Ii rv:Kroso11 orenxdeg oV zuradv>I 14 vr4YHKrrHr{O ro rsuodag ,{deaec fnecs ou rcrorenadrcs
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-€ex esrcehey s Iqryeqgo etsHcrul{derew erqHCBd qreaoryedr oHHounrreiltr€teg orh 'L{rhou exeou u tseHodg
oV €rHIIoeI,?Il ro gercergo xlrHeed EV weJ'cvltreurleilc Jeruos[ou orh 'eefllgo oHx(ofirtos oJhoH qrIrHeIIh
-rss rcnresderJou n wrumdeg€H-w?rxes,go r rkrmeH xrrHgoVou sHanedeu 4nxredx Klsw?o wudroltcce4
'LrLtyuHerereduo-ultrurrHorr
>rB) 'wer flore6l
ru,roroexde
Hr\rrl)€r
rudrceu
ou<reax,{g
'oHrcestv
'Iucdea sL{ HeHVetrcol rer'edos
-urodu onneraYedlo 'oJonn?€Bxc ez refVeuc )ev 'zHo y 'vosorvedr xtgHv(owtoa qrcoHHesoc€rJoJot Hets
c gocceltodu xreHqwr4troc-oHd,(rsr,{v otvtt>ts,{Q ,tre <xvmsuvodou)) I'l

reeJeffouvedu o{qrconuYoxgoeH

4umdeaeu annxx,{Q qrcoHHeusorc,(goowzeos ye) yuJ'xrqrcodu tu eH o)eretr zumdeseH xLrr€ I4LI[uH,(Q 4oH
-dXrsr,{y o coduos orr' 'qleaodurercHoy H>ler qrrro rcruVoxzdu 'Humdeauu xrsweesl4dJeltcced uxgorvedr
ro urcohtl4cvae; s eurflo{exr4H€oa 'rur'edogurodu etsHVI,IseF'o elsrcodu r,(dnrercsox 'woeudgo wH)?J
'(eenev 'lrc) urcera uvtHJvrcHvr - rlJce u uHo oJ eH 'oIzseduV uu ',&tewgo uH 'exeYodu

un ruxervol eu '('dtr

eLrJoHW

u eYtudeYes,ol 'g 'uvuewecc"d 'y'64 'nurerej-'y'Y)

wrlzHeslqsuxcrsa sd.,{red

-eurff rr nrrsHHeHedrcodlcud oroyodum nxeduoe 'v:rceus vvtHJLTJHV elarfdV elqgolr H vux 'tsdtenlrxc ,(vsuoxc
-ou 'x€dleuu)rc xr4r r€c s oyirffoyc 'yorcos eH Herrere)KdeEodreunvc xvre aunenedrcoduced xnlnoreYxdear
-Eou 'gJcqrerevusc xu)cehl4Jouoexdu xlqHu elasrcr,(cro a eH eogos - 4,'ftruxol n 'o>IquoJc eH rcreeduuX
coduog 'eer,r(rc nor€ s 'y 'xolcoa eH q)vruvnedrcoduced '€V€rrec c tsdreuuvc Hre xtsdorov ,ftrnc s 'usrcqueJ
-rorcgo vrwec KJ:rrtelco uwlqwuHcr<rgoeH oHHemdegoc een,{rc wore a og 'arcelngo xar€ Hrcorzgeed qHes
-od,( grtrrsruHlroc Kruoorsg srugodurnew,{rde oHxow - ulwdreuu)o - }Ihtlr or '(d.(rsu,{>r xfi)cehqlreveffwe€
-aHsedv evedc a) aodreupryc ruHeYxoxcrlodr orosVeuee sefrHexdesudu uulrzeon c srnVoxclt ev{ HIIcg
'settsffetr?usodrauuvc
xar rec HyH?rco Ir xnlnexdevoc ercHr, r ror g '4unegedron xtsgorHfd.I t4rl4 xIqHHS.tdXx lllosrcev<oHl,rtr 'qree
-exc ex,( oHxon 'rcree[xdesrYou eaffotls V€rr?t eH ?yorcos c sodreunvc sranenedrcodnced nncdeg 4or€ a
orr, 'eerog neJ 'Hxnrroawuc 4osoyuHe foHilfer€geH€ouo-oggurexnn,(ltlttov 'oHHesrcJoarooc 'v vl,Seus,4oH
-Hesodusuxdedeu olodrc Ee9 €hruffcrirweH orcodu rHcH?uc>re reHHeos Bego{r ,(xrroxcoll 'ornfiuefinox orXH
-Hor4cHurrc)e ,ftrec reeYxdesrVorr oHqrreJrorcon€c rs9 vu:r H trcleeslqcails otqrcoHrou 4elreracos xn tqd,(r

-yfdrc HoHsruurroc goHHurrosrrHerdooyocrss 'sodlour4xc yvrhv[eH eseg €H 'ouues€ndl 'ettfiuvmedeJ 'lAtr I4III'I
oxHeruuefi''g'g'cerfgr{erJ'W'erdeudeyl'K'H rr€vsorvedl sresoVerc nrcg'oHqlfereeu}Iou orh oH
'AVUeytv xure rnHetr)Koxcuodl oJoHhorcos - t{ucdeg s r4 x€J 'orouYeuee - vucdas, s v€v 'uereluo
-oH xl{ nrcoHHegotunerdo 4oHsreuloc sHeaodf gnxocrqrr BH oJelflorusrsgevf 'erFlem.,{rde oJoHserJ earcehe)
s qcoffrrseJcrqs 'uniryH,(Q zrlc ou 'HnuqHH?sodurHer{,(.rde unKYKg eH 'sodleuz)c el4hvlreH oHHeIII4 'roged
xIsHHus€yK exr( eesud esrcHumilrog en refVelfc )ru)r 'oror aarog 'wereresoYerrccl4 wrqYv€) qco[Bs?H0oco
eHrrouc 'exoxou 'oslcqrelrorcgo ore 'rvroeH€ - eN< ocs ore - Isdrertv)lc ]Im€H e 'woxdeHolt 'or xdenol41
'graHJHcHr4 xr.rr€
4effeJacoH Hroorr4aeed 4oHsruunoc rHgodf nurtereduderHu s rlaalcYeucou el<IH4?hlsaeedn
Kogoc ?r reherrs rDrcehuJerlrorae vunyH.(Q Honner'eruro ultramdesuH e0 euueuoudu orh 'trlor s oIreV ecg

z .tN t lnwnlol

I6

92

Caxrrtur 1 n Ap. (Kpafinon 7987a,l9, rIBerH. Soro - crp. 80; EorAauos 1992. pnc.2). llprzrvrevareJrbHo, r{ro
npu .reuofr KoHIIeHTpaIIuz e Bocro.ruoft llpz6anrlaitcxoi't 3oHe, Bce 3Tr,r HaBeprxvfl)Ke3rrbr c n:o6paxeHnflMH
roJroB MeABeA.rr vtrr4 rrocfl. rrpr4xoArTcr Ha necFryro 3oHy.

Puc. 40. KocrsHure HaBepl.ur,1fl - xe3nbr. 1 - nosAHui naneonur, Bruniquel;
2 - aeonnr, OneHeocrpoecruri worunuHux; 3 - Torcran cronHKa.
(1 - no A.Leroi-Gourhan Ne 207:2 - no H.H.l-ypnxora; 3 - no C.B.5or4aHoey).

Pnc. 41. KaueuHure soolropQHure HaBepuue necroi, Bocro.{Ho - flpn5antuicroti sor-tut.
1 - <Duunnr4ua, 2 - Kapenvs, 3 - r. Pocroe-Fpocnaecrnri, 4 - ApxanrenucxaR
o6nacru (1 - no A. Hdusler, 2 - H.H.fypuxoi, 3 - fl.A.Kpafi xoey, 4 - A.F.6procoey).

Apyryto 3orry c [lrpoKuM pacrpocrpaHeHueM HaxoAoK, arpz6yrupoBaHHbrx K vHcvrlavtflM BJracrlt, cocraBrqer JrecocrerrHas n s oco6eHHocrr{ creflHac qacrs Bocroqsofi Erponrr. flpnvev HasHrrfi 3rrurleHrp
nau6omlrero pa:uoo6pa:ur nogo6Hbrx HaxoAoK onpeAeneHHo npuxoAr.rrc.a na pafioHu Cpe4uero llosorxr.fl
u cBf,3aHbr rrper.rMyulecrBeHHo c Heo-3HeoJrr4ToM. KaK 14 B npeAurecTByrouleM cJryqae) B 3rofi 3oHe TaK )Ke
Bcrpeqalorcfl orAeJIbHbIe HaBep[rl4.g xe3Jlbr c uao6paxeHnflr.r'kr Jrocr lrJrn MeABeAq. lloxagareruHa B 3ToM orHO[reHHr,r HaxoAKa Kocrf,Horo [ocoxoBnAHoro )Ke3Jra, cxoAHofo oneHeocTpoBcKoMy, c HaBeplxueM B BI4Ae

'unaeYuorys (S-7'tl 'JEL'07, '2002 Le?eBreC) rsrmar,0ffid,ftfi'Exr4Hqnrror r vunegedrol. tr4
V
ALfinvyoxct4odx
'(E'py 'cud) IqwHogo ersueudgoorQ,ft,t er<roroe zdr rsJ€v€H urrrg orodoroy srrox'(d €H 'tr{oxlrHhoHoxeH r rr<ra
-orod c vzrodV stuucur,udu refYerc 'trvHeHr{oc esg 'raudo.rer"x goHqrruHolrtrxn,,(Q Aomeeaudrer,tcced y
'(g'79 'ctzd '16'966I eaon,{.rdoyrq) <aoroex-aodrexu)c)) esrceh€) s xrqHHusodureduderHu ox( yur
'voHtrorc xavcehurutfoeH€ 4o)cxzue.rd,{1 Lr goycsoHesl{ c erqHrceaxu'(7-y'yp 'cnd) yuueytu ersneedgoetlur
-3u elqHH€soQnrm eIqHHeI lex (wc Ol-0E oV 4onurY) elcHufdy rqHeHrouriul edaueln FoHrz s oHemdeao3
'(4oeeaereyl' LA' J g'orHeeC'11'd
- 9'{eoueUrog. g.C - 7,{uraxh{[. g.3 - g
"dtr n Aantyg^U'C'U -4'AunVgtr 'kl V ou - ;) ouuUsuvr.leg- 9 ,eUdag .d n4ecceg - 9
';1 rcdooao;1 - t '{eg)V - g 'ceu{x->ry euHeuacou
- Z'e\H6orc Be)ceoa!\touoedeg - L
:(9) rrceugo 4orhanof v1 (9'V-) ccxuoeoLl
oJeHxtaH'orauEed3 en rqdreunrc-s[mdeeeH otcHHenex ersn$dourroog' Zl' au d

v

'(1'71'cud '8S
"N
ZZ
66I o)HeeC) nrcurgo qoxfieHofi' a eVdeg 'd enKecceg ffi (g'T,V'cud) dreurzxc-aumdeaeH eoycehlrr€wexc
U
ornxa oml<ow 'prrcoHrrodea 4eca oIr 'o{fidec ex fre 51'(g'ZV 'crad) ('cnd '0V-6t LL6I es,eesrelq) ou
eu (i) u[4ue Iqaoffor eYHs I eumdeseH '(E'7p 'cud) (7 ':iad '9I86I uraxn,t;f Kucxv spr ezmdeseH
'cud) (7'1'cud'VI'0002 aoHeVrog) excdooaoH 0u HxYoxen enuger',ftrc qresr?H oHxonr 'oJoHroaax
l
go Ilu<IHHexcdrsg oxreh eeHew c oH 'erltuoeH€ uoxotte c xlqHHetrgc'KwowvYlas - ou 'ex< yBJ aolftex
-4r1
us xarfdV tl4'0'6'cnd 'gg1 'Zg6I 'dY t'r ttutugfrfi) nwtcetud'11woudeae3 a cen,,$r-xy rsd.,trqr.,fu
I40) Iqr"sx rLlHelrecou c oJefflr['oxcnodl '(7'7p 'cnd) rzmdeaeH oJo)cehuJerllexc >toworrgo aufiexuug,ftr
rsd
e roreslqtrac rYemor ltoeudgo J'(Z-t'EV'czd) n1 e)He)r<rgelf u 1 excdooaoH rr{ HWe)VoxeH eanHed
gwon{ ax,,( u 'wouuJ llr{eH r rrirweesudrenrccud ersHHer,esrcVedu '(eeteY 'wc) uVemo[ IqgotroJ eEI,Ifl
AN
tl
oHHearcelnfnuedu or€ 'oy( woHirrr?Jco B '(ll 'cud'791 '8861 HrzVO{) uxHrorc Koxcehr4Jr4rro
-0H
caesltoroQdeg x (lZV 'cHd) Bvos[en lqsofoJ ',ftror,uzVr.rs-ou c^ouHe)r(?d9ofl.r c eumdeaeH eoHHehl
xur u '( 1 'cnd '7661 aoiluV.rog) eir>xtroset nenVed3 I (€'0t 'cnd) nnHercou wovcvoJ eH roor IqsorJ
c

-u)

94

Prc. 43. KaueHHure

HaBep[.lJt4fl B BilAe uso6paxeHnra

flolrjaAl4, c orBepcrt4cMV Anfl HacaAa.

- cnyvatiHafl HaxoAKa us Hoeoopcra 1 (no C.B.Soraaxoay);
2 - uaeeowue c noceneHhn Ile6qxhHra lV (no lzl.5. Bacrnseey).
1

Puc.44. Xe3nsr-crmnerpbr npocrbrx $opu. 1-2 - lzleaFroecxan vTyprauraucKafl croFHKt4
(no H.Il.Mopryr-roeori); 3 - flxypxyneutrut; 4 - Kyrynyr | (no f1.@.Kysneqoey)
(1-2 - xaveHu.3 - rocru ,r 3ofloro,4 - ve4u).

O6parqaer Ha ce6r BHvMaHr4e rIoqrLI rloJ'rHoe orc),TcrBr,re rloAo6Hofo poAa HaxoAoK B apeiulax paHHe3eMJreAerbqecKlrx Kynbryp Heo-3HeoJrtrra lofo-BocroqHofi Erponrr (ne cvura.a, pa3yMeerct, paccMarpl{BaeMbrx HaMZ Hanepurzfi). PeArcoe ncrurlor{eHue cocraB;r{ror KaMeHHbre vlrv rnvrHflHsre soontopQHble HaBeplxu-s
Mzurbrx pa3MepoB, orHeceHHbre rc Bunqancroft rpynne [aM.flTHuKoB, Ho xpoHoJlofl4r{ecKa.[ no3lzulu Koropblx,
oAHaKo, He coBceM acHa (Heolr.rr..,1968. 55 J\bl\b 11,9,125,140). B xauecrne coqna-nbHblx cvtMBoJroe Ars erofi
30Hbr o[peAeJreHHo Mo)r(Ho Ha3Barb opHaMeHTHposaHHrrfi naeAslrfi Tonop-Morblry c uenbHolnroi pyHorrroil
(pnc.45,1) ng Ocnxexa (Tasid 1995. Plate fV) z, ecrecrBeHHo, o6rqeu:necrHbre HaBeplxu.l-)Ke3Jlbl H3 rlofpe6enufi 4,36 (puc. 45,2) u 43 BapueHcKofo MorurrbHr,rKa (Ivanov 1988, 49 .Abb. 23-25,29; Marazov 1988,
67. Abb. 35-36).

'(ZSt 'qqV '6IZ '886I .to1o>py) exrzHqrrrrrow oroxcunudeg orodorg g uuueged.rou a u '(96 cud'961'9961 eaod
-ovo1) xerfuuud,(f eruHqnrJortr oJxcohr4rr4rrooHe SZe tanHegofuou s Ia r<rHetrKeH Lrrr.rg Br4mdesun orqsoJod orqHYoxJ

'Veff3 14
E\Z'986I ettomVe1) quamdaaeu xrr)zr rr,r oHVo ,(nratnexdavoc 'uhseffory €u o{aHegedrou ot rtr,(c ',(r
x lsuu,(dJ vorr€,6r4ueY€u rrcoHro HeffeJesotraffccrd osrcHrzm<rrrog rrox 'orqrcen r4eHYedeu 4oHQdonr

-I-rlroeHe

-oo€ ltoHHeaodagurewexc oHilffuc c zzmdeaeH-sodolor eurr,{dr eHeHrourqs euilrc hloHn s oHemdeao3
'(1 'cud 'tL'Lg6I oxmr11) enulrtxodou?t BH rrrouorelrt s?r r.r (1'g 'crad '0L'696I
guxcHulefg) rrouodeQwll3 [I4u9 4zHeHodoxee xrqnHerdXxVou xrsHwr sr4 (e) rzmdeseH - rsdfuusufxc
olqHQdowoilodruu-oos eIqHHeI luv (Z-l'LV 'cad) ennezdgoeoac ro{€wr4He€ fYrd ruore s orcow eogoco
'(7'7'cnd 'Yeuc H gg'2007, aotreus,{y) eqx(rrorret noxcdene3 a 1 >l(rfu
-,{y exunrrAJov\I V usurd,(v rnnenodoxet oJoHr rr oronqruduren sr rsnrdoQ AouYvt aororotr-oHHeHuvYf^ (y'py
'cud) rewYadu 4tsuYew (tncL'8V euuvY) ltl<IHsacc€w HrqHHesowtrgfuo oHaBVeH cedeuru rorraurcvedl 'fdfu
-sr,,{v oI^HINY vg YctYVoxndu votroxuH c?H xufrro{fcederHrz srrouh remqrog 'ouuearcerce }I orr, 'oxenVg

'(79 'cud '99 'Lg6I4oaody 'ea

-ode3) edrceHfi'en eoncudy'c f geutrx,(drcsox 4ounraedev ]roHxorc oc eserdfy a ranegedroil oJoycehriJ
-H[oeHeeHvtou tH AvlnKYoxJl|.|odu 'nltevg€rcg r4rusHvr4sovsosJ prhrrsHver,,{ c ezmdeseH-rorow qoaorod
.'(g
'Vt 'JeI'W '166I ,tepe8req) 1 fxnefl evuHqrruJow rzuegedlou oJo]crrorec,( ororerog €r4 usm oJoHuerhrr
Aev\rcLwtIu c ezmdegeH eoso.lod eosu,{dv euH€r^rrrHs reexergudu sceVs rquodsg Fonhoroog uror rr['
'rseHodg 4euued uJtruoeHc
-

EnHox Isdreuuxc-rzmdeseH r4[r4 rsurex-yumdeseH nWeH Vedeu rorercVadu nrursumdgooueed eeuenr eg
'(V8t'gget'"erpadolfcug) enlrrc,&r 4oxc4aYApl s edefrau a olonue[4eH 'eYerx
EA (t'g7'czd) aortox xtsHdo.r ur re:taouoJ orfrrru c dreuuxc HrsHVer r gorr4roHirffett ex< yer - rsnodorc Ho.r,(dv
c V '('8lC 'St'9L6I setlue-rg) eftegedny tuug eued14l,rloHVpilet-odeae3 a g1 deczl-elel f u[dosv HHrBs
-sed su '(7'9p 'cud) xlqHrosux( rzltudfrrzQ rczztrorur,neg 'dreruyc gorl{ffoHirron grsHYen sreHsr4du oHxow
oHUoIra oH[nser'o exoJcog orenaedfi' sodreur4vc-4umdeaeu aotreedgo (xr4)cehlrccslu) esJceh€)I g
' (1' p' cud'
092-6VZ' 0007,
aoHoQudl) euedpl noHYeret-odesac s neVdul HJ ,( III enerd,(y ruuegedrou *r (I '9V'cud) ealr gosoror
eflHo) moHvo
scgl-IfnorehHea dreunxc '4lrnneaodafforus oHirrrere[nr 'arquuew?] grsHYuaeHxderc (^c tg)
"H
HIsHHLITV auHulruuHs lrgec eH reetnedgg '('Verc v 0r'966I) olovcsodronll 'OI'OI eroged s o{^HHedroncced
oHsrel4heuc 'Vemg - eHerdfy oJoxcyiloy4elnl ru Hllteysercudu hl\nqrouot r4nlcHverneH c ,(aeu.,(g orrftrgelr
-ev orXrou sr,(Hrr{ouf oH>xow 'aoyunrtrnr€L xr4xcrroy4ery KrrY xrsHderyedex 'uJcers UlaHJlzIHLT uVed3
'(nozereyl'; ou) gg 'rou 'eudeg

-

7 l(prse1

'p ou) raxuc6

-

L'9t'oud

z 'tN

96

'l lnwnlol

96

pt4c.2-4) (puc. 48,3), BpeMr zx 6rnosaHr.rq Bepo.srHee Bcero npuxoAlrrct uapaunufi repiloA 6poHert v s He
HcKJrroqaro, rrro lrx cJryAyer cBr3brBarb c HocurerqMu surlgroit Kynbrypbl. Eolee roro, MHe npeAcraBJlrlercf,,
qro B ocHoBe nx uso6pa)KeHnl raKxe HaxoAr,rrcr cr,rJrbHo cxeMarl43l4poBaHHblfi o6pa3 roma!.V. [Ba AyflIX
noAo6nrrx HaBeprxvr [poucxoAqr c reppnToprzn Pyvrlrruz (puc. 48,I-2). K con<a,reuuIo, o6e HaxoAKI,I cnyr{ailHbre (Horedt 1945,539,4tbb.2; Mdndrescu, $tefan, Maschio 2000, 106, fig. 1). Ho qro rlo6orblrHo, Bce
orr,l rpu 3K3eMrnqpa o6napyxnnaror 6rugr<o cxoAHbre aHzrJrornn B HaxoAKax zs [arecraHa (Mopxoer.rn 1958,
162, puc. 12) u uz MapnynonrcKoro My3er (puc.48,4-5), ua uro, B cBoe BpeMq crlpaBeAnuBo o6parnl nulrMaHr,re B.H. [anuneuxo (1974, 105-106, puc.69,I). EuIe Aea KaMeHHax MoJrora-HaBeplrut c oTAaJIeHH;IMI{
soouopQuvecKr4Mu qepraMr,r (prac. 48, 6-7) nroNno Ha3Barb orrrrb raKr.r c reppl4ropl4ti Pytr,lrtuun (Mtiller
1964, 54I; Boronean{, Boronean! 1992,92, fig. II).

I

1 -Cra l-ypan lll (no B.A. Tpr$oxoey);
Encyklopedia Archeologie); 3 - Tene-l-rcap (no B. Brentjes).

Puc. 46. Cxranerpur ,[peeuero Bocrora.
2

-

Vlypeilcxan nycrbrHff (no

-

Puc. 47.3oo-aHrponovopQrue crarysrKr4-HaBepul4n (?) us norpe6eHhri cNrFrori Kynbrypbr.
'1
- CrruSepononu (no A.A.llenuHcxotriy),2 - 3narononu (no C.M.Ilnuro)

ottY'id1 'soucxvre vlvt*ehentltorcodrwowucaeuxr(do aau'e|.Ad:-yuyftdo eHrzore 'esznderoJore

HHH

-SI lHHoIr woHHevlsgo s crcouderzuzrfen xu
rYedu xure eyHeno s rureYrss r r<r9 oJ,r, 'eoade11
'gorer
'yoVoxeH xn)cohHJotroexdu
xrHrxeQQe wm xn>tdu oeHeN es or,(rcene€ Iqcc?N AoH<rrrurco eu yovoxen orzdec or,,(nueucuusdeu reruevrqa
olh 'eousreLvft.*rur,o h eetrlgo or qruraYeduo rcweedurcor a lroxdogrya uoHHelraercVedl rcruur,nuedtg
'prrcoHheHoxceg oV sruxuoEodu oH)Kon solewYedu eVod o.rongoY
-otr xocnfic orh v?J 'rzx,(do soVt4s eld KogorIt Lr exyou'rqr{oYer4Y ertHeedgooueed u sreufucrqg r4ffJow ,rqv
-xevo KBLIdF'J eH 'Hro?rs tALtl:.JlaxHvt egrcehg) I 'goxltHhoJcu xlilHHel lqczlenned nneweds ou xuHv0ou eerfog
[I4 'oHrcestu omodox v?v 'oJor oalrog '(7g cud) uodl eu (]) €Verrx urcu eYevx o.loxcgudecceg r<douor 'wex
-v>rt'HUV Isd,(Js[{v KoHglruorl€rev godouor rv eHJoHW,{voaor ,{wore ou r\laHWoucB 'Ho)lrrHelreHdo KoHd,&,
-Iqa eeHel\r vuw eeuog c wdoQ xIqHHeHXo[cf. uuu xtqrcodl] rsrouow-rsdouor H rsaer.(g eYod oJoHr,uvzed vt

qrr4horrrxa oHlKow eHrous )ocHuc Jore s '(ZO0Z'dr u o1qco1;) aorcrarulrneuc nYedc orruadu ole xex 'rroy
'ttvVoxeH ersnrxeQQe eeuogueH zredgtra IqtrAI 'lrrc"ua vvHJncHn ersHsreHfroc
- edum uvyt tcdlreuuxc 'lqtr€ex{

)?)I oHhlqgo xtcHHuaodaredlderHn
xrsueedgoeoec ,(rlzHedea
'soJ,eruEadu
or,{rrerl
zffedrol^lcced rqw 'ye
')IoVoxBH xar,{dtr wosJcex(oHr r qrr,rHrro[oY oH)I(ow rore yocHrrc
'0X :Izt 'td 'Vg'Lt6I uosse3)
14
eHor,rd,(y ezIrg edlray eH e>t(v?r gIsHHeVgzH'(1g'czd) Iurrr wer.rHo dgoeu c dreluxc Hororroc zHewedg
or 4uHVtou eallog rIIrH BuoHceh vufixeffrox eia 'udlny c eaeuKg-eumdeseH oosomJe '(Zg 'ld'6961 4eW)
(09 'crzd) eVdeuoeu oJeI[oIBJtqdu eYus s dreufivc-eumdeseH ooHHer r€>t Jo{esrq€rso Uevr\reEnrrvsLfir
rurPtr

tr

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J 'GV 'czd) (qgy Iq€I 'I tI'0L6I merguag) e,ldnrua - rznnedg ssnodg r.rxou€ aoxaHrKneil
wv eVdeuoeu uwsnHe>r<rzdgo;Lr c rsdreuzxc-rilmdesuH erqHHer rey ersHsrevJo

rrrtr u IsHJceseH lsderHeLr

'(g aurod>r ger-mcef! '(tettnn '3 ou) emrog-cHehuo)
)
- 2 i(iueauoLog'3 ou) {Hernrrarlg - 9
l(oxueurue['H'g ou) 4ee{ru 4nlrcsuouludeyl - g i(Inraeoxdoyyh'g ou) nercale[ - y
l(enore7e4 '7 ou) uneeuoy - g :(1pato; 'y ou) uru6rl eguv - Z
l('dU u ncsepugy\ 'C ou) ueheHdoy -;, 'uumdaeeu-rqdouo-r ersxQonoog 'gt 'cl4d

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Ioflycrltrb, r]To u3.f,ulHo o$opuuenubre KocrqHbre rraJreoJr]rrlzqecKr4e qlra Heo;ruluqecKlze :oovopQar,re nocoxoBrrAHble [peAMerbr MorJur 6rnr ucnolb3oBaHbr B Kar{ecrBe npocrofi [zuIKr4-KonzuKH, KonbeMeraJtKu r4IrA
Toquo ra e rpyAHo npeAnoJroxnTb, rITo B oxore LInv B 6rluxuena 6orc,
npaKTr.rqecrcofi roqrcu 3peHr{r nro6ofi (craHAaprHufi> rcalreHnsrfi ronop-ruoJlor I4JIIT rDI(eJIat tra-

KaK oxorHuqbe uJrH 6oeeoe opylKbe.

c npocrofi

-

tu\a 6snn 6rr

nenee AeficrseHHrrMr4, HexeJrlr rqarenbHo orAeJraHnbre ronopbr-HaBeprulr's. c n:o6paxeuarrex vrv vrHbrx )r(HBorHbrx, rpe6yrouqne ctreuuiurbHoro MacrepcrBa H AJII{TeJrbHofo I]3roroBJIeHut. Vlax,
3To He o6uvHue, flpocrbre yrunrrrbr - He opyAus rpy1a, He opyxne, a Heqro usoe. LI sro, rlHoe, c roqKn
3peHuq grHo-3HaKoBofi SyHxquu KyJrbrypbr, Mo)Ker 6nrr luurs Helrro, orHoc{uleec.r x cQepe caKpanbHoro:
per'Iarao3Hofo, KyJrbroBoro, puryanbHot-o, a, cJreAoBareJr;Ho, H - K 3HaKoBo-cr4MBoJII4qeCKOmy (Eafi6ypr,rH
Mr-r

1991,32 u cne4.).

Prac.49. KaueHHoe HaBepurile-cKunerp

ut3

Crararpya (no C. Renfrew).

Pr,rc. 50. Kaueusoe HaBepuue-cKunerp ta3 Marus ( no Fr. Matz).

Eue 6onee :Ha.{nNaofi [peAcror4T nepeA HaMr4 HeopAnHapHocrb paccMarpvBaeMblx HaMI{ Ir3AeJIui,t, ecr'u
orreHnrb r,rx c ror{Kl{ 3peHur oBeqecrBJleHHoro e Hrax o6qecrBeHHoro rpyAa. I4nst*ru cJIoBaMIr, peqb I{Aer o
TEX CAMbIX ((KOJII4I{ECTBEHHO-KAI{CCTBEHHbIX))

3ATPATAX qCJIOBCqECKOIO TPYAA, KOTOPbIC, KAK NPABI4IIO, 14 BbI-

craBJrnorcr B KaqecrBe rJraBHoro Kpnrepr,rq B orIeHKe oco6oro corlktiurbHoro craryca nrc6ofo apxeonofnqecroro o6rexra, KoMrureKca, ruo6oro KynbrypHo-ucropnqecKoro Qenouena. A n 3ToM orHolxeHltu paccMarpHBaeMbIe HaMlt Ir3Aenur. s6upator e ce6.s 6ynna-nrHo Becb crreKTp Bo3Mo)KHbrx 3HarruMbrx corlkrilrrbHbrx KaqecrB. 3ro u orHocnreJlbHat peAKocrb rr, coorBercrBeHHo IIeHHocrb ucnoJIb3oBaHHbIX Marepr4arroB B
-

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lqu,(rctsa elruneaoQurrmroeH ersHHedrowcXtredu oHsrruutterrc ex larr4 'xrrzmdegeH xIqHHew?>I I4III4 xlqHrrcox
BH rcel4rflolemz 'Iqsurdeac rrdosoJ Iruor€ 90 'KI,IreVsu xr4)cehulrrfurel I t4ukr xtaln:,lcoy xrqHHerrrIoJoJtI,IoH
-sre[r xrrcoHHegoco xtqHsurv,{drcHo) s 'soreruVedu xure xedenrged s oHe>l€drss osrcqreJrorcgo ore .e}IH
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-I'IIrJo <weJ c eJcows 'e 'LrNVoxeH elilHHerclrhedeu ecs eeho{rHzver,go 'oalcrreJrorcgo eoHy@s eo.r,{d[,
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ra

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orfnsurueffuovefflgo xl,r eH Jeeslqeexr( oaunehro 'rpdree xrssoV,,(dr 14 KercoHHeIr xrsHqrpudereru firer.go ou
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z

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100

Revista Arheolosicd. Serie noud

IreHufl. K yAnuHeHHblM pyKorTKaM. A npeAHaMepeHHoe r43foroBreHhe oco6o rleHHbrx npeAMeroB, K roMy xe
C[eIII4anbHo paccqvTaHHblx Ha ftOKZt3, Ha 3KcrrOHr4pOBaH[e, HeMIrHyeMo cBaAeTenbcTByeT o ToM, qro +yHKun.fl orux [peAMeroB 6sula paccuuraHa Ha Ko.[JreKTHBHoe (norpe6JleHl{e)), Ha onpeAeneHHoe [cHXoJIorI4qeoKoe Bo3AeficrBne rrJra HHbrMlr cJroBaMI-r - Ha orIpeAeJIeHHbIe coqll€IJlbHble fpyrlnbl

Puc.52. KaueHHute qepeMoHuanbHbte ronopbt ns Tpon ll.
KnaA <L>. (Der Schatz aus Troja. Katalogbuch Ausstellung in Moskau 1996/97).

lpyroe BzDKHoe ceoficruo, [pucyrlee, 3a orAeJrbHbrMrr r{cKJrroqeHlaflMla, [oAaBnqroulemy 6ollruzHcrBy
Ha3BaHHbrx r4rn npohnnrocrpl{poBaHHblx LI3AeJIHfi, gro sootuopQz:nt nJII,t 3oo-aHrponorr,ropQu3M, 3aJIo)KeHHrrfi s eeH.{arcuefi qacru uanepuruft. 3oonlopQrasn, r<oroprrfi) eerr4 yqr4TblBarb rlplrpoAy nepno6rnHofo ((Hc-

ry vrnr HHyro, Ho orrpeAeJleHHylo cMbIcJIoByIo Harpy3Ky, o[peAeneHuylo peKynbroByro
14,
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nrc6ylo HHyb, 3zrnolKeHHylo B grl4x HaBepruuqx cotll4anbHylo caunoluxy. A
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oro, c yqeroM oroBopeHHbrx Bbrlle KaLIecrB, c Heu36exHocrbro o3Haqaer, rITo Bce gTV npeAMerbl - 3JIeMeHTbI
utm arpu6yrbr pr4ryarrbnrrx Aeficrsrafi, coqualbHbre 3HaKr4, npeAHaMepeHHo LI3roroBJreHHbIe Il [peAHa3HaKyccrBa)), caM rro ce6e strAaer

qeHHbIe Anq 3pgTenbHoto H, B KoHeqHoM cr{ere,
rreHHble coIlHzrnbHble fpynnbl.

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IIcHXAqecKofo Bo3AeficrBvIfl, Ha

ry Arr4 HHyro' Ho onpeAe-

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qro
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npeAcraBure.]rH Ko'rx(are,rrqMH noAo6srrx [peAMeroB-cr{MBoJroB 6r,tnu orAe:rbHbre hHAtTBHA)4/Mbl, orAeJlbHble
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cneUuaJIHCToB' HHTep[peKar{eCTB, KOTOpbte uO3BOJ,IqtOT aBTOpy ttOnHOcTb]O llpnOoeAI4HIITbc.g K MHeHuto

3HaKoBTl4pyfoulnx Bce 3Tn Marepuanbl B KaqecrBe ugcurnui,t BJIacru' B Kar{ecrBe coul4anbHblx
paccMarHaBeprxnqM'
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"rt"onou,
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MeNay reu, arpu6yrr.rpoBaHr4e rrHrepecyloqrlx Hac 3ooMopQHblx naeepurufi K KareroputM
qelslfi KoMIIJIeKc rlpl4cylllHx HM coqao-KynbrypHblx KactrMBorg4Kl4 - cKr.rrrerpaM arrpt.{opu [peAnonaraer
qecrB 14 cBorcrB, paccKpblrlre Koropbrx BHe KoMrrereHlrzu apxeonofhr{ecKux MeroAoB aHaJluga' 3ro o6crocKOTOpbIe B orJIIlqHe or apxeonofnqeTeJIbCTBO U UO6yAU,'to aBTopa o6parurucr K fIuabNreHHbIM ITCTOIIHIIKaM'
14 otrvcaHv\, cB'fl3aHHblx c
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u.Mt Hanuluu Ha u{e3re eeoD.

Bemxuil 3aaem. Vucna I7:2

BeoAFloe

I{tX' cKuneTpax' )Ke3JIax'
pOAa
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qacTb o6uapnofi cl1cTeMbl
3HaMeHaX v np., cosTaBlqeT HeoT'beMJIeMylo
rer{Hrb KoHTguyrjrerHocrb - Herlpellerpoey (1991, 39 r'r c,rea.), coqHoKoAa KyJ'Ibryp
BO BceX CsoficreeFlHrtx tz o6q:are"IspbrBrlyrc )KH3HeAe.sTelbHOcTb TOfo I4JIll 11HOpO COq
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o6leve oHa peann3yercr

Ha Bcex
pa3BopaqfiBa}oulnecq coqualbHble npoqeccbl Bo Bcex ux npotBnet:nflxLl
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Lr3 HMX Kacaercr caMoro xapaKTepa [poIt3BeAeHHfi enoca. <<LlstuaAa>>, KaK ll3BecrHo, npeAcraBn.fler

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paHroB, crapefoluHbl, rpoarbre BouHbr. oe Aeno <<OAuccet), [peAcraBn{roqag cBoero poAa [pHKrIor{eH.Iecxraft poMaH, lolHufi <$auracravecKr{x) curyatgfit, paccKzBblB uufi o cyal6e oAHol-o 143 I-JraBHbIX rcpoeB u
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oxr[arpov

,

rpfarvav (aHu., pW. - trident, pyc.- rp*y6eq). Bropofi cnylptit, rcor4a $opna oraintp(rl nc1o,,rb3oBaHa ArLs o6ogHaqenut urpu6yr4 rpncyrqerc Bory (I1. VI, 159). Cttytair. oco6ltfi, u fllae 6epycl ero KoMr{To' oqeMeHTr.rpoBaru. Tena 6olee qro conocraB,'IeHr.le rpex HMerorultxc-{ nepeBoAoB o6napyxrmaer pa3HoqreHI4JI,
BeHHoe o6ogHa.{erue

Bg.rtHo, o6t.f,cH.qercq cJrox(Hocrr,lo

caMoro HcxoAHoro reKcra IdIn

K

MII-To AplrI4MI4 rrp]rqaHaMlz.

3Tofo
' O cnNreoJrrarce o6pa:a O.uaccefl H npor43BeAeHr{r B ue,ToM - cl,r.: Apror 1997. Jlto6olltrHy}o BepcI4Io o ctlMBoJII'IKe
- reva <flyreuecrBrle u Bo3BparueHfie I43 ilorycropoHHefo Mltpa))

Huq BLtcra3ar auropy B.A.Eor{KapeB

2 ilo,rr:y.rcr cnyqaeM,

B.ll

npol43BeAe-

Hurcouoposy 3a HeoueHl'lMhle
Brrpaxaro cBoro rrcKpeHHtorc npr3HarenLHocrL, KoJIJIeratr M. Alexianu n
KoHcyJ,rsrarruh no ap."r"rp."ecKoMy r:nry. CepAe'+*rfi noxron raxxe B.A. Bourapeny, IO.IO. llnorpoBcKoMy, IO.A. BHHorpaaoBy, 3a none3Hble 3aMeqaHl,rs tt coBerbl B npouecce peaaKulrl4 pyKonl4cl4.
3
<Erz6rrorera BceM[pHoil J:rareparypbr>r. Llsn. Xy4oxecrBeHHafl rnI4cno,rugoeaHo v3aaHue <fouep: l4tual,a O1acceqrr. Cepal
reparypa. M. 1967

-

o

Homer. The Iliad. London. William Heinemann Ltd. I - l9B8; II - 1976.
'Homer. Iliada 1-3. 1999; Homer. Odiseea. l-3.2000. Ed. Teora Bucuregti.

Volumul

I.

Nr.

2

Kax 6u ro

105

y[orpe6neHl,Ie repMHHoB ol$itltpov n i6p6ov, n

Hr4 6brno, Bo Bcex ocrzrnbHblx cnyqa.f,x

r'rx

rIpotl3BoAHbIX AJrf, o6o3HarreHnfl. pa3JllrqHbrx coqvaJrbHo-3HaLII,IMbIX cHMBonoB He BbI3bIBaer coMHeHlIt.

nls

ra6ruqa (Ta6r. 14), rcoropar BKrloqaer Bce Bcrpeqalottluect ynorr r4x npor]3BoAHbIX. Ta6lnrla paz6uraHa ABa crol6qa. B resol\d uo-

HaMr4 cocraBJreHa

uaruAHocrr4

Mv[HaHufl.r4HTepecyrcq[x Hac repMr.rHoB
ne noMeuleHbl Bce cnyqaH }rcl1oJlb3oBa],j'v:fl yKa3aHHbIX TepMHHOB B 3Har{eHI,Ili collhanbHo 3HaqLIMbIX CI',IMBOJroB c r.rx pa3fpaHprqeHr,reM Ha arpu6yrlr, csoicrseHHbre cMeprHblu (lenuft cron6eq) u arpu6yrlsl xapaKTepHbre rrpeAcraBr4Ter.sM flanreoua (npaatrfi cron6eq). B npaaou nole rofi xe ra6luqu floMeuleHbl Te xe repMqHbr, npuBneqeHHble B TeKcrax Arq o6ogHaqenug rrpocrblx 6rtroerrx [peAMeroB c coorBercrByroul]IM rloApa3AeneHr.reM Ha rrpeAMerbr, HaxoAsu\vecs. B noJIb3oBaHI,It4 cMeprHbx (leeufi cron6eu) vrlr B pyKax rlpeA-

iraszrerefi 6ox<ecrnegHoro. Bce repMzHbr u o6pasoeauHble

lrMH rIoH-f,THq, Ant Bo3MoxHocrI'I eepnQuxaquu,

AaHbl B HCXOAHOfi, ITCIIOJIb3OBaUHOfi n reKcrax, $opue.

Ta6n. 13, TepttnHut o6oaHa,{atoque, coLlraflbHo 3HaqrMble cuMBonbl u
npocrbre npeAMerbt B rpeqecKoM TeKcre il nepeBogHblx Bepcuqx "O4ncceu".

I

(Kypcueou danat mepuuHu omcymcmeynuue

opueuHane)

IIEPEBOI

oAr,rccEt

flplrxa,qnexcH

KHxral

O

6o:llurtrenre

B.A. Xyxoacxoro

Ge. Mumu

Lr

cTL/

Jlep)KaTen6

crpoKa

l

A6crp.'i(-)qrrc.

oKrlTrtou/_oq

clrr4rpoxocxsrir

v,9
III,4l2

.oKllzxoD/-oq

cIJrnrpoHocHbIfi

VIII,41

oKqT[ro\]Iot

cKI{nTDO[ epxaBHEIX

de sceptu

oKlnf,ouzol

chf tIrTtt otr eD xa

cle

I1, 23

oKlltttpov

cIiJ{nrp oHo cHbr

B

f.I

I{ EI X

HCT

scetr

lrti

sceptl

Llecrop
AnicrHoii
BnaIIlric.- c-vjlltr
[-naru./Tenerur trx

ittp ov

cKlrneTp

scepELr

80

oxll'lrpov

cI.HneTD

vT ol

oxI?rapQv

xae3IIoM

toragrl
sceplnl

llru Trjpecltl.t

lttp ov

CKI{NETP

sceprnr

['epor"t Jr.:lttxoc

cKL{rITFOA epXaBHbIX

de sceptu

A6cran'

II,

37

569

IV.

64

o K1l

o K'n

orirto0vrov

| 77

cRunentp

w,686
v.

48

sceptntl
pop

6

87

I,

XXIV,2

7J)uo opp0?rr

tie3rra

3,

louocippo.ri.q

xie3jra

3.

Tpuodppo.n(

,"KelJra 3

cu varea d a
cu warga d. a
L'u \.alga d.a

od0Eov

we3JI

nun

oil0Ec:

xe:'Ia

cu varga

z>)

p(rp6qr

ilie3rIoM

cu var€la

319

pdBDrp

Xie3IIOlv{

cu jarda

389

6cr0

xE3IILTM

cu v,uga

TDO CTI,TO

cn varga

vatga
cu varga

x,

['eprrrec

we3noh4

49

JJ

vargA

x(e3n

ov

238

xtll,429
XVI, I7?

E

ov

b&liD(r,

456

15a.B6<rr

xe3tIoM
TllocTtI

IV,506

rPtttLVAV

rpe:v6 err

1ridentril

v,292

r l)lt[WClV

rp e:y6 uelr

hidenbrl

rSoBDrg

Ulrpqea

AdnHa

floceft4orl

flpocrrre 6urros gte npeAln erbl
vIT
Ltt-

a<1
LJ I

XIII,438

oqtjo(D
o ]i1l

7.tpov

yAa

nocox
nocox

b

eldie

Prr(rtrx

toIag

.Arllrrt a/O All cc eli

bi!
b4

XIV,3I
XVII, I99

oKllfitpov
o r(117rrpov

natlKy

337

oxlzt6g.evog
oKllfirpov

nocoxoM

bat

OAlrccefi
Cgnn./OAnccei'i
Ogrtcceir

flanrc/

-torag

O.qric,\I'lpoc

xvIIL 10i

Volumul

l. Nr

2

Karc cle4yer u3 cocraBneHHofr Ta6rurlbr, Bce BcrpeqarcIqvecq B TeKcre repMfiHbI 6Krl7r"pov, He3aBtrcl4Mo or $opMbr, ynorpe6neHHbre B 3HaqeHHH couhaJlbHo 3Har{IrMbIX cHMBoJIoB, flpl'IxoAsrct Ha nep-

eslfi cror6eq neBoro norq u Bcrpeqalorcs roJIbKo rIpLIMeHHTeJrbHo K cMeprHbIM. B ouuque or Hero,
TepMHH fripaoy H ero [pou3BoAHbre, B3{Tbre B ToM )Ke 3HarreHl4n, rtpuxoA.srcq rorbKo Ha npeAcraBltrelefi llanreona H 3arroJrHr{Jrz eropoft crol6eq rofo )Ke J'IeBofo nor.s. CIoAa flonaAalor u yrIoMuHaHI4t
arpu6yra flocefrAona (tp[arvav), xorr B oAHoM cnyqae na o6o6ueHHoM ypoBHe, B BaAe I4cKJIIoqeHHt,
eror arpu6yr o6o:uaveu n Qopue oxriacrv[rrr.
I4Hoe 4elo, Te xe repMlrHbr, no e o6o:narreHuu npocrbrx 6lnosrlx npeAMeroB, Koropble B pa3HbIX
vUrv B OAHHX 14 TeX )te 3Har{eHI4{X BCTper{arOTCr t{ y CMepTHbrX) v, B OAHOM CJIyqae, y npeAcTaBljTeJTfl
llanreona (Ta6r. l4).
Tarc qro pa3rpaHrar{HTeJrbHoe r4c[olrb3oBaHue repMrrHoB oKliTttpov l.r pdp6ov KaK coIIHaJ]bHo 3Har{trMblx cHMBoJroB e o6osHaqeHr4r4 rrJtocKocrefi <qe;roseqecKoe-6ox(ecrBeHHoe)) [peAcraBrqerct BnoJIHe
oqeBrrAHbrM u 6eccnopuutr.t.
Mexc4y reu, o6uapy)KeHHoe qerKoe pa3rpaHuqeHue B ncrroJlb3oBaHulr B t-peqecKHX TeKcrax repMr{HoB orrizrtpov, vr, ww pdp6ov, KaK Ha ypoBHe o6oguaqeuzt lpocrbtx 6rtroebtx rlpeAMeroB B orJIHr{Ue OT COUUaIbHO 3HaqUMbIX CHMBOJIOB, TaK U Ha ypOBHe pa3lpaHHqeHur 3eMHoro

- rrefloBeqecKouln clta:auo. B

Bbrure nepeBoAax 3rloca qacro HapyIUeHo
pasuoft creneHn 3Tr4 orKJroHeHu.s or opvl.vHana Bcrpeqarorcfl v B aHr,ruficxoM nepeBoAe <Z,'luaglt>
A.T. Murrey, u s pyccKr4x [epeBoAax H.14. fHeavrqa rz B.A. Xyrcoecrcoro, L{ B pyMbIHcKoM rlepeBoAe
Ge. Murnu.
3ru ornloHeHur or oplrruHana o6rqcH.srorcs HecKorbKHMV npnrtwlaMv. lleprar v3 Hvtx - qacras.
noAMeHa (Ta6l. 12-13) HMeroxleroc.rr B oplzfl,rHane repMnua cxilntpov H ero rpoLI3BoAHbIx Ha rxo6st
crrHoHrrMr{qecKoeanr,ruficrcoe staff (s repeBoAeA.T.Murray-Il.I, 15,28,234,245,374;II,786, 199,
265,268;lII,2I8 u ap.); pyccKoe crcesn (y repeBoAe H.I4. fneau'ra-VI;ir.I,75,374 rarpr B.A. Xyr<oecKoro - OA. XI, 91); pyMbrHcKoe toiag (y repeBoAe Ge. Murnu - Il. I, 233,279;VII,277 Lr l,p.; Od. II,
80/114)' r.r Aalxe - cdrjd (n rorr,r )Ke rrepeBoAe - Il. I,28,374), rplt oAHoBpeMeHHoM qacroM coxpaHeHHH UCXOAHOTO, 3a?TMCTBOBaHHOTO rd3 rpeqeCKoro, rIIHpoKo I4cnoJlb3ytoulefoct B coBpeMeHHbIx t3blKax: B asuuficxonr - the sceptre (y A.T. Murray - Il. I, 279; II,46,86, l0l,206Ij MHorI'Ie apyrae),
pyMbrHcKoM sceptru (y G.. Murnu - Il. I, 245-246; II, 46,86, 101 , 199 u Ap.; Od. II, 37159,III,
4121552;VIII,4ll5l,41166 HAp.)HpyccKoM cKunemp (yH.lLfneAu.{a-I4tt.I,28,234,245;Y\159,
VII,2'7'7,412 u nuorne Ap. AnH y B.A. Xyxorcrcoro - OA. II, 80, 23I; III, 4I2; IY, 63 u tp.). flpuueu,
Aa)Ke B cJryqarx, KorAa peqb HAer o6 oAuou r4 ToM )Ke KoHKperHov o6rercre, cKa)KeM, oxrinrpov xpeqa
Xpnca B oAHoM cnyqae y fHegzva oH rrepeAaH qepe3 HcxoAHyro rpeqecKylo Qopty- ((cKHtIrp)> (Zn. I,
28), a B AByx ApyrHX cryqa.sx, ror xe cxrintpov o6osHaqeH repMLIHoM (xe3JI)) (I4tt. l, 15,374).I4ttu,
cKaxeM, rrpr,rMeHr4reJrbHo K cKrrnerpy Araueuuosa. B oAsor,t cnyqae y Murray cro staff (Il. II, 186,
199, 265, 268), a, B ApyroM - sceptre (Il. II, 46, l0l, 206 u l.p.). Vtu y Murnu orHocl{rerlbHo cKHrIerpa, AaHHofo Telenaxy fnarxaraeM: B oAHoM cnyrrae coxpaHeHa HcxoAHaf, fpeqecKa.f, $oplaa (Od. II,
37159), a, B ApyfoM - rrpr{MeHrerc.r Sopura toiag (Od. II, 80/1 14). V noAo6uue cnyqav oAHoBpeMeHHoro r{crroJrb3oBaHu.f, pa3Hbrx repM}rHoB npHMeHUTeJrbHo K oAHoMy Lt roMy )Ke KoHKperHoMy o6rerry
Bcrperralorcr u B nepeBole A.T. Murray, I't B rlepeBoAe Ge. Murnu (Ta6n. 12-13).
Curyagnn, oAHaKo, ycnoxHrercr eule H reM, qro B pyccnofi a pyMblHcKoft repcurx repMIrHbI
J{esr pr toiag tpuyler{eHbr He ronbKo Antr 3aMeuleHur LlMelotqerocs B opllr}rHane repMfiHa cx{ztpov,
Ho 3ar{acryro r,r Anr [epeBoAa repMlrHa pripbov u ero cJro)KHococraBHofi rfopnru yptc6ppunrq (1poo6 flpr.rcraBKa-3rr]rrer, o3Harraro[1r4fi <<sonoroft, soloraa>). Ho sror repMrrH, B cBolo oqepeAb, KaK yxe orMeqarocb Bbr[re, Moxer o3Haqarb H rrpocrbre 6rrroerre rrpeAMerbl (rpocrr, nalna), v rrHcvrHkrvr BJIacrI,I
t4rru orlvsvr (e currcle - xe3Jr, r4nr{ pyM. - toiag, aHrr. - wand). B rerccre 3rloca repM}rH pdp6ro
JtHtrrb eAr4Ho)KAbr BcTpeqaeTcr B 3HaqeHur4 npocToro yTVnvTapHoIo flpeAMeTa - TpocTt' An{ noBnH pbl6u, a4exnarHo orpoxeHHofi r,r B rrepeBoAe B.A. XyrcoBcKoro -yra -yAor{Ka (Od. XII,257),u B rlepesoAe Ge. Murnu - bildie (Od. XII, 2511252). Bo ecex )r(e ocrarrbHblx cnyqa.sx repMI4HbI pdp6ov unu
26puo6ppanlq npuxoAqra.s Ha upeAMerbl, o6laAarorqne Marnr{ecKuNau ceoficrBaMl4 sogAefrcraux Ha
cMeprHbrx Anv vx Ayrrru. A o6laAarerrAMV 3Tktx rrpeAMeroB Bbrcryrraror roJrbKo npe.qcraBlaTeIrv 6oxtecrBeHHoro - fepruec, AQnna rz ap. B nepeBoAe H.11. fnelur{a repMLIH pdBbov nepeAaH cJIoBoM -

ro - or 6oxecreeHHoro, B oroBopeHHbrx

I

B oepcr.rQlrqlrpoBaHHoM rrepeBoAe <OAucceu> Ge. Murnu rryMepauur crpoK rpeqecKofo reKcra I{ nepeBoAHoro Bapl,laHTa Hapyueust. 3Aecr rr Aaree qrrcJrrrreJlb - HoMep crpoKrr no ncxoAHoMy reKcry, 3HaMeHareJIb - HoMep crpoKl4 no
nepeBoAHoMy BapilalrTy.

l/olumul

I Nr

2

OoxecraeuHoM
3eM,.re

-

-

Ha He6ecax, B BoAHoM rrpocrpaHcrBe OKeaHa

B MIZpCKOfi

Xn:nu.

vrrr

B rroA3eMHoM uapcrBe Anga,

n na

Hecuorp.r Ha vuoroo6pa3ne Qopr, B corIIraJIbHoM rrJraHe uau6o;ree 3HaqHMbIMI{ Bblcryrra}or ABe
Kareroplll4 cIrMBoJIoB. OaHy r,r3 Hr4x rrpeAcraBnqror cKr4rrerpu (rp. oxriatpov), Koropbre, 3a eAr,rHHqHbIMlz I4cKJIIor{eHaqMu, o qeut 6rt:ro cKa3aHo BbIIIIe, csoficreeuubl JIITIITb cMeprHbIM, KaK B 3eMHoft, tar
I4 B rlocMeprHofi xugur.r. Bropyro Kareropt4lo npeAcraBnrror )Ke3Jrbr, cBoficTBeHHbre rrpeAcraBr4reJrflM
flaHreoua z o6o:naqaevrre o6rrqHo repMuHou pdp8oy u efo [poasBoAHbrMrl. B ery )Ke Kareropnrc
nolaAaer raKll(e arpu6yr lloceftAoHa, unrercu1ufi cBoe crrequaJrbHoe Ha3BaHrze rpiarvav.
B o6uefi c,rIo)KHocrLI aHTepecyrcurrre Hac )Ke3n6r 14 cKnfierpr,l H upor{3BoAHbre or Hr4x repMuHbl
flp.flMo I]n]I o[ocpeAoBaHHo - e o6oux npon3BeAeHn.flx snoca Bcrpeqarorcr B oKoJ]o 60-ru cly.rarx: 35
rI3 HIrx npuxoA-srcr ua <<I4nuagy> (Ta6n. l2), ocralsHble Ha <OAnccerc>> (Ta6,r. 13). (u$prr 3rr4 r1o
orHoIIIeHHIo x o6reuy [poH3BeAeHHfi secsN,{a He3HaqureJrbHbr vt, K ToMy )xe, AocraroqHo orHocHTerbHrt. ,{e,lo B ToM, qro, KaK yBlaAuM Aaree) Bce yrroMr,IHatufl n<e3roB I4 cKl.trrerpoe $axrnvecKu npr4xoAflTcs. sa 15-20 KoHKperHbIx o6rexroe. Ho rrucJro o6laAare;reft noAo6usrx peralufi 3HaqnreJrbHo
6orrtlre r.r 3ar{acryro refKo onpeAenqercr rro KoHTeKcry rrpor,r3eeAeHuil.
flpncrynar K aHanu3y LlHTepecyrcrunx Hac )Ke3noB u cKlrrrerpoB, rrepBoe, vro o6paulaer na ce6g
BHHMaHI,Ie, 3TO pa3nuqHa.g qaCTOTa BcTpeqaeMocTrr 3Tr{x TepMnHoB H ux npoH3BoAHbIx KaK IIo Ka)KAoMy n3 [pov3BeAeHnit, rarc fi orHocuTenbHo Apyf Apyfa.
Tar, a <<lrltuar,e>> ceoficreeHubre cMeprHbrM cKllrrerpbr 14 rrporr3BoAHbre or Hrrx noaflTns yrroMaHaIorct B 30 clyva.rx, a xe3Jrbr flpeAcraBrzrelefi 6oxecrBeHHofo, He3aBacuMo or ux o6oguaqesas, ynoMVHaIorcs Bcero B lrflTla cny*aax (Ta6n. l2). B <OAaccee> xe csoficrBeHHbre cMeprHbrM cKnnerpbl
yrloMl4HarcTcq a 10 cJlyqatx, a )I(e3JIbr, B pa3nr{qHbrx o6osHa.{eHnrx, r 14 clyuarx.
EAzucrseHHslNa o6t.qcHeHueM TpexKparHoro npeo6,raAaH:as, ynoMqHyrr,tx s <<VIJrvaAe) cKr4nerpoB
H rIpoH3BoAHbIX or Ht'tx rloHtrufi nporza <OAncceu> Mo)Ker 6urr o4Ho - cneqrz$rzKa crox(eroB col]ocraBJ'L{eMbIX [polI3Bepenwh: BoeHHoe cocroflHI4e o6rqecrea, KaKoBbrM oHo Bblcrylraer e TpoxHcKoM
ullK,'Ie, IIp14 KOTOpOM, r]TO BfIOJIHe JIOl-ur{Ho, COUI4anbHa.q CIZMBOJIITKa I{MeeT 6Olee pa3BeTBneHHyrO
cerb Ii, coorBercrBeHHo, paccMarpaBaeMaq repMr,rHorotnq Bc-rpeqaercr qau1e. <OAucceg>> rt<e xapaKTepv3yer rcax 6st o6stuHyto, xors. A BecbMa HacbruleHHyro rrptrKnroqeH],1^s,MA, Ho - MrzpHyro )KH3Hb, fAe
ct4MBonaKa 3Ta raK)I(e 3HaqvMa, Ho HN{eer 6olee orpaHfiqeHHyro crpyKTypy v, co6crseuHo, ynoMuHaeTcs pexe.
3ror xe BbIBoA HatrparrrtaBaercs, v pI3 coorHorrreHvrs qacrorbl BcrpeqaeMocrtr repMI{HoB, o6osFraqalolqflx pa3HoypoBHeBble finocKocr]I 6rtrw, To ecrb czMBonaKy 6oxecreeuHofo t4 cr,rMBonaKy
cMepTHbrx.

3alrerHoe npeo6,ra4aulre cuMBoJrrrrcn 6oron - )Ke3JtoB - n <oAuccee)) fro oTHoIIIeHIIIo K npucyrl,HM
6orant cKnnerpaM 14 x(e3JIaM - s <<Unvare> (npa roM, q19 o6renl 3Tr.{x rrporr3rereuui't naxo4urcr n o6paruofi rpo[opul4lr - <<Lltuaaa> 15.693 crpoK, a <<O1uccegl> l2.ll 0)l ruoxHo orHecrr4 3a cqer :xa:ripa
<<OAucceu>, rAe rJIaBHrrfi repoft [ocro.{HHo nonaAaer B pa3Horo poAa nppeaJ]l,Hbre fina [ceBAopeanbHbIe cI.ITyaIII4ll, KoTopbIe MoxHo o6rqcHzrr ,rrHUIb BMerrareJlbcTBoM ne6oxurelefi.
Ho uecrurparHoe npeo6na4aulre repMr4HoB (cKranerp) HaA TepM14HaMrr, o6o:uavarcuvMu xe3Jrbr
6oron, e <<LItuage>) foBopHT caMo 3a ce6.s. 3ro fipeporaraBa cMeprHbrx - cMeprHbrx, HaxoArrrtrrxcfl B
cocro-sHLIr.l aoiHrl . Boeearu n [oJ]b3oBaJrHcb cHMBonaM]H [rro!'vt, a He 6oru. flocleAHue xorq a BMerr]ttBaJIHcb B Aena ,rrogeil, ofiepfipyt cBoLiMIt ]Ke3JIaMu, Aenanz. oHa 3To rrvtr.b noroMy, qro caMll r(e
Bororctrtae Halerwnw ux ce6e no4o6uuna KauecrBaMa u arpu6yrauu. BclouHkrM Bo3MyuleHr,rq [o
groMy rroBoAy caMofo 3esca Oluunzfiqa:

<Crpauno, KaK cMeprHbre JrroAl.r 3a Bce Hac, 60108, o6er,rH.sror!
or Hac, yrBep)KAalor oHH; Ho He caMr.{ Jrrz qacro
fu6err, cyar6e BorrpeKr,t, sa ce6s BoBneKaror 6esyucrrou?, (Oa. I,32-34).
BaxHo o6parurr BHVMaHHe, qro BbrBoA o 66nrnei 3HaqlrMocrrz sHaxoeofi cuMBoJrlrKH o6urecrBaM, HaxoA.f,uleMct B BoeHHoM cocroqHnu, [oATBep)KAaercfl v AaHHbtMr4 Berxoro 3aneta, B KoropoM
TaKhe 3HaKOBL'Ie cI'IMBOJ'IEI, KaK 3HaMeHa, )Ke3JIbI LIILI AK[ileTpbl, qat[e BCefO yIIOMUHaIOTCfl B TeX TeKcrax, B KoropLIX o6rtqso HAer perrb o6 oprauu:aqr.rn BoeHHr,rx noApa3Aenenui't (I4cxog), o Ha3HaqeHrlL.l
BoeHHLrx [peABoAI,ITenefi (r{ucna), ycrauor,leHvru t4lt4 yrepe BoeHHoro rrpeBocxoAcrya (llcaux).
3.tro

' flo H.A.@nopeHcoBy (1991: 55) coorBercrBeHno 15.790 u 12.096.

Volumul

l.

Nr. 2

cMepTHbIX'3eacy,co|JIacHofouepy,AocTaToqHoABu}KeHV'..'*
acecurrnoil pyKr.r) ( . IX, 687;XIII, 243).Kyaayx raM roy1apaxe3rroM.

3

Prc. 53. flpe4craeurenlt Onruna co
3

-

cBor4Mr4 xe3naMh: 1 - 3eec; 2 - llocera4oH;
l-epuec. <Dparveurut raeo6paxeHrari Ha rpeqecKrlx cocyAax Vl-lV ee. Ao H. o.
- (The Metropolitan Museum of Art Buletin. 1994).

A sor BTopoe nlrqo 6par 3esca lloceftAou - cBorrM )Ke3noM-rpe3y6ueM Mo)r(er HaABoe pacKonorr, Mory'ryrc cKulny (Oa. IV, 506 n cle4.), rusnarr 6ypro (Oa. V, 291 z cle4.) unn (togpa3yMeBaerc.s) corp.rcrz
caMy 3eMnlo (Oa. V, 365). I4u )Ke, KaK [3BecrHo, 6rrlu paspy[reHbr z aaM:.z creHbr Tpou, Koropbre flpexAe oH
xe H crpoltn (Un. XII, 15 n cne4.). Bltecre c reM, cBor4M )Ke3JroM os cnoco6eH rBopr4rb ra 4o6poe, BceJrrt
cBe)Kae cI{JIbI B yroMneHHblx A.srcos (
. XIII,59 a c,re4.). Ilo6onsnes pkrryut eos4eficren-fl xesrol\4. Bo
fHeBe, pacKanblBa.s cKiuly, flocefilou yAap.{er rpesy6qena o cKarry (OA. IV, 506), a, noAAep)KHBzur cMeprHbrx
r-epoeB, oH nr4rrrb rrplrKacaercr K H]iM ]r(e3JroM (Zn. XIII, 59-60).
ZHoe 4elo KynbrypHble $ynrquu )Ke3JIoB ocrzurbHbrx npeAcraBuTelefi llaureosa. OHa raK)r(e o6la4aror
lraruqecrcofi cniloit, Ho cHJIa zx, oAHaKo, He pacfipocrpatfl,ercfl Ha crHXLtA npupoAbr, a ro,,rbKo Ha cMeprHbtx:
xr{Bbrx H yMeprxHx. A fnaeusre l{x cgoficrea [epeBonnourarr, lpo6pa:oBblBarb.
tr4Hrepec lpeAcraBnter )I(e3n fepveca, rBzDKAbr yroMqH]Tbrfi z <<kltuage)) a r.srb pa3 B <O4uccee>. llo
cBuAerenbcrey forvrepa, rJraBHbre ceoficrsa efo xe3Jra:
(...y cMepTHbrx, no eole sceclrlrHofi,
Cnona custrcaer oH oqu r{rrfi orBep3aery cnqlIlux) (
. XXIV, 343-344; OA. V, 47-48;XX|V,2-4).
E,rarogapr 3ToMy caoficrey, feprr.recy yAaercq He3aMerHo rrpoBecrr.t craporo flpuarvaB narepb Axulleca !.ns. BblKyna rela fexropa. B saKnloquremnoft r,rase (OArzcceu)) c rroMotubro roro )r(e xe3Jra 3nlrnft
I-epvrec ornpaBn.ser Ayrun y6rzrlrx OAncceev )r(eHaxoB s AuA:
<I4v oH MaxrryJr, 11, croJrnrcb, rroJrereru sa Oplruev reHa
C nn:rolr, KaK Mbrrrl4 reryqne, B HeApe rny6ororl [eulepbr...
Tarc, 3anu3xraB, loJlereJrz :a 3pvueM TeHa...D (Or.
IV, 5-9).
Maruqecxnua, lpeo6pa3ylourlzMr,r ceoficrsaN.ru HaA cMeprHrruz o6,ragaer )Ke3n-Tpocrr A$unbr, KacaHueM HJrl4 yAapoM Koroporo oHa nepeBonJloulaer O4uccer, o6laropaxuBar ero eHeurHrafi eu4 (Oa. XVI, 173
z cte!.), vru )Ke rlpeBpalqat ero B (xaJroro craprro (Ol. XIII, 430-434; XVI, 456-457). CxoasstMu Kaqecrnaua o6ragaer v )Ke3Jr-Tpocrb uapo4efircz I{upuen, [pzKoaHoBe:u:aer wrv yAapoM Koropol-o oua cloco6na

Volumul

l,

il3

Nr. 2

MOXHO yTBepXIaTb, qTO B Cnyqae HaAeneHHocTI4 STI,X repoeB CKr4neTpaMr.r HaBepull4.fl rrocJreAHr,rx AonxHbr
oMy Lr3 ornx repoeB KarrecrBa: Quzuue6rum 6tt I,I3o6paxarb ug ce6g, Heqro oco6eHHoe, cBoficrBeHHbre
nrc6oe [pocroe I4nH cJloxHoe aHTpoIIocKHe, rrpoQeccktoHzrJrbHbre r,rJrr{ rcuxuqecKue. 3ro Mouro 6sr

K

6lnl

3ooMopQnoe n:o6paKeHue utu tro6oir zHofi cnequSlrvecrzfi rpeAMer, roropuil, B coqeraHl{u c ApyrnMU BTopocrerreHHbrMu (o6reuHuMr{, qBeroBbrtrlu) eleneuraMlr, B IIenoM c MaKcHMaJIrnofi uoluorofi orpoxan 6st uuguyugyanbHbre oco6eusocrz cKr4nerpoHocr.rrer.fl. A uarepuaraMlr An{ r4x orrpeAMeqr,rBaHlr-f, onpeAeneHHo 6yuttt 6>t peAKrze [onyAparoueHHbre [opoAbr KaMHq, MerarrJrbr Anlr AepeBo, yKpaueHHbre npecrlt)I(HbIMI4 6pocruuu a[rIJI[KaIIrtMtt, BcraBKaMr4 c peAK]IM]r KpacnrerqMu.
Bropoft MoMeHr o6ulero rropf,AKa - 3ro Borrpoc o cneqz$raKe KyJrbrypHofi $yHxqzz cKr,rrrerpoB.
Paccllarpunat Bblrrre xe3Jrbr 6olon, Mbr rrpurrrnu K BbrBoAy, qro rJraBHuur ux Qynxqu.r - aro Marr.rqecKoe
nos4eftcrnue Ha cr4Jrbr nplrpoAbr r,r Ha caMr4x cMeprHbrx. Ilustnru [peAcro.sr t43 grroca Qyuxqrzu cxlruerpoa. Ouu
Hoc.sr B ce6e cyry6o o6rqecrneurryro - qeroBeqecKyro Harpy3rcy. Xorr HaJwtrrvrc cKnrrerpa, qro BrroJrHe ecrecrBeHHo, 6ylur y ero o6nagareJrr qyBcrBa caMoBJrro6reHuocrz A caMoBo3BbrureHr.ur (eunagu Axrura nporlzB
r4nr4

Arauelrnona). 3ru clrMBoJrbr paccquraHbr Ha oKp aroulr4x, Ha yrracrHrzKoB pLrryana - qJreHoB coBera, )AacrHI4KoB co6panua 14 Bcex oKpy)Karoqrx B rroBceAHeBnofi xugurz (aax<e npri norpy3Ke r<opa6rx - plrc. 54). LInaMH cnoBaMH, cKlIIIerp - oAl4H r,r3 ueHTpanbHbIX, 3plIMbIx o6rercros pl4Tyara BJ.racrH. Kcraru roBopt, Iz3 3Toro
noJro)KeHr,rq Ha[paurl{Baerca npocrofi rorh.{ecxufi BblBoA, a aMeHHo, rrro Bc.f, 3Ta cucreMa gHarcogofi cr,rMBoJrrlKH a3Har{uulbHo

6rna

BBeAeHa uMeHHo rrpeAcraBuTeJr.rrMr,

$opnaup rqefics

BJracrLt 6egorsoczreJlbHo

or $oprll

- a\r:,tuttucTparrrBHofi, BoeHHofi vnv penvr]ro3Hofi.
(1983,
flortrsyrcr o[peAeneHH.{r\av B. Tepnep
33 z cneg.), Mo)KHo cKa3arb, r{ro, ecJrr{ cKrrnerpbr BblcryIIaIOT B KaqeCTBe plrryZrJlbHofo CLIMBOJIa, TO pr4ryUurbH€Ur TeMa B HarIIeM Cnyqae - CaMa BJraCTb B pa3nUr{HbIX
ypoBH{x coqzamnofi }Ku3Hn. A ecln [p]r 3ToM BJracrb eure ]r 3aKoHHaq, To Karefopun cKnrrerp - 3aKoH I4nlr coep [po.flBneHr4r raKosofi: rpaxAaHcKoit

Br'Iacrb Bblcry[aror KaK oAHonop.rIAKoBbIe, oAHo3Har{HbIe IIoH.TIT}tt. CoorsercrseHHo, cK}Iflerpbl He rrro HHoe,
KaK cLIMBonu, z4eHrnQuuupyrculr4e 3aKoHoAep)Katetfl) cuMBoJr 3aKoHHo BnaAeroruero BJracrbro e npracyueft
o6ulecrny coqualruofi nepapxzrvt u, go6aeznr, B KoHKperHbrx ycnoBrrflx ee peanv3a\wt. OAuzx, cKzDKeM, B
ycnoBfi.sx vnpHofi xu3HH, h, [peAIIoJIo)K]ITeJIbHo, coBeplxeHHo HHbIX - B ycJIoBI4tx BoeHHofo BpeMeHI4.

Pnc. 54. l-lapu Aprecranai co cKunerpoM, Ha6nrc4anu1ui sa norpysrori xopa6nn.
l,4so6paxenrae Ha naKoHcKori .{aue ( no M.lz1. Maxctaruoeorz ra T.B. Snaearcrori).

V.4. Crunerpbt B ycfloBrf,x Mt4pHot4 xl43H14
Paccuorpau AaHHbIe o cKrlllerpax u cKr4rrerpoAep)Karenqx [prlMeHraTeJrbHo K ycnoBu.ru uupuofi >KH3HLI.
, orI,I AaHHbIe BecbMa Qparnrenrapnu. flpaueu [peAcraBneHbr oHH xax 6u B AByx BpeMeHHbrx
Kax: Ha MoMeHT lroBecrBoBaHvfl r4Jtv )r(e, KaK rrpeArxecrByrorque orrlrcbrBaeMrru co6rtrurlr. flepnue us
v cneAosaro 6rr o)KI4Aarb, nprrxoA.srct Ha <<O4zccero)), BTopbre llpvcyrcrByror KaK B (OAuccee)),

KaK

Volumull.Nr.2

tts

Vcep4no rpyrsrcs cKt4rlerpoHocHbre r{JreHbr ropoAcKr,rx coBeroB-craprleB. B oAHoM cnyqae oHH paccMarpuBaror rrx6u AByx cnopttyux (LIt. XV[I, 500 t'r cneg.). Crapqu l4rarcu o6cyxgaror, rro Hacrorntto
Televaxa, 6ecnoprgrca, TBopHMr,re xeHHXaMu lleHelonsl B AoMe orcyrcrByroulero OAraccer (O4. II, 9 u
cneg.). Ho qro lro6ourrrno, v34a orcyrcrBr,r.rr fJraBHoro cKr.InerpoHocqa - Uapf,
(...H4 coBeT He cxoAHjlacb HH pa3y c Tex [op, KaK oTcfoAa
I{apr O4ucc eil. . . y aastulct>>
- nplr3Haercfl oAnH I{3 ueHoB coBera (Oa. II, 25 n ctea.). A orcyrcrrosar OAncceft, KaK r43BecrHo, rre,rrx 20:rer.
OAuaro aAeKBarHoe coorBercrBrre noHgrufi cnrfnerp - 3aKoH - BJracrb sau6otee rroJrHo orpiDKeHo,
IIpI4rIeM, ABDI(ArI - B oAHoM cnyqae B ycrax Menropa (Aorepennoe Jrrzqo OArzcceq n I4raxe) Ha coBere crapqer (Oa. II,230 u cle4.), a Bo BTopoM - B ycrax cauoil ASrzHlr, rroKpoBr.rrenbHlrrrbr O1ucces, e ee o6paqeuun x 3ercy:
<Kporrcun, 6larnu u rrpvBernr{ernr 6url y)K Terrepb uu e1unu.ir
I{apr crcunrpouocHufi He AoJr)KeH, Ho, rrpaBAy rr3 cepArla H3rHaBurH,
Kax<Aufi rrycxafi npnrecHrer lro4eft, 6eg:arcoHcrsyr cMeno) (Oa. V, 8-10).
Zs npnregeHHoro $parl,renra orqerJrlrBo rrpocrynaer MbrcJrb, rrro orcyrcrBlre cKurrerpoHocrra-qap.s 3To orcyrcrsHe caN4ofi rlpaBAbr, T.e. 3aKoHa, a 3To paBHocHJIbHo xaocy - 6essaKoHuro.
Tarcoert ocHoBHbIe, BecbMa QparnrenrapHbre, Ho AocrarorrHo Bbrpa3r4TenbHbre AaHHbre o coqxarrbHofr
Qynrcqun cKHnerpoB B ycJloBlztx vrHpuoil )Kri3Hrr. 3Haqarelrso o6beMHee rrpeAcralor cKr,rrrerpbr KaK cHMBoJIbI BracTLI B ycnoBHtx BOeHHLIX co6uraft Tporucrcofi orlorleH, rAe oHH o6uapyxunaror 6olee nacHuleuurrfi
u pasuoo6paguttfi xonreKcr, rrro caMo [o ce6e npe4nonalaer 6oluuyro ax 3Har{uMocrb.
V.5. Crunerpbt B ycnoBilFx Tpogncrota eot4l-tsr
Bofisa ecrr sofiHa. Tev 6o:ree soilHa (Me)KAyHapoAHa.rr) c yqacrneM c rcaxgoft cropoHbr AecrrKoB ropoAoB-focyAapcrB, MHo)KecrBa (nJreMeH r,r KoJreH)), coreH - 6onee rbrcrqu (1186) ropa6lefi ra n o6u1efi
cJIo)I(HocrH oKono 100 rsrcqq cpalKarox{Hxcr (Knefiu 2000, 2l). Couacso fepo4ory (VII, 20), ,rarur KcepKcy yAalocb crtycr.fl croreru.fl co6pars 6oluruee soficKo Anf, iloKopeuux llepe4uefi Azuu.
OpraHn:aqul, o6ecleveHlae v y[paBneHr.re croJrb MHoroquclennoft aprr,ra4oil lpeAnonaraer r]erKy]o
crpyKrypy BJlacrH I,I [o foptr3oHTiuur, u rro BepruKasru..VI gra crpyKTypa, HecMorpc Ha Kan<yIr1yrccq Ha [epartfi n:u.r4 avropQHoct (c,ry.rafi Axnn,ra, roropsrfi us-sa rcouQlvrKTa c AraneptrouoM AoJrro Bo3Aep)Kr{Burnct or yqacrkrr B cpzuKeHurx), nnolne or{eBLrAHa.
Kax4stfi, KTo xort 6rr pa^: npor{HTzur foMepoBcKr,rfi gnoc, yBepeH, [oMHr4T, qro Bce rrpeAcraBr4Tenrz
axeficrofi KoaJII4IIHH $opnranruo H ge$axro 4eficrnoealH rroA o6uluvr [peABoAr4reJrbcrBoM Aranreuuosa rJIaBHoKoMaHAyIoqefo o6r,e4nHeuubrx cHJr. Co cropouu rpoqHqeB HocHTeJrrMl, :rux $yHrqufi s;;rcrynaet
lexrop, cuH llpnalr a - \aps. LIluoua.
C,re4yroulunal4 ro HllcxoAsulefi vAyT \apa, BoxAI,l - rpeABoAt4retu 29 ryyllfi ropa6nefi. HaAo nonNMarb, rtro oHu rapre paruKl4poBaHbr MexAy co6ofi, BeAb r{r,rcJto rIpHBeAeHHblx r{Mn r<opa6nefi BapblrpoBnno or
90 - Hecrop, 80 [uorr,re4 ntul4gorvreuefi, go 12 - Oluccefi, I I - 3sN{er, vJrv raxe r.r roro MeHbrr]e.

Hrz:uryrc cryleHb B 3ToM pflAy KaK 6y4ro 6rr sauHN{anr4 BoeBoAbr. Ouu nrrcrynaror KaK [peABoAr{Tenr4
orlenbHblx fpyrtrt rcopa6lefi, corloAr{r{HeHurre o6ulenry [peABoAr,rreJrro. llpunaep roMy, Kopa6nu uuprr.rugonrH (50, no 50 rpe6qoe-noaHoe). Oura npn6rrnr4 rroA o6rqprru npeABoAr4reJrbcrBoM Axulleca, Ho HaxoAlrJrucb
noA [pqMbIM pyKoBoAcrBoM qerbrpex pinnr4qHbrx, cnerrr4zrJrbHo rrocraBneHHsx AxnlloM, BoeBoA (I,In. XVI,
168 n c,rea.). Cne4yer IloJlafarb, rlro BoeBoAbr raKxe 6ruu pasHux paHfoB. LI6o, ecrtu B nocneAHeM cnyqae
Ha KiDKAoro BoeBoAy npnxoALrnocb rro rr.f,T[, rcopa6nefr u coorBercrBeHHo no 250 BoHHoB, To, cJreAyr cnzcKy
rcopa6lefi, Ha KOI(Aoro Hs eoeeoA-6eornfrqen nprrxoAunocb B cpeAHeM no 10-12 xopa6nefi c Jrr4qHbrM cocrasola 6oree 1200 eonHoz (Vn.II,494 w crreg).
lloruulro paHxllpoBaHHoro no Beprr,rKruru <oQnquarbHofo)) Kop[yca BJracrr,r, Ha rrepvoA soeHHofi rcaN{raHuld Aeficraosan cBoefo poAa (BoeHurrfi coeer)), co3blBaBlruittcs, to uepe neo6xoAl{Mocrkt rJIaBHoKoMaHAyloull4M -ArauentuoHoM LtnH IIo IrHrrrIHarr,IBe qJreHoB coBera. t{lenaurl coBera flBrrflrorcfl ryqilrr4e rr3 nyqIIIl4x: Ilapn, BoxI[, repolt v npr41nwKeHHbre rJIaBHoKoMaHAyroUefo. Baxso o6parzrr BHLMaHHe, qro r]JIeHcrBo B coBere orlpeAeJltnocb He qncJroM rrpr{BeAeHHblx trMr4 rcopa6neft (cxaxenr, A.srcc Terar,toHr.rA rrpr.rBeJl
scero 15 xopa6,refi, a Oguccefi eqe MeHbrxe - l2), cKoJrbKo ero aBTopr.rreroM, oco6brMr4 ruqHblMn KaqecrBaMV BolKAe - npeABoAllrenr., z, KaK yBt4AUM Aaree, He B rrocneAHroro oqepe ar 6luzocrbro K flepcoHe fnaBHOKOMaHAyTOU{efO.

Volumul

I.

Nr. 2

aAMIrHItcrpaTaBHofi - fpDI(AaHcKofi Bnacr[, fAe KaxAbtitt cav no ce6e vr He3aBvrcLrM or ocrilrrbHtx. lpyroe
AeJ'Io, BoeHHat KaMnaHus- o!.Ha, o6qar, Ha neplroA noropofi cKr4nerpoHocrlbl BTIOJIHe MoTJIH 6rt 6rrrr cna6-

xeHbt cxoAHbIMI4 no z:o6paxeHuro cK{4nerpaMr4, rr}icrb

AzDKe

c

KaKVMt4-To oco6bIMI4, BTopocTerIeHHbIMn,

aHAHBhAyanE,HbrMH qepTaMI4.

Ceoeo6paaHbIMI,I, AonlKuo 6rnr, BbrrJuAerr4 r{ cKr,{nerpbl BeerHLIKoB, Koropbre, B oAHoM cnyqae, nAgHrr'r(pr'rqrapoeanuLT2es KaK npeAcraBtTeJrn rporHcKoro, aTat|m6nr
- KaK.rp"4ituurtort axelzcKoro craHoB

vx ((IJTaBHOKOMaHAyIOqITX).
ArqeHrupyt BHI4MaHue Ha 3TI't o6croqrerrcrBa, Mbr AoDKHbr rroMHHTb, qro B roMepoBcKyro 3noxy o[o3HaBareJIbHar, ngeuruSilLll4pytoqat 3HaKoBat cr.rMBo;ruKa 6ula upe:nrrqafiuo pa3Br4Ta.
Bcnovnnlr, * nprMepy' pa3nurIHTeJlbHoe oQoprrllenze HocoBbIX qacrefi r,rJrz oKpacKy puuHbrx rpyn[ rcopa6left, npu6rreuzx
n
Arna4y B orlHcaHnla Eepunrz4a (V$ureuut e Aelu4e, 235 a c,re4.). Bcnounrlrur rlgeHraQvqqpyrotqfle r,r3o6paxSeHu.r Ha Il(HTax eoxrefi A Irpv3HaHve crapuKa Anrnrone B ApyroM rrpora3BeAeHulr rofo )Ke aBTopa:
<<A suxy Ha uJ[Tax aso6paxeur.r
Bsr,r.ruye Ha HHX, .s y3Haro soxAefi) (@nHraxururcn, l4l ra cne4.).
Clegyroulue ABa acneKTa, Koropbre noAJIe)Kar paccMorpeHzo, 3To Bonpoc o nuqax unv opraHax, HaAenq toqr4x cKr4 nerpaMr r{ rr o;r H oMo rr vI flMLr cKvfirerpogepxarel e fi .
Cne4eHn.r fonaepa o JIItLIax, HaTervIBuur4x AraveuuoHa cKrrrrerpoM, rrporrrBopeqr4Bbr, a KacareJrbHo cKr,rprJrll

rrerpoB ocruulbHblx eo)KAefi - qneHoB (BoeHHOfO COBera) BOBCe OTCyTCTByIOT.
O nponcxoN4eHrll'I cKl,Inerpa AraueuuoHa fovrep Aaer rpu BepcLrr4. Anrop qerbrpe)KAbr yKil3brBaer, qro
cKHrlerp Aralteuuony Aan, (AapoBan), yAocrotut Lrecrv caNa 3esc (I4r. II,2A5-206),nlz Kpourzou Olnunn-

eq (I4r. IX,37-38;98-99), qro oAHo LI ro )Ke. B AB),x rxe ApyfHX cnyqaflxfoBopurc.s o6 <orqoecKoM, BoBeKpr
ue ru6HyureM cKurlerpe, (kI:r.II,46, 186). Ho HMeerc.a eqe rperb.s Bepcvs, Koropyro Mbr rrpr,rBoAuM rroJrHocrsro. ByAyvH a3roroBJreH feQecrou,
<Crculrp ceft fe$ecr AapoBan MoJlHeHocHovry 3ercy Kpoungy;
3enc nepe4a-n Bo3BecrzreJruo fepruecy, aproy6rzfi r1e;

fepnrec Bpyqrn yKporrzrenrc ronefi lleloncy reporc;
KouHrlx llelonc [epeAaJr BnacreJrr{Hy HapoAoB Arpero;
C eit, y tv.up at, cr a1aMn 6orarouy npeAa.n Ouecry,
14

Quecr, HaKoHerr, Arauenruony

B poAbr ocraBlrJ'r,

C e,lacrrrc HaA rsnaoff ocrpoBoB n Ha4 AprocoM, rlapcrBoM rrpocrpaHHrru> (Zl. II, 102-108).
Ha Ta6t. 15 lpe4craBJleHa poAocnoBHas. pola Aravenruona 14 (poAocroBHas) el-o cKrrrrerpa, h3
rcoropoil BIIOJIH€ oqeBI.lAHo, r{To [epeAar{a cKutterpa, cne1yfl npzurrofi feHeaJlort4l,r, llJla He no nptn'tofi pogcrneusoil lrvHr4u, a nz6wpare.JrbHo: or 3eeca cbrHy fepvecy; or lepueca
- cbrHy 6para TaHraJra' rrjleM.sHHHKy - lleloncy; or llelonca * cbrHy Arpero. llocle4ulrfi nepeAan cKurerp ceoeuy 6pa-

ry - @uecry, a 3ror -- ueMtHHrzrcy (cuuy Arpea) - Araveuuouy. ,{anee poAocnoBHar o6p"reaerc",
n6o,

rcarc

u3BecrHo,

Sfnct, csrg (Duecray6ust Aranreunona, He3aKoHHo rrpacBolrB ce6e u ero qapcrr.rfi
u cne4.), a 3rzcr, B cBoro oqepeAb, 6rrn y6ur Opecron - cbrHoM

cKHnerp (EnpHnug, 3lercrpa, 320

Aravevruoua (Ta6n. I 5).
Kanofi uz nepcuir orAarb npeAnoqreHze? KoHeqso, r{nrareJrb, KaK [peAraral fepo4or, BoJreH BepHTb
lro6oft H3 HLIX. Ho ltHe rlpeAcraBnterc{, riro B 3noce c aHbl ABa pa3Hbrx cKlrrrerpa. LIz npusege"oao otpbIBKa coBepIIIeHHo oqeBI4AHo, tITo per{b HAer o cKl4nerpe Arauelruoga, rroJryqeHHoM IrM B Kar{ecrBe qapt.
Ha sro yKa3blBaer AoIIonHeHue <C enacrblo HaA rrruofi ocrpoBoB u Ha4 AprocoM,
uapcrBoM rrpocrpaHHbrM)).
V zaecY, onocpeAoBaHHo, qepe3 r,slLto - @Hecra - 6para orqa AraueMHoHa, BrrorHe BrrlrcbrBarorcr ynoMrHyTbre Bbrrrre ofipeAeneHr,rr (orrtoBcK]rft, nonercu He ru6uyrunfi crcunerp>.
Zuoe 4e,ro cKlrrlerp, KoropblM AralreuHou 6lrr y4ocroeH B KarrecrBe <(rJlaBHoKoMaHAyrorqero)) BoeHuofi rcoaluqueil nporun Tpor,r. gecrr sra 6rrra oKa3aHa elry 6eccropHo 3eecou Oruunnfiqeu. Ho He 6olee
qeM r{ecrb. H6o crcunerp 3Tor 3aKoHHo uor 6rrrr BpyqeH eMy
ronbKo HapoAoM - efo [pe/IcraBrzreJrrMkt, T.e.
\apflMld - BO)KrlflMa - coBeToM, rIpllHtBrxLIMI{ peneH}Ie o cauofi eoeHHOfi sKcneAVUr.rU axeflH.
K cvacrrrc, MexaHu3M uz6pauun [peABoAI,ITeteit, a coorBeTarBeHHo, H HaAeJreHrze HX cr,IMBonaMu Bracrv orqerJlHno o6uapyxvBaercs e <<6aftre>>, paccKa3brBaenaofi O4racceeM nacryxy-cBHHonacy Enlrerc:
<C l4AonreneeM, uapeM MHorocJraBHbrM, or Kpr4TrH 6tul us6pau
f. c rcopa6txMt4 LIAT:a rcVtmouy; u 6ruo orper{bct
Hana HesogN4o)KHo: Mbr BJracrbro HapoAa oKoBaHbr 6smu>> (oa. XIV, 237-23g).
06 sroN'l )Ke paccKuBllBaer !{ Meuerafi, o ce6e a o cBoeM 6pare ArauerrHoHe, B TpareAr,ruEspunnna:
<C AraveuHoHoM - 6parou, gnp< repoea?
Be: noxeanr6ll cKasart Mory: B TaKoM

Volumul

I Nr 2

119

(...3eBc npo3opnnBblfi
Cxnnrp AapoBan Iz 3aKoHbr . . .) (LIn, II,205-206).
Bo nropov cryqae Qopnay,ra 3Ta 3Byqllr B ycrax Hecropa:
(...rbr rrapb, H re6e epyuul O:rnlrnueq

Cxzurp H 3aKoHbr, Aa cyA ra coBer rrpon3Hocntxb HapoAy) (Hn. IX, 98-99).
tr4tarc, cnuuerp - 3aKoH - cyA rr coBer. ,{yuaerc.r, KoMMeHTapvH 3Aecb pr3nvrLlHr4. Kar ra B cnyqae c
LIapcKI.{MH cKHrIerpaMH B ycnoBlagx MI{pa, cKlrrerp B BoeHHofi o6craHoaKe ecrl cl4MBo,'r fIoJIHoBracrHr ero
o6ta1arets.. florHosnacrnr, Bbrporaroqefoc.s B rrpaBe cKlrrlerpoAep)€Tenr rrpnHaMarb peIIIeHHt rI orAaBarb
pacnop,rlxeHrar (rnopnrs rarcoH); npoBeprrb Lrx HcrroJrHeHrre, [oorqpsA t4rrvt HaKa3brBaq ucnor.rHuTerefi (rnopr,rrb cyA), co3blBarb fi olpeAenrrb cocraB ((BoeHHoro coBera)) u, go6anurt, caMocroflTerrbHo BbrrroJrH.rrb
xeprBorlpltHouleHlr.q H Bo3rrltflHrza 6oralr, T.e. BbrrroJuurrr Qyuxqr,rn )KpeIIa.
O6par4aer ua ce6x BHr,lMaHUe ro, r{To s o6eux rrpzBeAeHHbrx Qoprvrynax cJroBo (cKunerp) cro}IT Ha rlepBoM Meere, T.e. flonyqaercr, qro lrMeHHo 6raro4apl Hillrnqr4ro cKl4rrerpa rrasHllfi vB axer'H - ArauelrHon

craHoBuTcr [paKTuqecKu eAuHoHaqaltbHI{KoM, o6laAaroulnM BJracrb}o HaA BceM vBcg.Il{rorra rloJlyqaerct,
r{To I{MeHHo 6laro4ap.r cKr.rflerpy oH HaAen.f,ercq aBTopoMlasropavn,6orauu, Eav cawuv.H cnoABtDI(HaKaMpl
TaKllMl4 3III4T9TaMI,I, KaK: (IIaCTLIpb-BnaAbIKa HapOAOB), (MHOfHX HapOAOB qapb) llJII4 (IIOB9JIarelS n'tyNefi
rlpocrpaHHo4epxanHufi)), (crporzreJlb para axeficrofi> LTJTLI ((BJracrr,ro BepxoBHsrfi>>, <gepxaBurtft>, (cJIuIIrKoM MoryrrlecrseHHbrft)), rrJrrr ((My)K coBera) n np., Koropbre, pas6pocaHHbre rro BceMy reKcry <<I4tuaast>>, c

orpaxalor ef o, cKlrrrerpoHoc qa Araueuuoua, rloJlHoMor{lr.fl .
uesee 3Har{L{TeJrbHr,tlru 6u,ru [oJlHoMoqr4fl ocrzulbHblx cKrlrrerpoqep>xare,refi - nyLIUTHX I43 nyqrrrux upu6,ruN<euHbrx K hanHoiuy - qJreHoB coBera. PasHnrra Jrn[rb B ToM, qro oHu BJracrHbI HaA BceML HI{xecro.{urnMn tro paHry, Ho rrpfi 3ToM rroJrHocrbro HaxoA.srcr B roAqaHeHvrr <<fnagHoro)). Bc[oMHI,Irt rcouQrurcr
Axutleca c AraveusoHoM r{ MyApoe HarroMuHaHrae Hecropa:
<Tsr, Axlrlrec, Bo3Aepxficb ropAenr4Bo c rlapeM nperrrlparbcr:
pa3HbrMr4 HroaHcaMI4

lle

...MyxecreoM Tbl 3HaMeHur..

.,

Ho calrsefiurufr:4ecr oH (Aranellnou - B.!.)r, (LIt.I,277 u c,qea.).
Heocnopnvoe npeBocxoAcreo Arar4eMHoHa orKpbrro npH3Haercs caMr4M Axarlecopl, KorAa B orBer Ha
rrpegnoxeHue Klureusecrpbr noAarr efi pyny rcarc 6y.4yuefi rerqe HII o qeM He BeAarcuui Axur,rec orBeqaer:
<9ro nonopnrur? ... MHe ocrop6urr, qap.r,
Pyrcofi efo Kaca-sc-s cerrbrHu !) (Enpznu4, I4$ureuut e Ar,rn4e, 833-834).
Bepxoneucrso AraN4eN{HoHa HaA BceMt{ cKr.rrrerpoHocuaMu HeoAHoKparHo noAqepKfiBaercr Bo MHo)KecrBe Apyfax curyatlui,t, He r.rcKJtroqa.s H cKHnerpoHocHofo 6para Meuela.r:
<9ro Ne MHe rbr npaKoxerrrb H KaK rroBeJruurs, Alalretruou?> (I4n. X, 61).
kI aaro [pl43Harlc.q, qro K qecru cKarrerpoHocua AranaevHoHa H oKpyx(aroqux ero cKnnerpoAep)I€Telefi, uecvo.tpa ua o6urnpHocrb rro,'lHoMoru{it, ouu BnoJrHe cnpaBn{rorct c HLrv'rr.

flpovrure LItnagy. Caivocroqre rrbHo vtrv coBMecrHo c upu6ruxeHHbrMn - qJreHaMr{ coBera, oHu crpo.sr
parn, <eo:6yx(AaroD) eofiHoe; sa6or.f,cl o 6egoracuocrv erana, crporr o6opouuremHrril poa c qacroKonoM;
B;ICLITaTOT na3yTqhKOB; [przHuMaroT nocJroB ]i3 Apyofo cTaHa; BeAyT ileperoBopbr c Axzrneconr; o6ecnevuBarcT nocryuleHr4e BHHa a [poAyKToB; salorsrcx o norpe6eHnri yco[rxnx, BpaqeBaHr,rn paHeHbrx. flaneHcrByfl, HaA BceMpI, AraueuHou nocToflHHo co3brBaer Conerrr, pacnop')Kaerc.r{ qepe3 rJIaIIraraeB 14 BecrHrlKoB,
nplrocraHaBrrlllBaer cpoxeHue 4rr norpe6euut y6urstx, crpaBJrrer )r(eprBonpnHomeHus n Bo3;rr4;rHz.a 6olalr,
ycTpanBaeT rrLrpbt, JlHr{Ho yqacTByeT B cpa)KeHurx

11

rrpoqee.

O6paularor ua ce6s BHrzMaHUe 6ln:r.<airnne x AranrerrsoHy cnoABr.Dr(H:aKH - cKfinerpoHocrlbr (BTopofo
paHfa). Osn ero fraBHbre coBerHnKlr, oHrz BcerAa B fyrqe co6l;,ruit Lt B craHe, u B cpaxeHu.sx. OnH x(e [epBbre Ha nupax. LIz ttnx xe ns6aparorcq roconbcrea (tr4tr.IX,79 ra cle4.). OHa nepesrMr.i Bbr3brBarorcr coBeptxt4Tb onacHylo HorrHyro Br,rna3Ky (I4tt. X, 219 vt c,reg.). Ouu xe, HaKoHeu, KaK r{3BecrHo, BoIIIT'IH B Koptryc
AepeB.sHHoro KoHfl, o6ecne.rug B3.{Tue Tpou. V Bce 3To npuxoAurc.g Ha cKr.rrrerpoHocrreB, 6rzxafiuux cnoABLI)KHHKoB Arar,reltroHa, a 3To Bce re xe - Hecrop, MeHelafi, O4uccefi, o6a Arr<ca, I,IAouesefi, !uolre4,
Opa:uue4 A 1pyrve.
Ho qro lrc6onrrruo, npu lpaKruqecKn HeorpaHr4qeHHofi srtacrv o6na1antre cKnnerpoM flpeAnonafaer H
MHorIze oco6rte KaqecrBa - o6.gsarerucrBa, Br;rroqar foroBHocrb )KeprBoBarr co6ofi u 6luxttutnlr pa1u yanexa o6ulero Aena. floxa:are:rrHbr B 3ToM rrraHe o6nuHeHn.s luattega, o6parqeuurre r AravelrHouy B Mr{}ryTLI efo cla6ocru, srlseaHuofi ycnexaM}1 AaHafiUes u foroBHocrbro AfaMeMHoHa orrrJrbrrb B oreqecrBo:
<!ap luurr eguan;it re6e gapoea.n xr{TpoyMHbrfi KpoHzoH:
Crcnnerpou Bracru cnaraTbcr AzrJr oH re6e nepe4 BceMlt,
Tnep4ocru )K He Aa-r, a rcoropoft BepxoBuar BJracrb .{enoBeKa!) (Z:r. IX, 3-l u crc*).

Cnegyr pa:pa6orrau B. Tspuepa, a raKxe yqnrr,rBas paHee

BbrrBJreHHbre corlr4zrnbHbre fiapaMerpbr axefiCyTu, BblCry[aIOT B KaqeCTBe AOMkHaHTH],IX pUTyaJlbHblx cI4MBoJIoB, a KoHTeKcr t4x pezrnu3arlr4v-caMpvryan BJ'racrrr, Pnryan BJtaervr, Koropbrfi, B cBolo oqepeAb, crpyKTypHo npeArlonaraer MHo)Kecreo 6oree Apo6usx, KparHbrx paryanoB, B coBoKyrrHocrtr
opneHTI4poBaHHbIX Ha ycnelxHyro pea,'Ih3allLllo qeJIOfO Ll, COOTB€TCTBOHHO, [pegneAyeMlX qe,refi.
3rz 4po6ulle pl4Tyzrnbl (co3Aarcr) ueo6xo4nlrbre ycJroBr4.rr An.s BbrpaKeHrr.fl ((onpege:reuHoft>r KoHKperHofi TeMbI (<<uocrylarrr r4lru une:a)>), nepe4aaaelrofi rocpeAcrBoM pnryzrnbHofo cIzMBoJla B coqeraHr,ru
c onCKHX CKl4[eTpOB, MO)KHO yTBep)KAaTb, r{TO IIOCJ'I€AHU€, nO

peAeneHHbIMI{ xecTaMII, cJIoBaM}I

v

ApyrvMkr cpeAcTBaMI4

ro:4etlcrnzt

Ha oKpy)Karoutl4x. Y.{zrrlna.fl rroJtLr qro Lt rleHTpanbHat Surypa
pt4ryana' H npoque yqacrHfiKH t]ocJleAHefo, a oco6euuocrl4 aApecar pvryara
Aon)KHbr 6brrt e pannori crerreHH cBeAy4ll B ceMaHTI'IKe cIzMBoJIa, Aa6r,t aAerearHo BocnpnHuMarb 3urJroxeHHyro B pr{ry4ne reMy.
Hecnaorpr Ha ornocltreJlbHo orpaHuqeHHoe qlrcJro yrroMr{HaHzfi crcanerpoB, roMepoBcxufi gnoc B rIeJroM
Aaer [peAcraBneHue o AocraroLlHo pa:Hoo6pa3Hblx pvryalrax, B KoropbIX cIlMBor'IHKa Braarv 3aHnMaer oAHo
ceMaHTutlHocrb pHryaJIa

u

caMoro pl4ryanbHofo caMBoJra, rroApa3yMeBaercfl,,

I{3 IIeHTpanbHbIX Mecr. Paccquraussle Ha oKpy)Kaloqux, Bbrcryflar B KaqecrBe KoMMyHHKaUr.toHHoTpaHcntqaoHHblx cpeAcrB, 3pltMo coo6tll rlax pilLt npeAy[pe)Klalorlr4x oKpy)Karcuux o BbrcoKorr,r oQrnqziuIbHoM paHfe Hnh nonHoMoqutx efo Hocr.rreJlr, cKllrrerpbr flBlrfltorcfl HenpeMeHHbrtr arpu6yroM, HzullrqecrByrorllHM Bo BCeX OQnqna-ntubrx Bcrpeqax, He3aBr.rcuMo or trx xapaKTepa u ypoBHr.
Vcroeuo Bce 3Tu oSnqzanrnble Bcrpertu Mo)KHo o6ogHaquru KaK przryurnbr npeAcraBureJ,rbcrB. flolo6Hoe o6osuarleHve, Bo3MoxHo, He caMoe yAaqHoe, Ho, c rortKla 3peHLIt aBTopa, oHo npn3BaHo orpa3l4Tb
AByypoBHeBoCTb BJTaCTH Aep)KaBuefo B cBolrx pyKax cKznerpoHocqa.
{e,ro B ToM, .rro ac.srcufi, ua4ereauufi
cKallerpoM, no cyrI4 rcax 6u Bblcrynaer B AByx unocracflx. K nputrepy, cKa)KeM, Arauentron, errgregurufi co
oKrzflerpoM nepeA axedqauu. Bce 4ora4trBarorcr lrJlH ToqHo 3Ha]or, r{To oH rltaaFmrfi fipeABoAr.rrell. Ho qe_
pe3 cKHlerp' o KoropoM oIItrb-TaKI'l Bce 3Halor, qro AraruenaHoH HaAeJ'IeH HM Jrlrr{Ho 3escoNa (napo4ona),
oH,
Aralteltuou, Bblcrynaer rcan 6rt He roJrbKo or cBoero Jtl.rqa, Ho H or nvrra caMofo Onranrnr.rfqa KponroHa

(z,ru cauoro uapoga).
Lrttu, cxuxerv, cttyuait c BecroBbIMV, rrpvtocraHaBJllIBaroulvvrl cpa)l.oate rrpa rroMollrr cKkrnerpog. Bo:Mo)I(Ho' cpDKaloql4ect 3Haror JIuqHo uI4les rrraruurafl Tpo.sH, uTat$n6us
Hraufarafl, axesl. Ho cxuner-

-

pbl B r'rx pyKax qepe3 cBoro ctrMBonr.rKy onpeAeneHHo yKa3brBarcT cpDKaroqLr Mcq, r{To nepatrfi [r3 Ha3BaHHbrx
rlpeAcraBnser caMofo fercropa, a eropofi caMoro Aralrentroua, u cpzDKalon1necfl. rrpt4ocraHaBrasalor
6ofi
(I4n. VII,274ucrcp.).

K puryalan'r [peAcraBuTenbcrBa orHoc.rrrcr, 6eccnopuo, uepeMoHrzr4 cKpe[neHr4.s AofoBopoB, o6uqr.ranl43lzpylotullx [oKopeH]re rofo I4nLI I,IHofo HapoAa, aKT rrprr3HaHuq Hosofi B;Iacrrr. Bcnotftrnnr Bcrper{aroqnec's B snoce Bblpax(eHHt ((rIoA cKrllrerp efo noKopnn ux Kpouuou, (kIn. VI,
159). Crola )Ke norraAa]or o$zqrauL'IbHbIe Bcrpequ MecrHbIX sracrefi co cryvafuo 3aexaBlrnM (HHocrpaHHbrM) rocreM (Oa.
VIff, 4 n crc1);
<pa6ovue> 3ace/iaHzrfl, ((coBeroB crapefiurrlu), npoxon.sultrx BceHapo4uo (O4. II, 8 u cle4.),
ycrroBqrx

aB
Bce oneparlrBHble 3ace,'aHrrfl (BoeHHbrx coBeroB)) ullz <o6rqesoftcKoBbrx)> co6pauuit,
Ha KOTOpbrx pe[a[oTc.r{ ocHoBHtle Bo[pocbl MoMeHTa.
Cxunerpavu npuocraHaBJlplBalor cpa>KeHrq (I41. VII, 275 u cne4.); rroA cKnrerp Aol-oBaphBalorcr o
BoeHHoro BpeMeHIa

-

flpoc'qr a yMon{Ior (Llt. I, 12 u cte/..). Hanoueq, cKunerpoM Mo)KHo 6sl,ro <o6y:Aarb) ns6ynroear
utuxc,x
(I4r. II, 198-199) n ocnop6lrrcrlux rJIaBHor-o cxznerponocqa ( .II,265,268),ucnoltb3y.s
ero ilpocro KaK

yAapHoe opyAue.

cro c6opa coBera crapefiurua

I'r HapoAa.

Onzcsrear yqacrue Terelraxa e pa6ore coBera craprreB I4raru,

fo-

Mep aKlleHrvpyer, r{ro (ceJl ou (Tenenaax
- B.A,) Ha Mecre orrloBoM) (Oa. II, l4), uz qefo creAyer, qro MecTa Ha arope 6rt:ru znaeHHbIMI4, corJlacHo paHry 14 noJroxeHuro. Ha qeHrpanbHyro
trnoqaAb ropoAa co3brBaer

Mecrou coBeplxeHut pvlryana uor 6rtrr AoM caMoro \apfl,
(An," yroule
trpLrrJ.ta,,,€uorc.s rocru
'.,s>>
VIII, 10 n '.y1a
cle4.). B co6crneuHlrfi
xre AoM npr4Hr4Maer
Teleuaxa rlpecrapeJ'rbr I Hecrop:
H Bce ((cKI'I[TpoAep)KaBHbIe)) BraAbIKvl Lr cy!.bLt (Og.

<Brrrue4

r43

crrilrrbHn, oH cen Ha o6recaHHblx, fraAKl,rx, mrrpoKl,rx

Prc. 55. Crearhroaurri <ry6or nphHqa) us Ahafpuapa (no Fr. MaD).

Bor AraueruHou co6lrpaerc.fl Bbrcrynr,rrb rrepeA axefi qalrn :
<Bcnprury,r Arprzl. . .; Boccer oH l,r MrrKr,rM oAencr xHToHoM,
Hoalrv, rpeKpacHblM, 14 cBepxy ua6pocnl urr4poKyro pa3y;
K 6eluu HoraM rrpr,rBr3urn flpeKpacHoro BHAa rrnecHr.rrlbr,
Cnepxy paMeH nepeKr4Hyn 6tucraretarrrft ueq cpe6porroe4urrft ;
B pyxu x(e B3rBtrrlt orqoecrcuft, BoBeKu He rz6nyrqufi, cr<unerp,
c uuv ororrreJr rc rcopa6rlu MeAqHoAocreurHbrx AaHaeB) ( . II, 4r-47).
Vrax'. ece HoBoe, [peKpacHoe, 6,rec'rrtqee. . . A eeAr 6s'l y ArauenrHosa eqe <<senvK'lrir.. . 11na111 rrypnyponrtfi> (I'In. VI[, 221).llpuxpofire uaga u noo6parure, (HMarr4Hr.r:upyfire>, KaK cKa3an 6u M. O;1uap,-e'.
Ho not, co3BaHHbIe ':ralnrtaflMr qJIeHbr coBera u (unu) HapoA cxoAqrcfl. Paccaxzearorcr Ha (yqpexIleHHblx Mecrax). flpexge paccarl4Barcr <6laro4yl,rHrrx crapefiulzn> (I4,r. II, 53). <<Boe4uHo co6paelrzcr>
(kltt. I,57), rcorga <co6pauue cAerzulocb rroJlHLIM)) (Ol. II, 9), uaurarafl ((r-racoM fpe MruIlrM, foBop Mqre)KusIfi>> cvap.rror (I4n. II,98). Moxno HaquHarb. flo4pasyuenaerefl, qro Bce cKurrerpoHocr-lbr
cr,rA.rrr rro cBorlM
MecraM, rlplt cBoltx per&nl49x. 9ro6u BbrcryrILITb, oHH rrolHlrMarorcr co cKrrrrerpoM B pyKax, (BbrxoA.sr
rreoqeBrzAHo, coBer

-

rrauturair, coBerHr,tK (Zn. XVIII, 505; Oa. II, 3g).

Ho sor co6paune Haqu:naercs:

(...

Boccr[u] AranenaHog,

C qapcrneHHblM cKrl[rpoM B pyKax, oflzunufiqa feQecra co3AaHbeM) ( . II, 100-101).
ltI Aatee cneAyer rIoJIHat, paHee rrpHBeAeHHa{ (poAocnoBHar) cKanerpa AraveunoHa, o Koropofi, calro
c avo h noApa3yMeB aer c fl., y)Ke xopolIlo r{3 BecrHo BceM rrp t4 cyrcrBy}oul}rM.

Ho nrtcrynaer rJIaBHoKoMaHAyrotuI4fi. A on, cneAyfl fouepy, BecbMa H BecbMa 3a3HaB[ra.f,ct
$urypau

Ilapb, (Berlzrn K BocceA.tIqLIM axetM)), ((onnpaqcb Ha cKHnrp> czoit (kIst.II, 109).
A sor Apyroft KoHTeKcr, Apyroe uryMHoe co6pauze:
<... Ho BoccraJt OAnccefi rpa4o6opeq,
C cxznrpou B pyKax; H npr,r HeM cBerrooKa_f, gena,flattaga,
B o6pase BecrHHKa craB, noBeJrena vMonKHVTr

9ro6 z

e 6rLDKHax

prAax,,

4-"r.r" rcrlir"

"
peqa ero lr rocrafHynz
pa3yM coBera)) (LIn.II,Zlg_Zg2).
Boo6pa:nre ce6e cqeny: KpacoqHylo, IxyMHylo; o6rqeusaecrHrrfi scev Oaucceil,
Aa erre rrpn HeM caM
o6pas 4enlt llaana4u! Yqrure nplr groM eu{e onpeAeleugrtfi roJlocr HHToHaqraIo, xecrrrKyJlrlqfiro,
il He B
fiocneAHro]o oqepeAb - cyrS caMHX npou3Hocr.rMblx cJroB,
AA h CAM BnA BbrcryflaroDlero oAucce.fl.
<on, 6larovbrcJrr4r norHufi, szruficrson.n... [epeA coHMoM) (krn. lr, t|3).

Cruuralr

Volumul

l.

1)5

Nr. 2

V.7. HnpcrAf, BnAcrb

t4

cKrnETpbr B cl,tcrEME (HAcnEAoBAHt4flD

Bolpoc o cucreMe BJIacTLI 14 rIpaBHJIax HacneAoBaHr4r rlapcKoro caHa B roMepoBcKolr o6qecrne HeoAHoKparHo paccMarpaBanes, B crleUuztrlbHbIx pa6orax (Jlocer 1960, 9l v cre/-; JleuqlraH 1963; Bnaaarcrar
1966; Asryees 1976, 46 u crc1,.). Hanouuuu, qro B [pog3BeAeH]rfx fouepa Her r{eTKor-o orBera Ha Bonpoc
o cilcreMe HacJIeAoBaHu.r qapcnofi BIracrH. C oAnofi cropoHbr, r.rcrorrHktK roBopr.rr o HacneAoBaH7rj cbrHoM
qapcnofi BJracrr4 KaK o qeM-To caMo cauofi rroApa3yMeBarouleMcfl:
nolruoo6rxroirklrarce, no BoJre KponuoHa, 6yAerur
uapeM, e vv'es, Ha ro rro po)KAeHblo u [paBo)) pernnKyer Telelraxy AHrrzHofi - oArrH h3 )KeHHXoB lleuelouu (oa. I, 3s2-383).
B qpyrux cJlyvatx HacneAoBaHHe uapcKor-o caHa orua flpeA[oJlaraer orrpeAeneHHbre yarroBLrr, KaK oro
BbITeKaer ze naccaxefr, nocBqrleHHbrx MHoroqucJreHHbrM AerrM llpuaua aJru efo BHyKy, cuHy fenropa(I/ln.
Vl, 403,478;XX. 180. 303 vt cres.)r.
Ho sl\4ecre c reM, KaK cneAyer tr3 BbrcxunbrBaHvIfl. Teleuaxa
<<B

Hauruna

<H o u

ex axeityamu

e

oru

Hoo6

r.s r oir,

I4r arcu sait Aer c s

MHoro 4ocrofiHefiruvrxBracrvru crapbrx r{ IoHbtx; Mex H}rM}r
Bsr u:6epnre, KorAa y)K He cr€uro uapr O4uccex>,
orpeAeneHHo npocMarpvBaercs Bo3Mo)KHocra uz6pauut Apyroro HoBoro qapr (Og. I, 390-393). 3ror
)Ke BbIBoA HarlparllnBaercflvI H3 Bonpoca caMoro Oguccet, aApecoBaHHoro csoefi MarepH, reHr rcoropofi on
Bcrpeqaer e An4e:
<I-{apcruail lrofi cas coxpaHrdrrcr nv vM? (Te,revaxou - B.A.) I4-rrr gpyrofi yx Ha Mecro
Uz6pau voe...?> (Oa.

XI,

175-176).

6rnr y:ypnvrpoBaHa, KaK gro cAenan 3rucr, y6uenuit AralrelrHoHa. Ho STor nocryfloK IoAJIe)KLIT HaKa3aHr.to, u 3rzcr B KoHqe KoHrIoB r{epe3 ceMb Jrer rroHec ero, 6y4yuu
y6urrru cbrHoM Araueuuoua (Oa. I,295; III, \97 ,250 u crcg.,305).
Ho .no Anfl Hac - apxeonoroB - BilKHo, TaK sro ro, rrro qapcrlrfi can (u ue rolrxo) onpeAeneHHo HacJreAyercs B rlorycropoHHeM, noA3eMHoM nrupe Auga. fonep np|,IBoAt4T ToMy MHo)r(ecrBo cBr,rAereJlbcrB, Ho
san6oree qerKo 3To o6cro.srerrcreo c$oprr,rynupoBaHo B ycrax reHu Axnlleca, Koropblfi c rpycrrrc [p]rKoneqso )Ke, qapcKaq BJracrb Moxer

3Haercr O4zccero:

<Jlyvue 6 xorel x xHeofi, KaK noAeHururc, pa6oran B rroJre,
Cnyx6ofi y 6e4uoro ilaxaps. xle6 4o6trnars csoft HacyrqHsrfi,
Hexeru 3Aecb HaA 6e:4yruHrtnrn MeprBbrMr{ uapcrBoBart, vreprnrrfi> (Oa. XI,489-491).
MolreHr - npvHlllrrll4alrurtfi, fouep roqHo 3Haer, rAe HaxoArrrcr BXoA B rlapcrBo Aura Ha caMoM
Kpalo oKeaHa: <Tavr KuMMepI{tH rleqzulbHafl o6lacrr,.,. HI,rKorAa He .rrBJrrer orcy mo4efi TaM Jrrzqa nyqe3apHoro fe,ruoc...> (oa. x, 504 kr cre(\.,Xr, 12 ra cneg.). Ho cau xe fonrep, Aa u Mbr 3HaeM, Lrro zcxoAHofi roqxofi
ornpaBKll e AIa4 tBrtercq coBepfireHue norpe6amnoro o6pr4a, 6e: xoroporo ryAa e AzA no[acrb npocro HeBo3Mo)KHo. OrcroAa IrocrotHHat sa6ora o reJrax norn6ruux Bor4HoB KaK o ((cB.rrroM Aonre)) (LIn.VII,
408 rz cnea.), o veu raK rlacro foBopI,ITc.[ B 3troce. 14 unaeHHo grzla o6r.scHsercq ro, rrro oAHr4M r{3 rrepBbrx,
xoro OAzccefi ncrpevaer y Bopor Auga, ABrrflercfl TeHr, He norpe6euuoro Elrnenopa, Ayrxy Koroporo rrpocro He BrlycKaror n Au4. Z os nacrofiqzso [pocaT - yMon{er O4zcce.r no Bo3BparqeHnvvc Au4a corepIxI'Irb HaA ero reroM norpe6amnrrft o6pr4 (Oa. XI, 60 ra cne4.), T.e. rpeAarb ero reJro 3eMJre.
Mut ee4l, apxeoJlott{, xopo[o 3HaeM u no acropl.rvr, 14 tro Hauefi rIoBceAHeBH oi4 >xmsnu, qro (ypoBeHb))
norpe6allHoft o6p.r4uocru uenl{KoM H noJrHocrbro 3aBr{cprr or couururbHofo paHfa norpe6aevoao, rto ot"
sernlzBo orpzDKeHo 14 B caMoM Srloce. locrarovHo cpaBHHTb norpe6altustit o6pxA, coBeprrreHHstit ua1TenoM
flarpoxra, u o6ptp,, o KoropoM MoJrlrr yrroMrHyrbrfi srrtrre EllneHop.
HanouHIzu, uro llarpoxl He lrapb, He Bo)KI6, a Bcero nurtrL Apyr Axulla u noA Tpoefi ue o6la4al gaxe
co6crseHurlMll Aocflexarv.u (Vt. XVI, 130 rz cne4.). Tax eor, Anr coBepu""r" .ro.p-6alrHofi o6pr4Hocru
Ha.4 efo TeJIoM
<Crparunyro

rr

eca rpoMaAy cJro)KrrB,
B rxnpr4Hy H Anuuy crocrynenHtrfi;

... cJloxrrJru Kocrep,
Cnepxy Kocrpa

rloJiro)r(HJrLr

MeprBoro, ...

MHoxecrno ryqHbrx oBerl u

BeJII4KHX BonoB

flogne Kocrpa 3aKoJroB, o6ptautm...
...a KpyroM pas6poca"n o6naxreunue ryrrru;
' Cn. rarxe An4peee 1976,57.

KprrBoporux,

I4nocractx: c oAHofi cropoHbl, B Kar{ecrBe rlaps MuKeH r4 Aproca, a c Apyrofi cropoHrr, B KaqecrBe BpeMeHHofo rJIaBHoKoMaHAyIouero H coorBercrBeHHo, no scefi rornKe, AonxeH 6ul 6u 6rrrr o6.uaAareJreM
AByx cKlrflerpoB - UapcKofo, AepxaBHoro H uMeHHoro - Ha nepr4oA noessofi KaMrraHr4kr. llpuvev, nepsrtfi a: Ht,tx - qapcrcraft cKlarlerp, yql4TbrBaq HeupeAcKa3yeMocrb rvropcnofi noeusofi 3Kc[eAur-U,IH, BepoqrHee Bcero, AonxeH 6rt,r ocrartct B focyAapcrBe, B qapcKoM ABoprIe ArauetrHoua (.rro fi [o3BoJrrrJro
3rucry He3aKoHHo npucBor4Tb ero c MoMeura y6uitcrsa AraN,{eMnoHa). 3ro noAo6Ho roMy, rax oco6o
Ioporue csoefi uaM;rrblo nyK H crpenbr
((...He 6pan c co6orc
Zx uurorAa OAuccefi na eoftrry n rcopa6ne vepuo6oxou:
...BepHo xpaHr, nx 6eper oH
B Aorle cBoeM; Ho B orerrecrBe Bcroly HMen npn ce6e nx> (Oa.XXI, 38-41).
A rocy4apcrseHHttfi cKa[erp Bce xe He nyK. I4uenHo raK rrocryrraer H caM Kceprcc, nepeA BcrynneHr.reM Ha 3eMrIz 3;r,'Iagu [epe[opyqflsuIufi cxznerp cBoeMy A{Ae
- HacraBHHKy Apra6arry. Bor ero o6parqeuze
K nocneAHeMy: (...l{crIoJIHI,IBIIrHcb MyxecrBa, xpaHn voft Aotr r.r Moro BJracrb. Te6e o4uonry rr3 Bcex q nopyqaro naofi cKhrrerp) (fepo4or VII, 52).
Ha4erccs, KoMMeHTapHla v3ItAIJrHtl 116o eo Bcex cnyqa.qx rr4Tyn (cKurrrerpoHoceq) - uMeHHoe o6osua-

qeHl4e.
Hl.{x Lt

Turyn 3Tor He pacnpocrpaHqercr Hr4 Ha npeA[ecrBeHHaxoB, HnHa rrpeeMHzKoB.Aa,xe ecnu cpeArz
6rIra raxoeble,3To He hMeer 3Ha.aeHLrs, gro ocraerct 3a KaApoM. A znaenuofi 3uarc, ulreunofi TVTyrr,

KaK y)Ke oTMeqaJ'Iocb, HeMI,IHyeMo AOJ'I)KeH 6st,r corpono)KAarb Lrocvrerg TaKoBoro He ToJIbKo B )Klr3Hvt, Ho H

rIocJIe ero cMepru. Karc ruryl roro caMofo Arca4eunra vrvl vHcvtuuz 4o6aecrLt B rzx cuMBonr4qecKoM norpe6euuvr. 14 sa ero HeABycMbrcneHHo yKa3br Baer v carr,r fouep B nacc e o Bcrpeqe O1ucces, c reHbro cKu-

nerpoHocrla Tupecux r Az4e:
<Cxopo rpeAcrzur flpeAo MHoro nTupecwn Quncrcoro o6pas:
Brur os c ,Ke3noM (cxznerpou) :o,rorrru, l.r MeHr oH y3Han...> (Oa.XI, 90-91).
A zuas xapaKTep uorpe6alruoro o6pr4a BpeMeHfi, 3To o3Haqaer oAHo - rrpv coBepilreHfir4 cox)r(eHrit
rpyfla yMeplxero fipopl.Iuarent ero cKLrnerp (xe:l) Haxo4urcs flpu HeM - prAoM unu cBepxy. B nporunuou
cnyqae Hr4 reHb Tupecux, Hn o6pa: efo cKarrerpa (xe:,'ra) ue 6stu 6u Aorryrqeurr n An4.
I{tarc, nttaoA oA}rH. Cxunerpr,t B KaqecrBe uMeHHbIX c}rMBoJIoB Braervl, no4o6Ho,.rnqHoMy opy)I(Hro, B
cnyqa.sx cMeprLI HX Aep)Karenr HenocpeAcrBeHHo BKrroqzurltcb B puTyzrn norpe6eHrla B KasecrBe conpoBo)KAarculero uorpe6a.nluoro nHBeHTapx. LIx co)K)KeHr4e 14 nocreAyruruee 3axopoHeHue ocrarKoB co)K)KeHV-s
o6ecnequsano ABa o6cro.sre,'Ircrea: I - [epeHoc reHH yMepuero z o6pa:oB, BK;rrorteHHbrx B pt4Tyan neu1efi
B qapcrBo Auga, z 2 - nepenoc orMeplrll4x oJreMeHToe xnsofi )Ku3Hr4 lrnH KyJrbrypbr B Karefoprzu cyry6o
apxeoJloruqecxofi HoMeHKJIaryprt, u6o npr 6laronpurrHbrx o6croqrertcrBax BcrKoe ApeBHee norpe6eHue
I'IMeer nasc 6lnr 3aperncrpl{poBaHHbrM B KaqecrBe apxeonofuqecKofo KoMrrJreKca,
$parvenrapHo coAep)Kau(erc u ocraHKl-i HocnTenr cKurrerpa, Aa vr oerarKu caMoro cKznerpa. 14 cqacrle apxeoJrora, qro
ApeBHHe HapoAbr TIpaKTHKoBaJII-I He roJrsKo cox)KeHr4e, Ho Ir, 3aqacryrc, o6p.r4 Tpylonono)Keuur.,6tarogap.s KoropoMy cKllnerpH, Ia v ocraltsotZ trHBeHTapb, KaK a ocraHrz uorpe6eHHofo, rroABepranr4cb MeHbtxeMy pa3pyrrreHfiro.

V.8. Mo,qen b Bo3MoxHoro AEnoH rpoBAH

r4F AXEt4cKl4x c Kil n ETpoB

B APXEONOTilqECKI4X KOMNNEKCAX

HanovHau ocHoBHbte, ycraHoBneHHble u oqeBr,rAHbre Arg. Hac, KaqecrBa a csorlcrga axeficrcnx cKlllrer4lr pa:pa6orKa MoAenu HX Bo3Mo)KHofi uarepaaru3ar\Av B KaqecrBe apxeonoruqecKlrx

pon, ueo6xoAaMble

apreQarcron.
B ron'teponcKoM 3rloce, ocBeularcIueM opraHu3arruro 14 rrpoBeAeHze soeuHoil 3KcrreAr4rrillr nporgB Tpon,
3HaKoBbIe caMBoJ'lbl B BHAe cKIrrIeTpoB o6napyxuealoT AocTaToqHo piBBt4ryro cTpy py,
Qnrccupyorqyrc fi

orpaxalouylo crporo paHxlrpoBaHlryrc cl4crenay noeuHoii BJlacru. 3ra gnaxoeafl cvcreua opr{eHTapoBaHa Ha
ncuxoJlorHr{ecKoe Bo3Aeficreze Ha oKpy)€rcIqux B rleJrrx rroAAep)KKtl vr peuru3a\un cavoit crpyKrypbr Bnacrl'r qepe3 MHolKecrBo pa:pa6oraHHblx crepeorrdrlHbrx pt4Tya!'roB, BKJrroqaloqprx a MHoflre vHble 3HaKoBbIe
xecTbl u np.
Crcunerpauu e eoeHltofi cvryar\LtLl HaleIrflJrLrcb nu\a, o6talaloxtue oco6r,rlru BoeHHbrMl-{ Kar{ecrBaMu,
no4 oco6ste, crpofo o[peAeneHHI'Ie nonHoMo'tug. OHu cKl{rrerpbr Bbrcryflaror B KarrecrBe r{MeHHbrx 3HaKoB, I-{AeHT}l$zqrapyrorqnx paHr, 3aKoHHble rrpaBa u o6qzaHHocra er-o Hocurerrfl. flpe4lo,raraercs, r{To cKr4crrcTeMbr

-

c,.IoBa,

flerpbl KDKAofo KoHKperHoro colll4iurbHoro paHra MorJrrr 6lrrr cxo4ubrMl4 B vx u:o6pasurelruofi qaarr4

-

Morr{ny vrn )Ke rrpocro Bbr6porxeHHbrM. HO rrrfl. Hac, An.fl apxeonofoB,
ocra-lrcr rAe-To B Mr.rKeHax, rAe-To B AproccKofi seNane.

BrroJrHe oqeBlrAHo, r{To 3TOT CKlIIIeTp

Ta6n. 16. cxerua ABr4xeHue cKhnerpoAepxarenefr ile Axeil
14

Ha

Tpoo

BO3MOXHbte MecTa (oceAaHVg)> ttx CKhneTOOB

C

K14II

E T P ON

I

N'I

P X(

r.

r,r

o6parxo

NI4

H,

smz

l)

?.

o

O

I
I

I

h

O

l

-\

I

I

4

I

t

I

t.
trO

F2r

U

-

F

al

2'-3. Hecrop H ero uapnufi crtu (Dpasnue4/Opacunreg (Ta6n. 16,2-3) He qricJrrrc;r cpeAz ()KeHHXSB))
F''regu. FIo Hecrop - qapb flzloca, olLt:gtr3 aHl{I-lharopoB noxoAa ua Tporo. O6a_ aKrvBHbre rroMorrHrrKt4
Aran'tenasoua. 016urs u3 flu,toca, oHn 6,rarononyqHo rrepe)KhJlr{ BoeHuyro KaMrraHzro
14 Beprrynucb Ha polt4-

Hy, Ha no6epexle MecceHcrcoro 3uuIHBa (MHM. 2,213). Talr oulr, no aceil Bepo.rrrHocru,
u 6rwn B cBoe
BpeMt norpe6eHlt BMeQTe, CneAyer [oJrararr,, co cBor4Ml.t cK]arerpaMu. flo rcpafinei vepe, o MofHrre
@pacu-

6tuz flznoca H3BecrHo L,r3 cra1erenrcre llascaH w (yr. 36,2).
4' VlAornesefi - rlaps Kpara (Ta6n. 16,4), oguu a: 6r,reulax )KeHuxoB EneHu. ornlru c Kpnra. fepouqecKH BoeBan noa Tpoefi u 6larololyqHo
Bepnynca ua Kpzr, Ho c Kpzra 6rrl u:ruaH u oKoHrrur cBolo
)KH3Hb Ha Iore l4ratuu
s
Kana6puz
(MHM.1,
489). Ero qapcxufi crcuuerp, AoDt<Ho 6urr,4ocra-rcfl t43rHaBIxeMy efo c poAI4HbI upeeMHl'lKy. A nor <rpo.aucruft> csofi cKr4nerp
oH BrroJrHe Mof B3-rrrb c co6ofi e Ka'ra6pnro' Talt on, oqeBI4AHo, t4 ocriulcq seNane. Ho ue peKoMeHAylo ncKarb ero lrMeHHo raM.
5' [roMeg - L(apb @panuz (Ta6,r." 16,5), oguH u: 6srnuux )KeHhxoB Eleusl. Byayvn qapeM @parcuu,
npeABoAurerbcrBoBal r<opa6tn'ru u: fepltaoutt, Tpesena v
Ap.(VIn.II,560). Tar.rro B Mope oH ornpaBvJrweAa

(rperbe

vilu

CHI'I3)')

fi nore

Bo3Mo)KHoro oceAaHr4r cKHrerpoB, He BepHyBrxr4xcq B rryHKrbr or[paBneHHr (NoN 6,7)

)Ke ycnelxHo BepHyBtilLixcq Ha poAlrHy, Ho BnocJreAcrBlru oKa3aBrrrzxar B

co crpeilKaMl4 yKa3blBalor aApeca ABDKeHI,L{ fepoeB

Kar cle4yel

I43

Apyrrrx Kpaqx (JvlNl 4,5). J[u]ts.nu
HcxoAHblx nyHKTots ua Tpoto u ux o6parulrfi nyr.

u: ra6luqst, ns 15 Bo3Mo)KI{brx cKunerpoAep)KaBr(eB Jrr4rrrb qerBepo BepHynucr 4olrofi, ocen
ua npexuefr poALrHe: Aralreiunos, Hectop, ero cbru @pa:rltre4 (NlJ$l-3) n ycnoBHo BK,TrcqeHHbrfi
s cnr4cox
C$enel (Il, 15)' lna crcunerpoHocua 6larono,ryuHo BepHynzcb Ha poAalry, Ho noror\{ [epeexana a K)NHyro
Wruturo - I4loverefi z luowreg(xeNe 4,5). He ua Kprzr, anaCutlntrnrc Bep c.a MepuoH (Nl6). @r.uoKrer
rro
flyru Ha Tporc Ha4o,uo 3acrplJ'l sa o. Ilevsoce vrrr Teue4oce v Bepr{yJrcr He e fperlzro, a a lOxnyro Lltartnro,
TaK qro ero cKI'I[erp Mor ocecrb unr4 Ha ocrpoBax, utu n ?Iratan (Nl7). B
4opore na o6parusrfi uyru noru6
Arnc Ournz4 (Ilb 8) f4e-ro B Aopore yrpanvn cgofi cxunerpAguccefr,4ocrurlrurT, oAHaKo, cnoeil tr4rar<n (J\b
9). MeHe,rafi Mor )irparl4rs ceoi.i chMBoJr n o6parnoft Aopore, Ho Mof u coxpaHhrb efo
Ao caMoro aonaa (;19 l0).
OcraluHrle qerblpe cKunel'poAep)Karerrr - Axa,rlr, ilarporu, AqKc TeraM oHt4r Lr llporeculail fizutu noA Tpoefi,

cKzrrerpbt ron;,r(Hbl 6r,rnz ocrarbcf, B TpoqHcrcoi gevle (Taffi. 16, Nl_tvl 11-14).
u: 15 crcrnerpoAeplKare,rerZ, ornpae?rBuruxcr co cBolrMH cKr4rrerpaMz ns AxeH n KpuTa' B KoHeeHoM cl{eTe YeTBepo BepHynl'Icb 14 ocTartlltcb s fpequu (Ta6t. 16, }lbJ\!1-3, 15), .rereepo ((ocerh)) B
Tpo.aucxoi 3eMne (NeJ\ei1-14), o4uH - e Cur\unua (Ne6),4na rAe-ro e 3rer-rcxona nlope (NsNlS,9). OcraeuJnec{ ABa cKl4nerpa Morna 6ltrs yreplrlbt B Aollore (NoNl7,10) H.lw xe oAr.rH BepHylcs n Axero (J\110), a
aropcrfr ironan e lOxuyro l4ra,rnro (Ns7).
U ?rx

Tarcav o6pa:ola,

Bor nau, Korrefu-apxeo,Tofr.r, Morenb Bo3Moir{Horo rrpocrpaHcrBeHHoro pa:6poca cKunerpoB axeficrcux
npeABoAl'Ire-nefi. Ouesr4uocls:roii avryaL\wr4 eule 6olee Haf:r.rrAHo Br,rcryilaer lr3 cocraBJreHHbrx Kapr.
Ha Kapre 3 uaHecentt MecroHaxo)K.IIeHV\ cKt ilerpoHocueB, a, coorBercrtseHHo, r.r cKr4nerpoB, B MoMeHT
r Tpoe. Karc cneAyer u3 Kaprbr, Bce N{ecroHaxo)r(Aen}rr o6Hapyxnaaror qpe3BbiKol\4uaKTHocrb,
a I4x apean BKnloqaer llelonoHHec, I-{enrpa-nr"Hyro fperlurc ra ocrpon Kpur.
'rafirryrc
ol'IIpaBKI4 [rpe/qBoAl4Te,reii

TenetroHn4a, 14 - llporecvnas, js --CeeHena;
2 - lAcxogaati apvan cKilnerpoB; 3 - Tpon.

(D -1
|

-t

@*a
Ha Kapre 4 npe4clas,rei{o Bo3rvlo)KHoe pac[pocrpaHeHrie c*r.lrrerpoB B KaqecrBe lpeAnonaraeMbrx
apxeo'ofl43r{poBaHHblx oSlexroe. Paz:tuqux oqeBuAHbl I,r tsecbr4a Bblpa3l,ITe,rbnu. HcxoAnuti
apeal cKurlerpoB
o6te.tluHrei qeTblpe uirlz, Bo3Mo)KIro, rrrrb o6r,eKros (Kapra 4, J\bJ\b1-3, 10, l5), a Bce
ocr:urbr{bre cK}rflerpbr
'fanonst Bo3MoiKHbIe pe3ynbrarbl
apxeonof[qecKoro AerroHupoBaHur cKr{r]erpon axeilqeB, cneAy.q ycnoBr4tM

yc[erxHo|o 3aBepueuun Tpoxacrcofi eofrubt, xauonofi oHa npeAcraBreHa

B

foMcpoBcKoM 3ltoce.

Volumul|Nr 2

133

IrapcKl4x), o6Hapyxununx TeHAeHIrI4lo K lxnpoKoMy reppnropr4zurbHoMy pa36pocy 3a npeAenaMa HX trcxoAttot7 soHst ll3roroBneHI4t; MoAerb, Koropaq [oJrHocrbro a6apaer s ce6s npocrpaHcrBeHHo-BpeMeHHoe pa3BHTue Halllllx 3HeonuTplqecKI4x cKt,tlrerpoB, o qeM cKa3aHo paHee. A ero o6croqremcrBo onpeAeJIeHHo yKa3brBaeT Ha TO' t{To IIILIpOKOe TeppI'ITOpI{aflLHOe pacnpoCTpaHeHHe HarxUX SHeOIATHqeCKUX
Hero flosor)Kb.s Ha IOr

-

Ha

Kasxa: q, wl4 3ana4

-

CKLIIeTpOB I43 Cp"Ae EarxaHo-flo4yuanre cneAyer o6r.scH.flrr KaK pe3yrrbrar

eoeHFrofr 3KcnaHcHLr. Ho x eronry Bonpocy Mbr eule BepHeMcr A€uree.

Vl. O SHnKAX-chMBonAX

t4

VI.1. O 3HAKAX

Bo3MoxHocrrx rx pAcult4opoBKt4
14

cl4MBoIIAX,

KAK TAKoBbIX

Bulryx4eH noBTophrbcs. llo arrerouluMc.s pa:pa6orrcaM, cour4rlrrbHas 3HaKoBaq cr{MBo,rrvKa cocraBJrrer
HeoreMJ]eMylo qacrb o6urrapHofi cvcreMbr cpeAcrB o6qeuur aJrlt coql4oKoAa Kylb-typbl, rpn3BauHtrx o6ecfier{uTb KoHTI4HyI'rTeTHocTt, I4nlI He[pepblBHyro )Kt{3HeAe.[TeJrbHooTb

lro6olo coqrzzl[bHofo

opfaHH3Ma

(fler-

pon 1991, 39 u cneg.). B ront )Ke 3HaqeHvH 3To MbrcJrb orr{errlrBo o6o:uaqeua v ailo3r4t\uvt coqr.ronora (I!enaHuct<ufi 1969, 115 a cleg., 127), cortacHo KoropoMy pa:uoo6pa3Hbre onpeAMeqeHHbre 3HaKr{ cr,rMBoJtbt,
Bblcry[alor B Kar{ecrBe o6tsarerrHux, cnoeo6prnHbrx o6re4rzH.arcu1rlx ,rrodyro corlr4anbHy}o rpyrtfly (rIeHTpoB), (Koropble aAeuruQuqvpyror rpynrry, cocraBr.rror MarepLrnJ.rbHyto z zgefiuyro ocHoBy ee cyqecrBoBaHI4fl n pA3BIjTUq,>>.

Blaro4ap.r accneAoBaHltsM grHororoB, rpencropllKoB HblHe Aocl'oBepHo ycraHoBneHo, qro 3HaKoBat
eqe Ha 3ape lrcropr4Lr 14 B AanbHerimeM, rrocreneHHo ycnoxHrrcb, 4uQSepen\upy.f,cb IIo xoAy 3Bon]o\vv n ycno)KHeHl{.fl caMnx couuzurbHbrx orHouteHr4fr, ona.qeMoHcrpr{pyer vpe:suvafiHylo npeeMcrBeHHocrb B orpDKeHuH cyxrHocrHbrx acteKToe o6pa:Hofo Bocrrpurruq pearbHbtx arHoKynbrypHblx t4 counarlbHblx rpoueccoe (flauoe 1983; @ponoe 1991; Bait6ypnu 1991; Bulruxyxuh2002,
cp{MBOJIHKa Bo3HHKaer

263ucrcg.,aAp.)
Crclyx erue o[peAeJIeHVro g. Ift,rpca, noA

3HaKoM o6uvuo noHr.rMaercr (r{To yroAHo, qro orrpeAenrer
HerITo Apyroe (czoit uumepnpemaum), KaK orcbrJrarouee rc o6reHry, K KoropoMy no4o6Hr,rtr xe o6pa:ou orcblnaer oHo caMo)) (Ilrapc 20A0, 93).I4u xe BnepBbre Ssrlo nee4eHo pa3AeneHue Ha 3HaKu lrKoHofpaQraue-

-

cKae, 3HaKI,I-UHlqeKCbI w 3HaKId - CZMBOJIbI.
I'IxouorpaQnqecKue 3HaKlt o6nquo nocrpoeHbr Ha HerrocpeAcrBeHHoM
SaxrnuecnoM cxoAcrBe c H3o6paxaelttttrl o6terrott. B ouuque or HI,IX, 3HaKfi-uHAeKcbI t{ 3HaKI4-cLrMBoJ'rbI ocHoBaHbI Ha accorrr21q4flx.

Ho, npz 3ToM,3HaKLt-t4HAeKcbl crporrc.s no npl4Hur.lly oro6paxeHr4;-gacrLr qenoro. Taxofi 3HaK (c seo6xoAliMocrbro rlpeAnonaraer 4eicrenreJlbHoe co[pncyrcrsue o6osHaqaeMofo [peAMera) (f,no6coH 1972,83),
qro co6c'rgeHHo H rto3BoJlfler orHocltreJrbHo nerKo pacno3Harb, 3uuro)KeHHbtfi g
Hux o6paz u cMbrcJl.
ZHoe 4e,lo 3HaKI'I-cHMBo.nut. llo4o6Ho rrpocrbrM 3HaKaM, oHr4 TaK )Ke yKzl3brBaror Ha HeKoe aHoe coAepxal{ae u []pr4 3ToM Moryr eo6parr e ce6r re vrvr uHrle csoficrBa orpuDKeHHofo B Hl.rx npeAMera, Ho 3To
uHoe coAep)KaHae, 6yaer I'IMerb B 3ToM cnyqae ceoe co6crseHHoe, rrpHqeM, KaK rrpaBano, fopzl3Ao 6olee
3Har{uMoe, caMocroqreJlbHoe 3HaqeHL{e. <3Harc BcefAa MeHbIrIe, qeM npeAcraBJr.f,eMoe }tM rroHtrTkIe,
cl'lMBoJ'I BcerAa 6o,rsrue, rteM efo oqeBnAHoe 14 cpa3y rrpr{xoArulee Ha yM 3HaqeHqe)) (IOur

Toua

KaK

u rp. Igg8, 4g).

Eolee rofo' KaK npaBuJlo, <<Cet3b Me)K,qy r{yBcrBeHHo BocIrpIzHHMaeMbIM o3Hcvaroulll,vt c}rMBoJIa H MbrcreHHo nocraraeruun't (nepeno4ulvrltna) o3HavaeMbrw 3Tofo cI,IMBoJra ocHoBaHa Ha cornacoBaHHofi, sayueHHofi,
npzrutuuoft accoquallnlr> (.[ko6cou 1972,83). Ho nueuno no 3roMy xe pacKpbrrr4e 3aJroxeHHbrx B qrMBoJIax 3Har{eH}Ifr a ctrrtcloB llpeAcraBn.rer rcpafiue cno)KHy}o uccJ'reAoBarenbcKyro 3aAaqy, s oco6eFlHocrz, Ko|'4a peqb flAer o clrMBoJlax ApeBHocrlr, T.e. KorAa o6ycroueHHrrfi clmrcl (o3HaqaeMoro) yrpar{eH H3-3a
BpeMeHHoro pa3pbrBa n raHQopvaqua.

OgHarco, HecMorpt Ha orMeqeHnote o6cro.sreJlbcrBa, AyMaerct, qro, uycrb r{acrur{Hoe, npw6luxenHoe' Ho Bocrlpl4tT'I4e 3aIO)K9HHbIX B l{HTepecyfotlll,lx Hac caMBoJIaX-HaBeprxH.flX 3HaqeHufi u ct,1srcla ace
)Ke Bo3Mo)KHo, ecJIh A,'It 3Toro onl4paTbcs Ha KoHqerlTyatbHble paspa6orrca caMoto ttoHtTlts czMBoJI,
t{x

caoficrs n zHa,reHuit.
llr.s sroro Mr,r BocrroJrb3yeMcr pa6oralru A.(D. Ilocesa.
flo o[peAeneHuro A.o. Jlocena, cuMBon - <<ugeituan, o6pazrtax utu uaeiruo-o6pazuax crpyKrypa, co,
Aep)Kaqaq n ce6e yKa3aHlle Hare LrIrt4I4HbIe, orJrlrqHbre or Hee flpeAMerbr, Anq Koropbrx oHa serqercr o6o6r{eHHbrM 14 Hepa3BepHyrbrM 3HaKoM)> (Jlocee 1970, l0_11).
3rolry xe QvtnocoQy npuHaAnextar orlrH us Harz6oree rroJrHbrx aHiuru3oB Jrorl4Krl cr4MBoJTa: flplrHrlr.trroB
z o6crosretbcrB vtx o6pasoeauzt, zx BHeruHero lr BnyrpeHHero coAep)KaHufl, ilorvKr4 ux cr4rHvt$uxarun-

o6q:arerrHble An.s ,rro6oro 3HaKa-cIlMBoJ'ra, He ocraBrtlor t{zKaKux cotugeHnfi orHocurerbHo rlpaBoMepHocrH orHeceHVfl irwx uaaepurafi K 3HaKOBrIM cl4creMaM
!,rr aaropa B AaHHoM cnyqae BaxHee Apyroe - uclloJlb3o BaHr4e r.rMercrquxcs KoHqenTyu1nrnttx paSpa6OToK B noHuMaHIdV cHMBoJIoB' B Uent{x artpa6orrclt sogN,{oxHofi ,roru.recxofi cxeMbt pacKpbrrltr
coAepxaHrit

nIV

UHbIMU C,'IOBaMI'I, 3aJIOlKeHHblX B HatlIUX 3HaKaX-CaMBO,'IaX SHaueHAfi z CMbIc,rIOB, paCIIO3HaHTe KOTopbIX,
xors 6u a o6rqnx qeprax rlo3BoJr.rrr npn6nnzvnacr K Bocnpu.r{Trrro rex HHbrx, <<HeKuux
?ux>>, aKpbtBaro u1nxcs 3a 3TvMr4 c HMB oJr aMH pe al u H ocre fi .
B cBolo otlepeAb,

-

V|.2. BosvtoxHocrr pAc Kpbtl4r coAEpxAH

14fl

3HAKA-c

t4M

Bofi A

lna
Bo,rIoM

Me)t(Iy

uauatta oltpeAenuMcr c o6rqrznn napaMerpaMu nercoefi uream,soit, npeAnonarael,rofi ec.sraM a'rM(crpyKTypot)): ee MHHHM€uIbHo o6.sgarerlubrMr.{ 3rreMeHTaMr.l, r4x KarlecrBaMn u cyrqecrByro1;\uMr4

H]4MH

ABt3tMI,t H OTHOilIeHI.r'.qMl4.

Ctegyn npIzBeAeHHbtM BbtIIIe ge$uuuqutM, Lrro B Bepcr4z g.flupca, qro B Bepcr4u A.(D.IIoceBa, cyrr{HocrHoe coAep)KaH[e noHtrl.tt (cHMBor) Mo)KHo cBecril K [peAei'IbHo JraKoHHqHofi
$opn,lyle, npeAxox(eHsofi
E.-fl. llIefigrluoil: <Cunaaorl - 3ro :uam nexoefi Apyroft pealbHocrr,r> (lltrefiHrzu a2002,4).
Bcnorrannv Br,rrre H3r'ro)r(eHHoe

EcrH

czNaeoJl

ecrb

3HaK,

r.r

BAyMaeMcq B [pr.{BeAeHHoM otrpeAerelzln.
cr4MBony - (npucyrqu u ece ceoplcrBa 3HaKa) (Jlocen 1991,264).

ro eMy -

Iho6oil cznasor yKa3brBaer Ha_ HeKyn dpyzyrc peanbHocmb.
Ho, ec,rn cHMBoJt n6upaer s ce6q cnoficrea 3HaKa, To, coorBercrBeHHo rz o6pa:onaHHar crrMBonoM
<u4etluo-o6pa3Haq crpyKTypa), orpzDKalo[Ias HeKyro peaJTbHocrr,, c HeM]-{HyeMocrbro
AoJrxHa ro6parr n ce6t u wpevt-o6pa:rt, BblpDKeHHbre B rrpocroM 3HaKe, xoropurfi ra e npeAnonaraer uerafi [peAMer, HeKoropyrc peaJlbHocrb, Ho petulbHocrb 6olee Hu3Koro ypoBHr. A ec,rn 3T'o raK, To tr3 aroro cJreAyer, vro, o6pasoBaHHaq cuMBonoM <<ugefiuo-o6pa3Hatr crpyKTypD no cyrr{ ceoefi BKJrroqaer e ce6q brcl ilo
rpaftHefi lrepe
AByx pa3nI4qHbIX pezrnbHocrefr: oguoil - uactHoi, BblpzDKeHHofi ua yponte [pocrofo 3HaKa 14 eropofi o6qefr, cooraercreyroulefi caMoMy cur\{Bony ero o6pasuofi crpyrcrype B rlenoM.
Pacclrorpunr gror )Ke Bofipoc, no e u'ofi rrocJleAoBareJ'rbHocrr4.
ftrr upocroro 3HaKa, cofJracHo A.@. ,Iloceey (1991,264), <<aeo6xoA,Mo, .rro6rr ero npe.q^4er 6lr_rr
HMeHHo reM, rlro o6oesaqaercs o6o:saqaeMbrM npeAMeroM)) t4trv
- B Bepcvu P..flxo6coua (cnr. nrirue) - 3HaKhHAeKc <c seo6xoAl{Mocrbro rlpeAnonafaer conpucyrcrsue o6o:ErarraeMoro o6rerra>. 3a rc brM
H3 TaKUX
3HaKOB tloApa3yMeBaercq Heqro pearbHoe, Ho 3T'O perurbHoe Heqro 3HaqHMOe, Cyqec.rBeHHoe,
Koropoe
co6creeFlHo u o6yclaelnBaer llenecoo6pa:Hocrs r4x cBeprr,rBaHur{ B 3HaKonoM o6osFraHeHVr4.
llprz onpe4eileHHbIX o6crogrelrcrBax, cfleqzanbHo 14 AeranbHo paccMorpeHHbrx B pa6ore A.(D.,rlocesa
(1991, 260 w crcl. tryHKrbt 4-6), npocrofi sHax Mo)rer nprzo6pecrn ceoficraa cr.rMBo,[a. Ho
o6pereHr.re rpocrblM 3HaKoNl cnofrcre cHMBoJIa o3Har{aer Bo3pacra}oqne Ir3MeHeHug o6teva efo a3Har{zulsHutx 3Haveurfi,
u6o scnrcnil cHMBoJl Heqro <<6oruuee>, qeM rrpocrofi :nan. A pa: sro raK, To npuo6pereuue 3HaKoM csoficra
cl'IMBona c Heo6xoAlzMocrbto flpernonaraer KaKae ro oyqecrBeHHbre rtgMeleHufl B caMux,
orpax(eHHblx, c
o4nofr cropoHll - B tlpocroM 3HaKe, a, c 4pyrofi cropoHbl B 3HaKe-cuMBore pezL,rhrx. 14 Mrr cnoea
oKa3brBaeMc'q nepeA Jll'illoM AByx orHocuTeJlbHo pa3,'IHqHbIX peatuh: o4noft upe:euvafiuo guaqulrofi,
orpaxenHof n
acxoAuo[ snarcosofi vacr2t cuMBora, eropofi roprBAo 6olee suavunaofi, orpaxeHuofi B cr.lMBoJre KaK Hercoev o6urev urcne, s6uparoqeM s ce6xu cMbtcn nepnofi pezLnbHocrrl KaK opfaHultecrcofi .racrn qelocruofi
<aAefi uo-o6pasuofi crpyKrypbr).

[peAcKa3arb IBa npvflL\r4nnarbHbrx MoMeHTa. Bo-nepaulx, r]To npeAnoilaraeMafl _ Bbrpar(egHa,
B npocroM
3HaKe peil'lbHocrb Bro,rlHe Bo3MoxHo a tlocnyxuna vcxo1HrurM 6agosuM ocHotsaHueM
Bo3HHKHoBeHqt

nropofi

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6olee sHaqul\4ofi peiurbHocrl-r, BblpzDKeHHofi e caMeo,re.

Anr

tr4

nropoe

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HOfo 3JreMeHTa crpyKTypbr, yKa3brBaroqnh ua HcxoAHyfo 6asonyro peanbHocrb.

Tarcuv o6pa:ou, He3aB[c]lMo
HeI43MeHHo

o6aapyxaeaeM, Ltro

or nyru

cneAoBaHw,l

- or c,MBorra K 3HaKy

BasKas, o6pasoeaHuar cuMBonou

vItH or 3HaKa K cuMBony

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Mbr

urefiso-o6pa3Has KoHcrpyKur{q B crpyK-

arlHo-KoHKperHofo' 3ulJloxeHHoro B paHee npI'rBeIeHHbIX onpeAeneuuxx-ge$uavr\vxx

3HaRa

vlru

cuMBoIra

tlo orHouIeHHrc K Koropofi, o6lexruBl,IpoBaHHbrfi cuNrsor-suaK Bbrcryrraer He 6olee qeM B KaqecrBe BHSIIIH9fO BLIpa3I{TeIg' VUIU HOCItTeJIt cyUIeCTBytoqI4X Me)KAy Hlav. V OcTaJrbHbIMz AByM-s 3JreMeHTaMrr Ceszeir. COOIBercrBeHHo, rpeArlonaraeMble cBr3r,r Hocrr pasuufi xapaKrep. Csszu Me)KAy 3neMeHraMH Xc1 ra Xc2 cyruHocrHble, npeAonpeAen.qrcq[e caMy crpyKrypy. Czlsu xe Me)KAy Xcl, c oAnofi cropoHbr c Ss, a c
4pyrofi
cropoHbl, MexAy Ss c Xc2 Hocqr nropuvnrrfi, olocpeAoBauHufi xapaKrep, u6o sleuesr Ss no npupoAe cBoefi ue 6olee r{eM BHe[IHHfi nttpaszreJ'Ib nepBbrx AB]x cyrrlHocrHbrx gJreMeHToB, qro B peanbHoM-KoHKperHoM,
rrro B cMbIcJIoBoM ax BbIpDKeHuu. 3to coorHoureHze rpaSzveaKn MoxHo aso6pasarl, pa3BepHyB
HaqzurbHufi pucyuoK-cxeMy rlo BeprvKanu na90 rpaAycoB (pr.rc. 56,8), r{ B TaKoM cnylae cHMBon-3Hax Ss xax 6sr
paculennterct Ha IBe rIotIoBI4HKH, o6pasyn BMecre cBoero poAa ocb, rcar 6rr rrpoHrz3brBarcrlyro [nocKocrb
ocHoBHbrx crpyKrypHo o6pa:yrorqrzx sJreMeHToe Xcl n Xc2, a Bcq crpyKrypa KaK 6st pacnaaaerc{ rro BeprrrKarv Ha 4ee nolyc$epbl: HI{xHIoro, e6zparcrqyro a ce6r Bce KoHKperHoe, pezurbHoe, BrurroqureJrbHo Marepr{zLIIbHoe BbIprDKeHVe cuMBoJIa, T.e. MarepaiulbHo o6renruruposauHttfi 3HaK, 14 BepxHroro rroJloBr4Hy cQeprr,
e6zpaloulyro s ce6q Bce Bo3MoxHrte ngefiuo-o6pa:usre 3HaqeHr4r peaJrbHocrefi, crcoHqeHTprrpoBaHHbre B
cN'rslcrosoil qacrlz cl.{MBoJIa, BeHqaloqero }r B To)Ke BpeMs npoHr43blBa}orqero co6ofi Bcrc Bo3HlaKaroqy}o
crpyKTypy, BocnpI'IHuMa.s u B To )Ke BpeMt <peQlexrupyr> co6ofi cB.rr3n-orHotrren:zs c 6asoesrN{ra crpyKTypHbIMlr 3JIeMeHTaMlr

Xcl uXc2

wB

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Lr

B

vx ra4efiHo-o6pa3HoM rrporBneHr.ru.

Puc. 56. Mo4enu, o6pasoeaHHae cnMBonoM r4eraro-o6pasxovr crpyrrypur:
ee SfleMeHTbl 14 B3ailMocBnsu (xnpuutttrlA nvHunMtA o6oeHa.{eHur ocHoBHbte c
rpyrrypoo6pa3yrcu.lhe cBflstA u t4x Hanpa Bfl eH Hocrs).

MeNay reM, npI'IHult[LIztrIbHo cJIeA]TorrIee. funorernqecK]r Bbrcrpo eHHafl 3Aecb crpyKrypa He uoxer 6snr
cBeAeHa J'IIzIIIb K oAHoMy
ee acXoAHoMy gneMeHry (a 4aHuoM cnyrrae eHexrHufi Bbtpa3rrTe,,rb cTpyKrypbr, T.e.
cr'IMBotl-3HaK
He e cver). Bcsrcaq crpyKrypa KaK cucrevuoe o6pa:oBaH:ze, c uen:6ex<Hoarbro

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pflA vnu coBoKytlHocrb 3JIeMeHTOB, VrV OAHOIOp'AKOBbrx ]r, uttur nepapxHqecKlt pa3HOypoBHeBblx.

3ro xe o6croqrerucrBo HanpaullrBaercr n lr3 JIorurKH craHoBneHl4 fl

evIMBoJra, a3 ero npeo6pa:ygqero
llrru 3HaKa-uHAeKca K 3HaKy-cLIMBoJD/, o qeM toBOpVnOCb BbIUre. HHa.Ie roeopq' ABIDKeHIae or Xcl rcXc2 rloApa3yMeBaer, qro vcxoAHar pezlnbHocrb-o6pas, B cr4ny Her{3BecrHbx
Han o6cro'qrerbcrB' ([poxoAHT> pr4 lpeo6pa3yloqux aKroB, flopox.qar reM caMbrM prA HoBbrx xauecrn-o6pason,
coorBercrBylolqux HoBbIM crpyKTypHbIM 3JIeMeHTaM, B3auMo aeitcrnue v, vlwr B3al4MoHzuro)r(eHqe Koropblx
co6creeHHo u o6yctaztvlBaer Bo3HrEKHoBeHHe KoHeqHoii, qelocrnoft pea.nsno-o6pa:Hofi
crpyKTypbr, T.e.
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-sBHo AonxHbr HaxoAr4Tbcr fAe-To
no Ayre np.ruofr cBfl3kr, ulyueit or Xc1 xXc2,3aHnMafl MexAy HHMr,r flpoMe]r(yroqHoe [ono)KeHfle
u o6pa-

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Xn (pzc. 56,c).

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o6pa:ulte aHTpoIIo- I4n[ 3ooMopQHsle aso6poxeHlr.,r, tsblnoJTHeHFrr,Ie B nracrllKe, cKyJrbrrrype vnv
rrJ]ocKocrHofi rexHIzrce u uupoKo Iz3BecrHble or rlareoJrrrra Ao aHTltqHoc'rz BKrrolrhre-uuHo (Jlocee^1963,4
n Autee),
a ua neprzQepatx cpeAHeBeKoBbtx I-u.IBttllH3aIJHW h KynbrypHbrx qeHrpoB Bnrorb
HeTaBHHX
rrop, Bo3Ao
HI'{KJIH orHfoAb He KaK rpoAyKT (t{acrofo trcKyccrBa), a KaK pe3ytr,rar
Aeficranfi, o6lagatolllHx (orrre.lJu4soil ymrutumapuoti QyHruzefi - o6p.rgoao-MaruqecKoit, vtilu rtpaKTur{ecKl4-rro3HaBare,rsuofi, HJrH 3HaKoBoKoMMyHHKaraeHoi> (Karan 1972. 17611 lrlauvu cJIoBaMU oHn co3raBanyrcb u3 penfirrlo3Hbrx,
KyJrbroBr,rx r{
LIHt'rx npaKTzLIecKHX ua4o6nocrefi, npe4onpeAeJ'IeHHbrx counaJtbHbrMu norpe6uoerflvr1 14 op[reHTr4pauu.
Ka)KAoe H3 TaKI'IX [peAMeroB ntu nzo6paxeHufi, nHe couHeuufi, a6upa,ro s ce6r Heqro KoHKperHoe, pezL,rbHoe.

Ho :ra peaJlbHocrb BocnpuHi4MaJlacb He Ha ypoBHe vHrr4Br4ryanbHoro
- qacrHoro, u "u ypb""" o6o6rqeHnoro o6pa:a roh unu zuofr onpe4elesuofi Kareropnr.{ pezlJrbHocrl,l, Ha Ko'ropyro B cBoro
oqepeAb HaKnaAbIBairacs co6creeHHble (rouHee Ko,rIriIeKT[BHsre) npegcraBrrelLrfl o KynbroBofi, pelvrvosHoh, a B rreJIoM o6rqecoqhzlflbHo-3HaqHMblx KaqecrBax fi ceoilcrsax :rofi pealuuocrH (Aurouosa 1984, 42 u crcg.). llveHso uo3ToMy BcqKoe ApeBHee a:o6pa-lxeuue, c o4uofi cropoHbr pea,rrHurfi o6pas, Ho, B TolKe BpeMt oHo orLracry
o6pa: nppea-rruuuil, HagyttauHltfi, n6o, no cyrz ceoeit A, nrt4 Ha ypoBHe o6pasa B ueroM, Lr) vrrrrr Ha ypoBHe
efo orAeJIbHblx KasecrB hru ceoilcre, no4o6uoe (npor43BeleHhe) [pa3BaHo cnyxarb couuanbHbtM 3HaKoM,
coIlI4zt!'IbHbIM cltMBoJlol\'l. I'I ulteHuo rIo3ToMy, He3aBacuMo or Marepuuua vnh xapaKrepa uso6paxeurar (o6reMHoe, pelreQHoe, [J'IocKocrHoe n np.), Bce oHLI Mofyr 6sns n rcpailHe cxeMarzqHbu\rv, r.t4t]re:nHblMl,I Bc.sKr,rx
ge:|ateil, u [peAenbHo pezUIt'IcTl'lYecKI/tMH c 6olrueil HnI,t MeHbuleI ruueprpo{rapoBaHHocTbro TeX
vrl7 uHbrx
4era-uefi. Ho qro nprrHutlilz€lrlbHo BzDKHo Alfl Hac, TaK oro ro, qro z cav oro6palraenasril o6pas, n pa3rullvfl B
arerleHq c'rr4ilv3ar\14t4 eroro o6pa:a, n ,tro6ste BKrlolleHHbre B 3To u::o6paxeuue
Aerarz HaBepHqKa ra.sr B ce6e rny6or<ail, vpe:esrvailuo sDKFrr,rfi rcy,rlrypuuril, coLluaJ,rbHbrfi cuucl.
Bropoe Ba)KHoe o6cro.sre,ttcrBo raK)Ke, ua uoft B3rr.flA, He rpe6yrou-1ee oco6orl apryMeHTarl uv, cBs3aHo c
uz6uparenanocrblo o6pzna. B no:re n:o6pasure,rbHoro rBopr{ect Ba ApeBHer,o (fiyAo)KHara) qaule Bcero norra_
l7ulr4 Te [onoBo3pacrHble, coq]tzrrlbHble Karetopl,th, uItvl 7'e BAAbr )Kt4BOTHbtX H flBJreHU' npHpoAr,I, 3HaqeHI4e
Koropblx B KZDKIOM KoHKperHoM o6lllecree 6utut'lttt't npn3Hatszlnucs uau6o,ree 3HaqlrMbtMr.l, rJTo B oKoHoMt4qecKoM, rlro' coorBercrBeHHo, B AyxoBHo-peJIHrt{o3HoM, a3Hallr, u n o6qecoqaatrbHoM rrnaHe (AHrouoaa
1984,
82 u cne4., @poroe 1991; KysrnanuaF,.F,.2002). _Bcron,tuupr no 3ToM)i noBo.qy, c oAHofi cropoHbr,
rroBaeMecr_
uoe npeo6nagaHne B aso6pa:urelsuofi npaxruKe Hocare,qei 4peeueseMneAenbrtecKLrx qlrBrznu za\uit
- o6pa:a
xeHUIaHbl, a c 4pyrofi cropoHbl, npeo6,ra4atrze o6pa:a m qlrHbr B Kynbrypax, pa3BaBaroulnxcr
[pevMyrrlecrBeHHo Ha cKoroBoAqecrcofi ocHoBe.

B x1',rurypax oxorHl4Koe-psr6oloaoB,

KaK npaBrrJlo, nao6paxa,rH

t"

"rag
u rpayuu (uruq, pr,r6), rcoroprte co6crseHHo 14 cJlyxHJrH fnaBHbrM o6rercrou oxorbr 14 l4croqHaKoM
rtpottvra1ut (na,leo,rnra'lecKoe (I{cKyccrBo) utu pazuoo6pa3Hbre soo- 14 opnraronaop$urre nso6paxeHzr
Me3oJII'lra a HeoJ'lllra oxorHILIbl4x Kynbryp,recsofi floJitocbt Bocroqsofi Eaponrr). B pauHe:elrJ]eAenbqecKrrx
KynbTypax AoMHHt4pyer u:oSpaxeuae o6pasa rcoposu-6rrxa, pex(e
--eBuHrlLr L{J,ur oBr-lbl, a B oKoroBoAqecKHX brypax - o6pa: ,rorua4r.t, oBubt-Ko3br, pe)t(e 6lrra-xopoa bt vIu r.rHbrx BaAoB.
)KI'IBOrHbIX

z'rn cneqnSHqHblx [papoAHblx yc,rosuft ux o6utasw.r), n r HhM Mbr eue BepHeMcr no xoAy
AalrHeiruero
a3no)teHu.q' Ho, ur'reuno 6naro4ap-r erofi yuznepc€1,'lbHocrr,r, oHlr srn o6croqreJlborBa
Bblcrynaror

-

-

Ant

Hac B Kaqecrse cnoeo6pa3Hblx HcxoAHbIX fiocrynaroB, o Koropbrx nocroqHHo
cneAyer noMHrlrb n L{Mn pyKoBoAcrBoBarscl, o6parrB[ll'Icb K BottpocaM a4eHru$zxaLluzl t4 14Hreplperaquu ruo6oro
us o6.1,eKros ,rl-Opu-

3IlreJIbHOfO TBopqecrBa ApeBHocrl,I, KaKOBbTMH B HatileM cnyqae Bbrcrynalor paccMarpuBaeMbre
3Aecb 3oonaopQHue HaBeprxHr.

Vl l. 1 . 14cropilot-pAor r{EcKt4E

pETpocnEKqilr

I'lcropwx orIo3HaHUt vnu krreHTvr$urcagun o6pasa )Kr.rBorHoro, u:o6p eHHoro B paccMarplrBaeMbrx
HaMlt KaMeHHbIX HaBeplxl{rx, 6ula cnorHa u3:ro)KeHa B npeArrrecrByforrlr4x r4cropt4orpa$u.recrcux
naparpaQax.

HanovHro rt,rrrr6 rraBHbre MoMeHTbl.
orn'teuy cpa3y )Ke, qro c MeroAaqecrcoii TorrKr4 3peHr.r:r pe[reHue groro Borrpoca BeefAa crpor4nocb,
r ecTeQTBeHHo' ua cyry6o BIj3ya,'IbHoM tsoctrpt4flTLrr4 HaxoAoK. A lro4riv, Ha[oMnHato,
csoficraeH Ho Blnerb n
BocrrphHr4Marb no-pa3Houy. VI3To xopotxo, Ho...
I

Kparrcafi o6croqle"Il'Hltil o6sop cyurecrBylou,lt{x no 3roMy Bonpocy rcoHqerrunfi
!ar{ B HenaBHo srrnerruefr paoore JI.B. BrzurHlrl-

roro (2002, 290 n cnet.).

,fl nouuvaro, uro no4o6Hag, cvtcreMa AoKzBarenbcrB He y6egmretnua
An.rr MHorr4x apxeoJrofoB, BeA6, KaK
orMeqzUlocb paHHee, JrorI4Ky no narueft npoQecczr.r B yHuBepc]trerax HaM He r{HTzrJIH... floorouy H B 3ToM
cnyqae r roroB ycry[r,rrb...

Vll.2. Ll14cnoBbtE nApAMETpbt oEpA3A nouJAAt4
Bonpoc' Moxno r'Irr KaK-To o6ocHoaaru ro, qro Anr MeHr (z Hluorzx
apyrux) a raK or{eBa4Ho? MoxHo

y6e4arelrHo apryMeHTapoBarb, trro, BocnprzHlrMaeMbre oAHr.rMLr KaK ((pearflcrllqecKr,r BbrrroJrHeHQa,uzvecKae)) (MaH:ypa 2000, 259), Apyrav.vr - KaK (Kpyroro6lre..., KypHocbre> (pesenrcz a 2002, 67)
uzo6pax<euu{ I'r B rIpaBAy oro6paxaror co6ofi He qro
*un, o6pa: o6urcHoeeHFrorl lruloii loura4u?
Konequo )Ke, Mo)KHo, npuqeM pa3HbIMLl [yrrMrr.""o"
OAua us nyreft - crvnucruxo-uopQoloru\ecxufi aHaJIa3 Bcero KoMIIteKca uso6pasrreJlbHblx 3JIeMeHToB. K coxaleuuro, tryrb 3Tor cJro)KHstit, go;g;ufi
lI BecbMa
MHorocJIoBHufi. llosrolty t [peAnararo 6oree gxoHo[ausrfi n 3HaqlrreJrbno 6oree ua4exuufi
MeroA.
MeroA 3Tor 3IDKAerct Ha aHaJr43e Bce rex xe Merpl{qecKr,rx rloKa3are,refi H HX coorHoneuuft. 146o,
rax
e orMeqarocb paHHee, (cyUlHocrb ncex nerqefi 3aKrloqaerc.{ B rrucrax)), a ((B3auMoorHorrleHr4e Berzrrr4H
Ha3blBaerct upolopuzefi> (lllnenuep 1998, 103; Ilocen 1963,263 u cne4.). A louraqr,
ee rorroBa, KaK [r Bce
ocraJlbHoe, nMeer cson oco6euHocrrl. OHa foJIoBa 3Tofo )KlrBornoro, KaK r,I Bce ocraJ.rbHoe (scnoN4uz1a. qev
onepapyrcT naJ'Ieoocreonorwt), fioAaerct a3MepeHI-IIo, a coorHorreHue qucJrroBblx Bervrr1rH
laAyr HaM rrponopqul4, flpur{eM nponopqvfl oco6ue, cnoeo6pa:ubre H Hrr c qeM vHbIM He coBrraAarorlr4e,
ilo.scH.slo. 3aAaqa HaIIIero aHaJrv3a
- o[peAeneHvrc raAa xr.rBorHofo, oro6paxeuuoro B paccM arpilBaeMblx HaMa KaMeHHLlx HaBepuutx, no rpafiuefi rvrepe peanncrrrqecrcofi rpyrrrrbr.
flpa ncex cxeMarq3Max H
ycnoBHocTqx' IIpHBHeceHHbIX ApeBHI{M cKyJIbIITopoM Ir I,IMeIoqI{M, pa3yMeeTc.s,
cBoll o6rgcgeqfi.s, KDr(Aoe
v3 peanvcruqHblx HaBepmafi, paccvorpeHHble n npo$ule, o6Hapyxnaaror 6olee vrJrrT
,vre1ee, Ho BrroJrHe qerKHe npo[opqnra. OHz eulp eHbI B oI]peAeJIeHHofi nnuue,rnqenofi qacrl uarepurufi
H ee coorHoDteHnu c
eutcotolz Hocosofi w, vIrH rorosuofi tacreit, wrLr coorHorreHuv nocrre1lux Menqy
co6ofi. Z:nepns z onJIU KaK-To
Hn're

pe4envB coorHoureHu-t o6oguaqeHHblx napaMerpoB B ycnoBHbrx eAr,rHarlax

coflocraBarb 3TI4 floKa3arenz co cxoAHblM}l tloKa3arerrrMlr, BbI!{LrcJ.reHHblMH4lr npo$ra:refi roroe ;1oglageit,
lt3BecrHblx no lro6ltu coBpeMeHHbrM vurt4 ApeBHHM zso6paxeuarM 3Toro
xtrBorHoro. Crcoppenr.rpoBaB
LIHAeKcax, MbI BrroJrHe Mo)KeM
3Tl4

Mepe' B 3HartlarerbHofi zx qacrlz (He 6ygeNa ga6rnalr o [pt4BHeoeHHbrx ycJroBHocrrx
u cxeMarq3uax sauefr
fpytrrb] Haxo4orc).
flo4vepraearc' peqb u4er o6 u4eurr'r0urcat\uz Bura- Equus KaK TaKoBoro. Brura
ro TapnaH, Jro[rarb
llpxeea'rscxofo, AnlKa.q unu oAoMa[HeHHar nouaAb 3To Hac, IIoKa r{To, He nHTepecyer. Halr BDKSH ToJ]LKo
enA, To.I can'lufi BHA' Koroplth, clreayt cfierryar:acraM n pa3BepnyBllrxMcr
B rrocneAHee Aectrr,rJler se nr4aKyccHtM (cnr. panee u 4alee), TaK Mzuro u3MeHuJrc, uopQo,rorraqecKz, rrro,
A e npp1 caMLIX Tor{HbIX ocreo_
noluqecKl'Ix H3MepeHutx' orJlt'lqurb nosAHer,'IeficrolleHoBylo no[aAb or
3HeoJlltrlt.{ecxoft fipaKTuqecKfi oKa3blBaerct rcpailHe cJ'loxHo I4nIr lpocro He Bo3Mo)KHo. A sro o6crosrelrcrBo,
Me y reM, Hac BrronHe ycrpauBaer, rlocKonbKy oHo rlo3BoJlfler HaM BfioJIHe o6ocuosaHuo co[ocraBrrrb
l,rHAeKcbr nponopq nfi uattux
KaMeHHbIX nso6paxeuufi se rolrxo c coBpeMeHuoit uttu (paHHeucropauecnofr>,
Ho u c calrofr noengenrefrJ]lrcb flo rofr xe cxeMe, qro H u3Mepeetul nHIJeBoir qacru peaJruarvvlbrx HaBeptxrzfi
(cu. puc. I7). pevl a4er
o rpex ocHoBHbIX [apaMerpax: rruHa ruqesoil qacr]r, Bblcora Hocoeofi
a Bblcora ro,qosHofi uacreil,B3{Tblx B
pa3HoM norlapHoM coorHoIIIeHaI4 Apyr K
Apyry. I4ur;tvrtt clloBaMu, peq6 HAer o urecrh ToqKax B Tpex lunefiHbIX I'r3MepeHl4tx' Koropble B cooTHollleHl4ll
Apyr K Apyry flo3Bor.sloT onpeAenuTb Tpx ocHoBHbrx oTHocraTeJIbHbIX fiapaMerpa unn vHAeKca, orpzDKa]orqux cneqaQur{Hocrb
rlportoprlar,r ruu nouQurypa\ALt npoQznr
foJIoBbI JIorxaAI{' 3ro: I coorHolrleH}Ie AnuHbI lzqenofi qacrn rro
orHorrreHu}o K Bbrcore uocoeofi (ycnonuo
- uocosofi uHAexc); 2 - cooruoureHue.q,qLtHbt,raqeeofi r4acrvt rro orHorrreHzro K foJ'roBHoMy noKa3arenro (yctoBHo-ronoeHofr IaHAeKc) u - 3 cooruorueHae 3Tux
ABle{ [apHbrx rrHAeKcoB Mex,qy co6oz (ycnonHo - Hoco-rorosHoi uHAeKc, n6uparorque s ce6s., coorBercrBeHHo, u naqenofi norca-sarenr).
Lrzvepeuw pean:acrvlunblx HaBepIxLIfi, lovnlre pa3Mepbr Koropbrx HaM r43BecrHbr,
r pea6Hrrx a6AaHbr

onoro (crol6eq 6), ronoBHoro (cron6eq 7) u noco_
ronoBHofo (cron6eq 8) uHgercon. o6paulaer na ce6s BHprMaHue, qro K rpynne
peruucruqHbrx uanepmufi

[eqep H rlp'). flolusle AaHHLIe no:rofi cepr4],r u:o6paxeuufi cse4eusr s Ta6rr,rue 19, e noropoi, n rofi Ne [ocJleAoBareJ]bHocru, pacura$pouaHbr r{
a,rJrrocrpauHr4 (cron6. 2),yclosu. 1e
pa3Mepbl cHtrblx lusefrsrx napaMerpoB (cro,'16. 3-5) u ""rron"=oruHHr,re
3HaqeHrr.s ronyueHHbrx aHAeKcoB (cro,r6. 6-8).
HVs Ha creHax

Ta6n' 18. Merpuvecxue napaMerpbr (3-5

8

-

-

Crpanrqur

Ne

HlIJrIo au

fl;tnaa
rnue-

n/

(Konanescxaa,1977)

2

5

6
1
8

Brrcora

Bucora

Hocos

I-onoe

tonoB-

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nofi
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2

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"-.8t2

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1.69
1.88
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Cm.12.
Cm.47
Cre 60/l
Cm.6o/2
69

Crp.79l1
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316

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59

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Tar<oebt HanI'I HcxoAHbIe raHHbre, [pnBneqeHHbre
Anq pen]eHfir rIocraBJreHH
nponopuufi npoSzna roJroBbr no[aA]r.

qucJ.roBof o BbrpDKe Hu_s

Hanu

HocoronoBnofr
HHIICKC

i,0

R/?

Cm
IO

ilso6paxeHri ronoe

Hoconoft

3

4

e ycfloBHbrx cnr.)

ur-rgexc coorHotueHilF Bbrcorbr ronoBHoro h HocoBoro noKa3arene.

Ns

TI

-

paccy)KAeHa.s

ryr rtpocrll.

45
1.58

I.l

oit zagauu

-

onpeAeneHn,

Ecnn Br,rcq[TaHHbre, rrpnBeAeHHbre B coorBercrByrout4x ra6,ruqax

foJloBbl JroIIaAIl, TO, CKOppenI4poBaB AaHHbre IIo Bce
una l\4eHbllefi creneHl'I' Ao,rlx(Hbl coBrlacrb. Oronoprca e 6orsuefi uru MeHbrrre orerreHr{
- r-IprrBoALrrc.,r
JrHIrib [oroMy' qro B aHa-II]43 :aAefi'creoeas 6olr,uo y)K pa3Horxepcrurrfi Marepuan.
KaueuHlre HaBepuz{ - c
oAuofr cropoHbl, c 4pyrofr - HacreHHbre n:o6poreHrzq [areo,ruruqecnofi fonoBbr
rrorxaAu B HarypanbHyro
BerLIqhHy' a c rperlefr cropoHbl orlrarafl B Meruullre MeJ-rKa.{ rroABecKa, utu
uzo6paxeHple Ha cxnscrcour
cocyAe' Bce :ro, ecrecrBeHHo, rlpeAnonar-aer AocraroqHo 3Hariure,uuufi pa:6poc
ktHAeKaoB Ha KoppenrquoHHoM no'te' Ho, noAqepKlrBalo, aBTop oco3HaHHo nrr6par cronb pzrHoo6pasnyro
KonneKrllrrc. 146o,

norurca
fIoAcK€BbIBaer' lITo ecnA Bce Hatnu vH!.elccst
4eficru,ITenbHo orpzDr r o6rexrzsHbre nponopqlrq roJ1oBbr
JIoIIIaAH' a no[IaAb 3Ta oAHa H Ta )Ke BuAa Equus, To Ha Koppemqr{oHHoM
rroJre, He3aBr4cHMo or Bo3MoxHoro pas6poca, rIoKa3areJII4 rlo BceM 3TI,IM cepLLsM AoJI)KHbr coBrlacrb,
AOJDKHsI o6Hapyxzrbcr KaK B3al,rMonepeKpblBaroxluecs fpytl[upoBKr vnv rloAMHoxecrsa. kI3To B paBHoi crelenu
orHocarc_rr rr K Harrlr.rM KaMeHHbrM
HaBeprrrHrM, ecIIkT 0lH.u geitcTnureJrbHo npeAcraBnffor Hro6pax<eHrLfl rornarr...

' Cyruecreytor, pa3yMeercfl, lr MHot(ecrBo llHr,rx MeroaoB, Ho Koppenrur{r Ha BeKTopHoM noJre o6ecne.{,neaer san6onsury'o HarJ'ItAHocrl. A apxeonorll, KaK tI3BecrHo, flpeAnoqrrraror KoHKpe.l.Hoe

-

Bz3yanr,Hoe.

MeHHOIO pa3pblBa, CTvrIrr cTvIqeCKHx IIJIt't TeXHnqecKLtx BO3MO)I(HOcTefi nepeAaqr o6pa3a JrouraApr, [pr4BneqeHHbIe r{I4cnoBble rloKa3areJlu
- Ha ypoBHe BuAa - 6eroroeopoqHo o6Hapy)rfl4Baror rroqru IIoJrHoe cooTBeTcrBHe, KaK no pacnpeAeneHurc (connaAeHl,Ie rpynn), TaK r.r [o reHAeHr{rlr,r (opueurrapoara rpynn). Haqerocr,
KOMMeHTapUn UI3IILTUIHVI.

Pnc'

57

' CoorHouteuue (HocoBofo) (ropusouranu) u <ronoeuoro> (eepruranu) ru4ercoe npo$rnn

ronoBbl noulaA[ Ha (paHHeilcropr4qecKhx) (1) u noa4ne naneon[ruqecrux(2) uso6paxexunx.

llo

cxoppenupoBaHHbrM napaMerpaM, pe3ynl,Tarbr, rronyrreHHbre Ha BeKTopHoM rroJre, c o4uofi cropoHbr,

noJlHocrbIo rloATBep)KAalor o6beKTkIBHocrb HHAeKcoB B Kar{ecrBe rzHAr4KaropoB vrrrv olpeAenvrelefi
nponoputzfr loua4zHofi foJ'IoBbI, a c 4pyroff cropoHbr eQQer<ruaHocrb caMoro [peAnoxeHHor-o MeroAa
KaK
cpeAcTBa U4eUrl4QUr<arlfilr 3Toro BVAa )KUBOTHbrx.
A6colroruo aAeHTldqHbIe BbIBoAa HanparlvBzrlorcs, vr vt3 cpaBHr,ITenbHofo aHurnn3a 3Tr4x )Ke
AByx cepr4Lr
rlo ocrzLIIbHbIM rloKa:larer.sM u I,IX BO3MOXHbIM coqeTaHutM. Pevr uAer o cooTHorxeHr{u (rorosHofo)) (:
ldIVHa,ruqenoff qacrLr Ha Bblcory ronoeHofi _ Ta6t. 18 a 19, crol6. 7) n <noco-roJroBofo) (coorHorxeHrde
HocoBoro noKa3arent c foJIoBHbINI Ta6n. 18 n 19, cror6. 8) rangerccon (puc. 58) Hnv)Ke B
coorHorrreHzr.r
nocneAHero - ((Hoco-roJloBHofo) fioKa3arer.s c ((roJroBHblM) (:
!.nvrHa raqesofi qacrLr Ha Bbrcory uocorofi)
(pt'tc. 59)" Cpanunuax noryr{eHnble pe3ynbrarbr c AaHHbrMu Pucyuna 57, vox<Ho
3aMernrb, r{To Bo Bcex cJry-

r{arx ilpoaHanH3HpoBaHHbIe vHAeKcsr o6pasytor: I
- cxo4uue, KoMrraKTHbre oBzrnoo6pasnue xon$urypaquz,
2 -- rcoropsre HaruIaAblBalorct Apyr Ha Apyra H Koropbre 3 uueror oArry 14
ry )Ke oprreHTupoBKy rro orHor.xeHHIo K ToqKe llepeceqeHvq ocetl BeKTopHofo norq. TaK r{To flocraBresHrtfi
Bonpoc, HaAelocb, ucuepnau: I BbIAeJreHHbIe ItHAeKcbI o6rexrllsHlr H crlorlHa orpoKarcT cnequQzvnocrb rrpolopuzz
lpoQan" aorro"", ,ro[arr4: 2 - tvrcroanKa KoppeKTHa I4 BTIoJIHe rIpHMeHrzMa rnfl, :n1eHTlQunaqrzr.r o6pasa norxaAr.r s rro6oNa
sos-

MO)I(HOM IICIIOJIHEHUIZ.

I'barc, npozepuB MeroAnr<y Lr nonyquB noJro)Kr{TerrbHrrfi orner, Mbl Mo)KeM rrpflarynrrrb K pe11eH11rc
fnaBHol-o Haulero Borlpoca - u4eHrnQzKaIIktH o6pa:a, u:o6paxeHuoro B r{alrax KaMeHHbrx
Hateprulr.ax. 146o,

ecJIH 3To Aeiicrenrerlno o6pa: Jro[Ia{tl, To cKoppenrapoBaHHbre c
AaHHbrMLt rro AByM paHee npoaH€ur}r3l,IpoBaHHf'IM cepuqM, ux coOTBeTcTByIoqZe LIHAeKcbI-[oKa3aTeJILf
AOnx(Hb] cOBfIaCTb (s 6OJrlruefi ullU vessltteit

crenesu l).
Ha nocle4yloulux rpex un;Ilocrpalrutx (puc.60-62). s a6corrorso rofi )Ke uocJreAoBarerbHocrn,
rro reM
xe rIoKa3areJItM' cKoppenupoBaHo coorHoureHue lpoQunefi rauessux uaoepruufi c npo$a"rrrnru roJroB Jro[JaAu, paHHee [poaHzull'I3]4poBaHHblx aepvu. {na naua4Hocrr.r u cono
rz B 3THX unnrocrpar_(r,rJrx
6rtrz coxpaHeHbr KoHryprr t4 rpyrnzpoBKt4 o6ezx rls rrepBbrx cepufi. gro
saercs?

Prc. 60' cooruoulesue (HocoBoro)) (ropusorranu) n <ronoenoro)) (Bepr[Kanb)
[HAeKcoB n po$rnr ronoBbt nowaAtl Ha ( paHHeucropt4qecK[x)
(1), nos4HenaneonuruqecKux (2) ntolpaxeHuflx h KaMeHHbrx xaeepuunx (3).

Puc. 61. Coorsouleuue <HocoBoro> (ropusonranu) u <ronoexoro> (eepruranu)

t,r,"o.1#?1"""""oH?r#:il:Ufi

::S'J#:'ilili"#fJfl l,xi".i,liixli,*t.r

, 1' flo4o6Ho npeAIIrecrByIoqI'IM cepvflM, trpr4 ervHr."nux pa:6pocax rroKrBareJrr4 KaMeHHux Harepurzfi
o6pasyror AocraroqHo KoMrIaKrHbIe fpyrrrbr rroAoBzrnbHofi ronQzrypaquu (puc.
60,3; puc.6l,3; puc. 62,3);
2' flo ncerra rpeM coqeraHvlar rIoKzBareJIH KaMeHHbrx Hanepunfi (n n ux KoMfraKTHoM pacflpeAeJre

Hypt, vl

no eAlIHLIqHrtu pa:6pocau) nouru qro HaloJIoBI,IHy coBrraAaror c rroKa3areJrrMr4 nepnofi
--1.pu"""""Topvqecr<ofi>> cepuu u s oco6eHHocrra (!) c
MexAy roqKaM1a
- \areonvnuqecxofi cepuefi, (puc. 60-62,

7,2z3rpynn).

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uro o0oprra,reuue srofi uy$ru, uo nceii Be o.srHocrpr, BKJrroqiuro e ce6q
AonoJrHnTenbHbre 3JreMeHTbr oro6paNaeltoro o6pa:a. Tarczttlz xapaKTepHbIM Anr ronoBbr norxaAr4 3JreMeHTaMr4,
orcyrcrBy rouLr'n B peanu-

crl4qecKux KaMeHHblx Ia:o6paxeuulx (ucxltoveHl4e
- Tepexnz-Merre6), MofJItI 6rttr, rcouer{Ho xe, y111v vl
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Bo3Mo)KHofo r{cxoAHoro BHelrHero Br4Aa 3Tr,rx uanepuufi.

tz10B.

B cytrrrue

6-

J

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2-

n6 nA n7
Prc' 63' Konu'lecreeHHoe
flo eeprrranu

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1

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I
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11--1.8 T.s

pacnpeAeneH!4e noxasarenei no KaMeHHbrM HaBeplrlhsM (1),
<pauneracropravecruria> (2)

KonhqecrBo

ffiffiHH:ilI jiHi:tJ"ffil:ffi?ff#",:?!ir"u^
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c

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17_1e, qon6. 7) x Hoco_

o4uaro noArlepKlzBalo, KaKHMII 6tt ge 6rtlz 6rr o6rscseuns,. orMeqeHHbre
Bbrrrre,

qnrelruofi qacrv

zf

coBMeureHue 3Ha-

norcasarenflMvr pa3HoBpeMeHHbrx, qerKrrx
6paxenuft foJIoB nolxaAl' LI.JITTK'M pelxaer Borrpoc o6 o6paee,
'r3onso6paxaeuoM B KaMeHHbrx peaJrucrr,rqHbrx HaBeplxurx.
A ec'ru MoI4 orlnoHeHTbl B 3ToM etlle coMHeBarorcr, npeAnararc npocrofr
3KcnepvMeHr. Bogsnazre:1o6oe

Ayfn cKynoBoro usru6a, aAyluero K yrxaM, Bbrcory c
orHolleHut AnvHbr foJIoBbI Ha Bblcory Hocoeoft (nocoaofi an4ercc), 3areM
roJroBuofi (rolongofi uu4exc) vacreit' a 3areM coorHecvre ABa nocneAHl4x uHAeKca (Hoco-rolon uoil), uBbr
HelpeMeHHo
noJryqare cneAyrcr!fie

M

- or 1.4 oo 2.0 u s rperbeM cnyqae _ or 1,4 4o 1,9.

norxaAH.
Ha no3Haerc.s B cpaBHeHuu. Be1t, (cLtr)) _ He roJrbKo
H pa3rrvqve, pa3rfirr{ve ro oTHolreHaro K 3JreMeHTaM
llHoro prItt4 vHbrx rlrnoB' Karc npo.ausror ce6t rloKa3areJrn nponopuafi
rorroBbr notuaAv B cpaBHeHwI c froKa3urelrg'Mlr tlHbIX BaAoB xzsorHstx?
.ft{ eroro MbI BocrroJrb3yeMcq rofi x<e, xoporrro lrpounnlocrpuponanuofi
pa6orofi A. Ilepya-f ypaHa.

Ha Pucy'xax 64-65 cKoppenHpoBaHbl H3MepeHHbre u Bbrcr{vraHHbre
,,o reM

xe ,,pllHuzrraM

rroKa3a-

bIX, tro CpaBHeHIIIO C tIOKa3aTeJL'IMu J'IOma,qu, o6ua_
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ocefr roopA'HarHoro no'r'q' B ueJIoM' oHH
AeM
T HecKoJrbKo 6oree yAnr.rHeHHbre, rrp,3eMvcrbre
[po[opUI4I'I. 3ro o6cro.areJlbcrBo orqerJruBo
Baerc, rz ra3 coorHorrreHl.t, (HocoBoro)) tr (ro_

(pnc. 64), u 143 COI]OCTaBrreHufl ((HOCO-|OJrOBHOfO))
(puc' 65)' u, pa3yMeercfl' 143 coorHolrreHra.s (Hoco-foJloBHofo) ((HocoBofo)roKa3arer-s c ((roroBHbrM)
rI
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KOTOpbrx MLr

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Vff.3. K Bonpocy oEycnoBHocrrxu cxEMArn3MAx
B npeguecrByloqeM naparpaQe M6I paccMorpenn Boflpoc rgeurraQuKar{zu o6paza,3ano)KeHHoro B peaBrtnoq - oAI4H. I,I gror BbtBoA rIoJIHocrbIo coorBercrByer BbIBoAy, HarlpaunBaloureMyct I'r3 npaBznbHoro Boctrpu.{Tr,rq caMofo [oHsrtIs (TI4n). 3ro, noHeuuo
xe, o6pa: no[IaAI,I.
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Ho HeI43BecrHo c r{eM corlocraBl4Tb, c t{eM cKoppenuposars.V Bce
rroroMy, uro o6pa: uso6paxaevoro npeAenbHo cxeMarH3I4poBaH I'I He noAaerc.fl oAHo3HaqHofi a4eHru$r,rKaIIH14, xorq, BHe coMHeHHr,
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3peHvt crrurner1Kn,
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or,pa)KeHI4e AeficrehrerbHocrl{) (CI4C 1979, 429) vnn <<npaBlHnoe, o6rercTaBHoe
orptuKeHze 4eficrnnrerlnocra> (BC3' I4sa.-III-e.1976. Torvr' 21, 526).lrlnswu cJIoBaMr.r, HecKoJrbxo yrport1a.s, Mo)KHo
cKa3arb, rrro peaHHble

uofr> roqnocrrrc.
)KaeMofo

c <QororpaQuqecxofi> HJlli, cKaxeM,

(3epKzurb_

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crutuzoeaHHofi r4n?r [ceBAopeaJll'rcruqecKoft uauepe. B erux cnyqatx uro6paxeHu.s raruKe oro6paxaror

3awfl

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ux Quryp u [peAMeroB c rroMorrlbro prAa

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xapaKTepHoe, cneqaQuuHoe aMeHHo z ronE,Ko AaHHoMy KoHKperHoMy npeAMery
nln o6rexry.V sro fipaBr4'ro co6lroraerc,I KaK Ha ypoBHe ueJlbHoro aso6paxeHux , runi Ha ypoBHe oro6paxenux orgemHoi, pa3yMeerc.fl, TaK rrce Hau60ree xapaKTepHOir UaCru, o6rr.rHo 3aMeqarcurer
cb60r q"rro".
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A3 flepeqacJ]eHHblx 3Aecb B]IAOB rlo3BoJlter 6e:oruz6oqHo y3HaBarr
mo6ofi r,r3 cBeAeHHblx K AByM
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uoAo6Horo, a rena 6oaee

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cxeMarv3a\vrfl oro6pa;Naenaoro peanbHoro o6pa:a

ror KoHKperuo u:o6paxaeMoe or ruo6oro unoro ce6e

or l4Horo nz4a. 3ro crznb rporecKa, rrpaHuptrr orpaxeHur
xapaKTepHoro tracTHofo. 3ro xax 4p ecrcufi, [rapx(, nura

qepe3 (BLInfl'rMBaHLre>>
lrc ce6e BepHyrbcr K HarrraM Jrorra,rlKaM.

-

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B cTltJILI3oBaHHbIX
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n arpu6yrrt.