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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

TOPIC 1

REVIEW OF ELT METHODOLOGY

LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of Topic 1, you will be able to:

examine the different ESL teaching methods practiced in Malaysian primary


classrooms;

identify the language skills and language content taught in the Malaysian
primary classrooms;

discuss the features of language arts stipulated in the KBSR syllabus;


interpret the curriculum content and plan specific activities for meaningful

learning;
examine and talk about integration of language skills and language content in

teaching methods used;


explore and discuss purposes of integration and ways of integration in
simulation presented;

LISTENING
Teaching Productive Skills
Introduction
There are four basic skills in any language; receptive skills- reading and listening,
and productive skills- speaking and writing. All are equally important and whenever
possible we should try to incorporate all of them into our lessons if we want to have a
balanced approach. Often we will want to focus more on one particular skill but still
bring others in to create an " integrated "skills lesson.

TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

In this part I will focus more on productive skills; speaking and writing. While
speaking and writing are substantially different in many ways, they both are used for
the same purpose- to communicate.
In many ways writing is the most neglected skill in the TEFL world " teaching
English as a foreign language", as many teachers don't like to see the classroom
hours devoted to what is often 'quiet time'. Writing, therefore, is often relegated to
homework, which in turn is frequently not done so the skill is never developed. It is
true that most students prefer to focus on their speaking skills but this doesn't mean
that writing should be ignored. In many ways writing is the more difficult skill,
requiring a greater degree of accuracy. When speaking, any misunderstanding can
be cleared up' on the spot', whereas this is not possible in writing. Speaking, on the
other hand, requires a greater degree of fluency as the speaker will rarely have time
to think and plan an answer.
Communication between people is a very complex and ever changing thing. But
there are generalizations that we can make which have particular relevance for the
teaching and learning of languages.
When two or more people are communicating with each other, we can be sure they
are doing so for one of the following reasons:
They have some communicative purpose
They want to say something
They want to listen to something
They are interested in what is being said.
Therefore, if a teacher wishes to introduce a communicative activity to the students,
he or she should bring in a number of the mentioned factors. The teacher must
create the need and desire, in the students, to communicate. If these factors are not
present, it is far less likely that the activity will be the success the teacher had
envisaged. If the students don't see the point in doing something, they're far less
likely to want to participate.
What is the difference between accuracy and fluency activities?
Accuracy activities are concentrated on producing correct language. Such activities
are usually controlled to ensure accurate reproduction of language.
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Fluency activities are concentrated on allowing the student to experiment and be


creative with the language. We are less concerned with accuracy and more
concerned with the effectiveness and flow of communication.

Key Questions about Listening


What are listeners doing when they listen?
What factors affect good listening?
What are characteristics of real life listening?
What are the many things listeners listen for?
What are some principles for designing listening techniques?
How can listening techniques be interactive?
What are some common techniques for teaching listening?

What makes listening difficult?


Clustering
Redundancy
Reduced forms
Performance variables
Colloquial language
Rate of delivery
Stress, rhythm, and intonation
Interaction

TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

What kinds of listening skills are taught?


Reactive (listen and repeat)
Intensive (listen on a focused sound)
Responsive (listen and respond briefly)
Selective (listen for particular items in a longer passage)
Extensive (listen for interactive/responsive purposes)
Interactive (listen to discuss, respond, debate)

Principles for teaching listening


Integrate listening into the course
Appeal to students personal goals
Use authentic language and contexts
Consider how students will respond
Teach listening strategies
Include both bottom-up AND top-down listening

Common listening strategies


Looking for key words
Looking for nonverbal cues to meaning
Predicting a speakers purpose by the context
Activating background knowledge
Guessing at meanings
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Seeking clarification
Listening for the gist
Developing test-taking strategies for listening

Current issues in teaching oral skills


Conversational discourse
Teaching pronunciation
Accuracy and fluency
Affective factors
Interaction effect
Questions about intelligibility
Questions about what is correct speech

Activity
With a partner/group, look at the strategies given on the handout to you
(or the one you have selected). Briefly plan how you might teach these
strategies to students.
Report back to the whole group on at least two of the activities.

SPEAKING
How to teach speaking?
Which of the four skills (l-s-r-w) do you find to be the hardest?
Unlike Reading or writing, speaking happens in real time.
When you speak, you cannot edit and revise what you wish to say, as you can
if you are writing. (Nunan 2003)
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What is speaking?
Productive Skill
Some differences between written and spoken language

Background toTeaching Speaking


Audiolingual
CommunicativeLanguageTeaching

Linguistic Elements Involved in Speaking


Utterances
Clauses and Phrases
Morpheme
Phonemes

Principles for Teaching Speaking


Focus on fluency and accuracy (depending on objective)
Use intrinsically motivating techniques
Use authentic language in meaningful contexts
Provide appropriate feedback and correction
Optimize the natural link between listening and speaking (and other
skills)
Give students the opportunity to initiate oral communication.
Develop speaking strategies.

Activities
Information gap
Jigsawactivities
Role-plays
Simulations

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Speaking activities in the classroom


Controlled activities - accuracy based activities. Language is controlled by the
teacher.
Drilling: choral and individual listening to and repetition of the teacher's
modal of pronunciation.
Guided activities accuracy based but a little more creative and productive. The
output is still controlled by the teacher but the exact language isn't.
Model dialogues
Guided role-play
Creative communication fluency based activities. The scenario is usually created
by the teacher but the content of the language isn't.

Encouraging students to speak:


Many students can seem reluctant to speak in the classroom. This can be for a
variety of reasons, including:
Lack of confidence
Fear of making mistakes
Peer intimidation
Lack of interest in the topic
Previous learning experience
Cultural reasons.

The teacher must try to overcome these hurdles and encourage student interaction.
The aim should be to create a comfortable atmosphere, where students are not
afraid to speak or make mistakes, and enjoy communicating with the teacher and
their fellow students.
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Techniques to encourage interaction


Pair-work
Group-work
Plenty of controlled and guided practice before fluency activities
Create a desire and need to communicate
Change classroom dynamics
Careful planning
With certain activities you may need to allow students time to think about what they
are going to say

After the activity


Provide feedback
Include how well the class communicated. Focus more on what they were able to
do rather than on what they couldn't do.
Sometimes you can record the activity for discussion afterwards. Focus more on
the possible improvements rather than the mistakes.
Note down repeated mistakes and group correct it. Individual mistakes are
corrected individually

Do drills have a place? Yes, BUT.


Guidelines for Drills
Keep them short
Keep them simple
Keep them snappy
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Ensure that students know WHY they are doing the drill
Limit the drill to phonological/grammatical points
Ensure that they lead to a communicative goal
DONT OVERUSE THEM

Should we teach pronunciation?


According to Wong (1987), sounds are less crucial for understanding than
the way they are organized (as cited in Brown, 2008, p. 339).
Native speakers rely more on stress and intonation than accurate articulation
of a particular sound.

Factors that affect pronunciation


Native language
Age
Exposure
Innate phonetic ability
Identity and language ego
Motivation/concern for good pronunciation

Common speaking strategies


Asking for clarification (what?)
Asking someone to repeat something
Using fillers
Using conversation maintenance cues (uh-huh, right, yeah, okay, hm)
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Getting someones attention


Using paraphrases for structures one cant produce
Appealing for assistance from the interlocutor
Using formulaic expressions
Using mime and nonverbal expressions

READING
How do we read?
Some assumptions about reading:
The nature of reading

Reading aloud

Silent reading

Manner

Utterance of every word

Silent

Speed

Usually slow

Usually fast

Purpose

Usually to share

Usually to get information

information
Skills involved

Pronunciation and

Skimming, scanning, predicting;

intonation

Guessing unknown words;


Understanding details; Understanding
relations between sentences and
between paragraphs; Understanding
references; Understanding inferences

Activity type

Collective activity

Individual activity

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Management in

Easy to manage as it can

Difficult to manage as teachers cannot

the classroom

be observed and heard

see what is going on in the students


minds

What do effective readers do?


Effective readers:

have a clear purpose in reading;

read silently;

read phrase by phrase, rather than word by word;

concentrate on the important bits, skim the rest, and skip the
insignificant parts;

use different speeds and strategies for different reading tasks;

perceive the information in the target language rather than mentally


translate;

guess the meaning of new words from the context, or ignore them;

have and use background information to help understand the text.

What do we read?
Calendars

Clothes size labels

Magazines

Addresses

Graffiti on walls

Radio/TV guides

Phone books

Childrens scribbling

Advertisements

Name cards

Informa1 letters

Posters

Bank statements

Business letters

Travel guides

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Credit cards

Rules and regulations

Cookbooks

Maps

Electronic mail

Repair manuals

Anecdotes

Telegrams

Memos

Weather forecast

Fax messages

Time schedules

Pamphlets

Junk mail

Street signs

Product labels

Postcards

Syllabi

Washing instructions

Credit cards

Journal articles

Short stories

Comic books

Song lyrics

Novels

Newspapers

Film subtitles

Plays

Diplomas

Diagrams

Poems

Application forms

Flowcharts

Handbooks

Store catalogues

Name tags
(adapted from Gebhard 1996:189)

It is important for ESL/EFL teachers to bear in mind what we read in real


life, so that when we select reading materials for our ESL/EFL
classroom, we not only have a greater variety but also meet the needs of
different students.

Besides authentic texts, ESL/EFL textbooks also employ a lot of nonauthentic texts, i.e. simulated text. Simulated texts are aimed for
beginner students who are probably not able to handle genuine
authentic text. It is believed that the reading of such texts will help
students to acquire the necessary receptive skills they will need when
they eventually come to tackle authentic materials (Harmer, 1983).

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Skills involved in reading comprehension


Two broad levels in reading:

Visual signal from the eyes

A cognitive task of interpreting the visual information, relating the


received information with the readers own general knowledge, and
reconstructing the meaning that the writer had meant to convey.

Skills needed in reading

Recognising the script of a language;

Understanding the explicitly stated information;

Understanding conceptual meaning;

Understanding the communicative value (function) of sentences;

Deducing the meaning of unfamiliar lexical items;

Understanding relations within sentences;


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Understanding references;

Recognising indicators in discourse;

Recognising the organization of the text;

Making inferences.

Strategic skills needed in reading

Distinguishing the main idea from supporting details;

Skimming: reading for the gist or main idea;

Scanning: reading to look for specific information;

Predicting: guessing what is coming next;

Principles and models for teaching reading


Principles for teaching reading:

The texts and tasks should be accessible to the students.

Tasks should be clearly given in advance.

Tasks should be designed to encourage reading for the main meaning rather
than test the students understanding of trivial details.

Tasks should help develop students reading skills and strategies rather than
test their reading comprehension.

Teachers should help the students to read on their own, so that they
eventually become independent readers.

Models for teaching reading

The Bottom-up Model

The Top-down Model


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The Interactive Model

The Bottom-up Model

This model of teaching reading is based on the theory in which reading (and
listening, too) is regarded as a process of decoding, which moves from the
bottom to the top of the system of language.

In the Bottom-up Model, the teacher teaches reading by introducing


vocabulary and new words first and then going over the text sentence by
sentence. This is followed by some questions and answers and reading aloud
practice.

The Top-down Model

This model of teaching reading is based on the theory in which reading is


regarded as a prediction-check process, a psycholinguistic guessing game
(Goodman, 1970).

In the Top-down Model, not only linguistic knowledge but also background
knowledge is involved in reading.

Therefore, it is believed that in teaching reading, the teacher should teach the
background knowledge first, so that students equipped with such knowledge
will be able to guess meaning from the printed page.

The Interactive Model

This model of teaching reading is based on the theory in which reading is


viewed as an interactive process.

According to the Interactive Model of reading (also called as the Schema


Theory Model), when one is reading, the brain receives visual information,
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and at the same time, interprets or reconstructs the meaning that the writer
had in mind when he wrote the text. This process does not only involve the
printed page but also the readers knowledge of the language in general, of
the world, and of the text types.

Based on such understanding, teaching reading in the classroom divides


reading activities into basically three stages, in which bottom-up and top-down
techniques are integrated to help students in their reading comprehension and
in increasing their language efficiency in general.

WRITING

Writing a text has quite a number of differences which separates it from


speaking. Not only are there differences in grammar, vocabulary, but also in

spelling, layout and punctuation.


Despite these differences, many of these factors are as those for speaking,
need to be considered and incorporated.

Spelling
Incorrect spelling can not only create misunderstandings but also can often
be perceived, by the reader, to reflect a lack of education. Spelling in English
is very difficult by the fact that many words that are pronounced the same are
written differently and some words are written the same but pronounced

differently.
A single sound in English can be written in many different ways, because it is
not a phonetic language. As teachers, we need to drag the students' attention
to the different ways of pronouncing the same letters and have them do
exercises to discover the rules. Spelling differences between English and
American English plus the new kind of 'slang' emerging through the internet

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and e-mail- don't exactly help either. One of the best ways to help students
with spelling is through extensive reading.

Layout and punctuation


Once again, this can present the students with major problems if the rules of
their first language are significantly different from those of English. In reality
(despite the many rules) punctuation is a matter of personal style, but totally
incorrect usage can lead to rather awkward and difficult looking pieces of
writing.

To help students learn different layouts of writing, they need to be exposed to,
and be given the chance to practice with many different styles. After
completing a piece of written work, they get to check it over for grammar,
vocabulary usage as well as punctuation and spelling. As with speaking
activities, students will often require planning time for written work.
Creative writing

Many of the same principles need to be applied to writing activities as


speaking activities. If they have no desire or need to write the result is likely to
be somewhat less than spectacular. Creative writing should be encouraged,
as it engages the students and the finished work usually provides them with
the sense of pride. Typical creative writing tasks may include poetry, story

writing and plays.


Although most writing in the 'real world' is an individual act, there is nothing to
stop the teachers assigning students to work in pairs or groups, particularly for
creative writing where the input of ideas from different sources may be helpful
if not necessary.

Integration on the language skills and language content, language arts and
educational emphases
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Activity 1: Answer cultural question and introduce rational for Integrated skills .
Discuss with your partner before you write down your answers.
Question: Is the capital of Australia Sydney, Canberra or Melbourne?
Which skills do you use to answer the question?
Reading, listening, speaking, writing, thinking, researching, interacting.

Activity 2: Discussion
Why do we teach Integrated Skills?
Because it is closer to real life communication or It is a more realistic way of
learning a language.

Situation
Discussing a
magazine article
with a friend
Attending a
lecture
Riding a bicycle
on your own
Ordering a meal
in a restaurant

listening

speaking

reading

writing

Activity 5: Discuss in groups of four.


Think of a situation which involves 4 skills and share your idea with your partners

How Can We Integrate the Four Skills?


The easiest form of integration is within the same medium (either oral or written),
from receptive to productive skills.
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Type of medium
Oral
Written

Receptive Skill
Listening
Reading

to
to

Productive Skills
Speaking
Writing

Complex integration
This involves constructing a series of activities that use a variety of skills. In each of
the activities, there is realistic, communicative use of language.

Topic : interviewing famous people.


Skills :
Listen to an interview
Read a magazine article
Speak, interview a famous film star
Speak, interview each other
Write a magazine article

Language And Content Integration

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Language skills are most effectively learned in context and emerge most
naturally in purposeful, language-rich, experiential, interdisciplinary study.
Practices Associated with this Principle
Every teacher teaches content (i.e. there are no stand-alone ESL classes)

and every teacher teaches language.


Teachers proactively seek language learning opportunities in all content (e.g.

identifying language features of content and eliciting or explaining rules and


providing students with opportunities to apply them in context).

Projects/activities include clear content and language objectives.

Native languages of students are acknowledged positively and used as a


resource. Projects that require students to read and write in their native
languages are incorporated into the curriculum.
The predominant form of instruction is collaborative learning so that students

have multiple opportunities to interact with one another using oral language
(both English and native languages) to discuss content
.

Philosophy Behind Core Principle and Practices


Integrating language and content is connected to experiential learning and to
collaboration. Providing students with rich experiences and tangible, hands-on ways
to access materials builds their knowledge of a content area and provides a need to
develop the language to explain the acquired knowledge. Language in this sense is
an outgrowth of content. However, when small groups negotiate the meaning of the
content and clarify understanding, the language becomes a vehicle for deepening
content comprehension. In order to discuss the content effectively, teachers need to
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provide support for students to develop the necessary vocabulary and language
structures. These are acquired through multiple opportunities to apply them in
conversations and activities (redundancy). Grammar is taught in the context of
learning content (e.g. the past tense is taught because students need to discuss
something that happened in the past for a particular project). Language is not taught
as a goal in and of itself, but as a means to improve understanding of the content.
Collaborative structures of the classroom can also be useful for students who need
native language support to grasp the content. Through small group discussions,
students have the opportunity to first comprehend the content in their native
language (thereby developing their native language) before needing to articulate
their understanding (through discussions, projects, presentations) in English.
Research indicates that content knowledge in one language transfers to another, and
that developing students native languages supports growth in English.
Collaboration among teachers also supports students in developing their language
skills. An interdisciplinary project centered on a common theme helps to broaden
students understanding of the content, providing them with more opportunities to
use language to explain that content. Moreover, the vocabulary and language
structures needed to access that content are often reinforced in several classes
when students are engaged in interdisciplinary study, enhancing their ability to use
the language structures and vocabulary in multiple contexts (DeFazio, T., Dunetz, N.,
Hirschy, D. (1993).

Language Arts

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Integrating the Language Arts. ERIC Digest.


ERIC Identifier: ED263627
Publication Date: 1985-00-00
Author: Wagner, Betty Jane
Source: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills Urbana IL.

Integrating the language arts means providing natural learning situations in which
reading, writing, speaking, and listening can be developed together for real purposes
and real audiences. It is a counterpart in the elementary school for the "languageacross-the-curriculum" movement among high school and college teachers. Because
such a high proportion of elementary classrooms are self-contained, with the
individual teacher responsible for language arts as well as for most of the rest of the
curriculum, the term "integration" seems appropriate to describe elementary school
practice.

In the 1960s and 1970s, partly in response to the success of the integrated day
curriculum in Great Britain, the claims of the many advocates of language arts
integration began to be supported by an increasing body of respected research.
During this same period, however, a counter trend developed, namely, an
intensification of the conventional "subskills" approach to language arts instruction.
In this approach, processes such as reading and writing are segmented into tiny
components that are taught and tested as discrete units, discouraging efforts to
teach the language arts in a holistic and natural way--to integrate them.
Language arts integration can be considered in three different ways: The most
common understanding of integration is learning each of the language arts in terms
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of the others. Reading is learned through appropriate oral and written activities;
writing is learned by attending to reading as a writer would -- composing orally,
reading drafts to peers, and engaging in related activities; and oral language is
learned in the context of rich opportunities for receiving and producing written
language. The second concept of integration is implied in the first: each language
mode is an integrated whole, not a set of isolated, minute components. Finally,
integration may involve the development of language while learning other content
areas, such as social studies, science, or math, as in the "language-across- thecurriculum" model.

What Research Supports Integrated Language Arts Instruction?

Two decades of research in diverse fields have led to a new understanding of a far
more complex relationship between thought and language than that characterized by
earlier behaviourist models of language and literacy acquisition. For example, John
Mellon (1983) notes that children beginning school have already successfully
learned many word-order principles, semantic relationships, sentence-combining
transformations, and lexical feature systems. The fact that this human competence
grows as language used for real purposes--without formal coaching, drill, intensive
corrective feedback, or direct instruction--suggests that school language programs
might best emphasize the use of language in meaningful contexts.
At least three types of research support learning languages through use: first
language acquisition, emergent literacy, and effective classroom experiences.
Studies of first language acquisition of pre-schoolers demonstrate that children learn
to use language not primarily as passive imitators, but as active agents constructing
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their own coherent views of the world. Children form hypotheses to try them out in
natural contexts such as when a four-year-old puts all past tense verbs into a regular
pattern (e.g., cutted, eated, goed) even after having previously used the irregular
forms correctly (cut, ate, went). Many psycholinguists explain such phenomena by
positing that infants are born "wired" to seek meaning and generalizable patterns in
their language-saturated milieu. When they discover a pattern, they try to extend it.
Major studies in emergent literacy have documented a similar search for pattern and
meaning among preschoolers as they begin to pay attention to print. Even as young
as two years old, a child can become aware of the difference between a written story
and an oral narrative. Scollen and Scollen (1981) documented their daughter
Rachel's transition from an informal oral account of her experiences to her "reading"
of her own scribbles as "Once upon a time there was a girl named Rachel...." When
children first create scribbles, they expect them to carry meaning, as Marie Clay
(1975) noted in her observations of children who, assuming that any adult should be
able to read, asked her to "read" what they had "written" (i.e., scribbles). Thus, even
before children are literate, they generate hypotheses about how written language is
supposed to work. Charles Read's (1971) and Glenda Bissex's (1980) observations
of children's development of invented spelling also support the belief that a child
learns language in natural contexts for the child's own purposes.
Classroom-based research--longitudinal, ethnographic, case study, and classic
control-group comparisons of student performance under various instructional
conditions--also supports integration of the language arts. Donald Graves's and Lucy
Calkins's case studies of writing show the energizing effect of oral interaction
surrounding literacy events. Graves (1983) has convincingly demonstrated that
children who are writing instead of going through a basal reader are learning to read
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at least as well as the other children and at the same time are learning to write.
Numerous other studies (King and Rentel, 1980, Clay, 1982) demonstrate that
development of writing and reading are rooted in oral language.

Teachers have long been aware of the usefulness of oral prereading activities, such
as Directed Reading Thinking Activities (DRTA), to generate questions prior to
reading. This strategy has helped children learn to predict and thus read more
efficiently. Teachers who have participated in Writing Projects have seen how writing
can be used as an effective prereading activity, just as reading can be a powerful
prewriting tool. Oral language throughout both reading and writing helps children
maintain focus and interest. George Hillock's (1984) meta-analysis of studies that
compare strategies in writing instruction also demonstrates the value of integrating
the language arts.

Three influential theorists and researchers--Kenneth Goodman (1967), Frank Smith


(1983), and James Moffett--have translated into ideas for teaching many
psycholinguistic insights into reading, writing, and oral language. In STUDENTCENTERED LANGUAGE ARTS AND READING, K-13, Moffett and Wagner (1983)
remind teachers that "language learning is different from other school subjects. It is
not a new subject, and it is not even a subject. It permeates every part of people's
lives and itself constitutes a major way of abstracting. So learning language raises
more clearly than other school courses the issue of integration" (p.38).

How Can The Language Arts Be Integrated?

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Learning information about some aspect of language is not the same as developing
language abilities, nor are drills, exercises, or workbooks a substitute for the acts of
listening, speaking, reading, or writing in real communication settings. A good way to
integrate the language arts is to focus on something else--the study of flight, or cats,
or the water cycle, or energy-giving foods, or Boston in 1773, for example. If the goal
is to experience a particular piece of literature, then the teacher should set up
different ways of understanding that work through listening, speaking, reading and
writing. For example, James Lincoln Collier's MY BROTHER SAM IS DEAD can be
explored through a drama on the Boston Common in December 1773, involving the
class in role-playing, pantomime, and diary writing.

When focusing on something other than language, the teacher needs to provide an
environment rich with resources for making language connections. For example, a
kindergarten teacher can provide opportunities to see print in context by labeling the
objects in the classroom. In the primary grades natural occasions for reading and
writing occur with the daily schedule, charts of classroom task monitors, or lists of
the names and addresses of the class. The language experience approach to
reading integrates the language arts in a way that improves not only reading but
writing as well, because children see the purpose of both. Diaries, learning journals,
records of observations-- all will prepare children for later science lab reports. As
children write true and invented stories, using almost anything inside or outside the
classroom as a stimulus, they develop language fluency.

Also promoting integrated language learning are small group tasks, such as
generating a list of questions for research, responding to first drafts of writing,
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discussing the meaning of stories or poems, deciding how to prepare a group report,
editing one another's work for publication, and planning a readers theatre or other
type of rehearsed reading.

School environments for integrated learning must be safe and structured, with ample
opportunities for long periods of reading, writing, and carrying on task- or topicoriented conversations in the classroom. Teachers can serve as models by engaging
in all of these activities with their students. Children can learn subskills efficiently
within meaningful interactions with others and with print. Their understandings of the
language arts become integrated through processes that are themselves wholes
rather than fragments.

FOR MORE INFORMATION:


Bissex, Glenda L. GNYS AT WRK: A CHILD LEARNS TO WRITE AND READ.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980.
Calkins, Lucy McCormick. LESSONS FROM A CHILD: ON THE TEACHING AND
LEARNING OF WRITING. Exeter, NH: Heinemann, 1983.
Clay, Marie M. WHAT DID I WRITE? Exeter, NH: Heinemann, 1975.
Ferreiro, Emilia, and Ana Teberosky. LITERACY BEFORE SCHOOLING. Exeter, NH:
Heinemann, 1982.
Goodman, Kenneth. "Reading as a Psycholinguistic Guessing Game." JOURNAL OF
READING SPECIALIST 6(1967): 126-35.
Graves, Donald H. WRITING: TEACHERS AND CHILDREN AT WORK. Exeter, NH:
Heinemann, 1983.

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Hillocks, George, Jr. "What Works in Teaching Composition: A Meta-Analysis of


Experimental Treatment Studies." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION 93
(November 1984): 133-70.
King, Martha L., and Victor Rentel. HOW CHILDREN LEARN TO WRITE: A
LONGITUDINAL STUDY. Final Report to the National Institute of Education 1981.
ED 213 050.
Mellon, John. "Language Competence." In THE NATURE AND MEASUREMENT OF
COMPETENCY IN ENGLISH, edited by Charles Cooper. Urbana, IL.: National
Council of Teachers of English, 1981. ED 203 369.
Moffett, James, and Betty Jane Wagner. STUDENT-CENTERED LANGUAGE ARTS
AND READING, K-13. 3d ed. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin, 1983.
Read, Charles. "Pre-School Children's Knowledge of English Phonology." HARVARD
EDUCATION REVIEW 41 (1971): 1-34.
Scollen, Ron, and B. K. Suzanne Scollen. "The Literate Two-Year-Old: The
Fictionalization of the Self." In NARRATIVE, LITERACY AND RACE IN
INTERETHNIC COMMUNICATION. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1981.
Smith, Frank. ESSAYS INTO LITERACY. Exeter, NH: Heinemann, 1983.

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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

Experiencing Literature and Language


Integrating Language Arts Instruction
READING AND WRITING
Understand literacy as a developmental process.
Includes ways in which reading and writing development complement and facilitate
each other; different concepts of reading instruction reflected in the terms emergent
literacy and reading readiness; and the relative importance of skills instruction and
frequent, sustained reading and writing in fostering literacy development.
Understand ways of fostering the development of literacy and the aesthetic
appreciation of literature.
Includes ways of fostering reading and writing strategies and skills within the context
of actual reading and writing (e.g., shared book experience, for reading); strategies
for helping emergent readers and writers who have particular difficulties; using the
interrelationships among reading, writing, listening, and speaking to support literacy
development; fostering the appreciation of reading for personal enjoyment (e.g., by
reading aloud to students, providing time for sustained reading, providing materials
for graphic interpretation, providing opportunities for oral interpretation, such as
puppet shows and drama) and nurturing the habit of exploring lifelong learning
through all forms of language arts; interpreting and evaluating text based upon ones
experiences; and appreciating the interpretations and evaluations of others.

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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

Understand the nature of reading as a constructive process that involves


interactions among reader, text, and context.
Includes factors affecting the readers construction of meaning through interactions
with text (e.g., readers prior knowledge, experiences, sociocultural background); the
nature, genre, structure, and features of a text; the context of the reading situation;
purposes for reading; the application of various kinds of information to determine
word meaning, such as word structure (e.g., recognize words from phonetic
analyses, linguistic knowledge, and the context of the word) and context clues; and
integration of textual information from within sentences, and/or within a whole text,
with information outside the text and with the readers prior knowledge.
Understand reading strategies for constructing meaning.
Includes an understanding of reading miscues (e.g., an ability to distinguish among
different types of miscues, an understanding of how miscues reflect weaknesses in
one or more reading strategies, an ability to recognize reading miscues that reflect
dialect variation); an understanding of the different models of the reading process
that emphasize strategies for reading rather than skills (e.g., psycholinguistic models
versus skills models); and strategies for helping less proficient readers use and
integrate reading strategies.
Understand strategies for constructing meaning from a variety of texts and for
a variety of purposes.
Includes the use of different reading comprehension strategies for different purposes
(e.g., reading a textbook to review for a test versus reading for enjoyment);
techniques for monitoring comprehension of different kinds of texts; techniques for
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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

reconsidering text when meaning is unclear; issues related to reading in the content
areas (e.g., the relationship between reading comprehension and content area
learning); and strategies for helping readers with particular reading difficulties.
Understand writing as a process of constructing meaning.
Includes factors affecting writers construction of meaning through strategies for
prewriting, drafting, revising, editing and/or proofreading; consideration of audience,
purpose and occasion to guide topic selection, formal text elements, and strategies
for composing; an understanding of ways to identify and analyze text errors;
recognition of the relationship of error to growth and learning; strategies for fostering
text editing skills in the context of a students own writing; and techniques for helping
writers evaluate, share, maintain, display, and publish their writing.
Understand the use of writing as a means for learning.
Includes strategies for the use of writing to engage and explore ideas, access
memories, record information, rehearse language, and analyze reading; the use of
writing for learning in content area classes; the use of writing-to-learn activities (e.g.,
notes, reading logs, clustering, journals) as a means of gathering and generating
material for formal texts; and the relationship of writing-to-learn activities and the
improvement of both content area learning and formal written expression.
Understand composing strategies for and uses of expressive, literary, and
transactional writing.
Includes knowledge of organizational and stylistic principles; an understanding of the
differences among literary, expressive, and transactional forms of writing (e.g.,
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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

journals, letters, personal writing, poems, plays, stories, reports, essay exams); the
ability to determine the writing form that best suits the objective of the writer and the
requirements of the writing situation; techniques for gathering background
information (e.g., research resources, interviews, observation, personal experience,
peer interaction, mapping, and webbing); and strategies for using various forms and
purposes for writing in the content areas.
Organize, develop, and write an essay applying select theory and practice in
language arts.
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
Understand listening as a process that enables a person to receive and
interpret messages.
Includes characteristics and principles of the steps in the listening process, such as
perceiving and discriminating, attending, assigning meaning, evaluating, responding,
and remembering; and recognizing the distinction between hearing and listening.
Understand listening strategies for the development of meaning in oral
communication.
Includes the distinction between verbal and nonverbal communication; recognition of
emotional and aesthetic meaning; characteristics of listening behavior; different
objectives for listening (e.g., listening for valid and invalid inferences); ways to
promote a supportive communication environment; techniques to aid in the retention
of messages; and strategies for modeling good listening behavior.

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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

Understand the application and integration of the listening process in the


language arts curriculum.
Includes the development of an appreciation for listening within the communication
process; an understanding of the different purposes of listening; effects of linear and
nonlinear organizational patterns (e.g., chronological, spatial, topical, causal,
motivated sequence); the retention of information in both short- and long-term
memory; and factors affecting the ability to construct meaning in various listening
situations.
Understand how the speaking process affects message development.
Includes principles of ethical communication (e.g., awareness of both sides of an
issue, accuracy in citations, a philosophy of truthfulness); recognition and application
of tests of evidence (e.g., testimony, statistics, examples); identification and
application of various patterns of inductive and deductive reasoning (e.g., analogy,
cause, sign, generalization): recognition that meanings vary by interpretation and
circumstance; and the ability to apply demographic and situational audience
characteristics.
Understand strategies to enhance the speaking process.
Includes types and functions of outlines in oral presentations; purposes of a
presentation (e.g., to inform, to entertain, to persuade); types and characteristics of
introductions; types and characteristics of conclusions; principles and characteristics
of different speaking styles (e.g., extemporaneous, impromptu, manuscript); the
influence of context on communication; the use of vocal strategies (e.g., vocal
variety, pauses) to produce effective meaning in oral communication; application of
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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

methods to improve vocal resources (e.g., breathing, pronunciation, articulation,


resonance); and ways to enhance presentation skills through the use of audiovisual
materials.
Understand the nature, functions, and effects of feedback in the speaking
process.
Includes types and functions of feedback: ways to adapt the speaking process based
upon feedback; the use of the questioning process to respond to a message; effects
of source credibility (i.e., competence and character) on understanding the message;
the importance of communication modes; and effects of verbal and nonverbal
communication (e.g., gestures, movement, eye contact) on message understanding.
EXPERIENCING LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE
Understand different genres of literature (e.g.. poetry, drama, fiction, and
nonfiction).
Includes purposes, types, and structural elements of different genres and sub-genres
of literature (e.g., historical fiction, realistic fiction, folk/fairy tales, fantasy, myths and
fables, picture books); the use of rhythm, figurative language, symbolism,
characterization, theme, conflict, setting, and other literary elements in poetry,
drama, and fiction: the use of topics, themes, theses, and organizational patterns
(e.g., sequence, cause and effect, comparison/contrast, problem/solution) in
nonfiction; and the comparison of language, style, mood, and point of view in
different works of literature.

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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

Understand the diversity of literary traditions and texts.


Includes recognizing characteristic features of literary works according to their styles,
historical periods, cultural origins, and ethnic traditions; recognizing ways in which
themes or traditions of a literary work both reflect and transcend its time and place of
origin; understanding key characteristics of literary genres and their uses as sources
of inspiration or modeling in writing; exploring and respecting commonalities and
differences among people through literature; principles for selecting literature for
specific purposes; and understanding how readers gain insight into themselves and
others and learn to appreciate others points of view.
Understand literature for children and adolescents and issues related to these
types of literature.
Includes characteristic features associated with major works, authors, and genres of
literature for children and adolescents; criteria for evaluating such literature (e.g., in
terms of stereotypical images, authentic portrayals, literary quality, readers
responses); real-world uses of such literature (e.g., to promote cultural awareness,
address student issues, generate ideas for writing); and techniques for integrating
such literature into the language arts program and other content areas.
Understand literary and linguistic implications of mass media.
Includes forms, purposes, and characteristics of mass media (e.g., advertising,
videos, television); the expression of social and cultural values through mass media;
effects of mass media on public values, attitudes, and expectations; the critical
examination of mass media messages; and issues related to the effects of mass
media on children and young people.
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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

Understand literature and language through presentational experiences.


Includes the presentational forms of oral interpretation; techniques for developing an
appreciation of literature through oral interpretation (e.g., choral reading, storytelling,
readers theater); types and characteristics of prose, poetry, and drama used in oral
interpretation; creative drama techniques (e.g., improvisation, role playing, creative
movement) appropriate for language arts activities; the use of audio or visual
technology to present and interpret literature; and the use of visual media to explore
literary responses.
Understand significant aspects of the history and structure of the English
language.
Includes major developments in the history of the English language (e.g., the change
from a highly inflected language to a word-order dominated language; contributions
of other languages such as Latin, Greek, French, and native American languages to
English structure and vocabulary; the history of and variations among English
dialects such as Black English and Appalachian English); significant aspects of
structure (e.g., distinction between grammar and usage, effective syntactic
alternatives, major grammatical terms, grammatical aspects of punctuation and
usage); steps in the acquisition of language, including learning English as a second
language; and strategies for helping students use the syntactic resources of
language effectively and appropriately.
Understand the sociopolitical aspects of languoge use.
Includes ways in which language can affect thinking and perception (e.g., the use of
the generic he); how the use of language relates to issues of age, religion, gender,
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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

ethnicity, social class, handicapping conditions, and sexual orientation; an


understanding and appreciation of ones own and other dialect systems; an
understanding of sociolinguistics (e.g., the relationships between power, social class,
and language); and strategies for suiting language to audience and purpose.
INTEGRATING LANGUAGE ARTS INSTRUCTION
Understand diverse factors that affect language arts instruction.
Includes influences on language learning (e.g., effects of culture, language, home,
community, economy, and other environmental factors); individual factors (physical,
social, emotional, intellectual) that affect language learning; understanding the
special educational needs of a variety of student populations (e.g., gifted students,
students with learning difficulties, ESL students); knowing how to adapt language
arts instruction to meet the needs of all students; and applying strategies for working
with special education teachers and other specialists to enhance learning
opportunities for students with special educational needs.
Understand processes of communication.
Includes elements of the communication process; forms of communication (e.g.,
collaborative learning, interpersonal communication, cooperative learning); social,
cultural, economic, and educational influences on communication; the role of
observation, inference, and judgment in communication; types, characteristics, and
functions of nonverbal communication; and the relationship between verbal and
nonverbal cues.

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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

Understand the interrelationship of reading. writing, listening, and speaking


skills and their integration within other content areas.
Includes ways in which reading, writing, listening, and speaking connect and
mutually influence one another; ways to integrate these language modes to promote
learning; and techniques and activities for integrating the language arts within other
content areas.
Understand instructional and management strategies for language arts
education.
Includes characteristics, principles, and techniques of various language arts
approaches (e.g. whole language, literature-based, developmental reading, process
writing); strategies for organizing the language arts environment to promote
language learning; uses of technology (e.g., computers, video) to enhance language
instruction; criteria and procedures for evaluating language arts curricula and
materials; ways to adapt or modify language arts instruction based on evaluation
information; and the use of textual aids (e.g., boldface print, italics) and graphic aids
(e.g., pictures, photos, graphs, tables) as language arts instructional strategies.
Understand issues and procedures related to student assessment in language
arts education.
Includes characteristics, advantages, and limitations of various methods of formal
and informal assessment (e.g., standardized tests, teacher-generated tests,
observations portfolios, performance assessments); the interpretation and use of
assessment information; procedures for developing or selecting assessment
methods and instruments for various instructional situations; and issues of bias in the
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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

design, implementation, and interpretation of assessment procedures and


instruments.
2013 Hope College Department of Education| Van Zoeren 2nd Floor | 41 Graves Place | Holland,
MI 49423 education@hope.edu | phone: 616.395.7740 | fax: 616.395.7506

Leer ms: http://www.monografias.com/trabajos17/integrated-skills/integrated-skills.shtml#ixzz2Yh56Y26c

TASKS:
1. Compare and contrast the thematic approach in KBSR and the modular
framework in KSSR syllabus.
2. Review and design activities with focus on techniques and ideas from Years 1
3 relevant to LTP.
3. Discuss the techniques and ideas from Years 1 3 relevant to LTP that can
be used in the teaching of language arts.
4. Discuss and present ways to integrate vocabularyand language skills, and
gramar and language skills in the classroom.

TOPIC 2

SCHEME OF WORK

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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of Topic 2, you will be able to:

List and explain the component of the syllabus


Create a mind map of the organisation of the syllabus
State the relationship between the syllabus items and the curriculum

specifications
Discuss how the four language skills could be integrated in a lesson
Prepare a SoW according to the format integrating the four language skills

Definition of a scheme of work:


According to Teaching English:
A scheme of work is a plan that defines work to be done in the classroom. Involving
learners in defining a scheme of work, whether for a short project or a long course, is
an important step towards motivation and involvement.
Example
Before starting a project, a group works on defining a scheme of work for it.
In the classroom
Questions to ask learners for a scheme of work include:
What are your aims?
What do you want to produce?
Who is going to do what?
What resources do you need?
How long is it going to take?
The key parts of a "scheme of work" include:
Content
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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

Objectives or Outcomes
Methods of delivery (student and teacher activity)
Assessment strategies
Resources
Other Remarks

A scheme of work is a plan that defines work to be done in the classroom. Involving
learners in defining a scheme of work, whether for a short project or a long course, is
an important step towards motivation and involvement.
A scheme of work defines the structure and content of a course. It maps out clearly
how resources (e.g. books, equipment, time) and class activities (e.g. teacher-talk,
group work, practicals, discussions) and assessment strategies (e.g. tests, quizzes,
Q&A, homework) will be used to ensure that the learning aims and objectives of the
course are met. It will normally include times and dates. The scheme of work is
usually an interpretation of a specification or syllabus and can be used as a guide
throughout the course to monitor progress against the original plan. Schemes of
work can be shared with students so that they have an overview of their course.
When designing a scheme of work, there are a number of factors that should be
taken into consideration. The following questions may help you to focus your
thoughts.
THE STARTING POINTS

Who is the course for?

What is the likely number of participants?

What is the overall aim of the course?

What will participants learn?


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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

What skills will participants develop?

Is there a syllabus?

Does it lead to a qualification?

Is it part of a larger curriculum?

Where is it likely to be held?

What restrictions does this impose?

What resources are available?

What resources can be "begged, borrowed or stolen"?

What resources can be designed or developed?


THE INGREDIENTS

What topics/subjects need to be included?

Is team building necessary?

What practical activities are integral to the course?

What assignments have to be completed?

What essential elements need to be included?

Is there some theme or aspect that threads throughout


the course?

How will students be assessed?

How will the course be evaluated?

THE RECIPE

Which elements need to be introduced at the beginning?

Do you need to take account of the different starting


points of students?

Which elements depend upon successful completion or


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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

understanding of other elements?

Which elements must come at the end?

What preparation is required (by students) to complete


elements or assignments?

How much time will students need for this?

ICING THE CAKE

Is it possible to give students an early taste of success?

Is there something for students to make or do?

What additional activities might be included to broaden


students' experience or understanding?

Can students' contributions be built into the course?

Is it possible to build in some "leisure interest"?

Do you need to take account of holidays and festivals


etc.?

How to Write a Scheme of Work


Edited by Karen Lancaster, Versageek, Andy Zhang, Sondra C and 5 others
A scheme of work is your plan of what you will teach during every lesson throughout
the academic year. It is a vital and useful document which you will need to produce.
STEPS:
1.

Check if your place of work has a proforma. They may have a special way

they like the schemes of work to be laid out, and/or have a template available. This
will make your life easier.

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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

2.

Check other people's schemes of work. Ideally, look at a scheme of work

left by your predecessor, but if one isn't available, look at a colleague's scheme of
work.
3.

If creating a scheme of work from scratch, then create a word document

and put a table in it, or create a spreadsheet. Give yourself 5 columns: Date,
Lesson content, Key Skills (if it's embedded), Resources, and Assessment
4.

Begin by breaking down the year into chunks. How many modules do you

need to teach? Three modules breaks down nicely into one module per term. Allow
yourself a couple of weeks at the end for revision and assessment - or games. Allow
a week at the start for introductory stuff.
5.

Within each module, break down into further chunks. E.g. you might

break down a Sociology module on The Family into the following chunks:
* Marriage & Divorce
* Births & childhood
* Domestic abuse
* History of the family
* Marxist viewpoints
* Feminist viewpoints
* Functional viewpoints.6
6.

Decide how long you'll need for each of these chunks. If the above

module is lasting one term, then you'd have about 2-3 weeks per chunk.
7.

Now within each chunk, decide what lessons you could do. Try to offer a

variety of practical, theoretical, group work, single work, and teacher-led work. For
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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

the chunk on Marriage and divorce, you might have:


o students draw their own family trees
o Teacher explains theory and students take notes
o Discuss why marriages are losing popularity
o Find textbooks on marriage and create posters using the information
o Look at official statistics & answer questions
o Use Internet to produce leaflets
o Write quizzes / crosswords for each other8
8.

Do this for every chunk, and for every module, and fill in the bare bones

into the 'Lesson content' column on your document.


9.

Now think about what resources you'll need. Textbooks? Large paper and

felt tips? Computers? Write these in the Resources column.


10.

The core Key skills (in the UK) consist of:

- Application of number
- Communication
- ICT
and these may have to be embedded into your curriculum. in the Family example,
looking at the official statistics can count as Application of number, any discussions
or essay work can count as Communication, and using the computers is your ICT.
11.

Don't forget that you are trying to promote equality and diversity

through your teaching, and include how you will do that across the sessions
on your course (e.g. cross-cultural case studies; balanced examples from various
cultures, including disabled people and a balance of genders).
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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

12.

The assessment column can be filled with how you will know, after each

lesson, that the information has sunk in. This may be through Q&A, written tests,
by reading their posters, or by listening in to their conversations.

Why use an Active Scheme of Work?

Active learning works. Research shows that active learning is by far the
best for recall, student enjoyment, deep learning (full understanding), and for
correcting the learners misunderstandings.

It improves results. School improvement research shows that Teachers


have about three times the effect on achievement as their managers. So
achievement, and students life chances, can only be improved if teaching is
improved.

It is likely to get commitment to improvement. Subject centred discussion


on how to teach well is at the heart of a teachers role, teachers usually enjoy
being involved in practical development in their own subject area.

Teams share best practice so the best teaching methods are available to all

It raises expectations of teaching quality. Active schemes of work can


raise expectations of what it means to teach well, as well as showing how this
can be done.

It stores best practice. Good teachers who leave the college leave behind
their methods for others to benefit from and enjoy.

It supports beginning teachers. Novice teachers are given effective


methods to adopt, and to learn from.

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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

It promotes professional development. Writing the scheme promotes


subject centred discussion on effective teaching and so develops staff.

Tasks:
1 Create and present mind maps or other Graphic Organiser to show the
organization of the English Language syllabus. Match appropriate
curriculum specifications to the syllabus items.
2 Compare and contrast samples of SoW.
3 Assess and rectify a flawed scheme of work.
4 Design a scheme of work for a year; a semester and a week.

TOPIC 3

LESSON PLANNING

LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of Topic 3, you will be able to:

Discuss how the four language skills could be integrated in a lesson


Prepare SoW according to the format integrating the four language skills
Relate instructional principles of TESL to the development of communicative

use of language.
State the frameworks of the lesson for teaching the language skills and

language arts
Discuss how the four language skills could be integrated in a lesson

Examples of Objectives for a lesson


Behavioural
At the end of the lesson students will:
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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

Identify at least five parts of the flowering plant using the diagram provided
Draw a labelled diagram of the U shaped valley using the materials provided
Classify local dialects from a recording spoken by native speakers using the
worksheet provided
Given a set of transactions and figures, complete a profit and loss account using the
standard procedure

Non-Behavioural
From an environmental perspective, develop an appreciation of the problems
associated with motorway construction
Develop the interpersonal skills necessary to complete a group project
Engage in discussion and debate in relation to bin charges

Features of an Effective Introduction:

Opening focused on the topic and engaged pupils interest


Opening facilitated a smooth transition from known to new material e.g. link to

previous lesson if appropriate


Opening created an organising framework for the lesson
Cues were given or materials used which helped students to understand
ideas explored later in the lesson.

Features of an Effective Lesson Development:

Evidence of new learning linked to lesson objectives


Use of a variety of stimuli/resources e.g. sound, visual materials

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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

Use of a variety of activities and groupings e.g. individual work, group work,

discussion, role-play, problem-solving, project work


Varied interactions: teacher/group, teacher/student, student/student
Clear explanations using visual techniques and avoiding unnecessarily

complex terms
Use of examples
Use of a range of questioning strategies key question identified

Questioning Skills

Redirection
Set of related facts
Higher order
Prompting
Seeking clarification
Refocusing

Features of an Effective Lesson Conclusion:


Main points of the lesson are summarised (by teacher or students)
Student learning is assessed (in relation to lesson objectives)
A sense of achievement is created

Creating Classroom Lesson Objectives That are SMART


By following the SMART acronym, teachers can make objectives more effective,
paving the way to a better lesson and greater student achievement.
ByRichard Stowell

It is a given among instructional designers that every lesson needs an explicit


objective. Classroom teachers often need to create their own lessons, and thus their

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TSL 3010 LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE

own objectives. A typical elementary, middle, or high-school lesson, lasts anywhere


from 20 to 90 minutes. During that time, teachers should keep tasks focused around
the objective of the lesson in order to maximize student learning. Good objectives
are SMART: Stated, Measurable, Aligned, Rigorous, and Taught.
Crafting an appropriate objective before designing the lesson serves three important
functions. First, it helps teachers choose the most appropriate activities to support
students in learning the required material. It will also help save time by giving the
teacher a stopping point. Third and finally, it will help students stay focused and give
them an indication of when they have learned what they need to.
Teachers need to remember that objectives should be SMART to help design them
effectively. It should go without saying that, as teachers deliver lessons, they ought to
be able to identify what they want students to learn. Such an identification of learning
outcomes is the basis for objectives.
Good Teaching Practice is to State the Objective
The first component, then, is that the objective is stated. In other words, it should be
communicated explicitly to students, and made public in writing. It should be visible
and written in terms such that the students are able to articulate what it is they are
supposed to be learning. If, after all, they cant say exactly what they should be doing
in class, how are they to do it?
Clearly-stated objectives, according to Gagne, Briggs, and Wager, give students
students control over their own learning. They take the confusion out of class
activities.

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Well-designed Objectives are Measurable


Simply stated, once a teacher has delivered the lesson according to the objective, it
will be easy to find out whether students have learned the material. In order for an
objective to be SMART and effective, it needs to be able to be measured by an
assessment of some kind. Measuring will help students and teachers determine if
they learned what was intended.
Objectives can embed a performance criterion, such as, "students will identify
mammals from among other animals in 9 out of ten attempts." Or, the objective may
imply a performance standard: "students will solve one-step equations in one
variable."
Lesson Objectives are Best When Aligned to Activities
The SMART objective is aligned, or tied, to every component of the lesson. It stands
to reason that verbalized and visible lesson objectives are tightly connected to the
activities and material being presented. Common words, especially verbs should
reinforce the connection.
For instance, if the objective (for a 6th-grade language arts lesson) is that students
compare features of different cultures in an expository text, then activities should
make use of the verb compare in directions and within the work. Alignment should
be given consideration when designing activities, but it begins by creating objectives
that are easily adapted to learning tasks.
Student Learn When Objectives are Rigorous

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Learning can only be achieved when students cognitive faculties are challenged at
an appropriate level. Thus, rigor is a key element of good lesson objectives. Rigor
will look different at each grade level, and even for each student, but the challenge
aspect must be present in order to get students to advance and learn new things.
The written objective should reflect the rigor. Students need to understand the
terminology of the lesson, but see immediately that it will take work and practice in
order to meet the objective. In short, objectives must present tasks and ways of
thinking that are somewhat difficult for learners.
Objectives Need to be Taught for Learning to Occur
Lastly, a classroom objective needs to be taught in order to have a positive outcome.
The final aspect, then, of a SMART objective is that it is taught the information
delivered according to what the objective states. Moreover, the effective lesson
refers to the objective consistently throughout to remind students of the goal.
Teachers of all age groups can design better lessons and facilitate more meaningful
student learning by creating objectives that are stated, measurable, aligned,
rigorous, and taught. The SMART acronym will help teachers remember what
effective objectives look like.
Sources
Gagne, R., Briggs, L., Wager, W. Principles of Instructional Design, Third Ed. New
York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston: 1988.

Creating a scheme of work based on the guide

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The scheme of work (SoW) sets out the teaching programme, year by year, for each
course being taught. It includes the content that needs to be covered, the learning
objectives involved at each stage, the main activities and resources which will enable
these to be achieved and the ways in which they will be assessed.
Typically the scheme for each year is broken down into six units of work each lasting
half a term.
The scheme should:

Reflect the agreed teaching philosophy of the department using it;


Be clear, concise and realistic, i.e. focussed on the practical and do-able;
Provide breadth and balance across all aspects;
Take account of learner differences (background/aptitudes/learning styles);
Support teachers in their short-term planning;
Be seen as a working document to be reviewed and updated each year.

As has been pointed out previously, the framework charts in this curriculum guide
are not, in themselves, a scheme of work. Rather they should be seen as offering a
structured bank of material, based on sound pedagogical principles and related to
the main national assessment frameworks. They thus provide substantial support for
colleagues in developing an up-to-date scheme of work suited to their own context
and to the needs of their pupils.
If you are producing a scheme of work for the first time, you may find the following
step-by-step approach useful:

1 Getting an overview:

On one side of A4 create rough outline and headings for (6) units of work to
be taught over the year.

(Refer to exam specifications, textbooks and other documents including this guide.)

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2 Deciding on format:

Usually schemes of work are set out in the form of a grid as in the framework
charts. This makes it easy to refer across and see how the elements fit
together. An alternative is to simply list information under headings. Your
department or school may, of course, have its own established format that
everyone is expected to follow

3 Creating a unit:

Break unit down into sections and specify main contexts and learning

objectives.
Decide how many lessons/weeks should be devoted to each.
Specify for each National Curriculum Attainment Target (Listening, Speaking,
Reading, Writing) the level or range of levels aimed at within the unit. You
might also find it useful here to note targets in relation to the Asset Languages

scheme.
Identify key structures and vocabulary bearing in mind range of levels within

class and highlighting


points which may require particular attention. It is useful to indicate what
language is core and what is extension material for higher attainers (e.g. by

using italics).
Map on activities from textbooks and other sources, which are relevant and
useful, as well as material you have produced, bearing in mind importance of:
o Catering for range of attainment levels and for different learning styles;
o Balancing teacher and pupil centred work;
o Linking to previous units to support development of knowledge and
skills;

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o Progressing from activities aimed at practicing language to ones where


the focus is on using the language for a real purpose, e.g. presenting
or performing to an audience;
o Integrating and achieving balance between the four skills (although
opportunity to do this is limited in early stages of acquiring new script);
o Providing stimulating cultural content drawing on up-to-date, authentic
material (where appropriate) and making links to other curriculum
areas;
o Drawing on imaginative works (stories, plays, poems, songs, paintings)
as stimulus for cultural understanding as well as language
development;
o Developing awareness of language learning strategies (including
effective use of reference material);
o Building in use of ICT where appropriate

Add homework activities (or identify possible homework amongst activities

already selected).
Identify or add main assessment activities (informal and formal).
Cross check against National Curriculum Programme of Study, KS2/3
Framework, exam board specifications and, if necessary, revise activities as

appropriate.
Review list of key structures and vocabulary and, if necessary, revise as
appropriate (It may be that activity or text you have chosen requires teaching

of language points not already specified).


Add any resources not already mentioned including websites and reference
material.

4 Developing and reviewing the scheme of work:

Move on to create further units bearing in mind that developing a scheme of

work is an ongoing
process. Aim to get the basics in place and then flesh it out gradually.
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Keep the scheme of work in a ring binder. This makes it easy to slip in extra

pages or reminders
about changes/additions to be made.
Once a unit or scheme has been created, aim to review it every one to two
years.

A word of encouragement
Although creating a good scheme of work requires thought and effort, it will save you
time in the long run and give you confidence in your teaching!

TASKS:
1. List words that are specific for writing an objective for a lesson. Write specific
2.
3.
4.
5.

aims and objectives of a chosen topic.


Select and adapt techniques, strategies and activities for a chosen topic.
Critically review a lesson plan and discuss the importance of lesson planning.
Read and compile noted on material selection, adaptation and exploitation.
Select a topic from the primary school English syllabus and design an

integrative activity.
6. Select a topic from the primary school English syllabus and plan a draft of a
lesson plan and present the lesson. Conduct a peer evaluation assessing the
lesson plan.

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TOPIC 4

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT AND FEEDBACK


STRATEGIES

LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of Topic 4, you will be able to:

Explain what formative assessment is;


Identify and explain different strategies used for formative assessment in the

language classroom;
Identify the different types of feedbacks and rationalise their use;
Recognise the suitable strategies in selected teaching-learning situation

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

If the teacher doesnt change the instruction when needed, its not
formative assessment. Its just activity.
Teacher Reflection
Ask, yourself, Am I teaching so that students will learn or am I teaching just so that I
can cover the required material? (Rick Wormeli, 2006)
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COVERAGE UNDERSTANDING
Memorization does not lead to transference.

Student Reflection
Student reflection is very important.
We must save to the hard drive
Reflection helps to place information into long-term memory,
Students will have to do something with that information soon after being exposed
to it for the very first time.
They will have to reflect, respond, record, tell, describe, illustrate, explain, discuss,
summarize, draw, use, re-organize, predict, hypothesize, evaluate, and/or judge
(Reflect and Make a Connection)

Formative Assessment
Formative assessment is assessment FOR learning, not OF learning
It is an on-going process used during instruction
It provides students with feedback
It informs decision-making for future teacher instruction and student learning tactics

When and how often should I use a formative assessment ?

Once or twice during a class period

Midway and at the end of a class period

Every time you switch a topic

At the end of your students focus time

Any time you see you sense uncertainty, or confusion in students

Questioning Formative Assessment Strategies


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Make a Connection
After a mini-lecture, class discussion, text reading, video, or PowerPoint
Have students make their own connections and share with the class
Compare two characters, two books, two authors styles
Note a sequence
Predict a future outcome
Recognize a cause or effect
Make a text-to-self, text-to-text, text-to-world connection
Suggest a characters motivation

Turn and Talk


Whoever explains learns David Sousa
Provide multiple opportunities for students to explain what they are learning
Guide assigned Learning Partners to interact through a daily (TurnnTalk). If need
be, hold partners accountable for staying on task by requiring a written task to be
completed by each student

Stop n Jot
Stop n Jot can be a very useful strategy in order to monitor text that you are reading.
Its very simple and doesnt take much time. All you do is take one of the sentence
stems listed below and finish it off with your own thought regarding what you have
read. By doing this, you are focusing your attention onto the text and self-evaluating
to make sure youre not confused.

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I think

I dont get

I can picture

If I was (character), I would

I wonder.

This reminds me of.

I predict

I hope

I uderstand

Quick Writes
Quick Writes involve asking a question, giving people a set amount of time for
responding (usually between one to ten minutes), and either hearing or reading the
responses. The quick write can be modified endlessly, depending on circumstances.

critical thinking warm-ups: use the quick write at the start of a class to
get students focused on a new concept, or the material from last class,
or preparatory reading material, etc.

student-directed quick writes: have students lead the quick write


session, having prepared a question in advance and thought through a
method for fielding the responses

class-closers: as with the warm-ups, use the quick write to prompt


reflection through summary, synthesis, explanation, a question

A Quick Write
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Promotes spontaneity and freedom in writing.


Encourages writing as a habit or practice.
Promotes critical thinking and focus.
Gives students time to collect thoughts before verbalizing to others.
Saves time for instructors since quick writes do not necessarily have to be read by
the latter. Students can respond verbally from their quick writes (reading directly
or using the piece as a touchstone) or get peer response in groups.
Provides a basis for collaborative peer work
Students can also DRAW instead of write
One Minute Essay
The One-Minute Essay can be used at the beginning (or end) of a class to help
students focus on the matter at hand and get them thinking.
Ask them to summarize the main point of the last class (providing a bridge to the
current lesson) or summarize a reading. The point is to get them writing/thinking
immediately.
Have them exchange their One-Minute Papers with a partner and ask for a followup quick write that synthesizes the views.
Ask for a few randomly-selected samples and discuss them.
Look for accuracy, precise language, and conciseness.
Ask them what do you mean?
At the end of class, they can be used to summarize the information learned. You
can take them up and quickly group students by readiness for the next day or
clear up any misconceptions.

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Four Corners (modified)


In a four corners classroom, the instructor thinks of four or more options concerning
a particularly controversial topic OR four options about the students level of
understanding.
At any time in the class, students can be asked to choose a corner of the
classroom that relates to how well they understand the lesson (Ive got it. I have
one question. Im confused. Im lost) Students then briefly discuss what they
understand, what their question is, where they got lost.
The teacher can ask students to share with the class or quickly visit each corner
to see what additional instruction needs to be done.
This can be sued for immediate intervention and for placing students in readiness
groups for the next lesson.

Four Corners (Traditional)


If about a controversial issue, the instructor labels the four corners of the classroom
with these options. For example, the options could range from strongly agree,
agree, disagree, and strongly disagree.
The instructor hands out 35 cards to each student and asks them to jot down
their choice on one side of the card and, when asked, to read out their choice.

After making their choice, students will be required to write out the reasons for
their choice on the other side of the card. Students could be allowed four or five
minutes to do so.

The instructor then asks them to gather in the corner of the room that corresponds
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to their choice.

In each corner, students form groups of three or four each, to discuss the reasons
for selecting a particular choice.

After two or three minutes of discussion, students could be randomly called on


one at a time to give simple, one sentence statements supporting their choice.

The instructor then clears up any misconceptions.


Pinch Cards
On a large notecard, write four levels of understanding in student friendly terms, one
on each corner. At any time during the lesson, ask students to PINCH their level of
understanding on the card and hold them where you can see them.

I could teach this.

Ive almost got it.

Im a bit confused.

Im lost.

Strategies for Effective Feedback

Price and ODonovan (2006) suggest that effective feedback starts with a set of
explicit criteria and standards that the student understands, and which form
the basis for both feedback and evaluation. Students need to be encouraged to
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engage actively with these criteria and standards throughout their placement
and with feedback provided by the workplace educator, other staff or other
students. Students need to practice reflection to assist with their learning and
development while on placement.

Your goal as a workplace educator is to deliver feedback in a respectful and


constructive manner, which will help the student learn and develop. For feedback
to be helpful, it should be clear and specific and relate to the criteria and
standards established at the commencement of the placement. When a negative
comment or correction of a particular behaviour is necessary, clear justification
for an alternative approach should be provided. The giver of the feedback should
always check that the receiver has fully understood the points being made.

An acronym to help remember how to give effective feedback is "CORBS": Clear;


Owned; Regular; Balanced; and Specific (Hawkins & Shohet, 1989).

Clear - try to be clear about what the feedback is that you want to give.
Being vague and faltering will increase the anxiety in the receiver and may not be
understood.

Owned - The feedback you give is your own perception and not an
ultimate truth. It therefore says as much about you as it does about the person
who receives it. It helps the receiver if this is stated or implied in the feedback,
e.g. I found that rather than Its obvious that

Regular - If the feedback is given regularly it is more likely to be useful .If


this does not happen there is a danger that grievances are saved until they are
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delivered in one large package. Try to give the feedback as close to the event as
possible and early enough for the person to do something about it, that is, do not
wait until someone is leaving to tell them how they could have done the job
better.

Balanced - It is good to balance negative and positive feedback and if


you find that the feedback you give to any individual is always either positive or
negative, this probably means that your view is distorted in some way. This does
not mean that each piece of critical feedback must always be accompanied by
something positive but rather a balance should be created over time.

Specific - Generalised feedback is hard to learn from. Phrases like, You


talk too much can only lead to hurt and anger. You talk too much to the client
while you are administering an assessment gives the receiver some information
which he or she can choose to use or ignore. Physiotherapy provides Examples
of Key Performance Indicators - a useful, comprehensive (but not exhaustive) list
of specific behaviours - on which to hinge feedback.

Another simple acronym for remembering how to give effective feedback is


the KSS (kiss) approach. It is particularly useful in the early stages of a students
development.

When giving feedback to the student, organise it in the following way:

Keep doing what you are doing right (name the


specific behaviour/s)

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Stop doing what you are doing incorrectly (name

the specific unwanted/changeable behaviour/s)

Start doing what you need to do to improve your

performance (name specific desired behaviour)

Feedback that is effective will:

be expected by students;

be ongoing - provided throughout the placement;

be related to learning goals, standards and criteria set for the


placement;

include specific recommendations for improvement;

be provided when the behaviour is still fresh in the students


memory;

relate to behaviours that are remediable;

deal with specific problems rather than generalisations;

deal with decisions and actions rather than assumed intentions


or interpretations;

be based on information which is objective by first hand


observations;
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be constructive and change-focused;

start and end with positives, be encouraging;

be sufficient - both often enough, and in enough detail;

be focused on students performance, on their learning and on


actions under their control, rather than on the students
themselves or their characteristics;

be timely in that it is received by students while it matters to


them and in time for them to pay attention to further learning or
receive further assistance;

be appropriate to the purpose of the learning experience, and


to the relevant criteria for success;

be appropriate in relation to students understanding of what


they are supposed to be doing;

be received and understood by students; and

be documented if appropriate and followed up at a later date.

Please remember that no matter how well you give feedback, individuals
will react differently to your comments.

How do I provide feedback?


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Feedback can be provided in a number of ways and forms.It can be:

Written - notes written on students written work/report;

Verbal;

Non-verbal e.g. directing a position or hand movement;

Formal/ informal - planned e.g. supervision session, or not planned


e.g. in car on way home from home visit, over a lunch break;

Direct/indirect - clear and explained vs. modelled ; and

Self-reflective - asking students to evaluate themselves/ reflect on


their performance initially, prior to giving your feedback.

You will use different methods of feedback on a daily basis. Sessions can
be short and informal, for example, between appointments and based on
one or two particular performance items; or planned and formal, covering
the students performance generally, with specific areas for comment.

The way you deliver your feedback will depend on what you have
observed, where the student is in the placement, the time available and
the learning style of the student. The majority of your feedback will be
verbal; however you will be required to provide written feedback at times,
for example at the final assessment.

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If you have more than one student, it is acceptable to have group


feedback sessions. Group sessions can save time as often each student
will have the same needs. Group sessions also allow the students to
comment on each others performance. It is important to note how the
students react to group sessions, as some students are reluctant to
discuss personal performance concerns with other students. Group
sessions will not replace individual sessions as negative and corrective
feedback should always be given on an individual basis.

When do I provide feedback?


When delivering feedback, it is important to ensure the student gets full
advantage of the information, without feeling overwhelmed or
incompetent. Basically, you will provide feedback whenever you see the
need and the opportunity is available as well as during the evaluation of
the students performance. Remember, feedback is most effective when
given as soon as possible after the student is observed.

You should plan certain times each week for formal feedback sessions as
well. These might be short sessions, on a daily basis at first, for example
immediately after lunch and at the end of the day, with longer sessions on
a weekly basis, for example Friday afternoon to discuss the week. The
structure of these sessions may change over the duration of the
placement as the student gains experience and confidence.

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When providing feedback early in the placement the following guidelines


may assist:

Tell them what they get right and wrong;

Provide regular feedback after performance;

Encourage them to consider own performance but dont test them

Expect inconsistency; and

"KSS/Kiss approach - keep doing, stop doing, start doing specific


things.

However when providing feedback later in the placement you may want to
utilise the following techniques:

Ask them to tell you what they got right and wrong;

Provide less feedback about outcome and more about quality; and

Expect consistency and efficiency.

TASKS:
1. Read and compile notes in your portfolio on the different types of
strategies used for formative assessment in the language classroom.
2. Describe a teaching-learning scenario and the suitable feedback
strategies used.

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TOPIC 5

EXPLOITING TEACHING RESOURCES

LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of Topic 5, you will be able to:

Identify and talk about the different resources available for teacher;
Explore and exploit free multimedia and digital resources available for use by

teacher;
Evaluate the relevance and suitability of available resources;

Thinking questions
1.

Why do teachers need to select teaching materials?

2.

When do teachers need to adapt teaching materials?

Why must selection and adaptation be done?


Selection and adaptation is much related to reading

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To read means to look at and understand the meaning of written or printed


words or symbols.
Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary

Reading = reading and understanding, reading without understanding is not


reading; it is translating written symbols into corresponding sounds
Penny Ur
Therefore careful selection and adaptation of reading text is important in making the
text accessible to the pupils.

Selecting a text
The process of selecting a text to be used in the classroom should meet the
following criteria:

meets the syllabus requirement

relates to the topic as stated in the scheme of work

relevant and appropriate information is available in the text

The aim of selecting a text is to enable pupils to read and comprehend the literal and
inferred information in the text

What is adaptation?
The process of finding an authentic text which can be of interest to pupils, and
bringing some modifications to it in order to make it usable as the basis for
teaching and conducting in-class reading activities.

Why Adapt?
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ESL pupils sometimes have difficulty in understanding texts and instructions in


English, especially at the lower primary levels (language)

Some ESL pupils come to schools with limited exposure and experiences
(content/context)

When all pupils are able to understand and participate actively in reading a
given text, the lesson becomes effective

Two Primary Ways of Text Adaptation


1. Simplification

Texts can be linguistically simplified by substituting infrequently


occurring technical vocabulary with frequently occurring vocabulary,
shortening sentence lengths or restructuring sentences to reduce their
complexity.

The goal here is linguistic simplification to improve readability. The


purpose of adaptation is to eliminate overly complex language that
might prevent the pupils from understanding the main ideas in the text.

2. Elaboration

To clarify, elaborate and explain implicit information and make connections


explicit. Words are often added to increase comprehension.

The goal is to make a text more coherent and limit the ambiguity within it.
Added elaborations do not necessarily decrease the difficulty of a text.

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Benefits of Text Adaptation

Linguistic simplification will presumably decrease the language load thus


allowing ELS pupils to concentrate on understanding the content of the text
without the burden of language complexities.

Simpler vocabulary would allow the pupil to focus on essential meaning rather
than become frustrated with overly complex words

If a text is elaborated, it should provide greater text coherence. An elaborated


text should make implicit references very explicit

Drawbacks of Text Adaptation


A text that is simplified may prevent the pupils from being exposed to the
vocabulary and text structures that they will eventually need to know
An elaborated text might make for more coherent and comprehensible
reading, but at the same time, remove inherent ambiguity that makes reading
interesting
Although texts should be easy enough for students to understand, tasks that
are too easy never provide learners with the opportunity to see what they can
actually accomplish

Teaching materials
Teaching materials include:
Textbooks, audio cassettes, videos, CD-ROMs, dictionaries, grammar book, readers,
workbook, teachers books, photocopied materials, flashcards, and other authentic
materials, such as newspapers, photographs, advertisements, radio/TV
programmes, etc.
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Possible sources for class reading materials


Articles from newspapers, magazines
Extracts from novels, plays, stories
Texts from existing textbooks (old ones,
ones from other cultural backgrounds)
Texts from the internet

Where to find reading materials?


Libraries (school, university)
Embassies and cultural centers
Airports, NGOs, individual English speakers
Bookstores
Cybercafs
Newspapers or magazines

Good teaching materials should have the following features.


related to the topic and able to attract the students curiosity, interest and
attention. In order to do this, the materials should have novelty, variety,
attractive layout, appealing content, etc

Maleys Adapting Strategy


Maley (1998:281) suggested the following options to adapt materials:
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1. Omission:

the teacher leaves out things deemed inappropriate, offensive,


unproductive, etc., for the particular group.

2. Addition:

where there seems to be inadequate coverage, teachers may decide to


add to the materials, either in the form of texts or exercise material.

3. Reduction:

where the teacher shortens a material to give it less weight or


emphasis.

4. Extension:

where the material is lengthened in order to give it an additional


dimension. (For example, a vocabulary is extended to draw attention to
some syntactic patterning.)

5. Rewriting/modification:

teacher may occasionally decide to rewrite material, especially


exercise material, to make it more appropriate, more communicative,
more demanding and more accessible to their students.

6. Replacement:

parts of a text or exercise material which is considered inadequate, for


whatever reason, may be replaced by more suitable material. This is
often taken from other resource materials.

7. Reordering:

teachers may decide that the order in which the texts are presented is
not suitable for their students. They can then decide to plot a different
course through the texts from the one the writer has laid down.
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8. Branching:

teachers may decide to add options to the existing material or to


suggest alternative pathways through the activities. (For example, an
experiential route or an analytical route.)

Conclusion
Teachers need to know how and to have the initiative to evaluate, select and adapt
teaching materials. Very often, with a heavy workload, teachers simply do not have
the time or energy to do anything beyond lesson planning and marking students
homework. Without explicit encouragement from authorities, many teachers do not
make an effort to evaluate and adapt textbooks and other teaching materials.

TASK:
1. Compile notes on the different types of resources available for teacher
in print and in digital format. Transfer the information gathered from the
notes into a suitable Graphic Organiser.
2. Identify a list of websites available for teacher and provide overview of
the website.
3. Discuss criteria used in evaluating language resources for use in the
classroom.

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TOPIC 6

Macro/Micro-teaching

LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of conducting the micro-teaching session, you will be able to:

Identify the stages in a macro/micro teaching session


Describe suitable activities for each micro/macro teaching session
Give comments on teaching sessions observed
Reflect orally the strengths and weaknesses of lesson observed and carried
out.

Students are to prepare and conduct a micro-teaching session in the class. They
are then to reflect critically on the teaching and the resources used in the lesson.

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TOPIC 7

Student-teacher Development

LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of Topic 7, you will be able to:

Talk about your own experience of the school as a workplace.


Identify your own strengths and weaknesses in conducting lessons.
Plan a programme based on personal need and wants as a student-teacher.

Teacher Professional Growth Plan


(A plan of a student teacher)
As part of becoming a teacher, it becomes essential to identify areas for growth in
one's practice, a way of bettering oneself. I am leaving my university career behind
me shortly and will be immersed in a whole new world... the world of teaching. I am
definitely feeling somewhat overwhelmed by it all, and having no real experience
with a class of my own, I wasn't 100% sure what kinds of goals I wanted to set for
myself. However, in mulling it over for a while, I was able to come up with some
goals that I would like to try to achieve within my first year of teaching.
The following is my TPGP.

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Goal: To become more knowledgeable in the area of literacy instruction


Objectives: Attend workshops or PD sessions related to literacy instruction
Learn creative ways for setting up reading and writing workshops in the classroom
through teaching guides and talking to colleagues
Read literature on literacy instruction (i.e. The Book Whisperer by Donalyn Miller)
It is important to become more knowledgeable about literacy instruction as an
elementary school teacher because in the first few years of school, literacy is an
important foundation for students to develop. Students often need someone to
inspire them and assist them in developing a love for reading. Strong literacy
instruction in their formative years will ultimately help them throughout the rest of
their schooling and is something they will carry with them for the rest of their lives. I
understand that this will be one of my responsibilities and I feel as though in better
educating myself, I will ultimately be better equipped to teach my students. I feel as
though I can accomplish this through exploring the literature, being creative with my
Language Arts curriculum and bringing my own passion for reading into the
classroom.

Goal: Map out and follow a personal wellness-model, balancing the different roles in
my life
Objectives Be physically active 4-5 times per week.
Keep track of tasks that must be completed each week on a to-do list
Limit my intake of staff-room treats to once per week.
Initiate two conversations per day with a family member or friend that is non-work
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related.
Complete school related tasks by no later than 6:30-7 pm, 4 out 5 weekdays.
In order to ensure that I am the best teacher possible, it is essential for me to take
care of myself, taking into account all aspects of my life and all of the roles that I
play. By making healthy food choices, being physically active, taking part in fun
activities, maintaining the relationships in my life and completing my work on time, I
will ultimately be finding a balance that makes teaching enjoyable and ensuring that I
am able to give the best of myself to my students.

Goal: Implement inquiry-based learning in my classroom


Objectives Find and make note of at least one big question per subject area over the course
of my first year of teaching
Seek advice from colleagues and peers about designing inquiry projects for my
students
Develop one inquiry project that ties in at least one other subject (see the potential
for cross-curricular connections)
Draft and keep a possible list of experts/contacts that could be consulted for
different inquiry topics
Take at least one inquiry-related field trip over the course of the year
In coming from a two year Education Program whose focus was inquiry-based
learning, I have been made aware of the benefits and advantages of implementing
this type of learning in the classroom. Students who take part in such learning are
engaged in authentic, meaningful work which is such an important aspect of the
education process. I feel as though in coming up with the big ideas for my units, in
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attempting to create inquiry lessons/projects and creating a list of potential contacts,


I will be better able to implement and design work that is worthy of my students
efforts.

Goal: To integrate technology in purposeful ways in my lessons/units


Objectives to meet goals Provide opportunities for students to complete self-assessments and peer
assessments online
Create a classroom blog/discussion board for students to use frequently throughout
the course of the year
Attend an Assistive Technology workshop/PD session in order to become more
familiar with technology to support students with a range of learning needs
Create a unit of study for each subject area where technology is essential for
successful completion
Since we will be teaching 21st century learners in our classrooms, I feel that it is
imperative for them to be exposed to technology on a regular basis. This technology
should be used in an appropriate manner and in ways that will enhance their learning
experiences. In making small steps and in being determined to become more
knowledgeable in this subject area, I will be more likely to succeed in having
technology become a regular part of my classroom. In focusing on creating projects
that are enhanced or better carried out by the use of technology, it will become
easier to integrate technology and make connections with curriculum in a purposeful
way.

Goal: To incorporate ongoing assessment into my teaching practice


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Objectives to monitor progress Design units that require the use of feedback loops to inform students of their
progress.
Develop rubrics with students in order to allow them to be a part of the evaluation
process.
Model for students how to provide feedback that explains to someone how they are
doing as well as areas where the work can be improved.
Keep criteria concise so that tasks or activities do not become overwhelming for the
students
Use various ways to assess my students
Review literature that exists on the wide range of assessment approaches
It is important for students to have opportunities to improve upon their work and at
the same time it is important for teachers to see the student growth that occurs over
time. Therefore, it becomes important for evaluation to be more than just a one-shot
deal. It is important to find the value that comes from providing students with
continuous feedback in order for them to understand what they are doing well and
areas where they may need more work. Ongoing assessment allows for this to
happen and I feel as though it should be something that I strive towards in my
practice. I think that by allowing students to participate in the assessment process, it
ultimately provides them with an opportunity to assess their progress.

http://studentspseanna.blogspot.com/2010/04/teacher-professional-growth-plan.html
Task:
1. Plan a professional development programme that fulfill ones needs and
wants as a future teacher.
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