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1/7/2014

CAD/CAM: Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing > Numerical Control, The Beginnings of CAM > Benefits of adaptive control machining : Saf
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F ree Tri al

This Book
CA D/CA M:
Computer-A ided
Design and
Manufacturing

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Contents
Table of C ontents
Index
C opyright
Preface
C h. 1. Introduction
Pt. I: C omputers, The
Foundation of C AD/C AM
Pt. II: C omputer-Aided
Design
Pt. III: Numerical C ontrol,
The Beginnings of C AM
C h. 7. C onventional
Numerical C ontrol

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A number of potential benefits accrue to the user of an adaptive control machine tool.
The advantage gained will depend on the particular job under consideration. There are
obviously many machining situations for which it cannot be justified. Adaptive control has
been successfully applied in such machining processes as milling, drilling, tapping, grinding,
and boring. It has also been applied in turning, but with only limited success. Following are
some of the benefits gained from adaptive control in the successful applications.
1. Increased production rates. Productivity improvement was the motivating force
behind the development of adpative control machining. On-line adjustments to allow
for variations in work geometry, material, and tool wear provide the machine with
the capability to achieve the highest metal removal rates that are consistent with
existing cutting conditions. This capability translates into more parts per hour. Given
the right application, adaptive control will yield significant gains in production rate
compared to conventional machining or numerical control.
The production rate advantage of adaptive control over NC machining is illustrated
in Table 9.1 for milling and drilling operations on a variety of work materials. Savings
in cycle time reported in this table range from 20% up to nearly 60% for milling and
33 to 38% for drilling.

C h. 8. NC Part
Programming
C h. 9. C omputer C ontrols
in NC

Table 9.1. Comparison of Machining TimesNC versus Adaptive Control

9.1. Introduction
9.2. Problems with
C onventional NC
9.3. NC C ontroller
Technology

Operation

Description

Work
material

NC
time

AC Percent
time saving

Profile milling

Aircraft flap ribs

Aluminum

152
min

81 min

46

Profile milling

Aircraft flap ribs

Aluminum

641
min

319
min

50

Profile milling

Aerospace
component

Stainless
steel

9.6 h

7.5 h

22

Profile milling

Aerospace
component

Stainless
steel

11.8h

9.4 h

20

Profile milling

Space shuttle engine


ring

Inconel 718

Two types of adaptive


control

Profile milling

Engine Mounting ring

Inconel 718

Operation of an AC C
System

Profile milling

Aircraft component

Benefits of adaptive
control machining

End milling

9.4. C omputer Numerical


C ontrol
9.5. Direct Numerical
C ontrol
9.6. C ombined DNC /C NC
Systems
9.7. Adaptive C ontrol
Machining Systems
Where to use adaptive
control
Sources of variability in
machining

9.8. Trends and New


Developments in NC

Pt. V: Group Technology and


Process Planning
Pt. VI: C omputer-Integrated
Production Management
Systems

45

Titanium

64 min 35 min

48

Aerospace
component

4330 Steel

61 min 25 min

59

Drilling

0.433 diameter
1.0 deep

1019 Steel

8s

5s

38

Drilling

0.433 diameter
1.75 deep

Cast iron

10.5 s

7s

33

References
Pt. IV: Industrial Robots

35

Source: Data courtesy of Macotech Corp.

Pt. VII: C omputer C ontrol


Pt. VIII: C AD/C AM
Implementation
Index

2. Increased tool life. In addition to higher production rates, adaptive control will
generally provide a more efficient and uniform use of the cutter throughout its tool
life. Because adjustments are made in the feed rate to prevent severe loading of the
tool, fewer cutters will be broken.
3. Greater part protection. Instead of setting the cutter force constraint limit on the
basis of maximum allowable cutter and spindle deflection, the force limit can be
established on the basis of work size tolerance. In this way, the part is protected
against an out-of-tolerance condition and possible damage.
4. Less operator intervention. The advent of adaptive control machining has
transferred control over the process even further out of the hands of the machine
operator and into the hands of management via the part programmer.
5. Easier part programming. A benefit of adaptive control which is not so obvious
concerns the task of part programming. With ordinary numerical control, the

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1/7/2014

CAD/CAM: Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing > Numerical Control, The Beginnings of CAM > Benefits of adaptive control machining : Saf
programmer must plan the speed and feed for the worst conditions that the cutter
will encounter. The program may have to be tried out several times before the
programmer is satisfied with the choice of conditions. In adaptive control part
programming, the selection of feed is left to the controller unit rather than to the
part programmer. The programmer can afford to take a less conservative approach
than with conventional NC programming. Less time is needed to generate the
program for the job, and fewer tryouts are required.

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