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STUDENTS BOOKLET

Teen 1
Ingls

7. o ano

Nvel 3

BOOKLET

CONTENTS
NDICE

GLOSSARY
Unit 1

Physical description..........................................3
Names of countries.........................................4
Music....................................................................4
Numbers.............................................................5

Unit 2

Daily Routine......................................................5
Food......................................................................6
Hobbies...............................................................6
Sports..................................................................7

Unit 3

School...............................................................7
Types of schools..............................................7
Subjects ........................................................8
Facilities/rooms..............................................8
School objects / materials..............................8
Activities .....................................................9
People.............................................................9

BASIC GRAMMAR

Pg.

Unit 1

Personal pronouns...........................................17
Verb to be..........................................................17
Indefinite article...............................................18
Possessive determiners..................................18
Adjective..........................................................18

Unit 2

Simple present: regular verbs......................19


Present continuous..........................................19
Interrogative pronouns...................................20
Interrogative adverbs....................................20
Interrogative determiners..............................20
Adverbs of frequency....................................20

Unit 3

Conditional sentences...................................20
Modal verbs.....................................................21
Simple past: to be...........................................22
Simple past: regular verbs............................22

Unit 4

Personal pronouns: object.............................24


Adjectives: comparative...............................24
Simple past: irregular verbs.........................25
Possessive case..............................................25

Unit 4

The family...........................................................9
The house.........................................................10

Unit 5

The city..............................................................11
Shops / stores...................................................11
Means of transport.........................................12
Weather.............................................................12

Unit 5

Holidays..............................................................13
Places/destinations..........................................13
Activities............................................................13
Description of places....................................13
Working places................................................14
Jobs....................................................................14

Prepositions of time........................................26
Prepositions of place.......................................27
Prepositions of movement............................27
Adjectives: superlative...................................27
Verbs: past continuous...................................28

Unit 6

Verbs: present perfect....................................28


Relative pronouns............................................29
Noun plurals.....................................................30

Unit 7

Imperative..........................................................31
Future: going to...............................................31
Future: will.........................................................31
Indefinite adjectives and pronouns............32
Indefinite adverbs and pronouns.................32

Unit 6

Unit 7

Pg.

Halloween........................................................14
Christmas and New Year...............................15
Saint Valentines Day......................................16
Independence Day..........................................16

GLOSSARY

GLOSSARY
UNIT 1

Who is who?

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION

DESCRIO DE PESSOAS

Eyes olhos

Body corpo

blue azuis

fat gordo/forte

small pequenos

strongly-built bem constitudo

big grandes

slim/slender elegante

brown castanhos

thin magro

dark negros
hazel verdes

Mouth boca

Height altura

large grande
tall alto

small pequena

short / small baixo

smiling sorridente

of medium height mdio

serious sria

Arms braos

Nose nariz

long (conk) comprido (penca)


short curto

long compridos

turned-up arrebitado

short curtos

pointed pontiagudo
round redondo

Legs pernas
long compridas

Skin/Complexion
pele
pale plida

strong fortes

dark escura

thin magras

brown morena

short curtas

Face cara

light clara

Hair cabelo

wavy ondulado

round redonda

curly frisado, encaracolado

square quadrada

short curto

rectangular rectangular

long longo
light claro
dark escuro
black negro
blond/fair loiro

EXAMPLES

brown castanho

Hes quite handsome. Hes of medium height, his skin is pale. Hes got blue eyes
and straight fair hair. His nose is a bit pointed. He isnt slim but he isnt fat either.

red ruivo
pony tail rabo de cavalo

GLOSSARY

NAMES OF COUNTRIES

NOMES DE PASES

United Kingdom

Canada Canadian

Australia Australian

France French

Reino Unido

Canad canadiano/a

Australia australiano/a

Frana francs/esa

England English

Switzerland Swiss

Inglaterra ingls/esa

Sua suo/a

Countries
pases
Countries
pases

Scotland Scottish
Esccia escocs/esa

Poland Polish
Polnia polaco/a

Wales Welsh

Spain Spanish

Pas de Gales gals/esa

Espanha espanhol/a

Germany German

India Indian

Alemanha alemo/alem

ndia indiano/a

Austria Austrian

Portugal Portuguese

ustria austraco/a

Portugal portugus/esa

Northern Ireland Irish


Irlanda do Norte irlands/esa

NOTICE

Republic of Ireland / Eire Irish

An Englishman um ingls
An Englishwoman uma inglesa
A Scot / Scotsman um escocs
An Irishman um irlands
A Welshman um gals

MUSIC

Repblica da Irlanda irlands/esa

United States of America American


Estados Unidos da Amrica americano/a

MSICA

classical

Types
tipos

clssica

pop

jazz
jazz

metal

alternative

metal

alternativa

country
country

cello

saxophone

clarinete

violoncelo

saxofone

Musical instruments
instrumentos musicais

coral

rock

clarinet

piano

pop

choral

rock

piano

band
banda

guitar

bass

guitarra

baixo

violin

recorder

keyboard

violino

flauta de bisel

keyboard/teclado

People

pessoas

vocalist
vocalista

singer
orchestra

cantor/a

orquestra

groups
grupos

conductor
maestro

players
instrumentistas

EXAMPLES

Nowadays many teenagers play musical instruments. Boy and girl bands are becoming more and more popular. They play pop
music. They have their favourite bands and buy their CDs. This is commercial music. Others prefer listening to classical music;
most children learn how to play the piano, the recorder or the violin. They sometimes go to concerts and join in school choirs.
4

GLOSSARY

NUMBERS
1 one

NMEROS

5 five

9 nine

13 thirteen

17 seventeen

21 twenty-

50 fifty

90 ninety

60 sixty

100 one / a

2 two

6 six

10 ten

14 fourteen

18 eighteen

-one

3 three

7 seven

11 eleven

15 fifteen

19 nineteen

30 thirty

70 seventy

4 four

8 eight

12 twelve

16 sixteen

20 twenty

40 forty

80 eighty

UNIT 2

hundred

Life is tough!

DAILY ROUTINE

ROTINA DIRIA

have dinner / dine

comb ones hair

wrist watch

church clock

jantar

pentear-se

relgio de pulso

relgio de igreja

sleep

Daily routine
rotina diria

Clocks
relgios

have lunch
almoar

dormir

digital clock

alarm clock

relgio digital

despertador

wake up

get washed

acordar

lavar-se

get up

have breakfast

get dressed

levantar-se

tomar o pequeno almoo

vestir-se

grandfather clock
relgio de caixa alta

Time
morning
manh

sunset

tempo

afternoon
tarde

evening (5 pm-9 pm)

pr-do-sol

sunrise

night

nascer do sol

noite

tardinha/noite

EXAMPLES

Its 3 oclock = its 3 am/3 pm.

Its 3.15 its a quarter past 3.

So trs horas.

So trs e um quarto.

Its 10 oclock = its 10 pm.


So dez horas.

Its 12 oclock.
So doze horas = meio dia.

Its 3.30 its half past 3.


So trs e meia.

Its 10.45 its ten forty five


= its a quarter to eleven.
So dez e quarenta e cinco =
um quarto para as onze.

I usually get up at 7.30


when the alarm clock
rings. My classes begin at
Its 6.20 its twenty past six.
8.30 every day. I dont
So seis e vinte.
have any classes on
Saturday. We generally
8.50 its ten to nine=its eight fifty. have lunch at 1.30, when I
So dez para as nove / oito e cinquenta. get home from school and
we have dinner at 8
12.00 am = midday/noon
oclock in the evening. At
meio-dia am = before midday
weekends I always get up
around 10 and go to bed
12.00 pm = midnight
later at night. Most shops
meia-noite pm = post midday
open at 9 am and close at
5.30 pm.
5

GLOSSARY

FOOD

COMIDA

Food produtos
milk leite
bread po
butter manteiga
corn flakes flocos de aveia
coffee caf
fruit fruta

yoghurt iogurte
eggs ovos
cheese queijo
ham fiambre
meat carne

vegetables legumes
chips batatas fritas
soup sopa
fruit juice sumo de fruta
beer cerveja
wine vinho

fish peixe

Meals refeies

Types tipos
traditional food comida tradicional

breakfast pequeno almoo

fast food comida pronta a comer

lunch almoo

vegetarian food comida vegetariana

tea ch

exotic food comida extica

dinner jantar

take away comida para levar para casa

supper ceia ou jantar


snack refeio ligeira

EXAMPLES

Nowadays most people take care about the food they eat. Teenagers love fast food but they also try not to put on too much
weight. They have light breakfasts and avoid greasy food like chips. Some prefer yoghurts and milk to meat or fish. In general
hamburgers and crisps are still popular among teenagers. Older people prefer traditional food, soup, meat or fish and a lot of
vegetables and fruit. Some British people are vegetarian.

Places
locais
cafeteria cafetaria

restaurant restaurante

sweet shop confeitaria, pastelaria

caf caf

pub bar

HOBBIES/SPORTS

PASSATEMPOS FAVORITOS/DESPORTOS

spare time

listening to music

computer games

watching TV

tempos livres

ouvir msica

jogos de computador

ver TV

Hobbies

weekends

cinema

passatempos favoritos

fins-de-semana

coffee shop casa de ch

cinema

holidays

painting

frias

pintura

leisure

dancing

lazer

dana

pastimes

drama

passatempos

teatro

games

knitting

jogos

fazer malha

reading

writing letters

surfing the net

playing cards

cooking

leitura

escrever cartas

navegar na net

jogar s cartas

cozinhar

GLOSSARY

bike riding

athletics

surfing

karate

horse riding

andar de
bicicleta/ciclismo

atletismo

surf

karat

equitao

football/soccer

Sports

desportos

hockey

futebol

hquei

swimming
natao

tennis
tnis

skiing

jogging

gymnastics

basketball

mountaineering

ski

jogging

ginstica

basquetebol

montanhismo

UNIT 3
SCHOOL

EXAMPLES

Most teenagers spend their spare time doing


some hobbies or practising sports.
The most popular hobbies nowadays are
computer games or surfing the net. Those
who are not so keen on technology watch TV
or listen to music. At school they play football, basketball or volleyball. At the weekend
they go jogging, mountaineering, swimming
or bike riding.

School

ESCOLA

break

class

exam

term

school bus

intervalo

turma

exame

perodo

autocarro escolar

timetable

school report

School
escola

horrio

boletim escolar

study / field trip

essay

visita de estudo

trabalho escrito

fail

homework

reprovar

trabalho de casa

test

mark

pass

bell

lessons

teste

nota

passar

campainha

lies / aulas

EXAMPLES

My school report was excellent this


term.
We will use the school bus for the
study trip.
I hope I dont fail this year. My
marks were not very good.

kindergarten / nursery school

private school

state school

special school

jardim infantil

escola privada

escola pblica

escola de educao especial

primary / elementary school (US)


escola primria / 1. ciclo

boarding school

Types of schools
tipos de escolas

colgio interno

preparatory school
escola preparatria

EXAMPLES

secondary school / high school (US)


escola secundria

middle school / junior high school

university / college

escola do 2 e 3. ciclo

ensino superior

Mark goes to a boarding school. He


only comes home at the weekend.
When I finish secondary school, I
want to go to university.
7

GLOSSARY

Religious Education

Biology

German

Portuguese

Alemo

Portugus

Religio e Moral

Biologia

French

Subjects
disciplinas

History
Histria

Francs

Physical Education (P.E.)


Educao Fsica

Maths
Matemtica

Art
Arte / Educao Visual

Music
Msica

term

Craftswork

bar

Trabalhos Manuais

Geography
Geografia

perodo

bar

Chemistry

playground

gym

Qumica

recreio

ginsio

English
Ingls

library

school office

biblioteca

secretaria

swimming pool
toilets

piscina

Facilities / rooms
instalaes / salas / divises

teachers staff room

casas de banho

football field

sala de professores

campo de futebol

students common room


classroom

sala dos alunos

sala de aula

headteachers study
sala do director / Presidente

laboratory
laboratrio

reception
recepo

video room
sala de vdeo

Arts room

EXAMPLES

Our Arts room is really great. I also love the gym.


Our students common room isnt big.
When we dont have classes, we like to go to the video room and the library.

school uniform

chalk

pencil

notebook

uniforme escolar

giz

lpis

caderno de apontamentos

sala de Educao Visual

microscope
microscpio

School objects / material


material escolar

watercolours
aguarelas

dictionary

EXAMPLES

dicionrio

I didnt play football today because


I forgot my training shoes.
Today my satchel is very heavy. Im
carrying three notebooks and two
dictionaries.
In my opinion, school uniforms
are not a good idea.

computer
computador

desk
carteira

overhead projector

pen

retroprojector

training shoes / trainers (inf.)

caneta

sapatilhas

GLOSSARY

dance club

English club

journal

sports club

clube de dana

clube de Ingls

jornal

clube de desporto

drama club

music club

Activities
actividades

clube de teatro

classmate
colega de turma

student

clube de msica

competition

exhibition

competio, prova

exposio

estudante

partner

pottery club

companheiro de carteira

clube de olaria

teacher

People

professor

multimedia club

clube de multimdia environment club


clube do ambiente

quiz

pessoas

pupil

concurso

aluno

school secretary
funcionrio de secretaria

EXAMPLES

classmate

This year all my classmates are great, especially my partner.


We are making a journal for the English club.
Rui is our form leader. Everybody likes him.

colega de turma

form teacher
director de turma

school pal
colega

form leader
delegado de turma

UNIT 4
THE FAMILY

Home sweet home!

A FAMLIA

grandfather

grandmother

av

av

The family
a famlia

father
pai

mother

in-laws

me

daughter

aunt

filho

filha

tia

children

sister

irmo

filhos

irm

padrinho

parentes por afinidade

son

brother

godfather

godmother
madrinha

nephew

Relatives
parentes

sobrinho

niece
sobrinha

uncle
tio

cousin

sister-in-law

primo

cunhada

brother-in-law

father-in-law

mother-in-law

cunhado

sogro

sogra

EXAMPLES

My family is quite big. There are six of us at home. My father is 42, my mother is 40. There are three children, two sons and a
daughter. My grandmother is also living with us. My grandfather died last year.
Uncle Tom and aunt Nina live in the neighbourhood with my cousins, Jim and Laura.

birth nascimento

birthday dia de anos

divorce divrcio

baptism / christening baptismo

wedding casamento

death morte

GLOSSARY

THE HOUSE

A CASA

terraced house

semi-detached house

block of flats

floor

casa trrea

casa geminada

bloco de apartamentos/prdio

cho (dentro de casa)

detached house

council house

Types of houses
tipos de casas

moradia

wall

casa da cmara

parede

Parts of the houses


partes da casa

manor house
casa senhorial

chimney
chamin

cottage

ceiling

casa de campo

tecto

bungalow

door

moradia num s piso

porta

bedroom

drawing room

bathroom

quarto de cama

sala de visitas

casa de banho

divises

cozinha

window

roof

porto

janela

telhado

jardim

childrens room
quarto das crianas

Rooms

kitchen

garden
gate

cellar

chest of drawers

cave

study
escritrio

dining room

living room

sala de jantar

sala comum

cmoda

armchair

pantry

sink

dispensa

banca

maple

cupboard
armrio

Furniture
moblia

table
mesa

bed
cama

oven

chair

forno

cadeira

freezer
arca congeladora

sofa
sof

vacuum cleaner / hoover

bookcase

bedside table

closet / fitted wardrobe

aspirador

estante

mesa de cabeceira

guarda-fatos

fridge

Electrical appliances
electrodomsticos

frigorfico

washing machine
mquina de lavar roupa

hi-fi system
aparelhagem de som

dishwasher

ornament

clock

mirror

shelf

mquina de lavar loia

bibelot

relgio

espelho

prateleira

TV set

picture

aparelho de televiso

quadro

cooker / stove
fogo

EXAMPLES

Decoration
decorao

vase
vaso

curtain
cortina

carpet
tapete

I love my house. Its my sanctuary, where I feel at home. Its cosy and
warm. Its a detached house with a small garden, near the woods. It
has got six rooms. The kitchen is quite large and we have our meals
there. Weve got all modern appliances and the furniture is simple.
10

lamp

fireplace

coffee table

candeeiro

fogo de sala

mesinha de caf

GLOSSARY

UNIT 5
THE CITY

Places around you

A CIDADE

building

corner

market

hostel

hotel

bus stop

edifcio

esquina

mercado

estalagem

hotel

paragem de autocarro

hospital

block of flats

hospital

bloco de apartamentos

The city
a cidade

theatre

youth hostel

teatro

albergue de juventude

cinema

shopping mall

cinema

centro comercial

avenue

restaurant

avenida

restaurante

square

post office

praa

correios

street(s)

police station

rua(s)

esquadra

park

garden

church

bridge

museum

skyscraper

parque

jardim

igreja

ponte

museu

arranha-cus

EXAMPLES

When we visited London last month we stayed in a youth hostel.


I must go the post office to receive a package.
My sister lives in a block of flats, next to the park. There is a bus stop right in front of her building.

menswear shop

drugstore

grocers

stationery

womens clothes

loja de modas (homem)

drogaria

mercearia

papelaria

loja de modas (senhoras)

greengrocers

Shop / stores
lojas / armazns

pomar

newsagents
tabacaria

chemists

butchers

farmcia

talho

hypermarket

fishmongers

hipermercado

peixaria

supermarket

bookshop

supermercado

livraria

music shop

sweetshop

bakers

ironmongers / hardware store (US)

artigos musicais

pastelaria

padaria

loja de utenslios domsticos / ferragens

EXAMPLES

My mother likes to shop in big shopping malls such as Harrods because she can find everything she needs there.
Paul avoids going to hypermarkets. He prefers to shop in his neighbourhood shops, such as the grocers and the butchers.
Wheres the chemists? I need to buy a pill for my headache.

11

GLOSSARY

motorbike

ship

van

train

motocicleta

barco

carrinha

comboio

Means of transport
meios de transporte

car
carro

taxi
txi

plane

bus

avio

autocarro

bicycle

lorry

underground

bicicleta

camio

metropolitano

EXAMPLES

A car is faster and probably safer but I prefer


the bicycle. When I need to travel longer
distances I use the train.
The undeground is the fastest way to move
around in the city. The bus is also efficient,
but not as fast.

Directions direces
go straight on

walk down the street

take the second turning on the left/right

seguir em frente

descer a rua

virar na segunda rua esquerda/direita

turn left

go through the park

virar esquerda

ir atravs do parque

EXAMPLES

turn right

cross the bridge

virar direita

atravessar a ponte

walk up the street

go along the street

To get to the museum you need to turn left, walk


along the street and go through the park. Then,
cross the bridge and take the second turning on
the right. The museum is opposite the hospital.

subir a rua

seguir ao longo da rua

WEATHER

TEMPO ATMOSFRICO
forecast previso
fog nevoeiro
sleet granizo
shower aguaceiro
thunder trovo
wind vento
lightning relmpago
storm tempestade
sun sol
cloud nuvem
rain chuva

winter Inverno
summer Vero
autumn Outono
spring Primavera
heat calor
climate clima
hurricane ciclone
north norte
south sul
east este
west oeste

Adjectives adjectivos
rainy chuvoso
cloudy nublado
stormy tempestuoso
sunny solarengo
heavy forte

light leve, fraco, desanuveado


snowy nevado
windy ventoso
cool fresco
cold frio

damp hmido
wet molhado
fine bom
dry seco
hot muito quente

warm quente
northern de norte
southern de sul
eastern de leste
western de oeste

EXAMPLES

The forecast says there will be thunder and lightning tomorrow morning, but it will be fine in the afternoon.
Whats the weather like in your region?
Its usually sunny and warm this time of the year, but in winter it is always cloudy and very cold.
12

GLOSSARY

UNIT 6
HOLIDAYS

To work or not to work

FRIAS
beach

desert

island

coast

mountains

praia

deserto

ilha

costa

montanhas

monuments

open spaces

Places / destinations
lugares / destinos

monumentos

espaos ao ar livre

ruins

river(side)

runas

(beira-)rio

lake
lago

city
cidade

country(side)

sea(side)

campo

(beira-)mar

indoor spaces

explore wild regions


explorar regies selvagens

espaos fechados

fly
enjoy peace and quiet
desfrutar de paz e sossego

have fun

go on a safari

divertir-se

fazer um safari

practise sports

voar

praticar desporto

Activities

get a suntan

actividades

go to a disco / the casino

bronzear-se

ir a uma discoteca / casino

take photos

go sightseeing

tirar fotografias

visitar (locais famosos ou interessantes)

sit in a caf

relax / rest

sentar-se num caf

descontrair-se / descansar

sail

admire landscapes

camp

velejar

admirar paisagens

acampar

EXAMPLES

Ive decided to spend these summer holidays at the seaside.


Mark likes to explore wild regions but his wife prefers to go sightseeing.
You will risk your health if you spend too much time lying in the sun to get a suntan.
I dont like anything too dangerous or exciting during my holidays. All I want is to enjoy peace and quiet.

DESCRIPTION OF PLACES

DESCRIO DE LUGARES

Positive positivo

Negative negativo
beautiful belo
peaceful sossegado
pleasant agradvel
entertaining divertido
green verdejante
relaxing repousante
clean limpo
exciting excitante

awful horrvel
dirty sujo
noisy barulhento
dull montono
dangerous perigoso
uninteresting desinteressante
unpleasant desagradvel
polluted poludo
boring aborrecido

13

GLOSSARY

WORK

TRABALHO
company

factory

companhia, firma

fbrica

Working places

bank

shop

locais de trabalho

loja

banco

stage

court

palco

tribunal

office

surgery

studio

escritrio

consultrio

estdio

Jobs profisses / ocupaes


actor actor
actress actriz
astronaut astronauta
pilot piloto
boss patro
cameraman operador de cmara
pianist pianista
policeman polcia
psychiatrist psiquiatra
reporter reprter
secretary secretria
singer cantor
shop-assistant empregado(a)
inventor inventor

UNIT 7

journalist jornalista
lawyer advogado
manager gerente
model modelo
musician msico
painter pintor
writer escritor
photographer fotgrafo
dentist dentista
detective detective
plumber canalizador
doctor / physician mdico

Lets celebrate!

HALLOWEEN 31st October

DIA DAS BRUXAS 31 de Outubro

broom

candle

sweet

costume

ghost

lantern

witch

goblin

vassoura

vela

doce

fato

fantasma

lanterna

bruxa

duende malfico

mummy
mmia

trick
partida

14

driver motorista
electrician electricista
executive executivo
fisherman pescador
fireman bombeiro
gardener jardineiro
dancer danarino
cook cozinheiro
coach treinador
dustman homem do lixo, varredor
shopkeeper comerciante, lojista
mechanic mecnico

pumpkin

Halloween
dia das bruxas

abbora

wizard
feiticeiro

beach

All Hallows

praia

Todos-os-Santos

mask

nightmare

mscara

pesadelo

GLOSSARY

EXAMPLES

Verbs verbos

On Halloween, kids wear


costumes, knock on doors
and say Trick or treat.
People carve pumpkins
and put candles inside to
make them look scary.

Adjectives adjectivos

to frighten / scare assustar


to knock on the door bater porta
to play a trick (on) pregar uma partida (a)
to scream / shout / yell gritar
to wear vestir
to carve esculpir

funny engraado
amusing divertido
frightening / scary / spooky assustador
strange estranho
traditional tradicional
cross zangado

CHRISTMAS AND NEW YEAR

25th December and 1st January DIA DE NATAL E DE ANO NOVO 25 de Dezembro e 1 de Janeiro

Dates datas
Boxing Day 26 de Dezembro
Christmas Eve Vspera de Natal
New Years Eve Vspera de Ano Novo
New Years Day Dia de Ano Novo

Father Christmas
Pai Natal

sleigh
tren

presents
presentes

stocking

Saint Nicholas

meia, pega

S. Nicolau

Santa Claus / Father Christmas


Pai Natal

coal

fireplace

carvo

lareira

North Pole

toys

Plo Norte

brinquedos

reindeer
rena

sack / bag
saco

chimney
chamin

EXAMPLES

Boxing Day is a holiday on the first


weekday after Christmas.
Some children believe Santa Claus
comes down the chimney on
Christmas Eve and leaves a present in
the stocking they put on the fireplace.

Customs and traditions costumes e tradies


Christmas cards cartes de Natal
Christmas decorations decoraes de Natal
Christmas carols canes de Natal
Christmas greetings saudaes de Natal

Christmas tree rvore de Natal


(boughs) of holly (ramos de) azevinho
midnight mass missa da meia-noite
New Years resolutions resolues de Ano Novo

mistletoe visco
tinsel ouropel
snow neve
crib prespio

15

GLOSSARY

Food

toast

mince pie

comida

brinde

pastel com recheio de frutas

Christmas pudding

Christmas cake

pudim de Natal

bolo de Natal

raisins

(roast) turkey

uvas passas

peru (assado)

EXAMPLES

The Christmas tree looks beautiful with


tinsel and snow.
Mince pie and Christmas pudding are
my favourite food at Christmas.
On New Years Eve people drink a toast
and make New Years resolutions.

SAINT VALENTINES DAY

14th February DIA DE S. VALENTIM 14 de Fevereiro


darling / sweetheart

date

surprise

heart

querido/a, adorado/a

encontro

surpresa

corao

kiss

patron saint

Nouns
nomes

beijo

santo padroeiro

gift

soul

presente

alma

postbox / letter box

boyfriend girlfriend

marco / caixa do correio

namorado

Valentine

namorada postal de S. Valentim


o/a eleito/a

Verbs verbos
to cry chorar
to fall in love apaixonar-se
to love amar, gostar muito
to lie mentir

to miss sentir falta (de)


to need precisar
to send enviar
to share partilhar

to sign assinar
to smile sorrir

INDEPENDENCE DAY

4th of July DIA DA INDEPENDNCIA 4 de Julho


picnic

fireworks

piquenique

fogo-de-artifcio

parade

16

flag

Countries
pases

parada

bandeira

band

colony

banda

colnia

barbecue

declaration

churrasco

declarao

BASIC GRAMMAR

BASIC GRAMMAR
UNIT 1

Who is who?

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

PRONOMES PESSOAIS

Subject
Singular

Plural

we

you

you

he

they

EXAMPLES

I am Portuguese.
Do you play the piano?
He is English.
She can play the guitar.
We dont speak English.
They love ice cream.

she
it

VERB TO BE SIMPLE PRESENT

VERBO TO BE PRESENTE DO INDICATIVO

Simple Present (To Be)


Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

am

Im

am

Am

You

are

youre

You

are

You

re

Are

you

hes

He

shes

She

its

It

were

We

youre

You

theyre

They

He
She

is
=

It
We
You

are

They

He
is

not =

She

he
s

not

It

Is

it

We
are

You

she

we
re

Are

They

you
they

As respostas curtas so:


Yes, I am.

No, Im not.

Yes, we are.

No, we arent.

Yes, he is.

No, he isnt.

Yes, they are.

No, theyre not = they arent.

Usa-se o verbo to be, em certas condies, quando falamos de:

T7B-2

EXAMPLES

Im English.
Hes Spanish.
Were students.
He isnt tired.
They arent Portuguese.
Are you French?
Is he hungry?
Are they ill?

naturalidade Im from Porto.

distncia Its 50 km from here.

idade Im thirteen.

preo Its $2.

altura Im 1 metre 50.

horas Its 4.30.

peso Im 50 kilos.

datas Its 4th July today.

tamanho This room is 20 square metres.

fome, sede, cansao Im hungry. Im thirsty. Im tired.

17

BASIC GRAMMAR

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE

O ARTIGO INDEFINIDO

a utiliza-se antes de palavras que comeam por


consoante.

an utiliza-se antes de palavras que comeam por


vogal.

EXAMPLES

EXAMPLES

Weve got a big car.


Take a seat!
A sandwich, please.

Take an umbrella. Its going to rain.


Give me an example, please.
Id like an ice cream, please.

antes de palavras comeadas por y, u (som j) e w no se deve utilizar an.


Hes got a yellow pullover.
Is there a university here?
England is a European country.
Shes a wonderful teacher.
NOTA

antes de h (h mudo) utiliza-se an.


The plane arrives in an hour.
Hes an honest man.

POSSESSIVE DETERMINERS

No se utiliza a ou an no plural.
Boys and girls go to the school bar regularly.
He buys books every month.

DETERMINANTES POSSESSIVOS

Possessive determiners
Singular

Plural

my

our

your

your

his
her

their

its

ADJECTIVE

Whats your address?


My mother is a teacher.
His uncle works for Virgin.
Our house is quite big.
Have you got your tickets?
They lost their books.

ADJECTIVO

O adjectivo invarivel em ingls. igual no masculino, feminino e plural.

O adjectivo vem sempre antes do substantivo (pessoa,


lugar ou coisa).

EXAMPLES

EXAMPLES

a blue dress
a beautiful house
its very heavy

18

EXAMPLES

three blue dresses


two beautiful houses
they are very heavy

a fat woman
a young man
a beautiful story

an expensive house
a modern car
a heavy satchel

NOTA

NOTA

Pode-se usar mais de um adjectivo antes do substantivo sem


and entre eles.
Its a new English dictionary.
Shes a nice young woman.

O adjectivo vem sempre depois do verbo to be.


Shes slim and smart.
He is late.
They are angry.

BASIC GRAMMAR

UNIT 2

Life is tought!

SIMPLE PRESENT: REGULAR VERBS

VERBOS REGULARES: PRESENTE DO INDICATIVO

Affirmative
I
You

work

You

He
She

do

You

He
She

works

It

It

We

We

You

Interrogative

Negative

You

work

They

dont

Do

not
=
work

She

doesnt

It

Does

work

You

They

she
it

We
do

you
he

He
does

work?

we
dont

Do

They

you
they

NOTA

Com o presente do indicativo usam-se advrbios de tempo como:


always often usually sometimes rarely generally normally seldom frequently never regularly etc.
EXAMPLES

Affirmative
We go to school every day.
She loves ice-creams.
I live in Oporto.
He often drives to work.
He lives in Baker Street.

Negative
We dont go to school by bus.
She doesnt speak English.
I dont like bananas.
NOTA

Verbos terminados em:

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

Interrogative
Does she usually wear bikinis?
Do they listen to music?
Do you like football?

consonant + -y acrescenta-se -ies


-sh, -s, -ch, -x acrescenta-se -es
-o acrescenta-se -es

VERBOS REGULARES: PRESENTE DO INDICATIVO

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

am

am not

Am

You

are

You

are not (arent)

Are

you

He
She

He
is

It
We
You
They

sleeping.

She

he
is not (isnt)

It

sleeping.

Is

You
They

she
it

We
are

cry cries
wash washes
go goes

sleeping?

we
are not (arent)

Are

you
they
19

BASIC GRAMMAR

O present continuous usa-se para indicar aces que esto a decorrer no momento em que se est a falar. Tambm serve para indicar
um hbito que nos incomoda ou negativo. O present continuous
usado ainda quando nos referimos a uma aco futura j planeada.
As respostas curtas so:
Yes, I am.

No, Im not.

Yes, he is.

No, he isnt.

Yes, we are.

No, we arent.

QUESTION WORDS

EXAMPLES

While Lisa is studying, Joe is listening to music.


Shes always teasing me.
Mum is talking on the phone to her friend
Maureen.
Whos knocking on the door?
Are you leaving now?
Shes travelling to Paris next week.
Im staying at home tonight.

PERGUNTAS

Interrogative Pronouns
Pronomes interrogativos

Interrogative Adverbs
Advrbios interrogativos

Interrogative Determiners
Determinantes interrogativos

Who ?

Where ?

What... ?

What ?

When ?

Which (of them)... ?

Which ?

Why ?

How many ?

How ?
Usam-se com interrogativas directas, para formular perguntas.

ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

ADVRBIOS DE FREQUNCIA

usually

regularly

sometimes

seldom

never

often

always

every day

rarely

occasionally

Usam-se para indicar uma aco frequente, um hbito.

UNIT 3

School

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

FRASES CONDICIONAIS

So constitudas por duas oraes a orao condicional (if-clause) e a orao principal (main-clause) traduzindo,
como o prprio nome indica, condies, isto , situaes que podem acontecer, levando a determinados resultados.
Quando a if-clause surge no simple present, podem ocorrer duas situaes na main clause:
1.
20

If

Simple Present

---------------------

Simple Present

(TYPE 0)

Este tipo de frase traduz hbitos, situaes repetidas com frequncia, factos tidos como verdadeiros.

BASIC GRAMMAR

NOTA

Nas oraes condicionais TIPO 0, a conjuno if tem o significado de when(ever) (quando, sempre que).
EXAMPLES

If (= When) I dont have anyone to go out with, I stay at home. I spend the summer holidays at home.
If (= When) its cold, I dont go out so often.
If (= When) it rains a lot, it is very dangerous to drive fast.

If

2.

Simple Present

------------------

will + infinitive
will not (wont) + infinitive

(TYPE 1)

Usamos frases deste tipo para exprimir forte possibilidade / probabilidade.


EXAMPLES

If you dont behave, you wont (will not) have bacon and eggs for breakfast tomorrow.
If I have the courage, Ill ask Doris to marry me.
Melissa will miss the beginning of the class if she doesnt hurry.
If you come with me, you wont (will not) be late for class.

MODAL VERBS

VERBOS MODAIS

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

can

can

cant / cannot

Can

could

could

couldnt

Could

may

may

May

might

might

mightnt

Might

wont

Will

will

will

not

would

would

wouldnt

Would

shall

shall

shant

Shall

should

should

shouldnt

Should

must

must

mustnt

Must

NOTA

Usam-se para indicar, por exemplo:

Os verbos modais:
so sempre seguidos do infinitivo de outro verbo;
nunca levam -s na 3.a pessoa do singular;
no se formam com auxiliar na negativa e interrogativa.

capacidade

ability: can, could

permisso

permission: can, may

dever

duty: should

probabilidade
pedido

He cannot swim.
May I open the window, sir?
Could you bring me that chair?
You should go to the dentist.

probability: can, might

request: can, could, would

possibilidade

EXAMPLES

She can play the guitar.


Would you do me a favour?
It might rain today.
We must go now.
They shouldnt speak so loud.

necessidade

possibility: can
necessity: must (have to)

obrigao

obligation: must (have to)

proibio

prohibition: mustnt

oferta

offer: can, would, shall

21

BASIC GRAMMAR

VERB TO BE SIMPLE PAST


Simple Past (To Be)
Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

was

was

wasnt

Was

You

were

You

were

You

werent

Were

you

He
She

He
She

was

It

It

We

We

You

was

You

were

They

He

not

respostas curtas

wasnt

she

Was

It

it

We

we

You

were

They

short answers

She

he

werent

you

Were

They

they

Singular

Plural

Yes, I was.
No, I was not (wasnt).
Yes, you were.
No, you were not (werent).
Yes, he/she/it was.
No, he/she/it was not (wasnt).

Yes, we / you / they were.


No, we / you / they were not (werent).

O verbo to be no precisa de verbo auxiliar


para formar a negativa e a interrogativa.
Ao contrrio do que acontece com os
outros verbos, no simple past o verbo to
be apresenta duas formas diferentes: was
e were.

EXAMPLES

Who was at the party yesterday?


Oh, there were many people there.
Were there any friends from school?
No, there werent any. But, Jane was there with her sister. They were very nice.

SIMPLE PAST: REGULAR VERBS


Affirmative
I
You

visited

He
She

I
You

She

It

It

We

We

You

did

You

He
visited

visited

They

You

respostas curtas
22

didnt

Did

He
did

not
visit

She

didnt

visit

Did

You

They

she

visit?

we
didnt

Did

They

Yes, I / you did.


No, I / you did not (didnt).
Yes, he / she / it did.
No, he / she / it did not (didnt).

you

it

We
did

he

It

Singular
short answers

Interrogative

Negative

you
they

Plural
Yes, we / you / they did.
No, we / you / they did not (didnt).

BASIC GRAMMAR

Para formarmos o simple past de verbos regulares, acrescentamos -(e)d forma infinitiva.
NOTAS

a) Aos verbos terminados em -e acrescentamos s -d:


to dance
to live
to prepare

danced
lived
prepared

b) Os verbos terminados em consoante + -y mudam o -y final para -ie antes de -d:


to copy
to study
to worry

copied
studied
worried

to enjoy

Compara: to play

enjoyed
played

c) Os verbos de uma slaba terminados em consoante + vogal + consoante dobram a consoante final antes de -ed:
to grab
to plan
to stop

grabbed
planned
stopped

to join

Compara: to explain

joined
explained

d) Os verbos com mais de uma slaba s dobram a consoante final antes de -ed se a slaba tnica for a ltima:
to permit
to refer
to regret

permitted
referred
regretted

to listen

listened

Compara: to remember remembered

e) Todos os verbos terminados em -el dobram, no ingls britnico, o -l final antes de -ed:
to cancel
to rebel
to travel

cancelled
rebelled
travelled

A interrogativa faz-se com did + sujeito + infinitivo.


A negativa faz-se com did + not + infinitivo.
Usa-se o simple past para descrever aces iniciadas e acabadas num tempo passado, definido pelo contexto ou
por algumas expresses de texto:
yesterday
last (summer / year / Christmas / month / week(end) / Sunday / night)
(two hours / five days / three weeks / six months / a year) ago

O simple past dos verbos regulares igual em todas as pessoas.


EXAMPLES

Today I didnt travel to school by bus. My mother decided to drive me.


Did you talk to your teacher about the test?
Yes, we did. She agreed with us.
23

BASIC GRAMMAR

UNIT 4

Home sweet home!

PERSONAL PRONOUNS: OBJECT

PRONOMES PESSOAIS: COMPLEMENTO

Object
Singular

Plural

me

us

you

you
EXAMPLES

him
her

She called me a liar.


He came with her to the party.
Can you help us?

them

it

If you like them, take them.


Speak to him.
Im speaking to you.

Estes pronomes so geralmente utilizados na funo de complemento directo, indirecto ou a seguir a uma preposio.

ADJECTIVES: COMPARATIVE

ADJECTIVOS: COMPARATIVO

Usa-se para comparar duas pessoas ou coisas.


Acrescenta-se -er ao adjectivo quando ele tem uma slaba ou duas, terminando em -er, -le ou -y.
EXAMPLES

The Smiths are richer than the Jones.


Mary is smarter than her brother.

English is easier than German.


Her hair is darker than yours.

Se o adjectivo longo, com duas, trs ou mais slabas, acrescenta-se more.


EXAMPLES

This programme is even more boring than the other.


Maths is more difficult than Portuguese.

The film is more interesting than the book.


The countryside is more beautiful than the city.

Bad e good formam comparativos irregulares.


EXAMPLES

The book is better than the film.


That restaurant is good but the other is much better.

Im worse at sports than at languages.

Para comparar tambm se pode usar as... as, not as... as or not so... as.
EXAMPLES
24

Shes as nice as her sister.

April is not as warm as June.

Simon is not so tall as Vera.

BASIC GRAMMAR

SIMPLE PAST: IRREGULAR VERBS


Affirmative
I
You

went

He
She

I
You

She

It

It

We

We

You

did

You

He
went

went

They

Interrogative

Negative

You

didnt

Did

respostas curtas

you

He
did

not
go

She

he
didnt

It

go

she

Did

it

We
You

did

They

go?

we
didnt

Did

They

you
they

Singular
short answers

Plural

Yes, I / you did.


No, I / you did not (didnt).
Yes, he / she / it did.
No, he / she / it did not (didnt).

Yes, we / you / they did.


No, we / you / they did not (didnt).

Ao contrrio dos verbos regulares, para formarmos a afirmativa do simple past dos verbos irregulares no podemos usar uma regra. Assim, necessrio saber antecipadamente qual a forma irregular. Para aprender as formas
certas, melhor consultar a lista de verbos no final do manual.
A interrogativa e negativa do simple past dos verbos regulares e irregulares formam-se da mesma maneira.
Tal como nos verbos regulares, o simple past dos verbos irregulares igual em todas as pessoas.
EXAMPLES

I didnt bring the new book to class.


Did you bring your new satchel?
No, I didnt, but I brought the magazine you wanted to read.

POSSESSIVE CASE

CASO POSSESSIVO

Usa-se para indicar posse quando o possuidor uma pessoa.


Coloca-se um s (apstrofo + s) aps o nome do possuidor.
EXAMPLES

Tims bicycle is new.


My friends house is small.
Joos telephone number is 270 45 28.

Her mothers dog disappeared.


The presidents visit to Britain was successful.
The students books are there.

Se o nome est no plural e termina em -s, s se acrescenta um (apstrofo).


EXAMPLES

The boys surname is Jones.


The teachers room is over there.

The babies bottles are in the cupboard.


The girls friends will come at 6.
25

BASIC GRAMMAR

Se o nome est no plural mas no termina em -s acrescenta-se o s.


EXAMPLES

Thats the childrens room.

Womens clothes department.

Se o nome acaba em -s e est no singular acrescenta-se s.


EXAMPLES

St. Jamess park is beautiful in the summer.


Note: Jesus life

Charless sister is coming today.

NOTA

Para indicar posse tambm se usa of (coisas). Thats the end of the story. The walls of this room need to be painted.

UNIT 5

Places around you

PREPOSITIONS (time)

PREPOSIES (tempo)

at usa-se com:

horas
celebraes anuais
weekends / the weekend

EXAMPLES

I must hurry. My lessons start at 9 a.m. / 9 oclock.


I dont have to go to school at Christmas or at Easter.
I always wake up late at weekends.
I never go out at night. Its very dangerous.

night
on usa-se com:

dias (da semana)


datas

EXAMPLES

We dont have classes on Sunday.


Is your birthday on October 15th or October 16th?
My English test is on Tuesday morning.
They got married on the first day of August.

in usa-se com:

partes do dia
(excepes: at night / on Monday morning)
meses
anos
estaes
sculos

26

EXAMPLES

I dont have Geography lessons in the afternoon.


We dont go to school in August.
What about you? Do you have classes in summer?
Im going to be a university student in 2007.
Dont be so old-fashioned! Were you born in the 18th century?

before e after usam-se para indicar a ordem das


aces (antes e depois).

EXAMPLES

during usa-se para indicar a durao (perodo de


tempo) de uma aco.

EXAMPLES

I always get up before 8 oclock.


Dont you feel hungry after a match?

I like making new friends during the holidays.


During the break we talk to each other.

BASIC GRAMMAR

PREPOSITIONS (place)

PREPOSIES (lugar)

Usam-se para falar da posio ou lugar de uma pessoa ou objecto.


Seguem verbos como: be, stand, lie, sit, etc.
above
behind
at
below
away from
beside

in
in front of
near

on
on top of
opposite

over
under

EXAMPLES

The fireplace is in front of the table.


The bookcase is on the wall.
The dog is in the garden.

PREPOSITIONS (movement)

There is a basket beside the desk.


The photo is hanging above the fireplace.
The baby is under the chair.

PREPOSIES (movimento)

Usam-se para indicar movimento, deslocao de uma pessoa ou objecto.


across
through
up
past
along
into
to
from
from to

down
round / around
towards

out of

EXAMPLES

To get to the library you must go across the bridge.


Paul ran out of the door and into the street.

ADJECTIVES: SUPERLATIVE

John walked past me this morning but didnt see me.


She climbed to the top of the mountain alone.

ADJECTIVOS: SUPERLATIVO

Usam-se para comparar trs ou mais pessoas ou coisas.


Se o adjectivo tem uma slaba ou se termina em -er, -e ou -y acrescenta-se -est ao adjectivo.
EXAMPLES

John is the youngest of the three.


Estrela is the highest mountain in Portugal.

Lisbon is the biggest city of Portugal.

Se o adjectivo longo (tem duas slabas ou mais), usa-se (the) most.


EXAMPLES

Cames is the most famous Portuguese poet.


His films are the most exciting I know of.

That is the most interesting chapter of the book.

Good e bad tm superlativos irregulares.


EXAMPLES

Hes the best player in the world.

She is the worst actress I know.

NOTA

Em alguns casos, as terminaes dos adjectivos sofrem alteraes:


big biggest
nice nicest
easy easiest
hot hottest
strange strangest
happy happiest

27

BASIC GRAMMAR

VERBS: PAST CONTINUOUS


Affirmative
I

Interrogative

Negative
I

was

was

You were

You were

You werent

He

He

He

She

is

It

She

writing

is

not
writing

It

She

Was

wasnt

Were you
he

wasnt

It

We

We

We

You were

You were

You werent

They

They

They

writing

she

Is

it

writing?

we
Were you
they

Usa-se para indicar uma aco que estava a decorrer em determinada altura no passado ou quando outra ocorreu
(simple past).
EXAMPLES

I was having breakfast when she called.


Were you playing?
We were reading when she began to laugh.
She was working when we came in.

They were playing when the light went off.


I wasnt doing anything when the teacher came in.
I wasnt waiting for you when she arrived.

NOTA

Com o past continuous usam-se muitas vezes as conjunes while ou as.

UNIT 6

To work or not to work

VERBS: PRESENT PERFECT


Affirmative
I
You

have

You

He
She

have

You

He
has

It

slept

She

Interrogative
havent

has

not
slept

It

She

I
you
he

hasnt

It

We

We

You have

You have

You havent

They

They

They

respostas curtas

Have

He

We

short answers

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Negative

slept

Has

she
it

slept?

we
Have you
they

Singular

Plural

Yes, I / you have.


No,I / you have not (havent).
Yes, he / she / it has.
No, he / she / it has not (hasnt).

Yes, we / you / they have.


No, we / you / they have not (havent).

BASIC GRAMMAR

Para formarmos o present perfect, usamos o verbo auxiliar to have, no simple present, e o particpio passado do
verbo principal.
NOTAS

a) O particpio passado dos verbos regulares igual forma do simple past, isto , forma-se acrescentando -(e)d ao infinitivo:
Infinitive
to decide
to invent
to plan
to work

Simple Past
decided
invented
planned
worked

Past Participle
decided
invented
planned
worked

b) O particpio passado dos verbos irregulares pode ser


igual forma do simple past:
Infinitive
to buy
to have
to find
to spent
to tell

Simple Past
bought
had
found
spent
told

Past Participle
bought
had
found
spent
told

diferente do simple past:


Infinitive
to be
to break
to come
to sing
to write

Simple Past
was
broke
came
sang
wrote

Past Participle
been
broken
come
sung
written

A interrogativa faz-se com have / has + sujeito + particpio passado.


A negativa faz-se com have / has + not + particpio passado.
O Present Perfect usa-se, basicamente, em duas situaes:
1. Para descrever aces que comeam no passado, mas que tm uma ligao ao momento presente.
a) Sem qualquer tipo de referncia temporal: Where have you put my slippers? I have washed my hair.
b) Com since e for:
Ive worked in Oporto since 1996. (I still live in Oporto)
My wife has had a job in Coimbra for two years. (She still has that job)
Nota: since + ponto no tempo; for + perodo de tempo
2. Para descrever aces passadas sem referncia temporal especfica.
a) Sem qualquer tipo de referncia temporal: The taxi has arrived.
b) Com referncias temporais do tipo already, just, still e yet (tempo recente):
Ive just seen Mary. She has already finished her degree, but she still hasnt found a job. Maybe she hasnt
looked in the right places yet...
c) Com ever / never / yet / so far / : Have you ever visited China?
No, Ive never been abroad.
d) Com referncias a situaes habituais / repetidas com frequncia: Ive often talked to her on my way
home. Weve always discussed this matter with the children.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS (who / which / that / whose)

PRONOMES RELATIVOS

Os pronomes relativos usam-se para ligar frases, dando informao acerca da pessoa ou coisa de que se est a falar.
WHO, WHICH e THAT substituem substantivos ou pronomes pessoais.
a) WHO / THAT remetem para pessoas:
EXAMPLES

The little girl who / that is crying is lost.


Those are the students who / that went on a school trip to Paris last year.
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BASIC GRAMMAR

b) WHICH / THAT remetem para coisas e animais:


EXAMPLES

Portugal is the country which / that has the most beautiful beaches.
This is the restaurant which / that serves the best meals in town.

Quando o pronome relativo tem funo de complemento pode omitir-se.


EXAMPLES

The person (that) you are looking for doesnt live here any more.
The Port (that) we drank was delicious.

WHOSE substitui adjectivos possessivos e usa-se para indicar a que(m) pertence ou se refere algo.
EXAMPLES

The driver whose car was damaged was very angry.


The workers whose factory was closed are worried about the future.

NOUN PLURALS

PLURAL DE SUBSTANTIVOS

Em ingls, regra geral, o plural dos substantivos forma-se acrescentando -s.


EXAMPLES

hammer hammers

plane planes

tool tools

Os substantivos terminados em -ch, -sh, -o, -(s)s, -x e -z formam o plural com -es.
EXAMPLES

match matches
bus
buses

flash flashes
box boxes

tomato tomatoes
quiz
quizzes

Formam o plural s com -s os substantivos terminados em -o de origem grega ou latina ou terminados em vogal + -o.
EXAMPLES

kilo kilos

photo photos

piano pianos

radio radios

studio studios

Substantivos terminados em -f(e) fazem o plural com -ves.


EXAMPLES

knife knives
life
lives

leaf leaves
shelf shelves

thief thieves
wife wives

wolf wolves

Ateno: chiefs / handkerchiefs / roofs / proofs / dwarfs / safes / gulfs.


Se um substantivo terminar em consoante + -y, transformamos o -y final em -ie para fazer o plural.
EXAMPLES

baby babies
lorry lorries

secretary secretaries

Comparar:

Plurais irregulares
a)

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EXAMPLES

child children
man men
tooth teeth

foot
feet
mouse mice
woman women

goose geese
ox
oxen

guy guys
key keys

bay bays

BASIC GRAMMAR

b) Plural = singular
EXAMPLES

1 (rein)deer 2 (rein)deer / 1 fish 2 fish / 1 sheep 2 sheep


c) Substantivos s usados no plural
EXAMPLES

the Portuguese !! (a Portuguese man)


the good
!! (a good man)

the rich !! (a rich man)


the blind !! (a blind man)

d) nomes colectivos

Alguns substantivos representam grupos de coisas ou pessoas, podendo tambm ser usados no plural. No singular,
podem ser seguidos de verbo no singular ou plural.
EXAMPLES

The audience is/are waiting for the actors.


The football team is/are playing tonight.

UNIT 7
IMPERATIVE

This musician likes to play to different types of audiences.


The teams are ready to start the game.

Lets celebrate!
IMPERATIVO

O imperativo forma-se com o infinitivo sem to (ex.: go) e usa-se


sempre sem nome ou pronome antes do verbo.
A negativa forma-se com dont + infinitivo sem to (ex.: dont go).
O imperativo pode ser usado para fazer pedidos ou dar ordens,
instrues e conselhos.

EXAMPLES

Pass me that book, please.


Dont scream. The baby is sleeping.
Press the red button and push the door.
Dont disturb other readers in the library.
Dont drive so fast. You may cause an accident.

GOING TO - FUTURE
Podemos usar a expresso going to + infinitivo quando planeamos e temos a inteno clara de fazer algo no futuro.
EXAMPLES

I am going to visit my grandmother in the Algarve.


They are going to watch a film tomorrow.
We are going to buy a new video.

(j decidido e/ou planeado)

WILL - FUTURE
A expresso will + infinitivo (sem to) pode ser usada para indicar aco futura. Contudo, o seu uso diferente do
da expresso going to + infinitivo, pois no usado para expressarmos aces futuras decididas anteriormente.
EXAMPLES

I think Ill visit Mark tomorrow.


If you hurry up, you will catch the bus.
I will always live in this city.
One day you will be a successful musician.
I hope it wont rain tonight.
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BASIC GRAMMAR

INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS

ADJECTIVOS E PRONOMES INDEFINIDOS


EXAMPLES

Usamos some

Some of my best friends are in my class.


There are some mistakes in this text.

em frases afirmativas;

EXAMPLES

quando oferecemos alguma coisa;

Would you like some biscuits?


Can I get you some tea?
EXAMPLES

quando pedimos alguma coisa.

Could you show me some of your photos?


Can I have some chocolate cake, Mum?
EXAMPLES

Usamos any

Do you have any lessons on Saturday?


Are there any English dictionaries in the library?

em frases interrogativas;

EXAMPLES

em frases negativas
(ou com sentido negativo*).

I dont have any lessons on Saturday.


There arent any English dictionaries in the library.
* My brother often goes to school without any books.

Usamos no

EXAMPLES

em vez de any ou not, antes de um substantivo, em frases que, apresentando o


verbo na afirmativa, tm sentido negativo.

Theres no school like mine.


Ive got no problems there.

Usamos every

EXAMPLES

em vez de all (enfatizando a ideia de todos/as


e cada um/a), antes de um nome singular.

Every student has a locker.


Every question is tricky.

INDEFINITE ADVERBS AND PRONOUNS

(There isnt a school like mine.)


(I havent got any problems there.)

(All the students have lockers.)


(All the questions are tricky.)

ADVRBIOS E PRONOMES INDEFINIDOS

(some / any / no / every + -body / -one / -thing / -where)

A partir destas palavras, podemos fazer vrias combinaes e obter advrbios e pronomes indefinidos que nos
permitem falar de: Pessoas
Coisas
Lugares
somebody = someone

something

somewhere

anybody = anyone

anything

anywhere

nobody = no one

nothing

nowhere

everybody = everyone

everything

everywhere

EXAMPLES

No one likes me at school!


Dont be silly, Louise! Everyone thinks youre wonderful.
Really? So why isnt anyone coming to my birthday party?
Well... theres someone at the door. Go and open it. Its probably your first guest!
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