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CANDIDATE NO.

(barcode here)

STATE MATURA

ENGLISH
READING

ENGLISH
READING

Time - 90 minutes

NATIONAL EXAMINATIONS CENTRE

August, 2014

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

Put the barcode in the space CANDIDATE No.


Carefully go through the test. Should you notice any missing pages or words, report it to your
proctor.
Carefully listen to the instructions given by your proctor and do not start taking the test until
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All kinds of aids (e.g. dictionaries, textbooks, mobile phones, etc.) are not allowed to be taken
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Mark your answer on the answer sheet. Use blue or black ink pen only.
Incomprehensible answers and intangible corrections will be marked with zero (0) points.
Cheating is strictly forbidden.
Good luck!

2014

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04040R14-
4

1 Carefully read the text and then do the exercise that follows.
Some parents think that formal schooling doesnt provide the kind of education they want for
their children and might dim their childrens love of learning. They think that they could do
better and decide to home-school their own children. However, can this Do-It-Yourself method
provide appropriate and real education? This text has many pros and cons to be considered.
HOME SCHOOLING

In the beginning, your kids need you a lot. Theyre attached to your hip, all the time.
Then suddenly you are expected to send them off to school for seven hours a day, where
theyll have to cope with life in ways they never had to before. You are in a panic. You
can no longer control what they learn, or how, or with whom. Then, you realise that you
might create a sense of security in your kids by practising attachment parenting and
educating, an approach that involves round-the-clock physical contact with your children
and immediate responses to all their cues.

Home schooling offers a great deal of independence, both physical and educational.
Students decide as to what they specifically learn and when. They can focus on the
subject matter that gets them excited. Without a definite schedule of school hours,
homework and school trips, families have many more options to organise their time and
activities. Additionally, a home-school environment offers emotional relief where
troubles with bullies, peer-pressure, boredom and competition are eliminated. Students
are able to think, dress and act the way they want, making sure that their self-esteem
remains intact. Lastly, home schooling offers religious liberty not found in public
schools, which is definitely important to many families.

Members of home schooling families often form significantly closer family


relationships. Home schooling provides a sense of safety for family members during
difficult times, whether it is illness, moving, death, or a new family member. Home
schooling ensures that kids can get the rest they need. No longer are kids forced to rise
before dawn to slave away in early morning classes. Lastly, home schooling eliminates
the need for busy life. Home schooling is a much more efficient way to teach and learn,
and can eliminate the need for homework.

While home schooling can do a great deal of good, there are also a number of
disadvantages. First, there are the time restraints. Whether you work, whether you are a
single parent or simply choose a time-consuming schooling method, there are a number
of factors restricting the time available for home schooling. Financial restraints are another
concern, as a source of income is often lost when the decision is made to home-school.
The closeness of home schooling may prove too much for some families, as parents often
must spend a larger amount of time with their children.

Other disadvantages come from limited social interactions. First, team sports
opportunities are limited, especially for teenagers who want to participate in competitive
sports. Home schoolers may find themselves limited in outside connection. While family
interaction is great, kids should interact with others outside their family in order to live
full and well-developed lives. Lastly, home schooling is considered unusual, so you may
experience negative comments and attitudes.

04040R14-
4

5 points

Read the article and then choose the most suitable heading (A - J) for each
paragraph (1 - 5). There are five extra headings which you do not need to use.
Write the appropriate letter in the answer box provided.
A.

PROS AND CONS OF HOME SCHOOLING

B.

LIMITATIONS YOU MIGHT FACE

C.

PUBLIC SCHOOLS DO NOT PROVIDE PROPER EDUCATION


FOR ALL STUDENTS

D.

FEAR FROM EXPERIENCING TROUBLES AT FORMAL


SCHOOLS

E.

WHAT COULD HOME-SCHOOLED CHILDREN MISS OUT?

F.

WAYS TO IMPROVE HOME ENVIRONMENT

G.

YOUR CHILD IS JUST ABOUT TO START SCHOOL: WHAT TO


DO?

H.

HOME SCHOOLING ALLOWS A GREAT DEAL OF FREEDOM IN


EVERY SENSE OF THE WORD

I.

HOME EDUCATION HELPS TO STRENGTHEN FAMILY BONDS

J.

PHYSICAL, EDUCATIONAL AND RELIGIOUS DISORDERS


CAUSED BY HOME SCHOOLING

Paragraph

Heading

04040R14-
4

2 Read the text below and then choose the best answer (A-D) to the question
(2.1 - 2.8) connected to the text.
HOW TO OVERCOME THE STRUGGLES OF BEING A YOUNG ENTREPRENEUR
by Sarah Haselkorn
Being a young entrepreneur definitely has its advantages, but there are also downsides. I
developed the idea and the business plan for Green Bean, a healthy food restaurant, during my
sophomore year at Washington University in St. Louis, Miss. At first, I kept it a secret, worried
family and friends would tell me I was crazy for starting a business at such a young age.
When I decided to finally break it to my mom and dad, I remember sitting on the edge
of their bed, nervous to tell them I was planning to take on such a huge endeavour. They could
definitely sense my nerves. As I began to explain I wanted to open a restaurant, I surprisingly
watched my mother's face soften. As soon as I told them my idea, my mom let out a huge sigh
of relief and explained she was thrilled to discover I wasn't pregnant.
Telling my parents about my venture was only one of the many hurdles I faced as a young
entrepreneur. As a young founder, particularly at a non-technical start-up, it's extraordinarily
tough to earn credibility. In a people-facing business, where you're often relying on first impressions
to succeed, it's even more difficult.
Although age is just a number, it does pose a variety of challenges for budding
entrepreneurs. Here are some of the greatest adversities I faced, and how I overcame them:
Being taken seriously. Just like my parents' reaction, strangers were shocked when I told
them I owned the business they have just eaten at. Customers would often ask me at the register
if our location was a franchise. When I was able to speak knowledgably about the business,
they'd inquire if I owned the place. Upon answering yes, the response was always, "Wow,
you're so young!" I always laughed and shrugged it off. "You can do anything," I'd say. The
trick is to never give anyone a reason to think you can't do it.
As a young entrepreneur, you have to work harder to prove yourself. You'll never be
perfect, and you will make mistakes along the way. Fail gracefully, learn from your mistakes
and address them with maturity. Confidence, coupled with unwavering humility, goes a long
way.
Securing funding. For young entrepreneurs starting out, my first piece of advice would
be to aim for a business that doesn't need a lot of capital, as it's really difficult to gain access to
finances, especially with banks. Unlike venture capital and angel investments, they require
extensive personal credibility and financial history. However, launching a business that requires
little cash to start up is not always possible.
The best tip would be to work your assets. The easiest route is family and friends. Pitch
yourself, your smarts and your dedication in hopes they will support your financially. Even if
they're not willing or able to directly invest money, they might consider signing on a loan with
you to help boost your credibility with banks.
Another option for young entrepreneurs, especially those with poor credit, or launching
their first company, is to look at companies that deal with "high-risk" people. Keep in mind,
these companies may provide capital but tend to have high interest rates.
Being relatable to your friends. As supportive as friends can be (mine were the cream of
the crop), they'll never truly grasp what you're going through. And vice versa. You'll never
understand why they insist upon spending hours in the library and complaining about having to
get up early one day a week. But having a close connection with your peers is pivotal in
growing. So make sure you separate your entrepreneurial life from your social life. Be a kid,
and then be an adult. You're smart enough to do both. The path of an entrepreneur is never easy,
but youth poses added difficulties. Rise above them, and you will be an even more impressive
entrepreneur for it.
Adapted from
http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/229833

04040R14-
4

(2.1)

A.
B.
C.
D.

(2.2)

She didnt even mention it for a while.


She told her friends and they said she was crazy.
She told her family and they sensed her nerves.
Her family and friends were worried.

1 point

An entrepreneur at a non-technical start-up.


A young teenage entrepreneur.
An entrepreneur relying on a people-facing business.
An entrepreneur being able to speak knowledgably about
their particular business.

1 point

What is one of the obstacles Sarah met when she started her business?
A.
B.
C.
D.

(2.5)

1 point

According to Sarah, what type of an entrepreneur can ensure credibility


more easily?
A.
B.
C.
D.

(2.4)

Green Bean health institution.


Restaurant in a health institution.
Healthy food restaurant.
Restaurant within Washington University in St. Louis.

Did she tell her family and friends about her idea immediately when
it was born?
A.
B.
C.
D.

(2.3)

1 point

What kind of business has Sarah founded?

She
She
She
She

was not taken seriously by customers and others.


did not own the place she was running.
never gave reason to anyone to think she could not do it.
was able to speak knowledgably about the business.

1 point

What is Sarahs opinion of gaining confidence as a young entrepreneur?


A.
B.
C.
D.

You
You
You
You

will inevitably make mistakes.


cannot do anything.
have to work harder to prove yourself.
should fail gracefully.

04040R14-
4

(2.6)

A.
B.
C.
D.

(2.7)

Bank loans.
Personal assets.
Venture capital.
Angel investments.

1 point

According to Sarah, in case you opt to open a business with your own
money, what is the easiest way to raise it?
A.
B.
C.
D.

(2.8)

1 point

According to Sarah, what kind of funding should a business like hers


seek?

Founding a business that does not need a lot of capital.


Borrowing it from your family and friends.
Asking your family and friends for an interest-based loan.
Applying for a loan with a company dealing with high risk
people.

1 point

Sarah is of the opinion that concerning your relationship with friends,


as a young entrepreneur, you have
A.
B.
C.
D.

to
to
to
to

insist on spending hours in a library with your friends.


get up early one day a week to be with your peers.
be supportive of your friends.
be both a child privately and a grown-up at work.

04040R14-
4

3 Carefully read the text below and then do the exercise that follows.

BEING RESPONSIBLE
Furthermore, learn to cope with problems. When something bad happens, allow it to add
meaning to your life. Rather than being frustrated and disappointed, be more empowered
and motivated to achieve your goals.

At last, value your words and yourself. If you commit something to someone, just do the
work and do not let the other person down. Never be afraid of making mistakes. Do not
be reluctant to take on new responsibilities just because you doubt whether you can really
deliver. You may encounter some problems initially and are sure to make several mistakes.
Take this positively and learn to grow, this time in a much better way!

Being responsible is one of the prime requisites for any person who wants to survive
independently in this world. As a child grows, they learn to become more responsible for
the things around them. However, the sense of responsibility comes at different times for
different people. Some mature early and show their responsibility at a very young age;
while others do not realize it until the time they are forced into such a situation. Being
responsible for ones actions is essential to prove ones worth in todays world of cutthroat competition. It is necessary for an individual to stand up to their commitments.
This helps in creating trust and respect for them, from the people surrounding them. We
bring you some helpful tips in the lines below that will help you to be more responsible
in your life. These tips will definitely inspire you to work in a better and a more committed
manner.

After learning how to cope you should learn to be answerable for your deeds. In case,
you are unable to complete your task, accept your failure and try consistently to overcome
it. Framing vague excuses will only make you appear irresponsible and hamper your
future growth. Always have an optimistic approach to life. Do not visualize yourself as
a helpless victim, who cannot do anything to change their circumstances. Instead, stand
up and fight to improve your situation. You can do it, if you really want it to be done.

One of the first steps towards being responsible is practising discipline. Do not overindulge
in luxuries and pleasures. Remember that time and tide waits for none. So, start being
responsible from this moment and begin to work to the best of your abilities.
Adapted from http://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/how-to-be-more-responsible-2610.html

5 points

Read the paragraphs (A-E) and then put them in the correct logical order (1-5).
Write the appropriate letter in the answer box provided.
1

Paragraph

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4 Sport is not just about playing by the rules, it is also about playing within the spirit of
the rules. It requires sportsmanship, fair play, playing clean, and respect. However, fair
play is sometimes violated when athletes engage in poor sporting behaviour, using
offensive language and taking performance enhancing drugs. Celebrating achievement
is not in itself unethical - but it can drive some competitors to unethical behaviour.
Read what four young people have to say in relation to this.

Harry

Oliver

Jack

Violence oozes from our culture. In the video games children play, the television shows
we watch, and movies we see, a culture of brutality exists. As a result of this notion of
violence, safety and, consequently, liability have become number one concerns among
families, institutions, corporations, and even sports. Now, dont get me wrong, sports in
and of themselves are perilous and risky, especially a sport as relentless as football,
where some of the most athletic and muscular men tackle and batter one another. Yet, no
one really considers the safety measures that surround football today. According to the
NFL rulebook, there are over 400 rules implemented in the NFL which concern the
logistics of the game and player safety. Yet, if I were to tell you that there were 400 fewer
rules at the dawn of football, would you still say that football is an unsophisticated and
brutish game? What if I also were to tell you that in the early 1900s death tolls were
approximately 20 players every year, and over 100 other players were hospitalized as a
direct result of the lack of safety? In this perspective, football safety has truly been
enhanced and refined over the last century. Nevertheless, how did this change come
about and what essentially caused these radical changes?

Last week, I talked about cheating on the professional level, specifically those cheating
violations that are in direct violation with the game itself. This week, however, I will
provide for you a different aspect of cheating, one that, in one sense, has nothing to do
with sports themselves but in another sense has everything to do with them (at least
according to the media). Namely, I am talking about the infidelity of professional
athletes. This cheating has been an omnipresent component of our culture. Even
throughout the history of sports, athletes have cheated on their respective spouses and
many more have undergone divorces. Some recent and notable sportsmen, many of
whom committed infidelity or many infidelities against their spouses, subsequently
received an uproar of media attention, and as a result of that media attention filed for
divorce. Despite the moral implications of cheating in a marriage, however, people,
whether they are professional athletes or part of the middle class, still do it anyway. Yet,
statistically, athletes, though they marry at relatively the same rate, have a considerably
higher divorce rate than the general public.

There are many central dogmas that you learn as a kid, such as Its rude to stare or
Dont talk with your mouth open. The same is true with sports. There are just certain
things that you dont do! One of these is using performance enhancing drugs (PED). Yet,
despite the very big negativity that surrounds the use of PEDs, they are still extremely
prevalent and widely used in professional sports. Various athletes from across different
sports have been accused and penalized for such abuses. One of the most recent and
notorious examples of a major PED offense occurred in major league baseball this year,
when a rehabilitation clinic scandal was leaked. Fourteen players were found to have
been supplied with and used human growth hormone from the clinic. Many of the players
accused were also suspended for the entire regular season and one of them was
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suspended additionally for the next season. Performance enhancing drugs have also
pervaded other less known sports, such as cycling. Even Olympic athletes have met a
similar fate. Some of the names include Marion Jones and Ben Johnson, who were both
successful on the track but off the track were swindling the system.

Robin
Everything about sports is crazy. The fans are crazy with their team support. The games
are crazy because of great plays and epic finishes. Even some players are crazy at how
talented they are. Yet, in my opinion, one aspect of sports that has gotten too crazy is
crazy coaches. Now, if you were involved with sports in either high school or college,
you will always remember that in many cases some coaches have taken winning and the
lengths they will go to win way too far. One recent example is a college basketball coach
who was fired from his position as a result of a leaked video showing him abusing his
players. On the video, he verbally and physically abuses his players by yelling and
throwing basketballs at them, and pushing them to the ground. In addition, about a year
ago he was ejected during a game after pounding his fists on the scorers table and
hurling a chair unto the court. Yet, this is the same man who is esteemed throughout the
sports and basketball community as one of the best college coaches of all time,
accumulating about 200 wins and three college championships.

7 points

Answer the following questions by circling the most appropriate letter, A, B, C


or D.
A
Harry

B
Oliver

C
Jack

D
Robin

gives an account of an unacceptable


behaviour of sports pedagogues?

mentions cheating by taking illicit


2. substances to raise the line of sports
accomplishments?

mentions frequent verbal and physical


4. attacks upon players and other sports
officials?

thinks that, in spite of the improvement


5. of the safety measures, some sports
are still dangerous?

6. has written twice on this topic?

considers that young peoples


unethical behaviour might sometimes
7.
be provoked by aggressive media
programs?

Which person
1.

3.

talks about cheating not related


to sports games?

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5 Carefully read the text below and decide which answer, A, B, C or D, best fits
each space.

MY FIRST DRIVING LESSON


I have always had a healthy fear of driving. Don't get me wrong. I am not one of those
back-to-nature freak-shows who believe that all (1) _________ is bad and that mankind must
revert to the stick-and-stone age of the past. (2) _________, I enjoy (3) _________ around in
the air-conditioned comfort of a fine car. I have no problems with that. It is driving that scares
the living daylights out of me. So you can imagine what a nightmare my first driving lesson
was.
Like all college students, I, too, enrolled in driving school in order to be able to drive my
own car. After all, being able to drive was one of the cornerstones of independence and would
mean that I (4) _________ my own wings, right? Wrong, as I (5) _________ to my utter
disbelief. I had never attempted driving any vehicle before. And to my horror, I discovered that
the entire driving lesson turned out to be a total nightmare!
For one thing, when I got (6) _________ the driver's seat, I totally and completely froze.
I have to mention at this point that the instructor allotted to me for the driving lesson wasn't
exactly inspiring. In fact, if his looks were anything to go by, he looked positively lifethreatening himself. Anyway, coming back to the beginning of my very first driving lesson, I
totally and utterly froze. I still don't know why or what caused that reaction. But the fact
remains that the very first driving lesson of my life did not get off to a good start.
Needless to say, I failed this driving lesson. After all, they don't really go around giving
marks to people just because they look like they can handle driving. In any driving lesson, to
the (7) _________ of my knowledge, you have to actually drive or, at the very least, get the car
to move a couple of millimeters in terms of distance in order to be considered for a pass grade.
In my case, nothing moved. Except, of course, when the instructor pushed me out of the car,
screaming abuse!
Ever since, driving lessons have given me a total headache. I think it took me a good
seven years after that first, (8) _________ experience with driving lessons till I got enough
courage to get into an adult driving programme. I was (9) _________ the youngest. But that,
too, was little consolation as the only other people in the room were immigrants or country
people, both of who had never ever seen a car (10) _________!

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10 points

Write your answers in the answer box below.

access

account

regress

progress

On the contrary

Therefore

Then

Though

have driven

being driven

am driven

to drive

have developed

has developed

was developed

had developed

was discover

discover

was to discover

was discovered

at

upon

into

onto

worst

best

most

least

miserable

wounded

agonized

hurt

certain

fortunately

fortunate

unfortunate

10

firstly

first

at first

in the first place

13

10

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