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Every science has a unique vocabulary associated with it, and mechanical engineering is no
exception. Precise definition of basic concepts forms a sound foundation for the development of a
science and prevents possible misunderstandings.
In this lecture, one of the main branches of mechanical engineering science, namely
thermal-fluid sciences are reviewed. The italised vocabulary that should be known by every
mechanical engineer is listed at the back of this note.
What is engineering and what does an engineer?
Engineering is defined as the profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and
natural sciences gained by study, experience, and practice is applied with judgment to develop ways
to utilize, economically, the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind.
Both the engineer and scientist are thoroughly educated in the mathematical and natural
sciences, but the scientist primarily uses this knowledge to acquire new knowledge, whereas the
engineer applies the knowledge to design and develop usable devices, structures and processes. In
other words, the scientist seeks to know, the engineer aims to do.
Engineering is a diverse profession. It is composed of several major branches or fields of
specialization and dozens of minor branches. Engineers have created these branches in response to
an ever-widening base of industry.
What is mechanical engineering and what does a mechanical engineer?
One of the most prominent and broadest branch of engineering is mechanical engineering. It
is concerned with machinery, power, manufacturing or production, heat and mass transfer
processes such as evaporation, condensation, conduction, convection, radiation, absorption,
humidification and drying. Mechanical engineers design and manufacture machine tools, the
machines that make machines, and machinery and equipment for all branches of industry. For
example, they design turbines, compressors, printing presses, food processors, air-conditioning and
refrigeration systems, engines for cars and aircrafts, diesel locomotives, trucks and public
transportation vehicles, helicopters, hovercrafts, tractors etc.
Their machines move or lift loads, transport people and goods, produce energy and convert it
to other forms. They are involved in the design, production, and operation of hydraulic turbines for
driving electric generators. They also design boilers, engines, turbines, and pumps for the
development of steam power. They concern themselves with the economical combustion of fuels,
the conversion of heat energy into mechanical power, and use of that power to perform useful work.
They apply the engineering principles to the design, development, and use of nuclear power
Mechanical engineers provide controlled conditions of temperature and humidity in homes,
offices, commercial buildings and industrial plants. They develop equipment and systems for the
refrigeration of foods and the operation of cold storage ware-houses.
Mechanical engineering involves the efficient design of external surfaces of aerospace
vehicles. They supervise the performance of wind tunnel tests, measure and predict the forces of lift
and drag, develop and test theories of flight performance, stability and control. They also study the
response of automotive, aircraft and spacecraft structures to mechanical vibrations and other
dynamic forces and design these structures capable of withstanding these acting forces. Mechanical

engineers may also be found working in marine engineering, designing machinery for boats, naval
vessels, merchant ships, spacecrafts.
They design and operate plants for the production of materials that undergo physical and
chemical changes during their manufacture. Such materials include paints, lubricants, fertilizers,
petroleum products, foods, metals, plastics, ceramics, glass and even pharmaceuticals and
cosmetics. In these industries, mechanical engineers are responsible for creating systems for
producing large quantities of materials and select appropriate processes and arrange them in
proper sequence in order to produce the desired product.
They design, improve and install systems of people, materials, and energy in the production
plants. They search for effective solutions to production problems while retaining high standards of
They are concerned with the production of metals from ores and the development of metallic
alloys. They explore the physical and chemical properties of the products made from these materials
under different atmospheric conditions.
They work closely with medical and biological specialists to develop medical devices and
instruments for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
All matter may be classified as either solid, liquid or gas. Solids are firm and have a definite
form. Rubber, wood, glass, iron and sand are all classified as solids. A considerable force would be
needed to change the shape or volume of an iron bar, for example, because the atoms or molecules
of a solid are densely packed.
Solids may be further divided into two classes: crystalline and amorphous. Rocks, wood,
paper, and cotton are crystalline solids. They are made up of atoms arranged in a definite pattern.
When they are heated, the change to a liquid, known as melting, is sharp and clear. Amorphous
substances include rubber, glass and sulphur. In these substances, the pattern of the atoms is not
orderly, and when heated, they gradually soften.
Liquids, on the other hand, are not rigid. If water, milk or oil is poured on a table, it will
flow all over the surface. The atoms or molecules of liquids attract each other and thereby enable
liquids to flow. But these atoms are loosely structured and do not keep their shape.
Gases, such as air, oxygen and carbondioxide, have no fixed shape or volume of their own.
The atoms or molecules of gases are widely spaced and move very rapidly. They either compress or
expand to adapt to any area.
Energy is the ability to do work. The movement of an object has the ability to do work and
therefore has a form of energy that we call kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion.
An object may have energy not only because of its motion but also because of its position or shape.
For example, when a spring is wound, it stores energy. When this energy is released, it will do the
work of pushing. This form of energy is called potential energy. Potential energy is stored energy.
Water in a dam is another example of potential energy. There are many types of kinetic and
potential energy, including chemical, thermal, mechanical, electrical and nuclear energy.
Energy can be transformed or changed from one type to another. For example, an apple
hanging on a tree has potential energy, or the energy of position. As it falls, it loses potential energy
because its height decreases. At the same time it gains kinetic energy , or the energy of motion,
because its velocity increases. Potential energy is being transformed into kinetic energy. Frequently,

the transfer of energy involves a transfer from one body to another. When you lift up a rock, you are
changing the chemical energy of the food you have eaten into muscle energy, as you lift the rock,
your muscle energy is changing into rocks potential energy. As a conclusion, no energy is lost.
When we measure energy, we discover that the total amount remains intact. Energy can thus be
converted from one form to another but never created or destroyed. This is called the law of the
conservation of energy.
Matter, like energy, can be converted from one form into another but neither be created or
destroyed. The french chemist Antoine Lavoisier demonstrated that there is no gain or loss of mass
in a chemical change. This is called the law of the conservation of mass. Albert Einstein theorized
that the conservation of energy is not distinct from the conservation of mass, that is, that there is a
single law, the law of conservation of matter and energy.
Thermal-fluid sciences
Many engineering systems involve the transfer, transport, and conversion of energy, and the
sciences that deal with these subjects are broadly referred to as thermal-fluid sciences. Thermalfluid sciences are usually studied under the subcategories of thermodynamics, heat transfer, and
fluid mechanics.
All activities in nature involve some interaction between energy and matter; thus it is hard to
imagine an area that does not relate to thermal-fluid sciences in some manner. Therefore,
developing a good understanding of basic principles of thermal-fluid sciences has long been an
essential part of engineering education.
Thermal-fluid sciences are commonly encountered in many engineering systems and other
aspects of life, and does not need to go very far to see some application areas of them. In fact, one
does not need to go anywhere. The heart is constantly pumping blood to all parts of the human
body, various energy conversions occur in trillions of body cells, and the body heat generated is
constantly rejected to the environment. Other applications of thermal sciences are right where one
lives. An ordinary house is, in some respects, an exhibition hall filled with wonders of thermal-fluid
sciences. Many ordinary household utensils and appliances are designed, in whole or in part, by
using the principles of thermal-fluid sciences. The size, location, and the power input of the fan of
your computer is also selected after a thermodynamic, heat transfer, and fluid flow analysis of the
Thermodynamics can be defined as the science of energy. The name thermodynamics stems
from the Greek words therme (heat) and dynamis (power), which is most descriptive of the early
efforts to convert heat into power. Today the same name is broadly interpreted to include all aspects
of energy and energy transformations, including power production, refrigeration, and relationships
among the properties of matter.
Any characteristic of a system is called a property. Some familiar examples are pressure P,
temperature T, volume V, and mass m. Properties are considered to be either intensive or extensive.
Intensive properties are those which are independent of the size of a system such as temperature,
pressure, and density. Extensive properties are those whose values depend on the size-or extend- of
the system. Mass m, volume V, and total energy are some examples.
Density is computed by dividing the mass of the liquid by its volume. Weight is found by
multiplying its mass by the gravitational constant g (9.81 m/s2). Specific gravity is the ratio of the

density of a substance to the density of water. Specific volume is calculated by dividing the volume
with mass of the substance.
Any change that a system undergoes from one equilibrium state to another is called a
process, and the series of states through which a system passes during a process is called the path of
the process. To describe a process completely, one should specify the initial and final states of the
process, as well as the path it follows, and the interactions with the surroundings. The prefix iso- is
often used to designate a process for which a particular property remains constant. An isothermal
process, for example, is a process during which the temperature T remains constant, an isobaric
process is a process during which the pressure P remains constant.
In thermodynamics, there are a lot of properties to be measured or calculated. Some of them
can be measured directly like temperarure and pressure, but many others, such as entropy (s),
enthalpy (h) or internal energy (u), cannot. Therefore it is necessary to develop some relations
between these groups so that the properties that cannot be measured directly can be evaluated.
A system is said to have undergone a cycle if it returns to its initial state (position) at the end
of the process, which means the initial and final states of a cycle are identical.
A cycle during which a net amount of work is produced is called a power cycle, and a power
cycle during which the working fluid remains a gas throughout is called a gas power cycle. The
most efficient and probably the best known reversible cycle is the Carnot cycle, first proposed in
1824 by a French engineer Sadi Carnot. The carnot cycle is composed of four reversible processes,
namely, isothermal expansion and compression and adiabatic expansion and compression. The
Carnot cycle is not a suitable model for vapor power cycles because it cannot be approximated in
practice. The model cycle for vapor power cycles is the Rankine cycle, which is composed of four
reversible processes: constant pressure heat addition in a boiler, isentropic expansion in a turbine,
constant pressure heat rejection in a condenser, and isentropic compression in a pump.
The production of more than one useful form of energy (such as process heat and electric
power) from the same energy source is called cogeneration. Cogeneration plants produce electric
power while meeting process heat requirements of certain industrial processes.
The transfer of heat from lower temperature regions to higher temperature ones is called
refrigeration. Devices that produce refrigeration are called refrigerators, and the cycles on which
they operate are called refrigeration cycles. The working fluids used in the refrigeration cycles are
called refrigerants. Refrigerators used for the purpose of heating a space by transferring heat from a
cooler medium are called heat pumps. The performance of heat pumps and refrigerators is
expressed in terms of the coefficient of performance (COP), defined as;
COPrefrigeration = Cooling effect / work input
COPheat pump = Heating effect / work input
A substance that has a fixed chemical composition throughout is called a pure substance. A
pure substance exists in different phases depending on its energy level. In the liquid phase, a
substance which is not about to vaporize is called a compressed or subcooled liquid. In the gas
phase, a substance which is not about to condense is called a superheated vapor. At a given
pressure, a substance boils at a fixed temperature which is called the saturation temperature.
Likewise, at a given temperature, the pressure at which a substance starts boiling is called the
saturation pressure. During a phase change process, both the liquid and the vapor phases coexist in
equilibrium, and under this condition the liquid is called saturated liquid and the vapor is called
saturated vapor.
Any relation among the pressure, temperature, and specific volume of a substance is called
an equation of state. The simplest and best known equation of state is the ideal-gas equation of
state, given as

There are four temperature scales utilized in the world, namely the celsius scale (devised by
swedish astronomer A. Celsius), Fahrenheit scale (named after german instrument maker G.
Fahrenheit), Kelvin scale (named after Lord Kelvin), and Rankine scale (named after english
William Rankine).
The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a
third body, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other. It cannot be concluded from the
other laws of thermodynamics, and it serves as a basis for the validity of temperature
measurements. The first law of thermodynamics is simply the conservation of energy principle.
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only change forms. The second law of
thermodynamics asserts that processes occur in a certain direction and that energy has quality as
well as quantity. As pointed out repeatedly, energy is a conserved property, and no process is known
to have taken place in violation of the first law of thermodynamics. Therefore, it is reasonable that
a process must satisfy the first law to occur. However, satisfying the first law alone does not ensure
that the process willl actually take place.
Let us give an example to understand the basic concepts and laws of thermodynamics
thoroughly. Consider the heating of a room by the passage of current through an electric resistor.
First law dictates that the amount of electric energy supplied to the resistor wires be equal to the
amount of energy transferred to the room air as heat. Now let us attempt to reverse this process. It
will come as no surprise that transferring some heat to the wires will not cause an equivalent
amount of electric energy to be generated in the wires, even though doing so would not violate the
first law.
It is clear from above arguments that processes proceed in a certain direction and not in the
reverse direction. The first law places no restriction on the direction of a process, but satisfying the
first law does not ensure that that process will actually occur. This inadequacy of the first law to
identify whether a process can take place is remedied by introducing another general principle,
namely the second law of thermodynamics. We did show above that reverse processes violate the
second law. And this violation is easily detected with the help of a property, called entropy, which
can be viewed as a measure of molecular disorder or randomness. A reversible process is defined as
a process which can be reversed without leaving any trace on the surroundings. A process will not
occur unless it satisfies both the first and the second laws of thermodynamics. The third law of
thermodynamics states that the entropy of a pure crystalline substance at absolute zero temperature
is zero.
Heat Transfer
The science of thermodynamics that deals with the amount of heat transfer as a system
undergoes process from one equilibrium state to another, and makes no reference to how long the
process will take. But in engineering, we are often interested in the rate of heat transfer, which is
the topic of the science of heat transfer.
Temperature affects matter in many ways. As a substance gets hotter, its molecules move
faster and its properties are altered. The physical state of a substance is affected by its temperature.
For example, at a temperature below 0 oC, water is solid (ice), above this temperature it becomes
liquid and at 100 oC it turns to a gas, namely steam. Temperature also does alter the color of a
substance. For example iron turns into red, then orange and white with increasing its temperature.
Size of the objects expand when heated and contract upon cooling. The properties such as pressure,
ability to resist heat, mass and electricity transport vary with the temperature of the materials.

Heat is energy that warms our houses and cooks our food. Heat transfer is the transfer of
energy from a warmer body to a cooler body. How does this heat transfer takes place? Let us
present an overview of the three basic mechanisms of heat transfer, which are conduction,
convection and radiation.
Conduction is the transfer of energy from the more energetic particles of a substance to the
adjacent, less energetic ones as a result of interactions between the particles. Conduction is one
method of heat transfer that takes place when there is a difference in temperature between two
objects. For example if a silver spoon is inserted into a pot of hot tea, the handle of the spoon will
immeadiately become hot. This is because the molecules at the submerged end speed up, which
causes the slow molecules at the cold end to move faster. Energy is thus transferred or conducted.
Heat flows from a warmer object to a cooler one until the temperatures are equal.
Substances like metals are good conductors because heat transfers from one molecule to another.
All substances conduct some heat, but substances like glass, plastic and wood act as insulators
because their molecules transfers energy so slowly. Gases and liquids are poor conductors because
the molecules make very little contact with which to pass on the energy. The warmest materials are
those that trap pockets of air, such as wool, fiber glass, asbestos, and down. A vacuum would make
an ideal insulator because it has no molecules to transfer the heat. The rate of heat conduction
through a medium depends on the geometry of the medium, its thickness, and the material of the
medium, as well as the temperature difference across the medium. We know that wrapping a hot
water tank with glass-wool (an insulating material) reduces the rate of heat loss from the tank. The
thicker the insulation, the smaller the heat loss. We also know that a hot water tank will lose heat at
a higher rate when the temperature of the room housing the tank is lowered. Further, the larger the
tank, the larger the surface area and thus the rate of heat loss. As a conclusion, the rate of heat
conduction through a plane layer is proportional to the temperature difference across the layer and
the heat transfer area, but is inversely proportional to the thickness of the layer. That is;
Qconduction= k A T/x
Where k is the thermal conductivity of the material. x is the thickness and T is the temperature. in
front of T and x denotes difference.
Although molecules in a fluid do not conduct heat very well, they do transfer heat by
convection. Convection is the mode of heat transfer between a solid surface and the adjacent liquid
or gas that is in motion, and it involves the combined effects of conduction and fluid motion. The
faster the motion, the greater the convective heat transfer. Convection is the upward flow of masses
of liquid and gas molecules as they are heated from below. Convection is called forced convection if
the fluid is forced to flow over the surface by external means such as a fan, pump or the wind. In
contrast, convection is called natural or free convection if the fluid motion is caused by buoyancy
forces that are induced by density differences due to the variation of temperature in the fluid. The
hot air rising above a radiator is an example of convection. As the heat causes the air to expand, it
becomes less dense and rises. Convection is used in hot air furnaces, in which air is heated and then
forced into a room to replace the cold air, which is then drawn into the furnace to be heated. Winds
and ocean currents are examples of convection found in nature.
Heat transfer that involve change of phase of a fluid are also considered to be convection
because of the fluid motion induced during the process, such as the rise of the vapor bubbles during
boiling or the fall of the liquid droplets during condensation. Despite the complexity of convection,
the rate of convective heat transfer is observed to be proportional to the temperature difference, and
is conveniently expressed by Newtons law of cooling as
Qconvection= h A (Ts-Tf)

Where h is the convective heat transfer coefficient in W/m2. A is area through which convective heat
transfer takes place, Ts is the surface temperature and Tf is the temperature of the fluid sufficiently
far from the surface.
Radiation is the third method of heat transfer. It is the energy emitted by matter in the form
of electromagnetic waves as a result of the changes in the electronic configurations of the atoms or
molecules. All life on earth is dependent on the radiation of suns heat and light energy. One
fascinating aspect of the suns radiation is that the electromagnetic rays that carry warmth and light
to the earth are themselves invisible and without heat. Unlike convection and conduction, the
transfer of energy by radiation does not require the presence of an intervening medium. We know
this, because the space between the earth and the sun is dark and cold, but when the rays reach the
earth, they light the atmosphere and warm our world. In contrast to conducted and convected heat,
radiated heat passes through a vacuum. All objects emit, or give off, radiation. For example, when
two objects are near each other, the one that is warmer will give off more energy than the cooler
one, thus transferring energy from one to the other. Usually, objects do not absorb all the energy but
reflects some of it. Light colors reflect more energy than dark colors. Highly polished surfaces
reflect more energy than dull ones. The maximum rate of radiation that can be emitted from a
surface at an absolute temperature Ts (in Kelvin K or Rankine R) is given by Stefan-Boltzmann law
Qradiation, max = A Ts4
Where =5.67 10-8 (W/m2K4). This is the idealized radiation emitted by a blackbody whose
emissivity is 1. The radiation emitted by all real surfaces is expressed as
Qradiation, real = A Ts4
Where is the emissivity of the surface, it is in the range between zero (0) and one (1). When a
surface of emissivity and surface area A at an absolute temperature of Ts is completely enclosed by
a much larger (or black) surface at absolute temperature T surr seperated by a gas (such as air) that
does not intervene with radiation, the net rate of radiation heat transfer between these two surfaces
is given by
Qradiation, real = A (Ts4-Tsurr4)
Where Tsurr is the absolute temperature of surroundings.
Heat transfer can simultaneously take place. For example, heat transfer is only by
conduction in opaque solids, but by conduction and radiation in semitransparent solids. Thus, a
solid may involve conduction and/or radiation, but not convection. However, a solid may involve
heat transfer by convection and/or radiation on its surfaces exposed to a fluid or other surfaces.
The three modes of heat transfer, namely conduction, convection and radiation, are subject
to two conditions. First, heat is transferred only when there is a disparity in temperature, and
second, the flow is always from hot to cold.
Fluid mechanics
Everything around us is made of atoms and small groups of atoms form molecules. In gases,
as the molecules are loosely attached, they move about bumping into each other and into any
surface they touch. This constant drumming of the molecules on a surface is called pressure.(1)

Pressure is the force exerted by a fluid per unit area. We speak of pressure only for liquids and
gases. The counterpart of pressure in solids is stress.
The weight of the air under normal climatic conditions is equal to 14.7 pounds/inch2. This
means that the air in a medium-sized room weigh more than 100 pounds. Why dont we feel this
enormous pressure on our bodies? The reason is that atmospheric pressure is universal, it acts in all
directions on all surfaces so that everything on the earth is in balance. The pressure inside your
body equals the pressure outside.
Because the molecules are closer together in a liquid than in a gas, they slip and slide over
and around each other, exerting pressure on the walls of their container. You feel this pressure when
you dive beneath the surface of the water. The pressure of the water is directly proportional to the
depth. The pressure on a diver thus equal to the weight of the atmospheric pressure plus the water
The actual pressure at a given position is called the absolute pressure, and it is measured
relative to absolute vacuum; absolute zero pressure. The difference between the absolute pressure
and the atmospheric pressure is called the gage pressure. Pressures below atmospheric pressure are
called vacuum pressures and are measured by vacuum gages which indicate the difference between
atmospheric pressure and the absolute pressure. Absolute, gage and vacuum pressures are all
positive quantities and are related to each other by:
Pgage=Pabs-Patm (for pressures above Patm)
Pvac= Patm- Pabs (for pressures below Patm)
Atmospheric pressure is measured by barometer. Small and moderate pressure differences are often
measured by using a device known as a manometer, which mainly consists of a glass or plastic Utube containing a fluid such as mercury, water, alcohol, or oil. The differential fluid column of
height h is in static equilibrium, a force balance in the vertical direction gives
A P1 = A Patm + W

W = mg = Vg = Ahg


P1 = Patm + gh

The force that makes objects float is buoyancy. This concept was established by the great
Geek mathematician Archimedes, who also played in the bathtub. He observed that when he got
into his bathtub, water was displaced, or pushed out. He determined that any object immersed in a
liquid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. This is known
as Archimedes principle.
The buoyant force of a liquid, or how much it pushes upward, depends on the density of the
liquid. A body will float if its density is less than that of the liquid in which it is submerged, it will
sink if its density is greater.
Fluid mechanics is defined as the science that deals with the behaviour of fluids at rest or in
motion, and the interaction of fluids with solids or other fluids at the boundaries. Fluid mechanics
itself is also divided into several categories. The study of the motion of the fluids that are practically
incompressible (such as liquids, especially water, and gases at low speeds) is usually referred to as
hydrodynamics. A subcategory of hydrodynamics is hydraulics, which deals with liquid flows in
tubes, pipes and open channels. Gas dynamics deals with flow of fluids that undergo significant
density changes, such as the flow of gases through nozzles at high speeds. The category
aerodynamics deals with the flow of gases (especially air) over bodies such as aircrafts, rockets, and

automobiles at high or low speeds. Some other specialized categories such as meteorology,
oceanography, and hydrology deal with naturally occuring flows.
The flow of an unbounded fluid over a surface is external flow, and the flow in a pipe is
internal flow if the fluid is completely bounded by solid surfaces. A fluid flow is classified as being
compressible or incompressible, depending on the density variation of the fluid during flow. The
densities of liquids are essentially constant, and thus the flow of liquids is typically incompressible.
The term steady implies, in fluid mechanics, no change with time. The opposite of steady is
unsteady, or transient. The term uniform implies no change with location over a specified region. A
flow is said to be one-dimensional when the velocity changes in one dimension only. A fluid in
direct contact with a solid surface sticks to the surface and there is no slip. This is known as the noslip condition, and it is due to the viscosity of the fluid. The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its
stickiness or resistance to deformation. The drag force per unit area is called shear stress and there
is a linear relationship with the viscosity of the fluid. Flows in which the effects of viscosity are
significant are called viscous flows. If the effects of viscosity are so small that can be neglected, one
can speak of inviscid flows. Some flows are smooth and orderly while others are rather chaotic. The
highly ordered fluid motion is called laminar flow. The flow of high viscosity fluids such as oils at
low velocities is typically laminar. The highly disordered fluid motion characterized by velocity
fluctuations are called turbulent flow. The flow of low viscosity fluids such as air at high velocities
is turbulent. A fluid flow is said to be natural or forced, depending on how the fluid motion is
initiated. In forced flow, a fluid is forced to flow over a surface or in a pipe by external means like a
pump or a fan. In natural flows, any fluid motion is due to natural means such a buoyancy effect,
which manifests itself as the rise of warmer (thus lighter) fluid and the fall of cooler (thus denser)
H., Glendinning, English in mechanical engineering, Teachers Edition, Oxford University Press,
H. F., Trewman, Mechanical engineering as a career, B.T.Batsford Ltd., 1978, London.
J. O. Bird and A. J. C. May, Engineering science for mechanical technicians, Longman Group
Ltd., 1979, London.
F., Zimmerman, English for science, Prentice Hall, 1989.
P. H., Wright, Introduction to engineering, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 1989.
Y. A. engel, M. A. Boles, Thermodynamics: An engineering approach, Second Edition, McGraw Hill Inc., 1994.
Y. A. engel, R. H. Turner, Fundamentals of thermal-fluid sciences, International Edition, McGraw Hill Inc., 2001.

to associate
to found
to develop
to prevent
to understand
to misunderstand
to be inherent to
natural sciences
to gain
to apply
to judge
to benefit

to acquire
to use
to devise

: tek, esiz, benzersiz (uniquely)

: -ile grmek, -i hatrlatmak (to be associated with: ile ilgisi olmak)
(association: dernek, kurum; arm, iliki)
: tam, kesin, hassas (precisely) (precision: kesinlik, aklk, doruluk)
: kavram, gr, fikir (conception: kavram, dnce, gr)
: salam, esasl; ses
: kurmak (founder: kurucu) (foundation: kurma, tesis etme, temel,
: gelitirmek, gelimek (development: gelitirme, gelime, oluma)
(developments: olaylar) (developing: gelien) (developer: gelitiren)
: nlemek, engellemek (prevention: nleme) (preventive: nleyici)
: olas, muhtemel (possibly: olabilir, belki) (possibility: olanak, imkan
: anlamak, anlay gstermek (understanding: anlama, anlay)
(understandable: anlalr)
: yanl, ters anlamak (misunderstanding: yanl anlay)
: blm, bran, dal, kol
: sl, termik (thermally)
: akkan, akc, sv
: bu nedenle, dolaysyla, buradan (henceforth: bundan byle)
: bir eye zg olmak, bir eyin aslnda olmak
: meslek, ikolu, iddia (professional: profesyonel) (professionally)
(professionalism: profesyonellik)
: temel bilimler, doa bilimleri
: -i elde etmek, -e sahip olmak (gain: artma, art, kazan, kar)
: bizzat yaamak, bandan gemek, tecrbe etmek (experienced:
deneyimli, tecrbeli) (experiment: deney) (experimental: deneysel)
: -e bavurmak, tatbik etmek (application: bavuru, uygulama)
(applicant: aday, bavuran) (applied: uygulamal) (applicable:
uygulanabilir) (applicability: -e uygulanabilme)
: yarglamak, hkm vermek (judge: hakim, yarg, bilirkii)
(judgment: yargilama, hkm, karar)
: kullanmak, yararlanmak (utilization: kullanm, yararlanma) (utility:
yarar, fayda)
: -den yararlanmak (benefit: yarar, fayda) (for the benefit of: -in
yararna) (beneficial: yararl, hayrl, faydal) (beneficially)
(beneficiary: yararlanan, varis, miras) (beneficent: yardmsever, iyi,
hayrl) (beneficence: yardmseverlik, ba) (benefactor: hayr iine
ba yapan, ba)
: tam anlamyla, tam, esasl (thoroughly)
: elde etmek, kazanmak, edinmek (acquisition: elde etme, edinme,
kazanma) (acquisitive: elde etmeye ok hevesli, agzl)
: -iken, oysa, -dii iin
: kullanmak (usage: kullanm) (usable: kullanlabilir, elverili) (used:
kullanlm, eski) (useful: yararl, faydal) (useless: faydasz) (userfriendly: kullanm kolay)
: tasarlamak, planlamak (device: alet, aygt)

to structure
to process
to seek
to aim
to be composed of
to specialize
to respond
to widen
to concern
to manufacture
to produce
to evaporate
to condense
to conduct
to radiate
to absorb
to humidify
to dry
to equip
to compress
to condition air

: biimlendirmek, dzenlemek (structure: yap) (structural: yapsal)

: ilemek, ilemlerden geirmek (process: ilem, sre) (processor:
ilemci) (procession: alay, dizi, sra)
: aramak, aratrmak
: niyetinde olmak, nian almak (aim: ama, gaye) (aimless: amasz)
: eitli, farkl (diversify: eitlendirmek) (diversion: saptrma,
yanltmaca) (diversionary: dikkati baka yne eken) (diversity:
eitlilik, farkllk)
: -den olumak, -den ibaret olmak (composite: bileik, kark)
(composition: bileim, oluum)
: asl bran, balca, asl (majority: ounluk)
: -in uzmanlk alan olmak, ihtisas yapmak (special: zel) (specialist:
uzman) (specialization: uzmanlama) (specialty: uzmanlk alan)
(especial: zel, hususi) (especially: zellikle, bilhassa)
: alan, saha
: dzine
: yardmc bran, ikincil, nemi az (minority: aznlk)
: cevap vermek, -e tepki gstermek (response: cevap) (in response to:
-e karlk)
: genile(t)mek (wide: geni) (widely) (width: en) (ever-widening:
devaml genileyen)
: nemli, gze arpan (prominence: gze arpma, gze arpan ey)
: geni, genel (broadly)
: ilgilendirmek, ilgili olmak, kayglandrmak (concern: ilgi, kayg)
(concerned: ilgili, endieli) (to be concerned with: ile megul olmak)
(concerning: -e dair, hakknda)
: makineler, makine aksam (machine: makine) (machinist: makinist)
: imal etmek, yapmak (manufacture: imal, yapm) (manufacturing:
imal etme, yapma)
: meydana getirmek, retmek (product: rn, arpm) (productive:
verimli, retken) (production: retim, rn) (producer: retici)
: buharlamak (evaporation: buharlama) (evaporator: buharlatrc)
: youmak, svlamak, younlamak (condensation: younlama,
youma, svlama) (condenser: youturucu)
: iletmek, yrtmek (conduct: tavr, davran, idare) (conduction:
iletim, nakletme) (conductive: iletken, iletici) (conductivity:
iletkenlik) (conductor: iletken, klavuz, trende bileti)
: konveksiyon, s yaym
: n halinde yaylmak, samak (radiation: nm, radyasyon)
(radiant: n yayan, parlak) (radiance: parlaklk, aydnlk) (radiator)
: emmek (absorbent: emici) (absorption: emme, sourma)
: nemlendirmek (humidity: nem, rutubet) (humidifier: nemlendirici)
(humidification: nemlendirme) (dehumidification)
: kuru(t)mak (dryer: kurutucu)
: alet, ara
: donatmak (equipment: ara-gereler, donatm)
: trbin
: sktrmak (compressor: kompresr) (compression: sktrma)
: havay artlandrmak (air-conditioner: klima)

to refrigerate
to transport
to lift
to load
to convert
to operate
to drive
to boil
to pump
to fuel
to perform
to provide
to cool
to store
to house
to measure
to predict
to drag
to fly
to stabilize
to vibrate
to be capable of
to withstand
to lubricate
to fertilize
to arrange

: soutmak (refrigeration: soutma, dondurma) (refrigerator: buz

dolab) (refrigerant: soutkan)
: ara, tat, vasta
: tamak, nakletmek (transport: askeri nakliye gemisi, nakliye, tama)
(transportation: tama, nakliye)
: kaldrmak, ykseltmek (lift: kaldrma, ykseltme, asansr)
: yklemek (load: yk, arlk) (loads: ok miktar, yn)
: menkuller, tanrlar, mallar, eya, kargo
: -e evirmek, -e deitirmek, dntrmek (conversion: dnme,
deitirme) (convertible: evrilebilir, deitirilebilir) (converter:
: iletmek (operation: ilem, iletme, ameliyat) (operational: ilemsel,
kullanlmaya hazr) (operator: operatr, teknisyen)
: altrmak, araba srmek (drive: iletme mekanizmas)
: kaynamak, halamak (boiler: kazan) (boiling: kaynama)
: motor (engineer: mhendis) (engineering: mhendislik)
: pompalamak (pump: pompa, tulumba)
: buhar
: yanma, tutuma (combustible: yanc, kolay tutuan)
: yakt almak, yakmak (fuel: yakt)
: yapmak, yerine getirmek, tiyatro oynamak, mzik almak
(performer:yerine getiren kimse, oyuncu) (performance: yerine
getirme, yapma, tiyatro temsili, mzik dinletisi, performans)
: salamak, bulmak
: s derecesi, scaklk (temperate: lml, arya kamayan)
: fabrika
: serinletmek, soutmak (cold: souk) (coolant: soutucu akkan)
: bir eyi depolamak (store: stok, dkkan) (storage: depolama)
: barndrmak, yerletirmek (housing: kutu, mahvaza, muhafaza
kutusu, barnacak yer) (ware-house: depo, ambar)
: verimli, randmanl (efficiency: verim, verimlilik)
: d, harici, yzeysel
: lmek (measure: l, nlem, tedbir) (measurement: lm)
: tahmin etmek (prediction: tahmin)
: srklemek, ekmek (drag: srkleme, ekme)
: umak, uakla gitmek (flight: uu)
: dengeye getirmek, gelmek (stable: kararl, salam, dengeli) (stability:
denge, kararllk) (stabilization: dengeye getirme, stabilizasyon)
: titre(t)mek (vibration: titreme, titreim) (vibrant: titrek, gr ses)
: ehliyetli, yetenekli, yetkin olmak, yapabilmek (capability: yetenek,
istidat) (capacity: yetenek, g, kapasite, istiap haddi)
: -e dayanmak (withstanding: dayanma)
: denize, denizcilie ait (marine: denizci, denizcilik)
: damar, boru
: maruz kalmak, geirmek, -e uramak
: yalamak (lubricant: yalayc madde) (lubrication: yalama)
: gbrelemek (fertilizer: gbre) (fertile: verimli) (fertility: verimlilik)
: ilaa, eczacla ait (pharmaceutics: eczaclk)
: uygun, yerinde (appropriately: uygun bir ekilde)
: yerletirmek, tertiplemek (arrangement: yerletirme, tertip)


: uygun, doru (properly: uygun bir ekilde, doru drst) (improper:

uygunsuz, yakksz)
: ardklk, sra, seri (sequential: sral, ard arda) (sequentially)
to desire
: istemek, arzu etmek (desire: istek, arzu) (desirable: cazip, arzu
to improve
: dzeltmek, gelitirmek (improvement: dzeltme, gelitirme)
to install
: kurmak, tesis etmek (installation: kurma, tesis etme, tesisat)
(installment: taksit, ksm, blm)
to retain
: alkoymak, tutmak, hatrda tutmak (retaining: istinat)
to qualify
: hak kazanmak, nitelendirmek (qualified: kalifiye, nitelikli, snrl,
kstl) (qualification: nitelik, zellik, art)
: maden cevheri
: alam
to explore
: keifte bulunmak amacyla dolamak, incelemek, aratrmak
(exploration: inceleme, aratrma)
: alet, ara, alg (instrumental: yaral, yardmc)
to diagnose
: tehis etmek, tanlamak (diagnosis: tehis, tan)
to treat
: ilemden geirmek, muamele etmek, tedavi etmek (treatment: ilem)
(treatise: bilimsel inceleme)
: salam, sallanmayan, sk (firmly)
to classify
: tasnif etmek (classification: snflama, tasnif etme)
to consider
: zerinde dnmek, mtalaa etmek, dikkate almak, saymak,
addetmek (consideration: gz nne alma) (to take into consideration:
dikkate almak, hesaba katmak) (under consideration: incelenmekte)
(considerable: nemli, hatr saylr) (considerably) (considerate:
dnceli, hrmetkar) (considering: gz nnde tutulursa)
: ubuk. srk
: youn, sk, koyu (densely) (density: younluk)
: ekilsiz, biimsiz, amorf (kimyada)
: model, patron, biim dzeni
to melt
: eri(t)mek (melting: eri(t)me)
to sharpen
: sivriltmek, bilemek, iddetlendirmek (sharp: keskin, sert, ani, ok
net, iddetli)
: net, ak, effaf, bariz, aikar (clearance: aklk yer)
: madde
: byk, nemli, salam (substantially: )
: derece derece olan, yava yava olan (gradually)
to soften
: yumua(t)mak (soft: yumuak, hafif)
: kat, sert, eilmez bklmez
to flow
: akmak (flow: ak)
to attract
: ekmek, cezbetmek (attraction: ekim, cazibe) (attractive: ekici)
to enable
: mmkn klmak, imkan vermek, yetki vermek
: gevek, seyrek (loosely)
to fix
: tamir etmek, sabitlemek (fixed: sabit, deimeyen)
to space
: yerletirmek, koymak
: hzl, sratli (rapidly) (rapidity: hz, srat)
to expand
: genlemek, genilemek (expansion: genleme)
to adapt
: -e kendini altrmak, adapte olmak, intibak etmek (adaptable: adapte
olabilen, uyarlanabilen) (adaptation: adaptasyon, intibak)
: yay, pnar, memba

to wind
to release
to transform
to accelerate
to create
to destroy
to conserve

to demonstrate
to refer

heat transfer
fluid mechanics
to involve
to interact
to encounter
to reject
to locate
to stem from
to interpret
to include
to exclude (from)
to be familiar to

: sarmak, evirmek (wind: kol, manivela evirme)

: serbest brakmak, kurtarmak (release: salverme, tahliye)
: biimini deitirmek (transformation: deiim, dnm)
: hz, srat
: hzlanmak, ivmeyi artrmak (acceleration: ivme)
: yaratmak, meydana getirmek (creation: yaratma, yaratl) (creative:
yaratc) (creature: yaratk)
: yok etmek (destruction: yok etme, olma, ykm) (destructive: ykc)
: korumak, muhafaza etmek (conserve: reel) (conservation: doal
(conservatory: konservatuar, sera) (conservatism: tutuculuk)
(conservationist: doal kaynaklar koruma yanls)
: gstererek tantmak, kantlamak (demonstration: tantm gsterisi,
ispat) (demonstrative: kantlayan, gsteren)
: farkl, ayr, ak, belli (distinction: ayrt etme, fark, stnlk)
(distinctive: farkl, kendine zg)
: bozulmam, el srlmemi, dokunulmam, salam, eksiksiz
: -e havale etmek, -e gnderme yapmak, -den bahsetmek, -e
basvurmak (referee: hakem) (reference: gnderme, referans, bahsetme,
bavurma) (with reference to: -ile ilgili olarak) (make reference to:
-den sz etmek)
: termodinamik
: s transferi
: akkanlar mekanii
: iermek, kapsamak, gerektirmek (to be involved in: -e karmak, -ile
megul olmak) (involvement: karma, bulama, ilgi)
: birbirini etkilemek (interaction: etkileim)
: asl, esas, temel, zaruri (essentially)
: bir eyle (olayla) kars karsya gelmek, rastlamak
: a, yn, bak as, grn
: reddetmek, skartaya karmak (rejection: kabul etmeme, ret)
: bakm as, yn, husus, sayg, hrmet
: eve ait (household: ev halk)
: alet, kap
: aygt, cihaz
: iskan etmek, yerletirmek, yerini saptamak (to be located in: -de
bulunmak) (location: yer, konum)
: girdi, giri
: kt
: -den kaynaklanmak (to stem: ak durdurmak veya yavalatmak)
: gayret, aba (effortless: zahmetsiz, kolay)
: yorumlamak, evirmek (interpretation: yorum, aklama)
(interpreter: yorumcu, tercman)
: iine almak, kapsamak, dahil etmek (inclusion: dahil etme, olma,
katlma) (inclusive: -i kapsayan, dahil) (included: dahil)
: -in dnda brakmak (exclusion: dnda braklma) (exclusive: zel
baz kiilere ak olan)
: -e aina olmak (to be familiar with: -i iyi bilmek) (familiar: bildik,
tandk, aina, samimi) (to familiarize: bir eyi herkese tantmak)

to pressurize
to intend
to extend
to intensify
intensive property
extensive property
to compute
to specify
to describe
to surrond
to prefix
to designate
internal energy
to necessitate
to initiate
to identify:
to reverse
to vaporize
to approximate
to generate
to cogenerate
to require

: basn altnda tutmak, yeterli basnta tutmak (pressure: basn,

bask) (pressurization: basnta tutma, basnlandrma)
: niyetinde olmak, tasarlamak, kastetmek (to be intended for: iin
olmak) (intent: ama, niyet) (to be intent on: -e kararl, dalm)
(intention: niyet, maksat, mana, kast)
: uza(t)mak (extension: uza(t)ma, paralel telefon) (extensive: geni,
byk, kapsaml) (extent: boyut)
: iddetlen(dir)mek, younla(tr)mak (intense: iddetli, kuvvetli,
hararetli) (intensely) (intensity: iddet, younluk, keskinlik)
(intensive: youn, iddetli)
: hesap etmek, hesaplamak (to computerize: bilgisayarla donatmak)
(computation: hesaplama) (computational: hesaplamal)
: yer ekimiyle ilgili (gravitation: yer ekimi) (gravity: yer ekimi)
: belirtmek (specification: artname, belirtme) (specifically)
: zgl, belirli, apak (specific gravity: zgl arlk) (center of
gravity: arlk merkezi)
: denge
: yol, patika
: betimlemek, tanmlamak (description: betimleme, tanmlama, tarif)
(descriptive: betimsel, tanmlatc)
: evrelemek, kuatmak, sarmak (surrounding: evredeki, etrafdaki)
(surroundings: evre, muhit, ortam)
: szck bana nek koymak (prefix: nek)
: adlandrmak, iaret etmek (to designate to: -e atamak, -e tayin etmek)
(to designate for: -e tahsis etmek) (designation: atama, unvan, sfat)
: escaklk (isotherm: escak, izoterm) (isothermally)
: ebas, izobar
: entropi
: antalpi
: i enerji
: gerektirmek, zorunlu klmak (necessary: gerekli, lazm, zorunlu)
(necessarily) (necessity: gereksinim, zorunluluk)
: devir, devre
: balatmak (initial: balangtaki, ilk) (initiation: balatma)
: tan(la)mak, tehis etmek (to identify with: ile zdeletirmek)
(identity: kimlik, zde) (identical: ayn, tpk, zde) (identically)
: ters evirmek (to revert to: -e dnmek) (reverse: arka, ters)
(reversible: tersinir, tersine evrilebilir) (reversion: eskiye dnme)
: evreyle s al-veriinde bulunmayan, yaltlm
: buharla(tr)mak (vapor: buhar) (vaporization: buharla(tr)ma)
: tahmin etmek, -e yakn olmak (approximate: yaklak, takribi)
(approximately) (approximation: tahmin, -e yakn olma)
: sabit entropi, entropisi deimeyen,izentrop
: retmek (generation: retim, nesil) (generator: jeneratr, dinamo)
: birleik s g retmek (cogeneration: birleik s g retimi)
: gerektirmek, -e ihtiyac olmak, talep etmek (requirement:
gereksinim, ihtiya, gerek) (to meet the requirements of: ihtiyalarn,

to fulfill
heat pump
to express
in terms of
to exist
be about to
subto subcool
to superheat
saturation temperature
to coexist
equation of state
temperature scale
to conclude
to assert
to occur
to point out
to take place
to violate
to reason
to satisfy
to ensure
to resist
to be equivalent to
to argue
to proceed
to restrict
to remedy

gereklerini karlamak) (to fulfill the requirements of/for: -in

gereklerini yerine getirmek)
: yerine getirmek, yapmak (fulfillment: yerine getirme, yapma)
(fulfilling: tatmin edici, doyurucu)
: s pompas, hem stma hem de soutma iin kullanlabilen klima
: ifade etmek, beyan etmek (expression: ifade, anlatm) (expressive:
manal, anlaml)
: o adan, o ekilde, -ile, -ce
: katsay
: var olmak (existence: varolu) (existential: varolusal)
: evre, safha, faz
: zere olmak
: alt (submarine: denizalt) (subcommittee: altkurul)
: gaz halinden sv hale geme noktasndaki (su iin 100 derece)
scaklktan aa bir dereceye soutmak (100 derecenin altna)
: 100 derecenin stne stmak
: doyma
: svdan gaz, gazdan sv hale gei scakl, doyma scakl (su iin
100 derece)
: aynen, ayn biimde, keza
: bir arada var olmak
: durum denklemi
: scaklk lei (Celcius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin)
: sonulandrmak, sonu karmak (conclusion: sonu) (in conclusion:
son olarak) (conclusive: son, nihai)
: emin bir ekilde ileri srmek, ne srmek (assertion: iddia, iddiay
ne srme) (assertive: kendini hissettiren)
: olmak, meydana gelmek (occurence: olu, meydana gelme)
: -e dikkati ekmek, -i iaret etmek
: olmak, meydana gelmek, vuku bulmak
: inemek, bozmak, ihlal etmek (violation: ihlal)
: muhakeme etmek, bir eyi akl yoluyla zmeye almak
(reasonable: makul)
: honut, memnun etmek (satisfaction: honutluk, memnuniyet,
tatmin) (satisfactory: doyurucu, memnun edici)
: temin etmek, garanti etmek
: direnmek (resistant: direnli) (resistance: diren) (resistivity: z
: metal tel
: teebbs etmek, kalkmak
: -e eit olmak (equivalent: eit) (equivalence: eitlik)
: tartmak, -i iddia etmek (arguement: tartma, iddia)
: ilerlemek, -e devam etmek (proceeds: gelir, haslat) (proceedings:
tutanak, zabt, kongre kitaplar)
: kstlamak, snrlamak (restriction: kstlama) (restrictive: kstlayc)
: yeterli, uygun, kafi (adequately) (adequacy: yeterlilik, uygunluk)
: aresini bulmak, dzeltmek (are, deva) (remedial: iyiletirici,

to detect
to make reference to
to rate
to alter
to affect
to turn to
to increase
to decrease
to vary
to insert into
to submerge
to speed up/down
to trap
to wrap
to reduce
heat loss/gain
to lower
thermal conductivity
to denote
to combine
forced convection
natural/free convection
to buoy up
to induce
due to

: sezmek, farketmek, bulmak (detection: bulma) (detective: hafiye,

dedektif) (detector: bulucu, dedektr)
: dzensizlik, kargaa (disorderly)
: rasgele, geliigzel (randomness: rasgelelik, geliigzellik)
: iz, eser
: -den szetmek, bahsetmek
: deerlendirmek, deer bimek (rate: oran) (ratio: orant)
: dei(tir)mek (alteration: deiim) (alterable: deitirilebilir)
: etkilemek, tesir etmek (effect: etki)
: -e dn()mek, olmak, kesilmek
: artmak, oalmak (increase: art, oalma) (increasingly: gittike
: azalmak, dmek (decrease: azal, d)
: daralmak, bzlmek, ekmek (contraction: daralma, bzlme,
ekilme) (contractor: stlenici, yklenici mteahhit)
: dei(tir)mek, -den farkl olmak, eitlen(dir)mek (variation:
deiim) (variant: farkl, deiik) (variance: deime, ayrlk,
deiiklik) (variability: deikenlik)
: enerjik, faal
: -e bitiik, bitiikteki
: iine, arasna sokmak, koymak (insertion: ekleme)
: acil (immeadiately)
: -i suyun iine daldrmak, batrmak
: hzlan(dr)mak/yavalamak
: tuzaa drmek, kapanla yakalamak, set ekmek, engel olmak (trap:
tuzak, kapan)
: asbest, amyant
: ince ku ty
: sarmak
: camyn
: azaltmak, indir(ge)mek, drmek (reduction: azaltma, indir(ge)me)
: s kayb/kazanc
: indirmek, eksiltmek, azaltmak
: oran, orant, hisse, pay (proportional: orantl) (proportionate:
orantl) (proportionally)
: ters, aksi (inversely) (inversion: ters dnme, altst olma) (to invert:
tersyz etmek, tersine evirmek)
: s iletim katsays
: gstermek, belirtmek
: birle(tir)mek (combined: birleik) (combination: bileim, birleme)
: ara, vasta, etken (by means of: araclyla) (external means: d
: zorlanm konveksiyon
: doal/serbest konveksiyon
: su iinde ykselmek (buoyancy: kaldrma) (buoyant: yzen)
: neden olmak (induction: tmevarm, sonu karma, indksiyon)
: -den dolay, nedeniyle, yznden (in due time: vakti gelince)
: byk ocak, kalorifer oca
: yenisiyle deitirmek, yerine gemek, yerini almak
: kabarck

to suffice
to emit
to fascinate
to intervene
give off
to reflect
to polish
to idealize
to enclose
to expose
to be subject to
to attach
to bump into
to exert
to weigh
to slip
to slide
to contain
to dive
absolute vacuum
absolute pressure

: damla
: uygun, msait, rahat (conveniently) (convenience: uygunluk,
kolaylk, rahatlk) (at your convenience: size uygun bir zamanda,
mmkn olduu kadar yakn bir zamanda)
: kafi gelmek, yetmek (sufficient: yeterli, kafi) (sufficiency: yeterlilik)
: yaymak (emissivity: yayma)
: birinin ilgisini/merakn ok ekmek (to be fascinated by/with: -e
kendini kaptrmak) (fascinating: ok ilgin, enteresan) (fascination:
byk merak, cazibe)
: grlemez, ok ak olmayan (visible: grlebilir, ak, belli olan)
(visibly) (vision: gr, ngr, nsezi) (visionary: hayali, nsezili)
: hazr bulunma, varlk (present: mevcut, imdiki, sunmak, arzetmek,
takdim etmek, hediye, armaan)
: araya girmek, -e karmak (intervention: aracllk, karma)
(intervening medium: arac ortam)
: kartlk, ztlk
: koku, buhar vb. yaymak, karmak (emit)
: yans(t)mak (reflection: yansma) (reflective: yanstan, yansyan)
(reflector: yansta, reflektr)
: cilalamak, parlatmak
: donuk, snk renk, kr bak, skc, aptal
: mutlak, kesin, kati
: idealletirmek (ideal: ideal, lk) (ideally) (idealism: idealizm)
: siyahktle, siyahcisim
: alan, saha, dalm (domain: nfuz alan, ilgi alan)
: bir eyi bir mektupla ayn zarf iine koymak, bir yeri duvar, it ile
evirmek (enclosure: evrili olan yer) (enclosures: iliiktekiler)
: ayn zamanda, ezamanl (simultaneously)
: k geirmez, saydam olmayan
: yar effaf, saydam (transparent: effaf, saydam, ak, belli)
: maruz brakmak, etkisine ak brakmak, tehir etmek (exposure:
maruz brakma, kalma)
: -e tabi, bal olmak
: fark, eitsizlik (disparate: farkl, apayr)
: takmak, ilitirmek (attachment: aksesuar, taklabilen para)
: vurmak, arpmak, bindirmek, toslamak
: g kullanmak, uygulamak (exertion: g uygulamas)
: karlkl tamamlayc ey, ikinci nsha
: gerilim, stres
: tartmak, zihninde lp bimek (weight: arlk)
: kocaman, muazzam
: iklim, hava
: kaymak
: kaymak,kaydrmak
: kapsamak, iermek, iine almak (container: kap, konteyner)
: suya dalmak, havada pike yapmak
: altn(d)a, aaya, aada
: mutlak vakum, boluk (absolute zero pressure: mutlak sfr basn)
: mutlak basn

gage pressure
vacuum gage
to float
to establish
to displace
to push out
to immerse
to sink
to bound
to deal with
to imply
to stick to
to deform
shear stress
viscous flow
to neglect
inviscid flow
laminar flow
to characterize
to fluctuate
turbulent flow
to initiate
to manifest

: efektif basn
: vakum basnc
: iaret etmek, gstermek (indication: bildirme, belirti, gsterme)
(indicative of: -i belirten, gsteren)
: lml, orta
: manometre, basn ler
: cva
: diferansiyel
: dey (horizontal: yatay)
: su yznde yzmek (float: duba, amandra)
: kurmak (establishment: kurum, kurulu, kurma)
: yerini deitirmek, almak
: dar itmek
: suya daldrmak, batrmak (immersion: suya daldrma, batrma)
: batmak
: snrlamak, kuatmak, sramak (bounded: snrl) (unbounded:
snrsz) (boundary: snr, hudut)
: sktrlamaz (compressible: sktrlabilir)
: boru
: ilgilenmek, stesinden gelmek
: nemli, kayda deer, anlaml (significance: nem, anlam)
: hortum iin azlk, meme
: devaml, srekli (steadily) (unsteady: sreksiz) (unsteadily)
: ima etmek, -e iaret etmek
: geici, sreksiz
: ayn, tekbiimli, deimez (uniformly)
: tek-boyutlu
: -e yapmak, bir eye sadk kalmak (sticky: yapkan) (stickiness:
: viskozite (viscous: yapkan)
: biimini bozmak
: kayma gerilmesi
: vizkoz ak
: ihmal etmek
: vizkoz olmayan ak
: laminar ak
: karakterize etmek
: deimek, dalgalanmak (fluctuation: deiim)
: trblansl ak
: balatmak (initiation: balatma)
: aka gstermek, belli etmek (manifestation: aka gsterme,