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Chapter I


1.1 The Background of the Study

Ever since the publishing of Brown & Levinsons influential article Universal in language
usage. Politeness phenomena in 1978, linguistic politeness has been the subject of extensive
research in the fields of pragmatics.
Pragmatics is the study of the use of language in communication, particularly the relationship
between the sentences and the contexts in situation in which they are used. Pragmatics is the
study of the contextual meaning. It is also approach necessarily explores how listeners can make
inferences about what is said in order to arrive at an interpretation of the speakers intended
meaning. This type of study explores how a great deal of what is unsaid is recognized as part of
what is communicated. We might say that it is the investigation of visible meaning. Pragmatics is
the study of how more gets communicated than is said.
There are many ways of stating intention. This is done in order to practice communication.
For example to inform something, to get information, to ask someone, and to express attitudes.
To communicate is to express a certain attitude. A certain attitude that can be strategy in
communication is politeness. Politeness is the best strategy as the practical application of good
manners or etiquette.
People who careful to use their language, they must look what the condition they are, how
the condition can happen, and when this language are used. But in the other hand, people not
care about what the condition they are, how the condition can happen, and when this language
are used. It is make people apathetic, and the utterance especially in Jakarta people said that
siapa loh, siapa gua. It means that people not needed someone else. And maybe she/he thinks
that they can life without someone that can help or close with them.
Generally, when we look surround us we will see what people do are what they think
important to his/her. They not care about the needed of some people are surround them. Only

because they need someone, they make a relation. And it is happen just for they need something.
And so many even in surround us happened are people busy to his/her self busy, and just focus to
their activities and what they think can gratify, like busy for himself.
Now, we want to know how important polite in our life. So, we decide to measure how
people used the polite in their life and how people being polite one to each other, also to know
what will we do to measure politeness in every conversation that they are used in their daily
Politeness, in an interaction, can then be defined as the means employed to show awareness
of another persons face (George:61). In this sense, politeness can be accomplished in situations
of social distance or closeness. Showing awareness for another persons face when that other
seems socially distant is often described in terms of respect or deference.
Politeness very important way that we must used to show respect in community, especially if
we know the position of the speakers and listeners. In every conversation, there are many ways
of stating intention. When we are in a group of friends we can say to them l want to borrow
your money! . When we are around a group of adults, we must say could you please to lend
me your money, sir, if you dont mind!.
In era globalization, people more often busy with himself. They are not start communicate
with others because of they have own world. Manners are important elements in daily social life
-the day everyone, because by showing politeness , one can be appreciated and loved by its
existence as social beings wherever they sit. In social life among humans, of course, we have
norms/ethics in the relationship with others. In this case, manners can provide many benefits or
influence either on themselves or others .
If judging from his origin , manners means rule of life that resulted from the association
group of people in society and regarded as the demands of daily interaction - the society today.
It can be concluded that the attitude of courtesy done anywhere where we are, in accordance with
the needs of the environment, space, and time because manners are relative which is regarded as
the norm courtesy different in each place, as polite at home, environment, school, college,
relationships, and so forth. This is a place we do so wherever we are, we will always be
respected, appreciated, and loved our existence by other people.

So many people not respect their parents, not loving sister and brother, not respect their
neighbor. Maintain behavior , such as well-behaved and commendable.
We rarely meet people who are concerned with the interests of others, speak a good word with
friends so not to offend him, because with good spoken word we can maintain a good
relationship with someone.
Dont talk about ugliness friend to another person with the intention of dropping/libel,
because it can lead to dispute that would cause interference in the harmony of friendship.
Say honestly, because to be truthful, the others will continue to trust us and harmony of life
friendship/companionship will remain well preserved.
However, there are several factors, such as amount of imposition or degree of friendliness,
which are often negotiated during an interaction. There is internal to the interaction and can
result in the initial social distance changing and being marked as less, or more, during its course.
This my result, for example, in participants moving from a title-plus-last name to a first-name
basis within the talk.
Internal factors are typically more relevant to participants whose social relationship are
actually in the process of being worked out within the interaction. internal have an influence not
only on what we say, but also on how we are interpreted. In many cases, the interpretation goes
beyond what we might have intended to convey and includes evaluation such as rude and
inconsiderate or considerate and thoughtful. Recognizing the impact is normally carried out in
terms of politeness.
So, we can prove many theories to measure conversation. And the movie that we choose to
measure theory of politeness is DEMI UCOK. Exactly Glorias play DEMI UCOK. Demi ucok is
a refreshing comedy based on own story from a first time Indonesian female director. Why we
choose this movie in to this research is one of movie that young people will, because the story
tells about the Glorias mother or Mak Gondut wants to find her daughter a husband from batak.
The cosmopolitan Gloria prefers to follow her passion, which is making movies, rather than
stepping into a marriage. But time is ticking on and she is faced with the challenging task of
finding the money to achieve her dreams, and the second is what the benefit when we watch this

Demi Ucok movie created and publish on the 2013 in Indonesian. Demi Ucok is one of the
famous movie in toba batak that are booming now on and so many people, people like exactly.
The study of politeness is aimed at investigating the language use in society, which is
appropriate to the situation and also aimed at maintaining good relationships between speakers
and listeners. Politeness strategies are developed for the main purpose of dealing with these
FTAs (Face Threatening Act). FTA is act that infringe on the hearers need to maintain his/her
self-esteem and be respected.
By the explanation above this research will be focus on 2 problems, namely:
1. what types expressions of politeness use in Glorias character?
2. What the dominant types expressions of politeness are use in Glorias character?
Brown and Levinsons politeness theory can be a powerful tool to analyze politeness
phenomena, not only in goal-oriented interaction, but also in non-goal oriented interaction of this
nature. However, there is considerable room to expand Brown and Levinsons list of politeness
strategies, such as by focusing on the manner and sequence of an extend interaction like the
casual conversation examine how important polite to our life.

1.2 The Problem of the Study

The problems of the study formulated as follows:












What is the dominant types of expressions are used in Glorias play Demi Ucok?

1.3 The Scope of the Study

The limitation of the study is necessarily needed. A study of politeness refers to many
theories, they are : Leech, Robin Lakoff, Grice, Brown and Levinson. The study discusses the
politeness based on Leechs theory.

1.4 The Objective of the Study

In relation to the problem, the objective of the study is to find out the types of politeness
based on maxim and the dominant one which is used in Demi Ucoks play Levinsons theory.

1.5 The Significance of the Study

This study will hopefully contribute something important in the use of language. The
findings of this study are expected to be useful for:
a. The readers, as information about the expressions of politeness used in play Demi Ucok.
b. Readers to enrich their knowledge about politeness in order to make the good interaction
with others.
c. Researchers who are interested to do a research related to politeness.

Chapter II

2.1 Pragmatics
Pragmatics is concerned with the study of meaning as communicated by a speaker or
writer and interpreted by a listener or the reader. It has, consequently more to do with the
analysis of what people mean by their utterances than what the words or phrases in those
utterances might mean by themselves.
Pragmatics is the study of the speaker meaning. This type of this study necessarily
involves the interpretation of what people mean in a particular context and how the context
influences what is said.
It requires a consideration of how speaker organize what they want to say in accordance
with who they are talking to, where, when, and under what circumstances. Pragmatics is the
study of contextual meaning (Yule, G 2000 : 3)
2.2 Politeness
The etymology and existing dictionary definitions of politeness are of interest since they
may provide clues to the historical origin of the phenomenon and common values associated
with the term.
Politeness in an interaction, can then be defined as the means employed to show
awareness of another persons face. In this sense, politeness can be accomplished in situations of
social distance or closeness. Showing awareness for another persons face when that other seems
socially distant is often described in terms of respect or deference.
It is possible to treat politeness as a fixed concept, as in the idea of polite social behavior
or etiquette, within a culture. It is also possible to specify a number of different general
principles for being polite in social interaction within a particular culture. Some of these might
include being tactful, generous, modest, and sympathetic toward others.

Polite is derived from the Latin adjective politus, meaning polished or smooth. The act
or behavior of being polite is performed by an individual agent and yet it is at the same time, an
intrinsically social one, social that is in the dual sense of being socially constituted and of
feeding back into the process of structuring social interaction.
2.3 The Theories of Politeness
Commonly, talking about politeness involves taking account of feeling, sensation of
others. People who polite makes others feel comfortable. Polite is derived from Latin adjective
politus means polish or smooth or respectful (Deutschmann 2003:24).
Examines the principles that underlie behavior ; he explains what is polite and what is
not, and how language reflects this. Such principles are captured by his maxims.

2.3.1 Leechs theory (1983)

a. The Tact Maxim
The tact maxim stated: minimize the expression of belief which imply cost to other;
maximize the expression of beliefs which imply benefit to other.
Example :
Could you give me a cup of coffee?

b. The Generosity
Leechs generosity maxim stated: minimize the expression of beliefs that express or
imply benefit to self; maximize the expression of beliefs that express or imply cost to self.

Example :
You enjoy and let me do this.

c. The Approbation Maxim

The Approbation maxim stated; minimize the expression of beliefs which express
dispraise of other; maximize the expression of beliefs which express approval of other.
Example :
I heard you singing at the toilet yesterday, It sounded like you Celine Dion.

d. The Modesty Maxim

Maxim of modesty is one of the six maxim proposed by Leech in Politeness Principle
meaning to minimize praise or to maximize dispraise of self.
Example :
Oh, lm poor. l didnt remember it. Did you?

e. The Agreement Maxim

The Agreement maxim runs as follows; minimize the expression of disagreement
between self and other; maximize the expression of agreement between self and other.
Example :
I dont want she do it, l want the girl who wear ring.

f. The Sympathy Maxim

The sympathy maxim stated; minimize antipathy between self and other; maximize
sympathy between self and other.
Example :
I am sorry to hear that.

2.3.2 Brown and Levinsons Theory

Brown and Levinson said that politeness is deviation from rational and efficient
communication. According to their theory, politeness expression are developed in order to save
the hearers face. Face refers to the respect that an individual has for him or herself, and
maintaining that self esteem in public or private situation.
Face is the image speakers want to present of themselves to others, a powerful emotional
possession that can be lost, maintained, or enhanced in social interaction. Face Threatening Act
(FTA) is acts that infringe on the hearers need to maintain his/her self-esteem, and be respected.
Politeness strategies are developed for the main purpose of dealing with these FTAs.
Politeness means acting so as to take account of the feeling of others and includes both
those actions concerned with positive face and negative face. Politeness is governed by power
relations between individuals, the social distance between them and the degree of imposition that
might be involved.

a. Positive politeness
This strategy confirms that the relationship between speaker and listener is friendly and
expresses group reciprocity. This strategy attempts to minimize the treat to the hearers face. This
strategy is most commonly used in situations where the audience knows each other very well.
Quite often hedging and attempts to avoid conflict are used.
I know that you have been really busy lately, but could you joint with us?

a. Negative Politeness
The strategy of negative politeness is to minimize requests by using indirect forms. The
speaker wants to have his freedom of action unhindered and his attention unimpeded. The
potential for awkwardness or embarrassment is greater than in bald on record strategies and
positive politeness strategies.
Negative face is the desire to remain the autonomous. Thus, a request without
consideration of the listeners negative face might be comfortable.
Example :
If you dont mind, may l borrow your money today?

b. Bald On-Record
Bald On-Record strategy is the strategy with provides no effort to minimize threats to the
hearers face. What is said is what is mean. The speaker speaks directly or gives response in form
of utterance directly.

Speaker who closely knows their audience most often utilizes this strategy. With the bald
on record strategies there is a direct possibility that the audience will be shocked or embarrassed
by this strategy.

Example :
When one body want to tell his sister to do the dishes: its your turn.

c. Off-Record
The main purpose of off record indirect strategies is to take some of the pressure off of
speaker. Speaker is trying not to directly impose by asking for something.
Example :
Hmm, l am sure could use this pen right now
So, it is shown by not speak or not give response in from of utterance.

2.3.3 Grices Theory (1978)

Grice looks politeness based on speaker and listener cooperation in conversation, that is
said cooperative principles.
a. Maxim of Quantity

Requires the speaker to give as much information as is needed. It should not be more or
less informative than is required. Thus, the speaker must have some sense of what the addressee
knows and needs to know.
Example :
A : where are you going?
B : lm going to the campus.

b. Maxim of Relevance
Requires the speaker to say things that are relevant, that is, make the utterances relative to
the discourse going on and the contexts in which they occur.
Example :
A : what months is yourbirthday?
B : the month when the Christmas comes.

c. Maxim of Manner
Requires the speaker to say things clearly and briefly to avoid ambiguity.
Example ?
A : open the window, please. Its so hot
B : all right

d. Maxim of Quality
Requires the speaker to say only what one believes to be true that is to speak truthfully.

Example :
A : Im hungry.
B : there is some food on the table.

2.3.4 Robin Lakoffs Theory (1972)

This theory purposes to minimize the potential for conflict between people. These rules
are introduced based on the strategy how to use language politely.
a. Distance or Formality
Do not impose or remain a lot
Example :
Could you type this letter,
b. Deference or Hesitancy
Give the addressee his options
Example :
If it isnt to much trouble, please finish this job today!

c. Informality of Camaraderie
Acts as though you and the addressee are equal/make him fell well.
Example :
Just try to relax, dear

2.4 Language of Literature

Thought and speech are inseparable from each other. Matter and expression are parts of
one; style is a thinking out into language. This is what I have been laying down, and this is
literature: not things, not the verbal symbols of things; not on the other hand mere words; but
thoughts expressed in language (John Henry Newman 1801-1890).
Appropriate linguistic terms and descriptions can articulate an inward understanding of
the working of a language, and can situate the verbal technique of a particular text among the
range of available repertoires for writing and speaking the variety of kinds of text and kind of the
language use that exist : text-poems, short-stories, extracts from novel, etc.
The characteristics of the language in play are modeled on real-life conversation among
the people and one also considers the differences between the real talk and the play talk.
Language in the play can generally be presented either as monologue or dialogue.
Monologue means that only one character speaks while dialogue always requires two or more
participants. In comparison to monologues, dialogues is most frequently used type of speech in
the play. In analyzing dialogue, one can look at turn-taking and the allocation of turns to different

2.5. Movie
A movie is also called a film or emotion picture. Movie encompasses individual motion
pictures, the field or film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. Films are produced by
recording images from the world with cameras, or by creating images using animation
techniques or visual effects.

Movie is more often used when considering artistic, theoretical, or technical or technical
aspects as student in university in university class. Movies more often refers to entertainment or
commercial aspects, as where to go for fun on a date.
Movie is considered to have its own language. Examples of the language are a sequence
of back and forth images of one actors left profile speaking, followed by another actors right
profile speaking, then a repetition of this, which is a language understood by the audience to
indicate a conversation.
Movie are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures and
in turn, affect them. Movie is considered to be an important art from a source of popular
entertainment and a powerful method for educating or indoctrinating citizens. The visual
elements of cinema give motion pictures a universal power of communication. Some films have
become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue.
The origin of the name film or movie comes from the fact that photographic film also
called film stock has historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion
pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion picture, including picture, picture
show, moving picture, photo-play and flick. A common name for film in the united states is
movie, while in Europe the term cinema is preferred. Additional terms for the field in general
include the big screen, the silver screen, the cinema and the movies.
Another is zooming in on the forehead of an actor with an expression of silent reflection,
and then changing to a scene of a younger actor who vaguely resembles the first actor, indicating
the first actor is having a memory of their own past.

2.6 The Summary of Demi Ucok

Gloria is the only daughter owned by Glorias mother. She is old girl which does not
have a boyfriend. Gloria do not want to be like her mother , is married , forgotten her dreams ,
and live with the routine thereafter. Gloria wants to pursue her dreams , which made the film .

Glorias mother that in sickness and sentenced to stay alive for another year still

determined to find a partner to Gloria so later married and live happily ever after. Glorias
mother, 55-year -old widow has a daughter named Gloria.
Gloria ripe age , but she is not going to get married , even the boyfriend did not
possess. she also refused to go on Match the given this fact , Glorias mother was restless .
Glorias mother who sentenced her to stay one more year , it continues to seek Ucok that Gloria
could marry and live happily ever after.
Ambition Glorias mother very opposed to idealism Gloria who has a strong determination to
pursue its goal of being a film director .
Gloria also do not want to end up like her mother who in her view : mating , forgotten
her dreams and boring life forever .
Achieving the dream is not easy back your hand , whether it is a dream that her son Ucoks
mother can mate and highly coveted dream of a Gloria as a film director . Glorias problem is she
does not have fresh funds to make the film.
Gloria dizzy when looking for funding for the film , Glorias mother come with an offer
. Insurance money worth one billion was ready to be launched Glorias mother, with one
condition , Gloria should want to marry with her choice.

Chapter III
Research Method

3.1 Research Design

The design of research is conducted by using descriptive qualitative design to find out the
expression of politeness in Glorias play Demi Ucok movie. Descriptive qualitative design
describes what is it. This study identify and analyze the expression of politeness in Glorias play
Demi Ucok movie.
Descriptive qualitative method according to Nazir (1998: 34) which used to make
description of situation, event, or to accumulate the basic data. Descriptive research is a research
method, which describes the condition, event or situation. The data are taken from some books,
dictionary, and field research. This research can also be done in the library and the content
analysis is suggested to be done. Descriptive research involves collecting data in order to answer
question concerning the status of the subject of the study.

3.2 Population and Sample

Arikunto (2006:130) states, that population is a whole subject of research. In addition,
a population is a set (collection) of all elements processing one or more attributes of interest,
according to encyclopedia of educational evaluation as quoted by Arikunto (2006: 130). This
means that the number of population and the coverage area must be clearly stated. The
population of this study is Glorias play Demi Ucoks movie.
Arikunto (2006 : 130) states sample is a part or as a representative of population study
This means that not all the population is necessarily involved in a research. The object of this
research was taken from Glorias play Demi Ucok dialogue and the sample of this research is the
only Glorias conversation.

3.3 Techniques of Collecting Data

The data will collect from Glorias play Demi Ucok movie by applying documentary
technique. Documentary technique means the data was found from reading, studying and

analyzing the references related to the study. In doing documentary technique, the writer read the
conversation of Gloria in play Demi Ucok.
The data for this research was obtained from the conversation itself and supporting data
such as: book, internet and other book references which is related to the topic. To support the
data, the writer also present the dialogue or conversation from Glorias play Demi Ucok being
discussed in the study.

3. 4

Technigues of Analyzing Data

The data analyzed based on the following steps:
a. Transcript the dialogues or conversation of Gloria.
b. Identifying the dialogues that contained Leechs maxims of politeness.
c. Classifying the data that have been collected based on each maxim of Leechs.
d. Counting and Tabulating the all types of Leechs politeness maxims and finding the

The table of the research is:











: Tact Maxim


: Generosity Maxim

ApM : Approbation Maxim


: Modesty Maxim

AgM : Agreement Maxim


: Sympathy Maxim

The formula is:


: F/N x 100%

: The percentage of the dominant strategy used based on Leehs maxim

: Frequency

: The total number of the expressions of politeness used based on Leehs maxims

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Deutschmann, M.2003. Apologizing in British English. Umea Universitet

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Silalahi,H.2008.The expression of politeness. Universitas Negeri Medan
Miranda, I. 2012/2013. The cooperative, Relevance and Politeness Principle in Jokes :
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