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# INTRODUCTION

Frame is a structure elements composed of beams and column connected by rigid joints. The angle
between the beam and column is usually 90.Figure 1 shows a simple frame which consists of a
column and girder. Frames can be divided into two categories: braced and unbarred.

Girder
Column

## Figure 1 : Simple Frame

A braced frame is one in which the joint at each level are free to rotate but are prevented from
moving laterally by attachment to a rigid element that can supply lateral restrain to the frame. An
unbarred frame is one in which lateral resistance to displacement is supplied by the flexural stiffness
of the beam and column.

PRINSIPLES
For single-bay frames many analyst define moment as positive when it produces compression
stresses on the outside surface of the member, where inside is define as the region whitin the frame.
The positive direction for shear is then arbitrarily defined, as shown by the arrows on figure 2.
Axial force on a cross section is evaluated by summing all forces perpendicular to cross section.
Forces acting outward from the cross section are tension forces: those directed toward the cross
section are compression force.

V
M

T
T

V
V

V
C
C

C
V

V
M

## Figures 2 : Internal forces acting on section of the frame

For statically determinate frame, the internal forces (shear forces, axial forces and bending
moments) can be calculated by using equation of equilibrium.
Fx = 0
Fy = 0
Mz = 0

OBJECTIVES
The main objectives for this experiment are
1. To investigate the behaviour of a portal frame experimentally under a given loading
arrangement.
2. To compare the results obtained experimentally with theoretically results of the reactions
bending moment, shear forces and axial forces.

## Figure 3 : Portal frame apparatus

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Support Frame
Portal Frame
Dial Gauge
Varnier calliper
Ruler / tape measure

PROCEDURE

## The load cell is connected to the digital indicator.

The indicator is switched on. For the stability of the reading the
indicator must be switched on 10 minutes before taking readings.

button.

## The indicator reading is recorded. This represents the horizontal

reaction of the pinned support.

The load on the load hanger is increased and the horizontal reaction is recorded.

## Step 7 is repeated for another 4 load increment.

The load on the hanger is decreased and the horizontal reaction is recorded.

## Step 9 is repeated until all loads are removed.

RESULT
Width = 24 mm
Thickness = 9mm
Second moment area, I = 1.5 x 10-12

## Case 1[middle weight]

Distance a = 30.5 mm
2
4
6
8
10

## Horizontal trust (N)

Experimental
0.14
0.28
0.43
0.54
0.68

Theoretical

Case 2[W at b]
Distance b = 160 mm
2
4
6
8
10

## Horizontal trust (N)

Experimental
0.12
0.23
0.34
0.45
0.55

Theoretical

Case 3[W at c]
Distance c = 385 mm
2
4
6
8
10

## Horizontal trust (N)

Experimental
1.22
2.48
3.75
5.01
6.29

Theoretical

Case 3[W at a, b, c]
2
4
6
8
10

## Horizontal trust (N)

Experimental
1.51
3.04
4.49
6.00
7.36

The graph show the relationship between the load and trust

Theoretical

DISCUSSION
There are several factors that affecting the result of this experiment such as the air flow. As the
equipment is very sensitive to external forces, a small flow of air will deflect the real value of the
equipment such as the reading of the load. Although the deflection can be small, in smaller scale it
will bring about to error that needed to be considered into calculation. To counter this problem the
experiment should be done in closed room environment and not in open room.
CONCLUSION
From the experiment we can conclude that when the load is place in the middle of the frame, the
thrust downward will increase directly proportional to the load. The other case also shows similar
thrust. As the bigger the load the bigger the horizontal thrust of the frame.
To improve the experiment we should done the experiment in an closed room to prevent an error
reading from the electronic reader as it is sensitive to alight air flow. The handle of load also is
suspected to shake and really hard to statically. This experiment is an example of small scale
industrial experiment to investigate the strength required to a bridge for example, in order to
understand the mechanics of the load at certain part of a structure.
The relationship between the load and thrust can be seen in the graph and the objectives of this
experiment are accomplished.