You are on page 1of 11

Department of Chemistry

Memorial University of Newfoundland

Chemistry 1050

Fall 2011

TIME: 3 hours

NAME:_____________________________ STUDENT NUMBER:______________________






This examination consists of 11 pages and a Data Sheet. Ensure that this examination paper is
complete, i.e. that all 12 pages are present.


A Data Sheet with a Periodic Table and physical constants are provided. These are on the last
sheet of the exam and may be detached for use during the examination.


Failure to submit this exam in its entirety at the end of the examination will normally result in

Answer each question in the space provided. Should you require more space, use the back of
the previous page and indicate clearly where this has been done.
Show all relevant calculations and justify all simplifying assumptions.
Numerical answers should be reported to the appropriate number of significant digits with
the correct units (if any).
Do not write in the table below.
Good Luck!











Total Marks




1. A rigid 3.00 L container was found in a lab. The label reads pure hydrocarbon gas, which
implies it could be one of methane (CH4 ), ethane, (C 2 H6 ), propane (C 3 H8 ) or butane (C 4 H10 ). At
20.0 C the pressure of the gas is 3.80 bar. When cooled to a temperature of 88.5 C, the gas
condenses to give 20.4 g of liquid. What is the unknown gas? (4 marks)

2. If it takes 1.25 minutes for 0.010 mol of He to effuse through a small hole, how long will it take
for the same amount of ethane (C2 H6 ) to effuse? (3 marks)

3. The van der Waals equation for a gas takes into account two properties of the gas that are ignored
in the ideal gas equation. What are these two properties? (2 marks)

4. Calculate the density of oxygen gas at 0 C and at 745 torr (745 mmHg). (3 marks)

Page 2 of 11


5. A mixture of argon and xenon contains 30% argon by mass and has a total pressure of 0.940 bar.
Calculate the partial pressure of argon in the container. (2 marks)

6. A sample of NH4 NO3 (s) is placed in a 3.60 L container where it completely decomposes at 195 o C
according to the following reaction:
NH4 NO3 (s) N2 O(g) + 2 H2 O(g)
The total pressure of the gases in the container produced from the decomposition is 100 kPa.
Calculate the mass of NH4 NO3 (Mw = 80.0 g mol1 ) that was placed in the container. (4 marks)

7. The following reaction occurs with Magic Baking Powder, a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and
tartaric acid. When dissolved in water the reaction produces CO2 (g), which helps bread rise.
2 NaHCO3 (aq) + C4 H6 O6 (aq) Na2 C4 H4 O6 (aq) + 2 H2 O(l) + 2 CO2 (g) H = 45.3 kJ mol1
How much heat is produced in the reaction when 12.0 g of CO2 are formed? (4 marks)

Page 3 of 11


8. A 5.00 mL volume of a 0.60 M solution of phosphoric acid, H3 PO4 (aq), reacts with 45.00 mL of
0.25 M NaOH(aq) according to the reaction below. The temperature of the solution rises from 26.0
C to 28.0 o C. Assuming the volumes of the solutions are additive, and the density of the final
solution is 1.10 g mL1 , calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction. Assume the heat capacity
of the solution is the same as water and the water produced by the reaction does not affect the
volume of the resulting solution. (5 marks)
H3 PO4 (aq) + 3 NaOH(aq) Na3 PO4 (aq) + 3 H2 O(l)

Hrxn = ?

9. Determine the standard enthalpy of formation of diborane, B2 H6 (g) using the following
thermochemical information: (3 marks)
4 B(s) + 3 O2 (g) 2 B2 O3 (s)
2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2 H2 O(l)
B2 H6 (g) + 3 O2 (g) B2 O3 (s) + 3 H2 O(l)

Ho = 2509.1 kJ mol1
Ho = 571.7 kJ mol1
Ho = 2147.5 kJ mol1

10. 100 g of water at 22 C was placed into a freezer to make ice cubes. If the temperature of the
freezer is kept constant at 20 C, calculate the amount of heat absorbed by the freezer for this
process. Use the data provided on the Periodic Table and Data page. (4 marks)

Page 4 of 11


11. Nitrous oxide, N2 O(g), reacts with carbon disulfide, CS2 (g) according to the equation below. When
performed in a constant volume bomb calorimeter with a heat capacity of 8.775 kJ C1 , the
temperature of the calorimeter rises from 22.5 C to 29.1 C and forms 2.48 g of sulfur, S8 .
Determine the internal energy, ? U, and the enthalpy, ? H of the following reaction at 25.0 C.
(6 marks)
3 N2 O(g) + CS2 (l) 3 N2 (g) + CO(g) + 1/8 S8 (s)

12. Provide the condensed ground state electron configuration for the following: (2 marks)



13. An element in period 4 combines with Ca to form an ionic compound having the formula CaX2 .
Identify element X. (1 mark)

Page 5 of 11


14. a) Sketch the radial probability diagrams for the 2s and 2p orbitals on the set of axes below. (2

b) Draw a 1s and a 2p orbital indicating radial nodes if they exist. (1 mark)

15. Write balanced chemical equations to describe the following: (3 marks)

(a) The enthalpy of formation of NaCl(s)

(b) The enthalpy of combustion of ethane, C2 H4 (g)

(c) The lattice enthalpy of KBr(s)

16. Indicate the type of intermolecular forces which are most important in explaining the physical
properties (mpt, bpt, vapour pressure) of: (2 marks)

(a) H3C



CH3 _________________________(b) H3C

CH3 __________________________

Page 6 of 11


17. Given the following Lewis structure, provide the information requested below: (3 marks)




C2 H5



The hybridization of N _______________The ideal H1 -N-H2 bond angle _________________

The hybridization of C2 ______________ The ideal C1 -C2 -H5 bond angle ________________
Identify the atom(s) which may participate in hydrogen-bonding ________________________

18. Calculate the osmotic pressure of a solution of 1.10 g of MgCl2 in 100.0 mL of solution at 25.0 o C.
(2 marks)

19. Explain why using pure atomic orbitals alone to describe the bonding geometry of NH3 gives an
inaccurate prediction of bond angles compared to those that are observed. (2 marks)

20. Give brief explanations for the following observations: (3 marks)

a) The first ionization energy of atomic oxygen is less than the first ionization energy of atomic

b) The compound PF5 exists but NF5 does not.

c) Atomic radii decrease across a period of the periodic table from left to right.

Page 7 of 11


21. Complete the following table: (6 marks)

Boron trifluoride, BF 3

Chlorine pentafluoride, ClF 5

Lewis structure

Sketch of shape including

bond angles

Name of shape

Is it polar or non-polar?

22. A photon of wavelength 492.3 nanometers has just enough energy to photodissociate one molecule
of Cl2 (g). Calculate the bond dissociation energy of Cl2 in kJ mol1 . (2 marks)

23. Use Valence Bond and Orbital Hybridization Theories to describe the bonding in formaldehyde,
H2 CO. Your answer should show the following steps: (4 marks)
(a) Lewis Structure of the molecule and its VSEPR shape
(b) The electron configurations of the valence orbitals used by H, C and O
(c) A description of the orbital hybridization at the central atom
(d) A sketch to illustrate the type of bonds formed, (sigma) or (pi) using orbital overlap

Page 8 of 11


24. a) Starting with the valence atomic orbitals (AOs) of C and O, show how they combine to give the
molecular orbital (MO) diagram for CO. Include the labels for the AOs and MOs, the relative
energy levels of each AO and MO, include s-p mixing (if appropriate) and show how the valence
electrons of CO populate these molecular orbitals. (4 marks)

b) Determine the bond orders for CO, CO and CO+. (2 marks)

25. Two possible Lewis structures can be given for the sulfate anion, SO4 2 . Draw the Lewis structure
in which S obeys the octet rule, and the other where the formal charge on S is zero. Assign formal
charges to all atoms in both structures and use resonance structures where appropriate. (4 marks)

26. a) Briefly explain, in terms of the relevant intermolecular forces, why H2 O has a higher boiling
point than H2 S. (1 mark)

b) Define the term boiling point. (1 mark)

c) Describe the effect that adding an involatile solute to a liquid has on the boiling point of that
liquid. (1 mark)

Page 9 of 11


27. Determine the normal boiling point of ethanol, CH3 CH2 OH, if it has a vapour pressure of 340 torr
(45.33 kPa) at 60.0 o C, given that Hvap for ethanol is 38.56 kJ mol1 . (3 marks)

28. A 1.00 L solution is made by dissolving 26.5 mg of aspartame, a non-electrolyte, in water. The
osmotic pressure of the solution is 227 Pa (1.70 torr) at 30.0 o C. Calculate the molar mass of
aspartame. (3 marks)

29. At 25 o C the vapour pressure of pure hexane is 149.1 torr (149.1 mmHg) and pure pentane is 508.5
torr (508.5 mmHg). If a solution of hexane in pentane has a mole fraction of pentane equal to
0.750, calculate the total vapour pressure above the solution and the mole fraction of the pentane in
the vapour above the solution. (3 marks)

Page 10 of 11


30. What is the boiling point of an aqueous solution containing 20.0 g CaCl2 in 150 g of water? Kb of
water is 0.512 Ckg mol1 . (3 marks)

31. At 0 C and an O2 pressure of 1.00 bar, the solubility of O2 (g) in water is 48.9 mL O2 per L. What
pressure would be required for the solubility of O2 (g) to increase to 100 mL O2 per L? (2 marks)

The End

Page 11 of 11