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Fluidic Dynamics

EE C245

Dr. Thara Srinivasan


Lecture 17

Picture credit: A. Stroock et al.,


Microfluidic
a chip Lab
Picture
credit:mixing
Sandiaon
National

Lecture Outline
Reading
From S. Senturia, Microsystem Design, Chapter 13, Fluids,
p.317-334.

Todays Lecture
Basic Fluidic Concepts
Conservation of Mass Continuity Equation
Newtons Second Law Navier-Stokes Equation
Incompressible Laminar Flow in Two Cases
Squeeze-Film Damping in MEMS

EE C245

U. Srinivasan

Viscosity
Fluids deform continuously in presence of shear forces
For a Newtonian fluid,

Shear stress = Viscosity Shear strain


N/m2 [=] (N s/m2) (m/s)(1/m)
Centipoise = dyne s/cm2
No-slip at boundaries

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Ux

air = 1.8 10-5 N s/m2


water = 8.91 10-4
lager = 1.45 10-3
honey = 11.5
3

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Density
Density of fluid depends on pressure and
temperature
For water, bulk modulus =
Thermal coefficient of expansion =
but we can treat liquids as incompressible

Gases are compressible, as in Ideal Gas Law

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PV = nRT

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R
P = m
T
MW
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Surface Tension
Droplet on a surface

Capillary wetting

2r

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h=

2 cos
gr
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Lecture Outline
Todays Lecture
Basic Fluidic Concepts
Conservation of Mass Continuity Equation
Newtons Second Law Navier-Stokes Equation
Incompressible Laminar Flow in Two Cases
Squeeze-Film Damping in MEMS

EE C245

U. Srinivasan

Conservation of Mass
Control volume is region fixed in space through which fluid moves

rate of accumulation = rate of inflow rate of outflow


rate of mass efflux

Rate of accumulation
dS

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Rate of mass efflux

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Conservation of Mass

m
dV + S m U n dS = 0
V
t

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dS

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Operators
Gradient and divergence

U y U z
U x
i+
j+
k
z
x
y

= e x + e y + ez
x
y
z
U x U y U z
U = div U =
+
+
x
y
z
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U =

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Continuity Equation
Convert surface integral to volume integral using Divergence
Theorem

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For differential control volume

V + ( U ) dV = 0
t

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+ ( U) = 0
t
Continuity Equation

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Continuity Equation
Material derivative measures time rate of change of a
property for observer moving with fluid

+ (U ) + U = 0
t

D
=
+ ( U )
Dt t

D
+ U y + Uz
= + U = + Ux
z
t
x
y
Dt t
For incompressible fluid
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D
+ U = 0
Dt

D
+ U = 0
Dt

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Lecture Outline
Todays Lecture
Basic Fluidic Concepts
Conservation of Mass Continuity Equation
Newtons Second Law Navier-Stokes Equation
Incompressible Laminar Flow in Two Cases
Squeeze-Film Damping in MEMS

EE C245

U. Srinivasan

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Newtons Second Law for Fluidics


Newtons 2nd Law:
Time rate of change of momentum of a system equal to net
force acting on system

Sum of forces
acting on control
volume

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F =

Rate of
momentum efflux
=
from control
volume

dp
d
= V U dV
dt
dt
Net momentum
accumulation rate

Rate of
accumulation of
momentum in
control volume

+ S U (U n ) dS
Net momentum
efflux rate
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Momentum Conservation
Sum of forces acting on fluid

F =
pressure and shear
stress forces

gravity force

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Momentum conservation, integral form

S ( Pn + )dS + V gdV =

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d
UdV + S U(U n ) dS
dt V
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Navier-Stokes Equation
Convert surface integrals to volume integrals

2 U + ( U ) dV
=

dS

S
V
3

Pn dS = P dV
S

U( U n ) dS = U( U ) dV
V

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Navier-Stokes Differential Form

2
P + g + U + ( U ) dV =
V
3

U dV + U( U ) dV

V
V
t

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DU dV

V
Dt

DU

= P + g + 2 U + ( U )
Dt
3

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Incompressible Laminar Flow


Incompressible fluid

U = 0

DU

= P + g + 2 U + ( U )
Dt
3
DU
= P + g + 2 U
Dt

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Cartesian Coordinates

DU
= P + g + 2 U
Dt

x direction

U x
U x
U x
U x
+ Ux
+U y
+ Uz
=
x
y
z
t

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2U x 2U x 2U x
Px

+ g x + 2 + 2 +

x
y
z 2
x
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Dimensional Analysis
DU
P
2 U
=
+g+

Dt

Each term has dimension L/t2 so ratio of any two gives


dimensionless group

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inertia/viscous
pressure /inertia
flow v/sound v

=
=
=

P/U2

=
=
=

Reynolds number
Euler number
Mach number

In geometrically similar systems, if dimensionless numbers are


equal, systems are dynamically similar

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Two Laminar Flow Cases

U
h

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w
w

High h
P

Low
P

y
Ux
U

Ux
Umax

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Couette Flow
Couette flow is steady viscous flow
between parallel plates, where top plate is
moving parallel to bottom plate
No-slip boundary conditions at plates

U = 0 U = Uxix
U = U x ( y )i x

DU x
2U x 2U x
1 P
=
+ gx +
+

y 2
Dt
x
x 2
U x = 0 at y = 0
2U x
=
and
0
,
U x = U at y = h
y 2
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Ux =

Ux
U

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Couette Flow
Shear stress acting on plate due to motion, $, is dissipative
Couette flow is analogous to resistor with power dissipation
corresponding to Joule heating

w =
U

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RCouette =

U x
y

=
y =h

w A A
U

PCouette = RU 2
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Poiseuille Flow
Poiseuille flow is a pressure-driven flow between stationary
parallel plates
No-slip boundary conditions at plates

2U x 2U x
DU x
1 P
=
+ gx +
+

2
2

Dt
x
y
x

P
P
=
L
x

2U x
P
=
,
2
y
L

U x = 0 at y = 0, h
Ux =

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w
w

Highh
P

Low
P

U max =

Ux
Umax

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Poiseuille Flow
Volumetric flow rate Q ~ [h3]

Q = W 0 U x dy =
h

Shear stress on plates, $, is


dissipative
Force balance
Net force on fluid and plates is zero
since they are not accelerating
Fluid pressure force PWh (+x)
balanced by shear force at the walls
of 2$WL (-x)

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Wall exerts shear force (-x), so fluid


must exert equal and opposite force
on walls, provided by external force

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w
w

Ux
W

w =

U x
y

=
y =h

Ph
2L

Q
Wh
2
h P 2
= 3 U max
U=
12L
U=

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Poiseuille Flow
Flow in channels of circular cross section

Ux

(r
=

r 2 )P
4L

ro 4 P
Q=
32L

Flow in channels of arbitrary cross section

Dh =

4 Area
Perimeter

P = f D (12 U 2 )

L
Dh

f D Re D = dimensionless
constant

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Lumped element model for Poiseuille flow

R pois =

P 12L
=
Q Wh 3

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Velocity Profiles
Velocity profiles for a
combination of
pressure-driven
(Poiseuille) and plate
motion (Couette) flow

Stokes, or creeping, flow


If Re << 1 , inertial term may
be neglected compared to
viscous term

Development length
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Distance before flow assume


steady-state profile

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Lecture Outline
Todays Lecture
Basic Fluidic Concepts
Conservation of Mass Continuity Equation
Newtons Second Law Navier-Stokes Equation
Incompressible Laminar Flow in Two Cases
Squeeze-Film Damping in MEMS

EE C245

27

U. Srinivasan

Squeezed Film Damping

EE C245

Squeezed film damping in


parallel plates
Gap h depends on x, y, and t
When upper plate moves
downward, Pair increases and
air is squeezed out
When upper plate moves
upward, Pair decreases and
air is sucked back in
Viscous drag of air during
flow opposes mechanical
motion

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F
moveable

h
fixed

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Squeezed Film Damping


Assumptions

Gap h << width of plates


Motion slow enough so gas moves under Stokes flow
No P in normal direction
Lateral flow has Poiseuille like velocity profile
Gas obeys Ideal Gas Law
No change in T
( Ph )

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Reynolds equation

12

= [(1 + 6K n )h 3 PP ]

Navier-Stokes + continuity + Ideal Gas


Law
Knudsen number Kn is ratio of mean
free path of gas molecules to gap h
Kn < 0.01, continuum flow
Kn > 0.1, slip flow becomes important
1 m gap with room air, =

h
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Squeezed Film Damping


Approach

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Small amplitude rigid


motion of upper plate, h(t)
Begin with non-linear partial
differential equation
Linearize about operating
point, average gap h0 and
average pressure P0
Boundary conditions
At t = 0, plate suddenly
displaced vertically amount
z0 (velocity impulse)
At t > 0+, v = 0
Pressure changes at edges
of plate are zero: dP/dh = 0
at y = 0, y = W

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( Ph ) h 3
[ 2 P 2 ]
=
24
t
h = h0 + h and

p = P0 + P

h02 P0 2 p 1 dh
p

=
t 12W 2 2 h0 dt
P
y
p=
and =
P0
W
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General Solution
Laplace transform of response to general time-dependent source z(s)

96LW 3

1
sz ( s )
F(s ) =

4 3
4
S
h0 n odd n (1 + n )

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plate velocity

b
96LW 3
2h02 P0
F(s ) =
sz ( s ), b =
, c =
1 + Sc
12W 2
4 h03
1st term for small
amplitude oscillation

damping
constant

cutoff
frequency
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Squeeze Number
Squeeze number d is a measure of relative
importance of viscous forces to spring forces
< c : model reduces to linear resistive damping element
> c : stiffness of gas increases since it does not have
time to squeeze out

2 12W 2
= 2

h0 P0
c

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squeeze number d =

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Examples

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Analytical and numerical


results of damping and spring
forces vs. squeeze number for
square plate
Transient responses for two
squeeze numbers, 20 and 60

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Senturia group, MIT

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