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Uploaded by Diomar Cesar Lobão

This work demonstrate how to use Mathematica to
solve typical problems in celestial mechanics. Since
Mathematica is so powerful and the documentation is
so extensive, is believed that a good way to the beginner
users is learn by examples. In this work is presented
some typical examples which are the right way to begin
the exploration which Mathematica can provide. Math-
ematica graphics is the most amazing feature of this
software. The unique combination of graphics, symbolic
and numerical computing provides both: qualitative and
quantitative insight into many problems which by other
way would be very difficult to visualize or understand.
In the present work three examples are studied. First,
the integration of a system involving four differential
equations which describe galactic orbits. Second, the
zero velocity curves for the restricted three{body prob-
lem and nally, the Kepler equation solved by a symbolic
approach solution.

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Mechanics

y

D.C. Lob~

ao

y

Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento { IPD

ba { UNIVAP

S~

ao Jos

e dos Campos, SP

Brasil

also be one of the most expensive. The full version of

This work demonstrate how to use Mathematica to Mathematica for Windows costs about US$1500. The

solve typical problems in celestial mechanics. Since student edition of Mathematica for Windows is more

Mathematica is so powerful and the documentation is

aordable and still retains all the important features

so extensive, is believed that a good way to the beginner which will be used in this article. There is a drawback

users is learn by examples. In this work is presented for the student edition version it does not support a co-

some typical examples which are the right way to begin processor and require an true compatible computer with

the exploration which Mathematica can provide. Math- a 80386 or 80486 CPU. There are versions available for

ematica graphics is the most amazing feature of this

the Macintosh computers with and without coproces-

software. The unique combination of graphics, symbolic sors.

and numerical computing provides both: qualitative and

quantitative insight into many problems which by other The Mathematica software is a powerful blend of

way would be very diÆcult to visualize or understand. graphics, symbolic computing and numeric calculations.

In the present work three examples are studied. First, The graphics capabilities include two and three dimen-

the integration of a system involving four dierential sional plots, parametric plots, contour and density plots.

equations which describe galactic orbits. Second, the The user has complete control over how graphics infor-

zero velocity curves for the restricted three{body prob- mation can be displayed. Mathematica also includes

lem and nally, the Kepler equation solved by a symbolic an easy to use 3D viewpoint selector which allows the

approach solution. user to interactively specify the viewpoint for graphic

display.

Mathematica includes extensive symbolic computing

Key words: Celestial mechanics, Mathematica , di- features. In addition to basic operations, symbolic cal-

dactic support. culations can be performed in the areas of dierentia-

tion, integration, sums and products, algebraic equa-

tions, dierential equations, power series and limits.

1 Introduction The basic capability of Mathematica can be easily ex-

panded with the use of "packages". These packages are

additional special functions written in the Mathematica

Graphic, intuitive and easy{to{use, the Mathemat- language. A set of "standard" packages are included

ica gives the power need to perform a wide range of with Mathematica and one can also program their own.

technical calculations, from start to nish. It has the The standard packages add additional capability in the

familiar Windows look and make the user feel already areas of algebra, calculus, discrete mathematics, geom-

comfortable with. etry, graphics, linear algebra, number theory, numerical

mathematics, statistics and many more are available.

Internal Report presented at IPD, 1995.

1

In this work is used the version 2.2.1 of the Mathe- However, in order to solve by numerical means the

matica software for Windows environment. The exam- system of rst order dierential equations given by eq(5)

ples which are treated are "generic" and should execute is need establish the initial conditions, which are the

on any computer. same as proposed in [7]:

x = y =0

2 Theoretical Development x_ = 0:0980 Kpc=107 years

y_ = 0:07480 Kpc=107 years

A = 0:07600 (107 )years

2.1 Pro jections of Galactic Orbits B = 0:55000 (107 )years

" 2

= 0:2060 (107 ) Kpc 1 years 2

The study of periodic orbits which is found in some

studies of galactic orbits was carried out by Contopoulos The Mathematica program to solve this system and

[6] and afterwards by Barbanis [7] in a series of papers. plot the orbits for a period of 25 x 107 years is given as

The main study is about the periodic orbits in the eld follow:

V = 12 (Ax2 + By 2 ) "xy2 when " is considered small.

In the case of the potential eld given by va=0.076

vb=0.550

1 eps=0.206

V = (Ax2 + By2 ) "xy2 (1)

sol = NDSolve[

2

{x1'[t]-va*x3[t]+eps*x4[t]^2==0,

Is possible to write the energy integral as x2'[t] -vb*x4[t]+2*eps*x3[t]*x4[t]==0,

x3'[t]+x1[t]==0,

H = H0 + "H1 (2) x4'[t]+x2[t]==0,

x1[0]==-0.0989,x2[0]==0.07480,

where x3[0]==0,x4[0]==0},{x1,x2,x3,x4},{t,25},

AccuracyGoal -> Automatic, PrecisionGoal->

1 Automatic, WorkingPrecision -> 16]

H0 = (x_ 2 + y_ 2 + Ax2 + By 2 ) (3) ParametricPlot[Evaluate[{x4[t],x4'[t]} /.

2 sol], {t,0,25}, PlotRange -> All]

H1 = "xy 2 (4)

where X1 = x_ , X2 = y_ and Y1 = x, Y2 = y . x1 = x;_ x2 = y;

_ x3 = x and x4 = y .

The dynamical system whose equations of motions The eld represented by the following gures does

are written in function of the Hamiltonian H is given not represent any real stellar system; in fact it should

by represent approximately a circular stellar system. The

advantage in use this short Mathematica code is the fact

that with it usage a FORTRAN code of 450 lines ap-

dXj @H proximately, without counting for the graphics routines,

=

dt @ Yj was avoided.

dY j @H

= (j=1,2) (5) 2.2 The Surfaces of Zero Relative Velocity

dt @ Xj

It is assumed that H does not depend on the time ex- In order to study such problem is need formulate the

plicitly and that the system is solved if " reduces to three{body problem. The general problem of motion of

zero. three bodies, assumed to be point masses, subject only

In eq(5) x and y are the coordinates in the galactic to their mutual gravitational attractions has not been

plane. A; B and " are positive constants respectively. solved, although many particular solutions have been

As stated by Contopoulos when A = B the movement found. A particular case is the restricted three{body

is non{resonant and when A = 4B the movement is res- problem, in this case two bodies of nite mass revolve

onant. Is possible obtain similar results applying Hori's around one another in circular orbits, and a third body

method [8] to this study. of innitesimal mass moves in their eld. This situation

Figure 1: Orbits in phase plane x1; x_ 1

Figure 3: Orbits in phase plane x3; x_ 3

is approximately realized in many instances in the so-

lar system. See the gure 5 to visualize the geometric

situation [1].

As can be observed in gure 5, let the origin be at Figure 4: Orbits in phase plane x4; x_ 4

the center of mass of the two masses and take the axes

rotating with the masses, such that they lie along the

x{axis. Take the unit of mass to be the sum of their

masses, and left separate masses be and (1 ), where

1=2. The axes will be rotating with constant angu-

lar velocity, ! , say, and bodies will be xed at (x2 ; 0; 0)

and (x1 ; 0; 0), where x1 is negative. Let the unit of dis-

tance be ( x1 + x2 ), and let the unit of time be such as

to make k = 1. Then, in this units is possible to write

s

(1 ) +

!=k =1 (6)

( x1 + x2 )3

For positioning the innitesimal mass at (x; y; z ) and

let

and

curves given by eq(13), mark the boundaries of the re-

(x x2 )2 + y 2 + z 2 = r22 (8) gions within which motion can take place. Lets consider

the following cases for possible motions:

If v is the speed of the innitesimal mass with respect

to the moving axes is possible to write the following Case I. When C is very large, x2 + y2 =

equation C (nearly) eq(13) will be positive either if x and

y are very large or if r1 or r2 are very small. Like-

v2 = x_ 2 + y_ 2 + z_ 2 (9) wise for small r1 and r2 , and large C , the x2 and y 2

terms in eq(13) become insignicant compared with

and the modied energy integral

the third and fourth terms. The result is the pair

1 2 2 1 2 of ovals surrounding (1 ) and . For this large

V ! + r_ = constant (10) value of C , motion can not take place in the region

2 2 between the ovals and the outer contour. Motion

the term 21 ! 2 2 is the rotational potential. Where r can occur if the particle is within the ovals or out-

have components z along Oz and at right angles to side the nearly circular contour located at extern

Oz . boundary.

The modied energy integral can be written as fol-

lowing Case II. Allowing C to decrease, the ovals around

(1 ) and expand, and the outer contour moves

toward the center of the gure. The oval contours

2(1 ) 2 in this case have merged into a single closed contour

v 2 = x2 + y 2 + + C (11) around the two masses.

r1 r2

where C is a constant. The eq(11) is the Jacobi's Inte- Case III. Decreasing C further, the regions of sta-

gral.

bility, that is, the areas of the plane in which mo-

tion can occur, become larger. The enlarged oval

If v = 0 the eq(11) is written as pattern around the nite masses merges into that

outside the exterior oval, leaving only two small re-

2 2 2(1 ) 2 gion of tadpole{like shape that eventually shrink to

x +y + + =C (12)

r1 r2 points.

where r12 = (x + )2 + y 2 and r22 = (x 1 + )2 + y 2 .

In order to have a concrete idea of such contour

For some value of C the eq(12) will be the locus of curves, let to use the following Mathematica code to

surfaces in space to be described next. Considering the make in a very easy way the work of plotting the con-

eq(11) as a function of v 2 , then is possible to see that v 2 tours for = 0:25 and C = 4;

changes sign when a surface is crossed. This is possible

when the crossing does not take place at a double point.

Hence the motion can take place on one side of the sur- Clear[f]

face but not on other. This is similar to the theorem, in f[x_,y_]=x^2+y^2+2*(1-mu)/Sqrt[(x+mu)^2+y^2]\

the problem of two bodies, stating that the nite mo- +(2*mu)/Sqrt[(x-1+mu)^2+y^2] - 4;

tion is restricted within a circle of radius 2a. This can mu=.25;

also be deduced from the energy integral. ContourPlot[f[x,y],{x,-2,2},{y,-2,2},

ContourSmoothing -> Automatic,

The constant C depends upon the initial position and ContourShading->False,PlotPoints->50]

velocity of the particle. Clearly there will be curves of

zero speed given in Cartesian coordinates by

This situation in the x y plane is illustrated in g-

ure 6. The basic reference to curves of zero velocity is

2 2 (1 ) [3].

C + x2 + y 2 + q +q

By the other hand, if one explicit z as function of x; y

( 1 + + x) 2 + y 2 ( + x)2 + y 2

is possible rewrite the eq(11) as

(13)

Motion of the particle can occur only in those regions 2(1 ) 2

of the x y plane for which eq(13) > 0. The contour z = x2 + y2 + + C (14)

r1 r2

where e is to be regarded as a small quantity. Equation

(15) is known as the Kepler equation. The problem is

capable of formal solution in terms of Bessel function in

the form

1 J (ne) sin(nu)

X n

E =u+2 (16)

n =1 n

up to the 5th order in e it would be perfectly possible

to sum the rst 5 terms of this series using a computer.

However, consider what is involved in this procedure.

Figure 6: Contour for C = 4 Is possible to write a Mathematica code to generate the

individual Bessel functions and arrange to ignore those

terms of order k > 5 that arise in e. From the Kepler

equation it is clear that E = u to zero order in e.

Suppose E = u + Ak is the solution correct to order k

in e. Then clearly

Where the right hand member of eq(17) is to be taken

only to order k + 1 in e. Thus an approximation algo-

rithm may be stated as follows

E = u + nlim

!1 An (18)

Figure 7: 3D Contour for C = 4 where

The level curves correspond to curves of zero velocity

in x; y; z . In order to implement this, the Mathematica A0 = 0 (19)

program is given by and

Clear[f]

mu=.25; A2k A4k

f[x_,y_]=x^2+y^2+2*(1-mu)/Sqrt[(x+mu)^2+y^2]\ Ak+1 = e sin(u) 1

2!

+

4!

(20)

+(2*mu)/Sqrt[(x-1+mu)^2+y^2] - 4;

A3k

+e cos(u) Ak +

Plot3D[f[x,y],{x,-2,2},{y,-2,2}, 3! k+1

PlotRange->{0,5},PlotPoints->50,

Boxed->False, Mesh -> False] The Mathematica code which implement the eq(18)

and eq(20) is written as

This situation in the x y z plane is illustrated in

gure 7. a[0]=0;

Do [

2.3 The Kepler Equation

t1=1-a[k-1]^2/2+a[k-1]^4/24;

t2=a[k-1]-a[k-1]^3/6;

a[k]=Expand[e*Sin[u]*t1+e*Cos[u]*t2,Trig->

This example is concerned with the solution for E , True];

as a function of u and e, of the implicit equation Simplify[a[k]];

TeXForm[a[k]] >>"tex.01";

E = u + e sin(E ) (15) Print [a[k],k], {k,2}]

The "output" le "tex.01" is shown below. In this

result only terms of order 5 in e are calculated.

3 e3 sin(u) 5 e5 sin(u)

e sin(u) +

8 192

e2 sin(2 u) e4 sin(2 u) e3 sin(3 u)

+ +

2 24 8

5 e5 sin(3 u) e4 sin(4 u) e5 sin(5 u)

+ +

384 48 384

References

ics, Willmann{Bell, Inc., USA, 1992.

[2] Wolfram, S., Mathematica, A System for Doing

Mathematics by Computer, Addison{Wesley Pub-

lishing Company, USA, 1991.

[3] Hill, G.W., Researchers in the Lunar Theory,

American Journal of Mathematics, Vol. 1, Number

5, pp. 129{245, 1878.

[4] Barton, D. and Fitch, J.P., A Review of Algebraic

Manipulative Programs and Their Application, The

Computer Journal, Vol. 15, 4, pp. 362-381, 1972.

[5] McCuskey, S.W., Introduction to Celestial Mechan-

ics, Addison{Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.,

USA, 1963.

[6] Contopoulos, G., Resonance Cases and Small Di-

visors in a Third Integral of Motion. I, The Astro-

nomical Journal, Vol. 68, 10, pp. 763-779, 1963.

[7] Barbanis, B., Projections of Galactic Orbits, The

Astronomical Journal, Vol. 70, 4, pp. 285-295,

1963.

[8] Hori, G., Theory of General Perturbations with Un-

specied canonical Variables , Publication of Astro-

nomical Society of Japan, 18, 4, pp. 287-295, 1966.

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