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Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2011 Vol II,

IMECS 2011, March 16 - 18, 2011, Hong Kong

Analysis Plant Layout Design for Effective


Production
Anucha Watanapa, Phichit Kajondecha, Patcharee Duangpitakwong , and Wisitsree Wiyaratn

AbstractThis research aims to improve the plant layout of


pulleys factory to eliminate obstructions in material flow and
thus obtain maximum productivity. The present plant layout
and the operation process of each section (i.e. sand mold, core
ware house, core making, disassembly surface finishing,
furnace, and inspection sections) have been investigated. The
problem in term of material flow of each operation section was
indentified. The result showed that disassembly surface
finishing and inspection sections should be allocated to make
the good material flow. The suitable of new plant layout can
decrease the distance of material flow, which rises production.
Keywordsplant layout, material flow, production,

I. INTRODUCTION
In industry sectors, it is important to manufacture the
products which have good quality products and meet
customers demand. This action could be conducted under
existing resources such as employees, machines and other
facilities. However, plant layout improvement, could be one
of the tools to response to increasing industrial
productivities. Plant layout design has become a
fundamental basis of todays industrial plants which can
influence parts of work efficiency. It is needed to
appropriately plan and position employees, materials,
machines, equipments, and other manufacturing supports
and facilities to create the most effective plant layout.
In the present, there are several methods for plant layout
design such as systematic layout planning (SLP) [1,2],
algorithms [3,4], and arena simulation [5] can apply to
design plant. Yujie et al. [1] studied SLP method to design
the overall layout of log yards, the result showed the good
workflow and was possible rearrangement pant layout under
significance. Plant layout analysis and design for multiproducts line production has been studied by Jaturachat et
al. [5] .This work was carried out to investigate the suitable
A. Watanapa. is with the Production Technology education, Faculty of
Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkuts University of
Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand (e-mail: anucha.wat@
kmutt.ac.th)
P. Kajondecha. is with printing and packaging technology, Faculty of
Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkuts University of
Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand (e-mail: phichit.kaj@
kmutt.ac.th)
P. Duangpitakwong. is with the Production Technology education,
Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkuts
University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand (e-mail:
patcharee.cha@ kmutt.ac.th)
W. Wiyaratn. is with the Production Technology education, Faculty of
Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkuts University of
Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand (corresponding author to
provide: e-mail: wisitsree.wiy@ kmutt.ac.th).
.

ISBN: 978-988-19251-2-1
ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print); ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online)

plant layout design for denture manufacturing. The suitable


4 plant layout models were designed and compared the
efficiency of each plant by adjacency-based scoring.
Moreover, line balancing was done to allocate human
resource by using simulation programming (Arena 10) to
find the increasing productivity of the new improvement
layout. These thus reflect the importance of the plant layout
design to bring about an increase in productivities. Yet, plat
layout design is complicated due to many related factors
such as employees, workflow, machine positions, and the
relationship between machines and work. These factors
result in plant layout improvement planning. Moreover,
investment is required for machine positioning. Hence, the
primary step for plant layout improvement should be started
with indentifying the problems of the current plant layout in
order to maximize the productivities at the minimized
investment. This research therefore aims to find out the
causes of discontinuous work flow in pulley plant resulting
from the plant layout. The researchers of this research have
studied on the problems occurred to improve the plant
layout and minimized the budget for the improvement.
II. PLANT LAYOUT PLANNING
A. Procedure for Plant Layout Designs
The sequences of procedure following three steps were
described.
1. The fundamental of plant layout was studied.
2. Machines are collected
3. The process for product production has been used in
analysis.
4. The present plant layout was analyzed to identify the
problem under flow material and operation.
5. The suggestions were collected to write the report and
were proposed to authorize to make decision for
rearrangement the plant layout.
B. Analysis of original plant layout
This case is based on a Pulley factory, where located in
Thailand. Pulleys, size 2 rong 5 inch, were produced 320
pieces of day. Pulley systems are used in the real world to
lift large masses onto tall heights. Pulley is made from a
wheel and a rope. This factory has been design the plant
layout based on process layout was shown in Fig. 1. The
initially pulley production, metals from scrap yard were
moved to furnace for melting, along with core making then
their materials moved to sand mold and disassembly and
surface finishing section respectively. The pulleys are
investigated by inspectors at inspection section, following
kept at warehouse. The details of each section were
IMECS 2011

Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2011 Vol II,
IMECS 2011, March 16 - 18, 2011, Hong Kong

described as follow. In additional the size and number of


equipments was relational to area as shown in Table 1.

1. Sand plant is the section with approximately 212 m2


working area. It is the starting point of the
manufacturing process.
2. Core making is the section which produces cores
starting with moving the sand in to make the cores.
Then the cores will be stored in core store.
3. Core store is the section which stores the cores to use
in the manufacturing.
4. Sand mold section is the section continues from the
sand plant and core making sections where the
workers put the sand into the mold and compress it
with jolt squeeze machine. The core is then inserted
in each sand mold and all sand molds are moved to
wait for pouring molten metal.
5. Furnace section is the section which the plant uses
cupola furnace for a metal casting. When the work is
added with the molten metal and left for 1 night, it is
then moved to disassembly and surface finish
sections.
6. Disassembly and surface finish section is the section
which disassembles the mold and finishes the works
surface before sending it for quality inspection.
7. Inspection is the section which inspect whether the
work has defect such as crack or fin. The work with
defect identified will be sorted out while the work
with no defect will be sent to warehouse to wait for
the delivery to customers.
TABLE I. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EQUIPMENT SIZE AND AREA

Total
Department

working
2

Number of
equipments
and machines

Material
handling

area (m )

Core making

Scrap Yard

Furnace

Furnace

Core store

Sand mold
Sand plant

Disassembly
and surface
finish

Disassembly
and surface
finish

Packaging

Inspection

Packaging

Figure 1. Process layout of Pulley production

III. ANALYSIS PLANT LAYOUT


According to the study of the manufacturing process, the
details for flow of material, the sand mold, core ware house,
core making, disassembly and surface finishing, inspection
sections, and material handling equipment were described as
follows.

Sand plant

212.4

A. Sand mold

Sand mold by machine

386.56

16

Core store

25.92

Core making

29.4

10

Inspection

98.15

Disassembly surface
finish

19.47

This section makes a mold with a jolt squeeze machine and


locates at the east area of the plants. The area consists of
zones for making molds and placing finished molds to wait
for pouring molten metal. All zones are clearly separated
and work on different types of works. The problem found is
that the wall separating sand mold and furnace causes an
indirect path between these two zones which increase the
time consumption for molten metal transferring.

Melting casting

106.2

Inventory

2.25

Sand mold by hand

53.1

Raw material

48.01

Scrap yard

33

Sand ware house

35

B. Core warehouse
It is located almost at the buildings end near the furnace.
The section is a rectangle room surrounded by metal fence
and one door for entrance and exit. Inside the room, cores
are all placed on the floor which causes inconvenience in
getting them for usage. Thus, there should be shelves to
orderly place the cores.
C. Core making
This section is located at the buildings end with brick
furnace set up orderly. However, there is untidy placement

ISBN: 978-988-19251-2-1
ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print); ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online)

IMECS 2011

Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2011 Vol II,
IMECS 2011, March 16 - 18, 2011, Hong Kong

of some works such as cores around the furnace which may


cause an accident. Therefore, the core making and core
warehouse sections should be moved to be adjacent in order
to reduce the time consumed in core transferring. Besides,
the 5 S training should be emphasized to employees for
work habit improvement.
D. Disassembly and surface finishing
The distance from sand mold section to disassembly and
surface finishing section is far with indirect path, causing
longer time in transferring works. The problem should be
solved by relocating disassembly and surface finishing
section to be in between sand mold section and inspection
section with shorter direct path. This could reduce the
distance and time in transferring works
Inspection section
This section inspects work as the last step of the process
before moving the works to warehouse or delivering to
customers. The problem occurred is that the all types of
works are placed together without separation causing all
products to mix up.
After studying on the mentioned information, the new
plant layout design is created by setting the disassembly and
surface finishing section to be in between sand plant section
and inspection section (Fig.2). In addition, the inspection
section is improved to prevent an error of mixed-up product
types.

According to the analysis of the workflow for the pulleys


with the size of 2 rong 3 inch, it was found that sand mold,
disassembly and surface finishing, core ware house, core
making, furnace, and inspection sections should be modified
for the layout for convenient workflow. The distance of
workflow from the modified plant layout of their sections
can be reduced. Not only improving workflow but also the
accidents from objects which were not in order during
material transportation can be decreased. Finally,
rearranging layout decreased distance and time consumption
in flow of material and accidents, resulting in an increase in
productivity.
REFERENCES
[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

Y. Zhu, and F. Wang, Study on the General Plane of Log Yards


Based on Systematic Layout Planning, IEEE. Computer Society, vol.
4, 2009, pp. 9295.
Y. Lin, and W. Li, Study on the use of SLP in Planning and
Designing of Steel Distribution Center, Chinese and Foreign
Architecture, 2007, pp. 124-127.
T. Prochanmarn, N. Suwadee, and C. Chonthicha Using Promodel as
simulation tools to assist plant layout design and planning case study
plastic packaging factory, Songklanakarin Journal of Science and
Technology vol 30, 2008, pp. 117-123.
S.K. Deb Computerized Plant Layout Design using Hydrid
Methodology under manufacturing Environment, IE(I) Journal-PR
vol 85, 2005, pp. 46-51.
P. Jaturachat, N. Charoenchai, and K. Leksakul Plant layout analysis
and design for multi-products line production, IE-Network
conference,2007, pp.844-849.

Core making

Scrap Yard

Furnace

IV. CONCLUSION

Core store

Furnace

Sand mold
Sand plant

Disassembly
and surface
finish

Disassembly
and surface
finish

Inspection

Inspection

Packaging

Packaging

Figure 2. Process layout of Pulley production

ISBN: 978-988-19251-2-1
ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print); ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online)

IMECS 2011