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Water hammer (part 3) –
Dynamic Analysis using
Caesar II

The “Water hammer” tutorial is a 3 part tutorial describing the
phenomena of water hammer in a piping system and how BOSfluids
can be used to examine the resulting pressure spike and unbalanced
forces in the system. The third part of the tutorial describes how
unbalanced forces can be exported by BOSfluids and imported in the
pipe stress analysis program Caesar II to perform a dynamic stress

BOSfluids allows the import and export of the complete piping system. illustrated in Figure 1. BOSfluids® will be used to calculate the pressure rise and the unbalanced forces that result from the closure. INTRODUCTION A piping system.BOSfluids Water Hammer Part 3 1. Page 1 of 14 . The first part of the Water Hammer tutorial describes the model construction. The unbalanced force – time history results can be exported to a data file. The dynamic analysis of the water hammer event is completed in this third part of the tutorial. Also the results from the fluid flow analysis can be exported. resulting in a water hammer. Copyright © Dynaflow Research Group. The second part describes the postprocessing of results and the available output options in BOSfluids. To prevent the need to model the same piping system twice. which can be imported by a pipe stress analysis software package such as CAESAR II. some of the theory of pressure waves and the set-up of the analysis. This final part of the Water Hammer tutorial shows how to import a BOSfluids model into the pipe stress analysis package CAESAR II and how the unbalanced force results of a BOSfluids flow analysis can be used in CAESAR II to perform a dynamic stress analysis. is subject to a sudden valve closure at the pump suction end. Figure 1 | 3-D model of piping system Typically a thorough investigation of a piping system does not only require a fluid flow analysis. as performed in BOSfluids. which describes how to export a piping model and unbalanced force results to CAESAR II. but also a static and dynamic stress analysis.

but are still able to generate a large mechanical response if the excitation frequency is close to the mechanical natural frequency of the piping system. The unbalanced forces in the event of a water hammer are generated by pressure waves traveling through the piping system. Generally. elbows and Page 2 of 14 the pressure difference between the two the internal diameter. harmonic excitation and a step/shock excitation. MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS IN PIPING SYSTEMS Mechanical vibrations in piping systems can be created through a variety of different excitation mechanisms. Copyright © Dynaflow Research Group. The initial peak provides the largest force and hence a large mechanical response in the system. two types of excitation mechanisms are defined. The pressure waves generate a pressure difference between two elbows in a straight section of pipe and thereby an axial force. The water hammer event described in this tutorial consists of both excitation mechanisms. while shock/step excitation originates from a sudden impulse force applied to a system. while the secondary reflections will have a smaller amplitude.BOSfluids Water Hammer Part 3 2. The axial force on this pipe section can be calculated by: With the friction force along the pipe wall. . At locations where the piping system is constraint by supports. it must be made sure that the supports can sustain the maximum loads. The response of the system depends on the mechanical properties. Typically a dynamic stress analysis is started by investigating the effect of the largest loads on the most flexible section of the system. since it is generally here where the largest displacements and stress concentrations will occur. Initially a large pressure peak is generated followed by a harmonic pressure force due to the reflection of the pressure waves in the closed system. Harmonic excitation is a constant periodic force on a system. restraints and geometry.

the BOSfluids model can be imported in CAESAR II. so the neutral file should have a file version equal to or lower than the CEASAR II version the user is currently running. To obtain the piping model in CEASAR II. Note that CEASAR II is not backward compatible. CREATING THE CAESAR II MODEL It is common for piping engineers to construct the piping model first in a pipe stress package like CAESAR II to determine the locations of restraints and to perform code compliance checks. the piping model has been created in BOSfluids.3 will be used in this tutorial). The neutral file can be converted to a CAESAR II input file by selecting ToolsExternal InterfacesCAESAR II neutral file from the toolbar. An Export Options window is shown to select which scenario to export. requesting a File Name and Type.1. browse to the neutral file created in step 3 and click Convert. 1. Select the file type Caesar II Neutral File from the drop down menu and click browse. open CEASAR II (version 5. Importing the BOSfluids model in CAESAR II For the current water hammer tutorial. Having created the neutral file. As a second step. Select Convert Neutral file to CAESAR II Input File. Within BOSfluids open the water hammer model from the first part of the tutorial. The Neutral File Generator window will appear. Also the required units and CEASAR II version can be selected. 3.cii. 4. pump trips etc. a fluid flow analysis is performed to examine the effect fluid dynamics due to valve closures. Copyright © Dynaflow Research Group. 5. Select FileExport. Figure 2 | Export the BOSfluids model 3. In BOSfluids it is possible to import a piping model from a software package such as CAESAR II. Page 3 of 14 . An Export Model window will appear. Select the directory where the file will be saved and name it Hammer. 2.BOSfluids Water Hammer Part 3 3.

55. are imported as ridged elements with a weight of 1 N. 80. 3. . Complete the model by adding the following parameters. 50. A CAESAR II model file has now been created and can be opened by selecting FileOpen from the toolbar. node numbering and pipe properties such as diameter and thickness are all imported from BOSfluids. 26. For this model only rest supports are applied. 60.3 Valve weight 1000 N Anchor restraint Nodes: 1. such as the valve. 40. Completing the CEASAR II model Having imported the BOSfluids model. Non-pipe elements. 105 Copyright © Dynaflow Research Group.2. 125 Rest support (+Y) Nodes: 5. Structural boundary conditions and restraints and some additional pipe properties should be added.BOSfluids Water Hammer Part 3 Figure 3 | Convert the neutral file to a CAESAR II input file 6. 65 70. some additional modeling is required before the model can be run in CAESAR II. 95. so maximum flexibility is achieved. The piping layout.2 barg Pipe material A106 B Allowable Stress Code B31. Table 1 | Additional model parameters Page 4 of 14 Parameter Description Pressure 17. 100.

We are primarily interested in the vibration modes that could get excited by the unbalanced forces caused by the water hammer. For example when the pipe experiences a gap with respect to a support for a certain static load case. DYNAMIC STRESS ANALYSIS When performing a dynamic stress analysis typically two steps are required. when it uses this static load case as base. The first step is the determination of the systems modal natural frequencies. Modal Analysis Once the static analysis has been performed (where the static loads case should not lead to stresses exceeding the allowable). Since the dynamic analysis in CAESAR II uses a linear calculation. the status of non-linear effects such as lift off from supports and friction need to be determined from a static stress analysis. As explained in the first parts of this Copyright © Dynaflow Research Group. the pipe would be unable to experience lift off from the support during the dynamic analysis. When the pipe is restraint by the same support for another static load case and this load case would be taken as base. a modal analysis is performed.BOSfluids Water Hammer Part 3 4. Page 5 of 14 . 4. For our current water hammer model we use the sustained static loads as base for our dynamic analysis. During a modal analysis the various natural vibration modes and associated natural frequencies are calculated. Static Stress Analysis Before performing a dynamic stress analysis in CAESAR II a static stress analysis has to be performed. The dynamic analysis uses the results from a static load case as equilibrium situation.1. see Figure 5. Figure 4 | Perform a static analysis 4. But first a static stress analysis has to be performed.2. this support will not be taken into account during the dynamic analysis. The second step is the determination of the pipe stresses due to the dynamic loads.

so a first investigation should be made for the modes that show a vibration in axial direction for the pipe sections from node 40 to 75 and from node 90 to 110. The associated natural frequency is 0.BOSfluids Water Hammer Part 3 tutorial the highest forces will occur in the longest stretches of piping. see Figure 7. the second mode shape that is found shows a vibration along the axis in the pipe section from node 40 to 75.69 Hz. see Figure 6. Recall that from the results of the BOSfluids analysis (see part 2 of this tutorial) the water hammer caused an initially a large pressure peak followed by a periodic oscillation of the pressure (pressure waves reflecting from both ends of the piping system).16 Hz. A quick estimation of the dynamic load factor for the found mode shape can be made by using the following relation: √( Page 6 of 14 ( ) ) ( ) Copyright © Dynaflow Research Group. . The frequency associated with the periodic oscillation was found to be 4. Figure 5 | Perform a modal analysis Figure 6 | Vibration modes of interest When the results of the modal analysis are examined.

however the dynamic stress analysis might require some adjustments of the analysis parameters.1.8%. Time History Analysis To perform a time history analysis the results of the unbalanced loads are imported in CAESAR II using the Export Forces feature in BOSfluids.3. This means no problems are expected for this dynamic interaction. Investigation of the results showed that it was sufficiently small to capture the initial force peak and the following harmonic oscillations. would lead to a dynamic amplification of: √( ( ) ) So the first structural mode of interest would be excited by the periodic part of the fluid dynamics with an amplification of 2.3. 4. see Figure 8. However the excitation of the higher mode shapes is more complex and should not be dismissed so easily. Output Range and Temporal Resolution The output range and temporal resolution was already determined in part 1 of the tutorial before performing the dynamic flow analysis. Copyright © Dynaflow Research Group.BOSfluids Water Hammer Part 3 Figure 7 | Frequency spectrum of the pressure results at node 50 A conservative assumption where no dampening is assumed (ζ=0). 4. To get a more thorough understanding of the dynamic response of the piping system under the loads of the water hammer. But first the output range and resolution are redefined. a dynamic analysis using the time history of the unbalanced forces should be performed. During the fluid flow analysis the temporal resolution was set automatically by BOSfluids. Page 7 of 14 .

Figure 9 | Dynamic load factor Page 8 of 14 Copyright © Dynaflow Research Group. A conservative approximation would be to choose the temporal resolution to be 10% of the time period of the highest frequency.BOSfluids Water Hammer Part 3 Figure 8 | Force results at node 50 The temporal resolutions used by the solver and used for the output are found by opening the Transient Warning & Messages report. To determine the highest frequency of interest again the dynamic load factor is used.2 the dynamic load factor remains 1. .3657 ms and the output interval is 6. the temporal resolution should be small enough to capture the highest natural frequency of interest. The time step used by the solver is found to be 0. From Figure 9 it can be seen that for frequency ratios below 0.0 (no amplification).0 ms. For the dynamic stress analysis.

3.BOSfluids Water Hammer Part 3 The highest natural frequency of interest could therefore be estimated by: Using this relation with an excitation frequency of 4. The required output interval to capture this frequency can be estimated by .2. 4. This frequency was found in the modal analysis to be 0. Page 9 of 14 . see Figure 10.2 seconds was taken for the initial transient).16 Hz.69 Hz. the End Time and the Simulation Time are increased to 5 seconds and the output interval is set to 0.005 seconds. Figure 10 | Analysis settings Copyright © Dynaflow Research Group. the highest frequency of interest becomes 20. This would mean the output range should be approximately 4 seconds (where an extra 1. Since the valve in the water hammer case closes after 1 second the Output Start Time is taken to be 1 second. The output range should be long enough to capture at least 2 periods of the smallest natural frequency of interest. Rerun the Simulation and Export the Results from BOSfluids The new parameters for the output range and interval can entered in the analysis settings.8 Hz.

The start time. The unbalanced forces can be exported by selecting ToolsExport Forces. BOSfluids can shift the output data so the first data point starts at zero seconds by ticking the Start at Zero option. see Figure 11. Figure 11 | Export the unbalanced forces CAESAR II will always start its dynamic stress analysis at zero seconds. Page 10 of 14 Copyright © Dynaflow Research Group. so when a data file does not start at zero seconds CAESAR II will still perform calculations for the time between zero and the output start time using a zero force input. By selecting File Type : Caesar II. this will reduce computation times during the CAESAR II dynamic analysis. end time and time step should be changed according to the new analysis settings.BOSfluids Water Hammer Part 3 Rerun the simulation in the Run tab. the time history results for each node pair (these were defined in part 1) are stored in separate files. Change to the Results tab and check the output data by re-generating the unbalanced force plot for node 50 as in Figure 8. Click Export to generate the data files. .

4. In the first tab Time History Definitions the time history file is referenced by typing #<file name> in the name field. untick the comment (Cmt) checkbox for the first line and use the input parameters as shown in Figure 12. Define a force set with number 1 as shown in Figure 13. Select the Force Sets tab. only one data file is imported in CAESAR II. Add a force set in the X-direction at a node anywhere on the pipe section of interest except for the bend nodes. however the user should be carefully evaluate the sign of the applied forces. in this case on Node 50. Figure 12 | Time History Definitions 2. since the actual magnitude of the forces is defined by the data file. The forces on different pipe sections should work against each other in such a way the resulting deformation represents the worst case scenario in terms of resulting stresses. Multiple data files can be imported and solved in a load case.BOSfluids Water Hammer Part 3 The data files consist of simple ascii based text and can be opened by any text editor.3.3. Before importing the files in CAESAR II confirm that the correct units are used for the time history results (force in Newton and time in milliseconds). The other file and the combined case are left for the user to carry out themselves. store the data files in the same directory as the CAESAR model. Since the current tutorial is primarily written to provide an example for the import/export of BOSfluids models/results. The magnitude is set at 1. The time history data files can now be imported in CAESAR by selecting Time History from the Analysis Type drop down menu. The unbalanced force results for the pipe section from node 45 to 75 are imported in the CAESAR II dynamic stress module by following the steps below: 1. Delete all default input lines. Figure 13 | Force Sets Copyright © Dynaflow Research Group.0. Importing the Data File in CAEAR II When the data files are made. Page 11 of 14 .

as shown in Figure 15. According to the code the dynamic loads (occasional loads) should be combined with the static sustained loads in a combined load case and tested against the allowables. Create one static/dynamic load case combination combining the static sustained load case (S2) with the dynamic time history load case (D1).5 sec) - Damping ratio: 0. Select the Time History Load Cases tab. .BOSfluids Water Hammer Part 3 3. Figure 15 | Static/Dynamic Combinations 5. This tab links the time history profile set in the first tab with the force set in the second tab. Select the Static/Dynamic Combinations tab. Figure 14 | Time history load cases 4. Define one load case as shown in Figure 14. Define the following parameters: - Static Load Case for Nonlinear Restraint Status: 2 (the sustained static load case) - Stiffness Factor for Friction: 1.03 - Mass Model: Consistent (gives more accurate results) See also Figure 16.0 - Frequency Cutoff: 20Hz - Time History Time Step: 5ms - Load Duration: 6.5 sec (the total time of the time history 5 sec + one period of the lowest natural frequency 1. Select the Control Parameters tab. Page 12 of 14 Copyright © Dynaflow Research Group.

These large displacements of 212 mm are caused by the lack of horizontal supports. see Figure 17.4. see Figure 18. Page 13 of 14 . 4.3. Run the dynamic analysis.BOSfluids Water Hammer Part 3 Figure 16 | Control Parameters 6. This stress is still below the allowable (74% of the allowable). Results The results of the dynamic analysis show the highest stress. Figure 17 | Dynamic Output: Stress report Copyright © Dynaflow Research Group. The largest displacements are found in the pipe section where the force was applied. 136MPa occurs at node 90.

BOSfluids Water Hammer Part 3 Figure 18 | Dynamic Output: Displacement report 4.4. . where the fluid dynamics and the structural dynamics of a water hammer event on a piping system were investigated. Page 14 of 14 Copyright © Dynaflow Research Group. This tutorial is not written with the intention to give a thorough overview of the CAESAR II dynamic module. For a more elaborate overview of all the functions of the CAESAR II dynamic module you are referred to the CAESAR II user manual. Conclusion This concludes the Water Hammer tutorial. For more BOSfluids tutorials you are referred to the BOSfluids website.