NEW RESULTS FOR SORLI'S CONJECTURE ON ODD PERFECT NUMBERS - PART III

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NEW RESULTS FOR SORLI'S CONJECTURE ON ODD PERFECT NUMBERS - PART III

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S 0025-5718(XX)0000-0

ON ODD PERFECT NUMBERS - PART III

JOSE ARNALDO B. DRIS

then Sorlis conjecture predicts that k = q (N ) = 1. In this article, we give

bounds for the real number satisfying

(q k )

(n)

<<

qk

,

n

when k > 1.

1. Introduction

If N is a positive integer, then we denote the sum of the divisors of N by (N ).

The positive integer N is said to be perfect if (N ) = 2N . It is currently an open

problem to determine whether there are infinitely many even perfect numbers, or if

there are any odd perfect numbers. Ochem and Rao [6] recently obtained the lower

bound N > 101500 for an odd perfect numbers magnitude, and a lower bound of

1062 for its largest component (i.e., divisor pa ||N with p prime). This improves on

previous results by Brent, Cohen and te Riele [1] in 1991 and Cohen [2] in 1987,

respectively.

An odd perfect number N = q k n2 is said to be given in Eulerian form if q is

prime with q k 1 (mod 4) and gcd(q, n) = 1. (The number q is called the

Euler prime, while the component q k is referred to as the Euler factor. Note that,

since q is prime and q 1 (mod 4), then q 5.)

In his Ph. D. thesis, Sorli [7] conjectured that k = q (N ) = 1.1

The author conjectured in [3] that the components q k and n are related by the

inequality q k < n.

We denote the abundancy index I of the positive integer x as

I(x) =

(x)

.

x

(q k )

(n)

<<

qk

n

Recall from the article [3] that I(q k ) < 3 2 < I(n). This implies that

(q k )

qk

< .

(n)

n

Received by the editor July 13, 2013.

2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary 11A05; Secondary 11J25, 11J99.

1Key Words and Phrases: odd perfect number, Sorlis conjecture, Euler prime

c

XXXX

American Mathematical Society

Without loss of generality, we may assume that there is a positive real number

such that inequality

(q k )

qk

<<

(n)

n

is true. Equivalently, we also have a positive real number such that the inequality

1

(n)

n

< = <

qk

(q k )

holds. Note that 6= 1 and =

6 1, because of the biconditional

q k < n (q k ) < (n).

(See [4]).

Assume that q k < n and k > 1. (Note that this implies that 0 < < 1.) The

inequality

(q k )

qk

<<

(n)

n

then implies that

k

q

(q k )

< 0,

(n)

n

from which it follows that

" (qk ) #

(q k ) q k

1

n

+ <

+ .

(n)

(n)

n

k

q

Since we have the biconditional q k < n (q k ) < (n), we get the bounds

r

125

(q k )

<

(n)

128

(see [5]), and

qk

<1

n

from which we get the upper bound

(q k ) q k

+

<1+

(n)

n

125

.

128

" (qk ) #

1

n

+

(n)

k

q

(q k )

n

(n)

qk

To this end, recall from the article [5] that, for the case q k < n and k > 1, we have

the bounds

(q k )

(n)

1<

< k < 2.

n

q

(q k )

n

(n)

qk

1

<

2

Consequently, we get

1

1

+ <

2

" (qk ) #

n

(n)

qk

(q k ) q k

+ <

+

<1+

(n)

n

125

,

128

r

2

2 2 1 +

125

128

!

+ 1 < 0.

q

q

1

1

1

1

160 10 6 < <

160 10 6.

16 + 5 10

16 + 5 10 +

32

32

32

32

Next, suppose that n < q k and k > 1. This time, our assumed inequality takes

the form

n

1

(n)

< = <

.

qk

(q k )

By the biconditional n < q k (n) < (q k ), we know that

0 < < 1.

It follows that

n

(n)

< 0,

(q k )

qk

1

"

(n)

qk

(q k )

n

#

+ <

(n)

n

+ .

(q k ) q k

Again, since we have the biconditional n < q k (n) < (q k ), we obtain the

bounds

(n)

<1

(q k )

and

r

n

4 125

<

qk

128

(see [5]), from which we get the upper bound

r

(n)

n

4 125

+ k <1+

.

k

(q ) q

128

As before, we derive a lower bound for the quantity

" (n) #

1

qk

+

(q k )

in terms of .

(n)

qk

(q k )

n

Again, recall from the article [5] that, for the case n < q k and k > 1, we have the

bounds

(n)

(q k )

1< k <

< 2.

q

n

In particular, we have the lower bound

1

<

2

(n)

qk

(q k )

n

" (n) #

r

1

1

(n)

n

qk

4 125

+ <

+ <

+ k <1+

,

k

(q k )

(q ) q

128

2

n

from which it follows that

r

22 2 1 +

125

128

!

+ 1 < 0.

1q

1q

1

1

4

4

4

4

4 + 250

16 + 8 250 + 5 10 < <

4 + 250 +

16 + 8 250 + 5 10.

8

8

8

8

But we know that

n

1

(n)

< = <

.

qk

(q k )

Consequently,

(q k )

1

qk

<= <

(n)

n

1

1

1

<= < 1

.

1p

1p

4

4

4

1

4 + 250 +

16 + 8 250 + 5 10

4 + 250

16 + 8 4 250 + 5 10

8

Theorem 2.1. Let N = q k n2 be an odd perfect number given in Eulerian form.

Suppose that k > 1.

k

)

q

If q k < n and the real number satisfies (q

(n) < < n , then

q

q

1

1

1

1

16 + 5 10

160 10 6 < <

16 + 5 10 +

160 10 6.

32

32

32

32

1

8

4+

(q k )

(n)

1

1

p

<= <

4

250 +

16 + 8 250 + 5 10

1

8

<<

1

8

4+

qk

n ,

then

1

250

1

8

.

16 + 8 4 250 + 5 10

q

1

1

16 + 5 10

160 10 6 0.29536,

32

32

q

1

1

16 + 5 10 +

160 10 6 1.69285,

32

32

1

p

0.5882475271,

4

1

250 + 18 16 + 8 4 250 + 5 10

8 4+

and

1

3.3999292948.

1p

4

4

1

250

16

+

8

250

+

5

10

4

+

8

8

Remark 2.3. Let N = q k n2 be an odd perfect number given in Eulerian form, and

suppose that k > 1.

k

)

qk

If q k < n and the real number satisfies (q

(n) < < n , then the bounds for

given by the inequality

q

q

1

1

1

1

16 + 5 10

160 10 6 < <

16 + 5 10 +

160 10 6

32

32

32

32

k

)

q

are trivial, as compared to the bounds 21 < (q

(n) < < n < 1, as given in page 5

of the article [5].

k

)

qk

Likewise, if n < q k and the real number satisfies (q

(n) < < n , then the

bounds for given by the inequality

1

1

<< 1

1p

1p

4

4

4

1

250 + 8 16 + 8 250 + 5 10

250 8 16 + 8 4 250 + 5 10

8 4+

8 4+

page 5 of the article [5].

(q k )

(n)

< <

qk

n

< 2, as given in

3. Conclusion

In this paper, we have attempted to obtain bounds for the real number satisfying

(q k )

qk

<<

(n)

n

by considering two (mutually exclusive) cases, under the assumption that Sorlis

conjecture for odd perfect numbers is false.

Notice that, if the upper bound I(n) < 2 can be improved (which can be done

by using an idea from [8]; see [5]), then we can potentially get sharper bounds for

the quantities

(q k )

(n)

and

qk

.

n

The consequential bounds thus obtained can then be iteratively inputted into the

same algorithm (considered in this paper) as before, and thereby obtain either an

optimal bound, or maybe a contradiction, in the particular cases q k < n or n < q k .

(This paper is currently a work in progress.)

4. Acknowledgments

The author sincerely thanks the anonymous referees who have made several

suggestions, which helped in improving the style of the paper.

References

1. R. P. Brent, G. L. Cohen, H. J. J. te Riele, Improved techniques for lower bounds for

odd perfect numbers, Math. Comp. 57 (1991), 857-868, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1090/

S0025-5718-1991-1094940-3.

2. G. L. Cohen, On the largest component of an odd perfect number, J. Austral. Math. Soc. Ser.

A, 42 (1987), 280-286, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1446788700028251.

3. J. A. B. Dris, The abundancy index of divisors of odd perfect numbers, J. Integer Seq., 15

(Sep. 2012), Article 12.4.4, https://cs.uwaterloo.ca/journals/JIS/VOL15/Dris/dris8.html,

ISSN 1530-7638.

4. J. A. B. Dris, New results for Sorlis conjecture on odd perfect numbers, to appear in Int. J.

Pure Appl. Math., preprint:http://arxiv.org/abs/1302.5991.

5. J. A. B. Dris, New results for Sorlis conjecture on odd perfect numbers - Part II, preprint:http:

//arxiv.org/abs/1303.2329.

6. P. Ochem, M. Rao, Odd perfect numbers are greater than 101500 , Math. Comp., 81 (2012),

1869-1877, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1090/S0025-5718-2012-02563-4

7. R. M. Sorli, Algorithms in the Study of Multiperfect and Odd Perfect Numbers, Ph. D. Thesis,

University of Technology, Sydney, 2003, http://epress.lib.uts.edu.au/research/handle/

10453/20034.

8. J. Ward, Does Ten Have a Friend?, http://arxiv.org/pdf/0806.1001v2.pdf.

Far Eastern University, Nicanor Reyes Street, Sampaloc, Manila, Philippines

E-mail address: jadris@feu.edu.ph, jabdris@yahoo.com.ph

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