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# MATHEMATICS OF COMPUTATION

## Volume 00, Number 0, Pages 000000

S 0025-5718(XX)0000-0

## NEW RESULTS FOR SORLIS CONJECTURE

ON ODD PERFECT NUMBERS - PART III
JOSE ARNALDO B. DRIS

## Abstract. If N = q k n2 is an odd perfect number given in Eulerian form,

then Sorlis conjecture predicts that k = q (N ) = 1. In this article, we give
bounds for the real number satisfying

(q k )
(n)

<<

qk
,
n

when k > 1.

1. Introduction
If N is a positive integer, then we denote the sum of the divisors of N by (N ).
The positive integer N is said to be perfect if (N ) = 2N . It is currently an open
problem to determine whether there are infinitely many even perfect numbers, or if
there are any odd perfect numbers. Ochem and Rao [6] recently obtained the lower
bound N > 101500 for an odd perfect numbers magnitude, and a lower bound of
1062 for its largest component (i.e., divisor pa ||N with p prime). This improves on
previous results by Brent, Cohen and te Riele [1] in 1991 and Cohen [2] in 1987,
respectively.
An odd perfect number N = q k n2 is said to be given in Eulerian form if q is
prime with q k 1 (mod 4) and gcd(q, n) = 1. (The number q is called the
Euler prime, while the component q k is referred to as the Euler factor. Note that,
since q is prime and q 1 (mod 4), then q 5.)
In his Ph. D. thesis, Sorli [7] conjectured that k = q (N ) = 1.1
The author conjectured in [3] that the components q k and n are related by the
inequality q k < n.
We denote the abundancy index I of the positive integer x as
I(x) =

(x)
.
x

(q k )
(n)

<<

qk
n

## Let N = q k n2 be an odd perfect numbergiven in Eulerian form.

Recall from the article [3] that I(q k ) < 3 2 < I(n). This implies that
(q k )
qk
< .
(n)
n
Received by the editor July 13, 2013.
2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary 11A05; Secondary 11J25, 11J99.
1Key Words and Phrases: odd perfect number, Sorlis conjecture, Euler prime
c
XXXX
American Mathematical Society

## JOSE ARNALDO B. DRIS

Without loss of generality, we may assume that there is a positive real number
such that inequality
(q k )
qk
<<
(n)
n
is true. Equivalently, we also have a positive real number such that the inequality
1
(n)
n
< = <
qk

(q k )
holds. Note that 6= 1 and =
6 1, because of the biconditional
q k < n (q k ) < (n).
(See [4]).
Assume that q k < n and k > 1. (Note that this implies that 0 < < 1.) The
inequality
(q k )
qk
<<
(n)
n
then implies that
 k


q
(q k )

< 0,
(n)
n
from which it follows that
" (qk ) #
(q k ) q k
1
n
+ <
+ .
(n)

(n)
n
k
q

Since we have the biconditional q k < n (q k ) < (n), we get the bounds
r
125
(q k )
<
(n)
128
(see [5]), and
qk
<1
n
from which we get the upper bound
(q k ) q k
+
<1+
(n)
n

125
.
128

" (qk ) #
1
n
+
(n)
k
q

## in terms of . It suffices to get a lower bound for

(q k )
n
(n)
qk

To this end, recall from the article [5] that, for the case q k < n and k > 1, we have
the bounds
(q k )
(n)
1<
< k < 2.
n
q

## In particular, we have the lower bound

(q k )
n
(n)
qk

1
<
2

Consequently, we get
1
1
+ <
2

" (qk ) #
n
(n)
qk

(q k ) q k
+ <
+
<1+
(n)
n

125
,
128

r
2

2 2 1 +

125
128

!
+ 1 < 0.

## Solving this last inequality, we get

q
q



1
1 
1
1 
160 10 6 < <
160 10 6.
16 + 5 10
16 + 5 10 +
32
32
32
32
Next, suppose that n < q k and k > 1. This time, our assumed inequality takes
the form
n
1
(n)
< = <
.
qk

(q k )
By the biconditional n < q k (n) < (q k ), we know that
0 < < 1.
It follows that




n
(n)

< 0,
(q k )
qk

## which then gives

1

"

(n)
qk
(q k )
n

#
+ <

(n)
n
+ .
(q k ) q k

Again, since we have the biconditional n < q k (n) < (q k ), we obtain the
bounds
(n)
<1
(q k )
and
r
n
4 125
<
qk
128
(see [5]), from which we get the upper bound
r
(n)
n
4 125
+ k <1+
.
k
(q ) q
128
As before, we derive a lower bound for the quantity
" (n) #
1
qk
+
(q k )

## Similarly, it suffices to get a lower bound for

in terms of .
(n)
qk
(q k )
n

Again, recall from the article [5] that, for the case n < q k and k > 1, we have the
bounds
(n)
(q k )
1< k <
< 2.
q
n
In particular, we have the lower bound
1
<
2

(n)
qk
(q k )
n

## Consequently, we now obtain

" (n) #
r
1
1
(n)
n
qk
4 125

+ <
+ <
+ k <1+
,
k
(q k )

(q ) q
128
2

n
from which it follows that
r
22 2 1 +

125
128

!
+ 1 < 0.

## Solving this last inequality, we obtain

 1q
 1q

1
1
4
4
4
4
4 + 250
16 + 8 250 + 5 10 < <
4 + 250 +
16 + 8 250 + 5 10.
8
8
8
8
But we know that
n
1
(n)
< = <
.
qk

(q k )
Consequently,
(q k )
1
qk
<= <
(n)
n

## and we therefore have

1
1
1

<= < 1
.
 1p
 1p
4
4
4
1

4 + 250 +
16 + 8 250 + 5 10
4 + 250
16 + 8 4 250 + 5 10
8

## We now have the following theorem.

Theorem 2.1. Let N = q k n2 be an odd perfect number given in Eulerian form.
Suppose that k > 1.
k

)
q
If q k < n and the real number satisfies (q
(n) < < n , then
q
q



1 
1
1 
1
16 + 5 10
160 10 6 < <
16 + 5 10 +
160 10 6.
32
32
32
32

## If n < q k and the real number satisfies

1
8

4+

(q k )
(n)

1
1
p

<= <
4

250 +
16 + 8 250 + 5 10


1
8

<<
1
8

4+

qk
n ,

then
1

250

1
8

.
16 + 8 4 250 + 5 10

## Remark 2.2. Note the rational approximations

q


1 
1
16 + 5 10
160 10 6 0.29536,
32
32
q



1
1
16 + 5 10 +
160 10 6 1.69285,
32
32
1
p

0.5882475271,


4
1
250 + 18 16 + 8 4 250 + 5 10
8 4+
and
1

3.3999292948.

 1p
4
4
1
250

16
+
8
250
+
5
10
4
+
8
8
Remark 2.3. Let N = q k n2 be an odd perfect number given in Eulerian form, and
suppose that k > 1.
k
)
qk
If q k < n and the real number satisfies (q
(n) < < n , then the bounds for
given by the inequality
q
q


1 
1
1 
1
16 + 5 10
160 10 6 < <
16 + 5 10 +
160 10 6
32
32
32
32
k

)
q
are trivial, as compared to the bounds 21 < (q
(n) < < n < 1, as given in page 5
of the article [5].
k
)
qk
Likewise, if n < q k and the real number satisfies (q
(n) < < n , then the
bounds for given by the inequality
1
1

<< 1

 1p
 1p
4
4
4
1
250 + 8 16 + 8 250 + 5 10
250 8 16 + 8 4 250 + 5 10
8 4+
8 4+

## are also trivial, as compared to the bounds 1 <

page 5 of the article [5].

(q k )
(n)

< <

qk
n

< 2, as given in

3. Conclusion
In this paper, we have attempted to obtain bounds for the real number satisfying
(q k )
qk
<<
(n)
n
by considering two (mutually exclusive) cases, under the assumption that Sorlis
conjecture for odd perfect numbers is false.
Notice that, if the upper bound I(n) < 2 can be improved (which can be done
by using an idea from [8]; see [5]), then we can potentially get sharper bounds for
the quantities
(q k )
(n)
and
qk
.
n
The consequential bounds thus obtained can then be iteratively inputted into the
same algorithm (considered in this paper) as before, and thereby obtain either an
optimal bound, or maybe a contradiction, in the particular cases q k < n or n < q k .
(This paper is currently a work in progress.)

## JOSE ARNALDO B. DRIS

4. Acknowledgments
The author sincerely thanks the anonymous referees who have made several
suggestions, which helped in improving the style of the paper.
References
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odd perfect numbers, Math. Comp. 57 (1991), 857-868, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1090/
S0025-5718-1991-1094940-3.
2. G. L. Cohen, On the largest component of an odd perfect number, J. Austral. Math. Soc. Ser.
A, 42 (1987), 280-286, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1446788700028251.
3. J. A. B. Dris, The abundancy index of divisors of odd perfect numbers, J. Integer Seq., 15
(Sep. 2012), Article 12.4.4, https://cs.uwaterloo.ca/journals/JIS/VOL15/Dris/dris8.html,
ISSN 1530-7638.
4. J. A. B. Dris, New results for Sorlis conjecture on odd perfect numbers, to appear in Int. J.
Pure Appl. Math., preprint:http://arxiv.org/abs/1302.5991.
5. J. A. B. Dris, New results for Sorlis conjecture on odd perfect numbers - Part II, preprint:http:
//arxiv.org/abs/1303.2329.
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1869-1877, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1090/S0025-5718-2012-02563-4
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University of Technology, Sydney, 2003, http://epress.lib.uts.edu.au/research/handle/
10453/20034.
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Far Eastern University, Nicanor Reyes Street, Sampaloc, Manila, Philippines