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DECK SEA PROJECT

FIRST PHASE
FUNCTION 1 NAVIGATION
STAGE 1
1.1

Admiralty List of Notices to Mariners (Promulgation)


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How Notices to Mariners are promulgated:


o Weekly Editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners contain information
which enables the mariner to keep charts and books published by the
UKHO up-to-date for the last reports received.
o The Notices are published in Weekly Editions, and are also issued by
the UKHO on a daily basis to certain Admiralty Distributors.
o Weekly Editions can either be obtained from Admiralty Distributors,
or by regularly dispatched surface or air mail.

Internet Services
o Admiralty Notices to Mariners are also available on the internet, using
the Admiralty Notices to Mariners On-line (ANMO) service. The
ANMO service provides the digital versions of the weekly Notices to
Mariners Bulletin, Full-Color Books, and Cumulative List of
Admiralty Notices to Mariners and Annual Summary of Notices to
Mariners. This service is available by following the Maritime Safety
Information link at www.ukho.gov.uk. The web service is in Adobe
Acrobat/PDF format and the latest version of the software, and
guidance notes, are available from the NM section of the website.
There is also a searchable service which allows mariners to search for
Notices by Admiralty chart number. This service is available at
www.nmwebsearch.com.

Publication of daily Admiralty Notices to Mariners


o From January 2014, Section II of Admiralty Notices to Mariners
(Updates to Standard Nautical Charts) will be published daily,
excluding weekends and UK public holidays.

Electronic Courier Services


o Further to the Admiralty Notices to Mariners (ANMO) service on the
UKHO website, the UKHO has licensed several commercial
companies to electronically distribute Admiralty Notices to Mariners
via L Band broadcast, or email communication, direct to vessels at
sea. These electronic courier or value added service providers supply
customized NM Text and Tracing update datasets related to a vessels
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portfolio or charts and publications. The NM datasets are derived


directly from the Admiralty digital NM files.
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Numbering conventions
o Weekly Editions are consecutively numbered from the beginning of
each calendar year. Notices to Mariners are also numbered
consecutively starting at the beginning of the year, noting the Annual
Notices to Mariners will always have the first numbers in each yearly
series.

Types of Notice to Mariners


o General Information. The majority of information designed for use in
circumstances, correcting paper charts is promulgated by the UKHO in
the form of permanent, chart- correcting notices. Under certain
circumstances, however, alternative forms of Notice to Mariners are
utilized.
o Preliminary Notice to Mariners ((P) NM). A (P) NM is used when
early promulgation to the mariner is needed and: Action /work will
shortly be taking place (e.g. harbor developments), or: Information has
been received, but it is too complex or extensive to be promulgated by
permanent chart updating NM. A prcis of the overall changes together
with navigationally significant detailed information is given in the (P)
NM. Full details are included in the New Chart or New Edition, or:
Further confirmation of details updating is needed. A permanent chart
updating NM will be promulgated or Ne issued when the details have
been confirmed or: for ongoing and changeable situation s such as
bridge construction across major waterways. A permanent chart
updating NM will be promulgated or Ne issued when the work is
complete.
o Temporary Notice to Mariners ((T) NM). A (T) NM is used where
the information will remain valid only for a limited period, but will not
normally be initiated when the information will be valid for less than
3-6 months. In such circumstances, the information may be available
as Navigational Warning or maybe promulgated by the means of a
Local Notice to Mariners.
o CONTENTS
Explanatory Notes. Publication List
Admiralty Notices to Mariners. Update to Standard Nautical
Charts
2

Reprints of Radio Navigational warnings.


Amendments to Admiralty Sailing Directions
Amendments to Admiralty List of Lights and Fog Signals
Amendments to Admiralty List of Radio Signals

Structure of the Weekly Edition of Notices to Mariners.


o Section I- Explanatory Notes and Publications List.
o Section I, published weekly contains:
Notes and advice of the use, update and amendment of charts
and publication.
List of New Charts, New Edition and Navigational
Publications published, and any charts withdrawn, during the
week.
Publication of New Charts or New Editions, or withdrawals,
scheduled to take place in the near future.
o Section IA. This section is published monthly and contains a list of
(T) and (P) NMs cancelled during the previous voyage month and list
of T&P Notices previously published and still in force.
o Section IB. This section is published quarterly at the end of March,
June, September, and December each year. It lists current editions of:
Admiralty Sailing Directions and their Supplements.
Admiralty List of Sailing and Fog Signals.
Admiralty List of Radio Signals.
Admiralty Tidal Publications.
Admiralty Digital Publications.
o Section II Updates to Standard Navigational Charts.
Section II. Contains the permanent Admiralty chart updating
Notices, the first of which is always a Notice containing
Miscellaneous Updates of Charts. Notices based on original
information, as opposed to those that republish information
from another country, have their consecutive numbers suffixed
by an asterisk. Any Temporary and Preliminary Notices are
included at the end of the Section. They have their consecutive
numbers suffixed (T) and (P) respectively. These Notices are
preceded by a Geographical Index, an Index of Notices and
Chart Folios and an Index of Charts Affected. Blocks.
Cautionary notes, depth tables and diagrams to accompany any
of these Notices will be found at the end of the section.
o Section III Reprints of Navigational Warnings.
This section lists the serial numbers of all NAVAREA I
messages in force with reprints of those issued during the
week.

o Section IV- Amendments to Admiralty Sailing Directions.


This section contains amendments to Admiralty Sailing
Directions published during the week. Note. The full text of
all extant Section IV Notices is published annually in January
in Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners Part 2
Amendments to Sailing Directions.
o Section V- Amendments to Admiralty Lists of Lights and Fog
Signals.
This section contains amendments to Admiralty List of Lights
and Fog Signals. These amendments may not be published in
the same weekly Edition as those giving chart updating
information in Section II.
o Section VI Amendments to Admiralty Lists of Radio Signals.
This section contains amendments to the Admiralty List of
Radio Signals. These amendments may not be in the same
Weekly Edition as those giving chart updating information in
Section II. Note. A Cumulative List of Amendments to t
current editions of the Admiralty List of Radio Signals is
published in Section IV quarterly in March, June, September
and December.
o Section VII Update to Admiralty Miscellaneous Publications.
This section contains updates to Admiralty Miscellaneous
Nautical Publications published during the week. Note. The
full text of all Section VII Notices is published annually in
January in Annual Summary of Admiralty Notice to Mariners
Part 2- Amendments to Sailing Directions and Miscellaneous
Nautical Publications.
o Section VIII Admiralty Digital Products and Services.
This section contains information relating to Admiralty Digital
Products and Services, in particular:
ENCs and ECDIS safety notices;
Admiralty Vector Chart Services (AVCS);
Admiralty Information Overlay (AIO);
Admiralty Raster Chart Services (ARCS);
Admiralty Total Tide (ATT);
Admiralty Digital Lights List (ADLL)
Admiralty Digital List of Radio Signals Volume 6
(ADRS6).

1.2

The Admiralty List of Notices to Mariners, Weekly Editions, contains


information which enables the mariners to keep his charts and books
published by the UKHO (United Kingdom Hydrographic Office) up-to-date
for the latest reports received. In addition to Admiralty Notices, they include
all New Zealand chart updating Notices as at 1.13, and selected temporary and
preliminary ones. Copies of all New Zealand Notices can also be obtained
from the New Zealand chart agents.
o The notices are published in weekly editions, and are issued by the
United Kingdom Hydrographic Office on a daily basis to certain
Admiralty chart agents.
o Mariners are requested to inform the UKHO, Admiralty Way, Tuanton
Somerset TA12 DN immediately of the discovery of new dangers, or
changes or defects in aids to navigation and of shortcomings in
Admiralty chart or publications.

Admiralty Sailing Directions


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General Information.
o Scope. Admiralty Sailing Directions are published in 74 volumes,
providing world-wide coverage.
They are complementary to the chart and to the other
navigational publications of UKHO are written with the
assumption that the reader has the appropriate chart before him
and other relevant publications to hand.
The information in Sailing Directions is intended primarily for
use by mariners in vessels of 150 gt or more. It may however,
like the information on charts, be useful to those in any vessel,
but does not take into account the special needs of hovercraft,
submarines under water, deep draught tows and other special
vessels.
o Currency
Of the vast amount of information needed to be keep charts upto-date in every detail, only the most important items can be
used to update the charts by Notices to Mariners. Some less
important information may not reach the chart until its next
edition, but may be nevertheless be included in New Editions.
It is therefore possible that in some less important detail,
Sailing Direction may be more up-to-date than the chart.
o Unit of Measurement
Depths, heights, elevation and short distances are given in
metric units. Where the reference chart quoted is in fathoms
and feet, the depths and dimensions from the chart are given in
brackets after the metric depth to simplify comparison between
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the chart and the book. Distances at sea are given in sea miles
and cables and on land in kilometers.
Maintenance of Sailing Directions.
o Use of Sailing Directions. Before using Admiralty Sailing Directions,
the mariner must always;
Check that the most recent edition of the volume and its
Supplement where relevant, are held.
Check that all amendments in Annual Notices to Mariners Part
2- Amendments to Sailing Directions have been applied.
Check that all amendments published at Section IV of Weekly
Editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners subsequent to the
publication of the most recent edition of Annual Notices to
Mariners Part 2- Amendments to Sailing Directions have been
applied, using the most recent quarterly check-list at Section IB
of Cumulative list of Admiralty List of Notice to Mariners.
Where it is found that the most up to date information is not
held, the most recent editions of all Distributors, and back
copies of Weekly Editions of Notices to Mariners can also be
downloaded from the UKHO website www.ukho.gov.uk.
o New Editions. Sailing Directions are updated by a process of
Continuous Revision, with titles republished as new editions at
approximately three yearly intervals. Some volumes indicated in the
Catalogue of Admiralty Charts and Publications are on an extended
cycle of approximately 5 years.
o Supplements. Some older volumes have, I the past, been updated by
publication of a Supplement. Each Supplement was cumulayive so that
each successive supplement superseded the previous one. These
volumes have all now been taken into Continous Revision, and no
further Supplements will be published. Until these older volumes have
been published as New Editions, any volume demanded for which a
Supplement has been published, will automatically be supplied with
the most recent Supplement.
o Current Editions. To determine the current editions of Sailing
Directions, and their latest supplements, if appicable, and for
information regarding the publication dates of new editions. This
information can also be found in Catalogue of Admiralty Charts and
Publications, Cumulative List of Admiralty Notices to Mariners, and
quaterly at Section 1B of Weekly Editions of Admiralty Notices to
Mariners.
o Amendmet by Notices to Mariners. Section IV of Weekly Editions of
Admiralty Notices to Mariners contains amendments to Sailing
Directions that cannot wait until the next year new edition. These
amendments will normally be restricted to those deemed
navigationally be significant, and information required to be published
as a result of changes to national legislation affecting shipping, and to
port regulations. Information that is made clear by a chart updating
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Notice will not always be repeated in a Section IV Notice unless it


requires elaboration in Sailing Directions.
Purpose of Admiralty Sailing Directions
o Sailing Directions are intended for use by vessels of 150 gt or more.
They amplify charted detail and contain information needed for safe
navigation which is not availabe from charts or oher hydrographic
publications. They are written with the assumption that these are to
hand are intended to be read in conjunction with the charts quoted in
the text which includes both charted the and uncharted information.
o They are normally arranged as follows;
Preface, Includes a list of publications and documents
consulted in the writing of the volume.
Preliminary pages. Includes explanatory notes and
abbreviations and a glossary.
Chapter 1. Contains general information on navigation,
countries, ports and natural conditions, pertaining to the whole
book.
Chapter 2. Through-routeing information where appropriate.
Chapter 3 and subsequent chapters. Geographical chapters
containing coastal passage information, directions for
waterways, and essential information on ports and achorages.
Appendices. Transcipts or extras of regulation.
o Index.
Each volume has a book index diagram facing Page 1 which
indicates the geographical coverage of each chapter. This will
assist to identify which chapter contains the information
required.
Each chapter has an index diagram facing first page showing
paragraph numbers against arrows or port names, which
indicates the start of the appropriate text.
Chapters are divided into sections containing a number of subsetions. Each sub-section is either a description of a waterway,
offshore, coastal or inshore, with suitable cross-references to
the texts in which continuation of routes, or alternative routes,
can be found. Otherwise it describe a majot port. Smaller ports
are described within the waterway sub-section.
General information relating to the whole book is contained in
Chapter 1. General information at the start of the chapter is that
relating to the chapter as a whole and includes material under
the headings of topography, hazards, pilotage VTS and traffic
regulations, marine reserves, natural conditions and other
topics. General information at the start of a section or subsection only relates to that particular section.
Lists of Admiralty Sailing Directions
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1.
Africa Pilot, Vol. I
2.
Africa Pilot, Vol. II
3.
Africa Pilot, Vol. III
4.
South East Alaska Pilot
5.
South America Pilot, Vol. I
6.
South America Pilot, Vol. II
7.
South America Pilot, Vol. III
7A.
South America Pilot, Vol. IV
8.
Pacific Coasts of Central America & United States Pilot
9.
Antarctic Pilot
10.
Arctic Pilot, Vol. I
11.
Arctic Pilot, Vol. II
12.
Arctic Pilot, Vol. III
13.
Australia Pilot, Vol. I
14.
Australia Pilot, Vol. II
15.
Australia Pilot, Vol. II
16.
Australia Pilot, Vol. IV
17.
Australia Pilot, Vol. V
18.
Baltic Pilot, Vol. I
19.
Baltic Pilot, Vol. II
20.
Baltic Pilot, Vol. III
21.
Bay of Bengal Pilot
22.
Bay of Biscay Pilot
23.
Bering Sea and Strait Pilot
24.
Black Sea Pilot
25.
British Columbia Pilot, Vol. I
26.
British Columbia Pilot, Vol. II
27.
Channel Pilot
28.
Dover Strait Pilot
29.
China Sea Pilot
30.
China Sea Pilot, Vol. I
31.
China Sea Pilot, Vol. II
32.
China Sea Pilot, Vol. III
33.
Philippine Islands Pilot
34.
Indonesia Pilot, Vol. II
35.
Indonesia Pilot, Vol. III
36.
Indonesia Pilot, Vol. I
37.
West Coast of England and Wales Pilot
38.
West Coast of India Pilot
39.
South Indian Ocean Pilot
40.
Irish Coast Pilot
41.
Japan Pilot, Vol. I
42A. Japan Pilot, Vol. II
42B. Japan Pilot, Vol. III
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43. South and East Coasts of Korea, East Coasts of Siberia and Sea of
Okhotsk Pilot
44.
Malacca Strait and West Coast of Sumatera Pilot
45.
Mediterranean Pilot, Vol. I
46.
Mediterranean Pilot, Vol. II
47.
Mediterranean Pilot, Vol. III
48.
Mediterranean Pilot, Vol. IV
49.
Mediterranean Pilot, Vol. V
50.
Newfoundland Pilot
51.
New Zealand Pilot
52.
North Coast of Scotland Pilot
53.
54.
North Sea (West) Pilot
55.
North Sea (East) Pilot
56.
Norway Pilot, Vol. I
57A. Norway Pilot, Vol. IIA
57B. Norway Pilot, Vol. IIB
58A. Norway Pilot, Vol. IIIA
58B. Norway Pilot, Vol. IIIB
59.
Nova Scotia & Bay of Fundy Pilot
60.
Pacific Islands Pilot, Vol. I
61.
Pacific Islands Pilot, Vol. II
62.
Pacific Islands Pilot, Vol. III
63.
Persian Gulf Pilot
64.
Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Pilot
65.
Saint Lawrence Pilot
66.
West Coast of Scotland Pilot
67.
West Coasts of Spain and Portugal Pilot
68.
East Coasts of United States Pilot, Vol. I
69.
East Coasts of United States Pilot, Vol. II
69A. East Coasts of Central America & Gulf of Mexico Pilot
70.
West Indies Pilot, Vol. I
71.
West Indies Pilot, Vol. II
72.
Southern Barents Sea and Beloye More Pilot
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Procedures of finding information for the Next Port:


o Check. Check that the most recent edition of the volume and its
Supplement where relevant, are held. Check also all the amendments
of the related admiralty publications for Admiralty Sailing Directions.
o Know. Know which port you are headed to. Gather all information
pertaining to navigation, regulations, countries ports and natural
conditions of which port you are up to. This information can be
derived at Chapter 1 of this publication.

o Find. Find your way to the port or gather though-routeing information


where appropriate. Find the port required to Port Guide Entry and
take the position
o Directions. Sort geographical and coastal passage information,
directions for waterways, and essential information on ports and
anchorages.
o Safely. After rooting all needed ideas, plotting your way to your next
port and sorting all certificates and documents you needed, navigate
safely and cautiously towards your next port of call.
o Go to List of Radio Signal (Pilot Services, Vessel Traffic Services and
Port Operation) Go to the Index and find information.
1.3

Admiralty List of Lights and Fog Signals.


- Contents. Admiralty List of Lights and Fog Signals (ALL) usually termed
Admiralty List of Light published in 12 regional volumes (A-M), providing
world-wide coverage. Between them, they contain the latest known details of
lights, light structures, light vessels, light floats, LANDBYs and fog signals.
Light buoys of a height 8 m or greater may also be listed and some with a
height of less than 8 m are occasionally included in the list, as are light buoys
considered to be primary navigational significance. Certain minor lights, in
little frequented parts of the world covered only by small scale charts, are
included in the list though they are not charted. A Geographical Range Table
for determining Dipping Distances and a Luminous Range Diagram for
obtaining the range at which light can be seen allowing for its power and the
prevailing visibility, are contained in each volume.
- Positions. Positions given in Admiralty List of Lights use either WGS84 or
undetermined datum. Positions are obtained from the best source available,
usually Lists of Lights published by national authorities. Where datum shifts
are known, they are applied to obtain the WGS84 position. Consequently,
Admiralty List of Lights positions may not always exactly agree with those
given in Admiralty Sailing Directions which are taken from the largest scale
reference chart should be used for position of lights.
- Amendment. Changes of any SOLAS significance to light or fog signals in
Admiralty Lists Lights are incorporated in the various volumes by Section V
of the first Weekly Editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners published after
the information is received. SOLAS/navigationally significant updates to
lights shown on charts will also be issue as Section II NMs and in digital chart
update CDs. This information is usually issued in a later Weekly Edition than
that of the corresponding Section V NM or ADLL.
- New Editions. A new edition of each volume is published annually. The new
will include all of the minor light changes accumulated over the previous year,
as well as all SOLAS light changes published by Section V Notice. The
amendments which have accumulated after the volume has gone to print will
be found in Section V of the Weekly Edition of Notices to Mariners which
announces the publication of the volume.
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1.4

Major Light House.


East Coast of Korea Ulsan Hang to POhang Hang
M4385 Hwaam Chu Lighthouse 35.2836 N /
129.2444E. Flashing and Group Flashing Alternating
20s (A1F1 20s) 49 m - W26, R21 M White Round
Concrete Tower - WR250-162(272).

Admiralty Tide Tables


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Admiralty Tide Tables are published in four volumes annually as follows:


Volume 1: United Kingdom and Ireland (including European Channel
Ports).
Volume 2: Europe (excluding United Kingdom and Ireland),
Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean.
Volume 3: Indian Ocean and South China Sea (including Tidal Stream
Tables).
Volume 4: Pacific Ocean (including Tidal Stream Tables).

Importance. Each volume is divided into three parts. Part I gives daily
prediction of the times and heights of high and low water for a selection of
Standard Ports.
In addition, Part Ia of Volume 1 contains hourly height predictions at selection
of Standard Ports, and in Volume 3 and 4, Part Ia contains daily predictions of
the times and rates of a number of tidal stream stations.
Part II contains the time and height differences which are to be applied to the
Standard Port predictions, in order to derive predictions at a much larger
number of Secondary Ports. Part III lists the principal harmonic constants for
all those ports where they are known, intended for use with the Simplified
Harmonic Method (SHM). In addition, in Volumes 2, 3 and4, Part IIIa
contains similar information for a number of tidal stream stations. Also
included are templates to assist in the prediction of tides by the time the height
differences method and Simplified Harmonic Method (SHM).
For regional volumes provide comprehensive details and world-wide coverage
of tidal data.
Standard Ports. The times of high and low water are tabulated for every day
of the year. The zone time used for the predicted times is usually the standard
time for the area and is given at the top of each page. Care should be taken to
ensure that this is the actual time zone in use on that date, the predicted time
being corrected if necessary. Special care is needed for those ports whose time
is changed during the year. The heights are shown in meters referred to the
chart datum of the port concerned.

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1.5

Secondary Ports. The times of high and low water are obtained by applying
the time differences tabulated in Part II to the daily prediction for the most
suitable (not necessarily the closest) Standard Port. The Standard Port to be
used is that which appears in bold type at the head subsection in Part II. Other
Standard Ports may occur within the subsection in their correct geographical
sequence but full data for these are not shown. The times obtained by applying
these corrections are in the time zone shown next above the Secondary Port
irrespective of the time zone time used for the Standard Port predictions.
New Moon and Full Moon. The symbols for the New and Full Moon ( and
), First and Last Quarter
( and ) are shown in the Standard Port daily
prediction on the days on which they occur.
Effect of New Moon and Full Moon. When moon and sun are aligned, their
respective tide bulges add together to a spring tide every two weeks. When
sun and moon are at right angles, it causes the bulge of the sun to add to the
low tide, resulting in an overall higher low tide but lower high tide. This is
called the neap tide, every two weeks in between spring tides. The Sun also
exerts a continuous gravitational pull on the Earths oceans. When the Sun and
Moon are in line with the Earth they work together, creating a stronger pull
that produces our highest tides called spring tides. When the Sun and Moon
are not in line with the Earth they work in opposition and the pull is therefore
less. The resulting tides are lower and known as neap tides.
Spring tides occur at times of new moon and full moon. Range of tides is
greater than average. Neap tides occur at times of 1st and 3rd quarters. Range
of tides is less than average.
Tidal Calculation

Admiralty Distance Tables


-

Admiralty Distance Tables (NP 350) are published in three volumes:


Volume 1: Atlantic Ocean, NW Europe, Mediterranean Sea, Caribbean
Sea and Gulf of Mexico.
Volume 2: Indian Ocean and part of the Southern Ocean from South
Africa to New Zealand, Red Sea, Persian Gulf and Eastern Archipelago.
Volume 3: Pacific Ocean and seas bordering it.
The tables are the shortest navigable distances in International Nautical Miles
(1852 m) between important positions and chief ports from those used in
Ocean Passages of the World which, though longer take advantage of
favorable climatic conditions and currents.
Distance between Ports.
Yangshan (+8) to Balboa (-5) (via Osumi Kaikyo Pass) Time
difference = advance 11 hrs. Total Distance 8666.4 miles (berth to berth)
Balboa (-5) to Nakhodka (+11, Pilot Station / Anchorage) (via Unimak
Pass & Tsugaru Kaikyo Pass) Time difference = set back 8 hrs. Total
Distance 7966.1 miles (berth to berth).
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1.6

Admiralty List of Radio Signals


-

General Information. Admiralty List of Radio Signals (ALRS) is published in


six volumes. A new edition of each volume is published annually, except for
Volume 4 which is published at approximately 18 month intervals. Together
they provide a comprehensive source of information of all aspects of maritime
radio communications.
Volume 1. Volume 1, Maritime Radio Stations, is published in two parts:
Part 1 covers Europe, Africa and Asia (excluding the Far East).
Part 2 covers Americas, Far East and Oceania. Each part contains
particulars of:
Global Maritime Communications Services
Maritime Radio Stations
Coast Guard Radio Stations
Medical Advice by Radio
Arrangements for Quarantine Reports
Locust Reports and Pollution Reports
Maritime Satellite Services
Piracy and Armed Robbery Reports
Regulations for the use of Radio in Territorial Waters
Extract from the International Radio Regulations
Volume 2. Volume 2, Radio Aids to Navigation, Satellite Navigation Systems,
Legal Time, Radio Time Signals and Electronic Position Fixing Systems,
contains particulars of:
VHF Radio Direction-finding Stations (RG)
Radar Beacons (Racons and Remarks)
Automatic Identification System (AIS)
Satellite Navigation Systems (including a listing of radio beacons
world-wide that transmit DGPS corrections)
Legal Time
Radio Time Signals
Electronic Position Fixing System: LORAN-C
Associated Diagrams are shown with the text
Volume 3. Volume 3, Maritime Safety Information Services, is published in
two parts:
Part 1 covers Europe, Africa and Asia (excluding the Far East).
Part 2 covers Americas, Far East and Oceania.
Each part contains particulars of:
Radio Facsimile Broadcasts
Radio Weather Services
Radio Navigational Warnings (including NAVTEX and WWNWS)
GUNFACTS and SUBFACTS broadcasts
Global Marine Meteorological Services
Certain Meteorological Codes provided for the use of shipping
Associated diagrams and tables are shown with the text.
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Volume 4. Volume 4, Lists of Meteorological Observation Stations, contains a


full listing of all meteorological observation station world-wide.
Volume 5. Volume5, Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS),
contains particulars of the system with associated information and diagrams,
and includes extracts from the relevant International Telecommunications
Union Radio Regulations and services available to assist vessels using or
participating in the GMDSS.
Volume 6. Volume 6, Pilot Services, Vessel Traffic Services and Port
Operations, is published in six parts:
Part 1 covers United Kingdom and Ireland (including European Channel
Ports).
Part 2 covers Europe (excluding UK, Ireland, Channel Ports and
Mediterranean).
Part 3 covers Mediterranean and Africa (including Persian Gulf).
Part 4 covers the Indian sub-continent, SE Asia and Australasia.
Part 5 covers North America, Canada and Greenland.
Part 6 covers North East Asia.
Part 7 covers Central and South America and the Caribbean.
Each part contains particulars of the maritime radio procedures essential to
assist vessels requiring pilots and/or entering port. Also included is
information on ship reporting systems, vessel traffic services (VTS) and port
operations. The text is supplemented with any associated diagrams and
illustrations showing the key elements of the many individual procedures.
Reporting System. Automated Mutual Vessel Rescue System (AMVER) is a
ship reporting system for search and rescue. It is a global system that enables
identification of other ships in the area of a ship in distress, which could then
be sent to its assistance. AMVER information is used only for search and
rescue and is made available to any rescue coordination center in the world
responding to a search and rescue case. The Coast Guard actively seeks to
increase participation in this voluntary reporting system. Each year, more
vessels participate in the system and more lives are saved. Currently, ships
from more than 143 nations participate. AMVER represents "free" safety
insurance during a voyage by improving the chances for aid in an emergency.
By regular reporting, someone knows where a ship is at all times on its
voyage in the event of an emergency. AMVER can reduce the time lost for
vessels responding to calls for assistance by "orchestrating" a rescue response,
utilizing ships in the best capability to avoid unnecessary diversions in
response to a MAYDAY or SOS call.
Sailing Plan. This report contains the complete routing information and
should be sent within a few hours before departure, upon departure, or within
a few hours after departure. It must contain enough information to predict the
vessel's actual position within 25 nautical miles at any time during the voyage,
assuming the Sailing Plan is followed exactly. Sailing Plans require A, B, E, F,
G, I, L, and Z lines. The M, V, X, and Y lines are optional. (The Y line is
required for U.S. vessels).

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AMVER/SP//
A/NYK DAEDALUS/3EMS//
B/010200Z//
E/155//
F/170//
G/BALBOA, PANAMA/010200Z//
I/PUSAN S. KOREA/3506NN/129O6E/172200Z//
L/RL/170/1800N/10400W/050445Z//
L/RL/170/2230N/11110W/CABO SAN LUCAS/060745Z//
L/GC/170/4147/14319E/ERIMO
MISAKI/120315Z//
L/COASTING/4138N/ 14005E/ TSUGARU KAIKYO/120945Z//
L/RL/170/3504N/12909E/PUSAM PLT STN/171930//
M/INMARSAT 435327410 NDAX//
V/NONE//
X/CONTAINER SHIP/NEXT REPORT 071700Z//
Z/EOR//
-

Position Report. This report should be sent within 24 hours of departing port
and a least once every 48 hours thereafter. The destination should be included
(at least in the first few reports) in case AMVER has not received the
Sailing Plan information Position Reports require A, B, C, E, F, and Z lines.
The I is strongly recommended. The M, X, and Y lines are optional. (The Y
line is required for US. vessels).
AMVER/PR//
A/NYK DAEDALUS/3EMS//
B/021900Z//
C/5414N/17006W//
E/263//
F/160//
I/PUSAN S. KOREA/ 3506N/12906E/172200Z//
M//INMARSAT 435327410 NDAX//
V/NONE//
X/CONTAINER SHIP/NEXR REPORT 041700Z//
Z/EOR//

Deviation Report. This report should be sent as soon as any voyage


information changes which could affect AMVER's ability to accurately predict
the vessel's position. Changes in course or speed due to weather, ice, change
in destination, diverting to evacuate a sick or injured crewmember, diverting
to assist another vessel, or any other deviation from the original Sailing Plan
should be reported as soon as possible.
Final Arrival Report. This report should be sent upon arrival at the port of
destination. This report properly terminates the voyage in AMVER's
computer, ensures the vessel will not appear on an AMVER SURPIC until its
next voyage, and allows the number of days on plot to be correctly updated.
15

Final arrival Reports require A, K, and Z lines. The X and Y lines are optional.
(Y line is required for U.S. vessels).
AMVER/FR//
A/NYK DAEDALUS/EMS//
K/PUSAN S. KOREA/3343N/12047W/032200Z//
Y/MAREP//
Z/EOR/
-

Navigational Warning.

16

17

1.7

Ocean Passages of the World

18

The Ocean Passages of the World is located at the bridge. Publication number
NP 136.
It is used in planning deep sea voyages. It contains notes on the weather and
other factors affecting the passages, directions for a number of selected and
commonly used routes of distances and dangers affecting those routes.
For mariners planning an ocean passage, Ocean Passages for the World
(NP136) provides a selection of commonly used routes with their distances
between principal ports and important positions. It contains details of weather,
currents and ice hazards appropriate to the routes, and so links the volumes of
Sailing Directions. It also gives other useful information on Load Line Rules,
Weather Routeing, etc.
Ocean Passages of the World is written for use in planning deep-sea
voyages. It contains notes on the weather and other factors affecting passages,
directions for a number of selected commonly used routes and distances and
dangers affecting those routes.
Chapters 2-7 describe climatic conditions and give routes recommended for
full-powered vessels within the areas described.
Chapters 8-10 give the usual routes which were used by sailing vessels,
however these routes may have to be adjusted to reflect current regulations
and changed conditions. These chapters also give details of routes
recommended for low-powered or hampered vessels.
Load Line Zones:
North Atlantic Winter Seasonal Area (ships over 100m)
Winter: 16 Dec. to 15 Feb.
Summer: 16 Feb. to 15 Dec.
North Atlantic Winter Seasonal Area (ships less than 100m)
Winter: 01 Nov. to 31 Mar.
Summer: 01 Apr. to 31 Oct.
North Atlantic Winter Seasonal Zone II
Winter: 16 Oct. to 15 Apr.
Summer: 16 Apr. to 15 Oct.
Summer Zone (ships over 100m)
Winter Seasonal Area (ships 100m or less)
Winter: 01 Nov. to 31 Mar.
Summer: 01 Apr. to 31 Oct.
Winter: 16 Dec. to 15 Mar.
Summer: 16 Mar. to 15 Dec.
Winter: 01 Nov. to 31 Mar.
Summer: 01 Apr. to 31 Oct.
Winter: 01 Dec to 28/29 Feb.
Summer: 01 Mar. to 30 Nov.
North Atlantic Seasonal Tropical Zone
Winter: 01 Nov. to 15 July
Summer: 16 July to 31 Oct.
Arabian Sea Seasonal Tropical Area
Tropical: 01 Sep. to 31 May
19

Summer: 01 Jun. to 31 Aug.


Southern Winter Seasonal Zone
Winter: 16 Apr. to 15 Oct.
Summer: 16 Oct. to 15 Apr.
South Indian Ocean Tropical Area
Tropical: 01Apr. to 30 Nov.
Summer: 01 Dec. to 31 Mar.
Tropical: 01 May to 30 Nov.
Summer: 01 Dec. to 30 Apr.
China Sea Seasonal Tropical Area
Tropical: 21 Jan. to 30 Apr.
Summer: 01 May. To 20 Jan.
Tropical Zone
Tropical Zone (within the Great Barrier Reef)
South Pacific Seasonal Tropical Zone
Winter: 01 Apr. to 30 Nov.
Summer: 01 Dec. to 31 Mar.
South Pacific Seasonal Tropical Zone
Tropical: 01 Apr. to 30 Nov.
Summer: 01 Dec. to 31 Mar.
North Pacific Seasonal Tropical Zone
Tropical: 01 Apr. to 31 Oct.
Summer: 01 Nov. to 31 Mar.
North Pacific Seasonal Zone
Winter: 16 Oct. to15 Apr.
Summer: 16 Apr. to 15 Oct.
1.8

Chart Work
-

Nautical publication is a technical term used in maritime circles describing a


set of publications, generally published by national governments, for use in
safe navigation of ships, boats, and similar vessels. It includes mariner's
handbook which provides information important for the safety of navigation
that cannot be represented on charts, and other publications useful to mariners.
Nautical publications are intended to be used in conjunction with charts.
There are several ways on how to select or gather information on what
publications or charts you could use upon planning your voyage. The process
that Ill explain to this project is the process Ive learned in this vessel.
Ocean Passages of the World
(BA, NP136) contains the necessary information in preparing the
navigation plan for the ocean passage and the Captain may

obtain
the basic information necessary when deciding her route.
Sailing Direction (Coast Pilot)

20

Contains information of weather and sea conditions, the


characteristics of the passage and guideline for port entry for all
over the world.
Ships Routing
Ships Routing is published by IMO and contains every
information of main passage of the world, traffic separation
scheme, deep water routes and area to be avoided.
Mariners Handbook
The Mariners Handbook is published by the B.A. which contains
the basic knowledge necessary for navigators.
Distance Table
Distance Table (NP350) and USA (NVPUB 151) are generally
referred all over the world.
Admiralty List of Radio Signals
The Admiralty List of Radio Signals consists of the following 7
volumes.
a) Vol.1: Maritime Radio Station NP 281 (Parts 1 & 2).
b) Vol.2: Radio Navigation Aids, Satellite Navigation
Systems, Legal Time, Radio Time Signals and Electronic
Position Fixing Systems NP 282.
c) Vol.3: Maritime Safety Information Services NP 283
(Parts 1 & 2).
d) Vol.4: Meteorological Observation Stations NP 284.
e) Vol.5: Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
(GMDSS) NP 285.
f) Vol.6: Pilot Services, Vessel Traffic Services and Port
Operations NP 286 (Parts 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5).
Admiralty List of Lights
Admiralty List of Lights consists of 11 volumes (NP74-84) which
cover all over the world. The light lists are published by British
Admiralty- UK.
Weather Routing Charts
Weather Routing Charts provide expected substantial
meteorological information such as waves, current, wind, Ice,
recommended routes, and Load Line Zones etc. There is one chart
for each month of the year for following oceans; Indian Ocean,
North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean
and South Atlantic Ocean.
Notices to Mariners
Notice to Mariners contains correction to the nautical charts and
other publication and are weekly published by the relevant party
such as B.A., NIMA and Maritime Safety Agency in Japan
Now these publications will guide you in selecting the charts youll
need in your voyage or making your passage plan. These are the
processes Ive observed in my vessel that officers commonly gone
through while making a passage/voyage plan.
21

Chart Catalogues.
Catalogue of Admiralty Charts and Publications gives the limits and
details, including the dates of publication and the dates of current editions,
of Admiralty Charts, plotting sheets and diagrams, and of Australian, New
Zealand and Japanese charts reprinted in Admiralty Series. It also lists the
prices of the products. Lists of countries with established Hydrographic
Offices publishing charts of their national waters, places where Admiralty
Notices to Mariners are available for consultation, and the addresses of
Admiralty Distributors are also contained in it.

- Chart 5011
Chart 5011.
A. Steep
Coast

B. Flood Tide

C. Depth Contour 10 meters

D. Clay Bottom

E. Rock which covers and


uncovers

F. Wreck, depth unknown, considered dangerous to


navigation
G. Wreck, showing any part of the hull or superstructure at
chart datum

22

H. Production Platform
I. Precautionary Area
J. Conical Buoy

K. West Cardinal Buoy


L. Isolated Danger Mark
M. Anchoring Prohibited

1.9

Chart Catalog

23

Tokyo Los Angeles


General Charts
BA4053 North Pacific Ocean North Western Part
BA4050 North Pacific Ocean North Eastern Part Bering Sea
BA4051 North Pacific Ocean South Eastern Part
Small-scale Charts
BA4510 Eastern Portion of Japan
BA4511 Northern Portion of Japan
BA4522 Mys Lopkta to the Chinook Trough
BA4521 Hawaiian Islands to Minami-Torishima
BA4805 Hawaiian Islands to the Aleutian Trench
BA4807 San Francisco to Hawaii
BA4801 Mexican Border to Dixon Entrance
BA4802 United States and Mexico
Tokyo Los Angeles
JP1061 Northern Part of Tokyo Wan
JP1062 Middle Part of Tokyo Wan
JP66 Yokohama
JP1085 Negishi
JP1081 - Uraga Suido
JP90 Tokyo Wan
JP91 Uraga and Kurihima
BA2530 San Diego Bay to Cape Mendocino
BA899 Approaches to Point Arguelo
A. Approaches to Port Hueneme
B. Port Hueneme
BA1082 San Pedro Bay
BA1081 Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors
-

Chart Work
The scale of a chart is the ratio of a given distance on the chart to the
actual distance which it represents on the earth. It may be expressed in
various ways. The most common are:
1.
A simple ratio or fraction, known as the representative fraction. For
example, 1:80,000 or 1/80,000 means that one unit (such as a meter) on
the chart represents 80,000 of the same unit on the surface of the earth.
This scale is sometimes called the natural or fractional scale.
2.
A statement that a given distance on the earth equals a given
measure on the chart, or vice versa. For example, 30 miles to the inch
means that 1 inch on the chart represents 30 miles of the earths surface.
Similarly, 2 inches to a mile indicates that 2 inches on the chart
represent 1 mile on the earth. This is sometimes called the numerical scale.
3.
A line or bar called a graphic scale may be drawn at a convenient
place on the chart and subdivided into nautical miles, meters, etc.

24

All charts vary somewhat in scale from point to point, and in some
projections the scale is not the same in all directions about a single point.
A single subdivided line or bar for use over an entire chart is shown only
when the chart is of such scale and projection that the scale varies a
negligible amount over the chart, usually one of about 1:75,000 or larger.
Since 1 minute of latitude is very nearly equal to 1 nautical mile, the
latitude scale serves as an approximate graphic scale.
On most nautical charts the east and west borders are subdivided to
facilitate distance measurements. On a Mercator chart the scale varies with
the latitude. This is noticeable on a chart covering a relatively large
distance in a north-south direction. On such a chart the border scale near
the latitude in question should be used for measuring distances.
Of the various methods of indicating scale, the graphical method is
normally available in some form on the chart. In addition, the scale is
customarily stated on charts on which the scale does not change
appreciably over the chart. The ways of expressing the scale of a chart are
readily interchangeable. For instance, in a nautical mile there are about
72,913.39 inches. If the natural scale of a chart is 1:80,000, one inch of the
chart represents 80,000 inches of the earth, or a little more than a mile. To
find the exact amount, divide the scale by the number of inches in a mile,
or 80,000/72,913.39 = 1.097. Thus, a scale of 1:80,000 is the same as a
scale of 1.097 (or approximately 1.1) miles to an inch.
Stated another way, there are: 72,913.39/80,000 = 0.911 (approximately
0.9) inch to a mile. Similarly, if the scale is 60 nautical miles to an inch,
the representative fraction is 1:(60 x 72,913.39) = 1:4,374,803.
A chart covering a relatively large area is called a small-scale chart and
one covering a relatively small area is called a large-scale chart. Since the
terms are relative, there is no sharp division between the two. Thus, a chart
of scale 1:100,000 is large scale when compared with a chart of
1:1,000,000 but small scale when compared with one of 1:25,000.
As scale decreases, the amount of detail which can be shown decreases
also. Cartographers selectively decrease the detail in a process called
generalization when producing small scale charts using large scale charts
as sources. The amount of detail shown depends on several factors, among
them the coverage of the area at larger scales and the intended use of the
chart.
-

Scales. Chart Scale. The scale of a chart refers to a measurement of


area, not distance. Chart covering a relatively large area is called a
small-scale chart and a chart covering a relatively small area is called a
large-scale chart. Scales may vary from 1: 1,200 for plans to 1:
14,000,000 for world charts. Normally, the major types of charts fall
within the following scales:

25

Harbor and Approach - 1:1,0001:50,000 Used in harbors, anchorage


areas, and the smaller waterways. Charts used for approaching more
confined waters are called approach charts.
Coast - 1:50,0001:150,000 - Used for inshore navigation, for entering bays
and harbors of considerable width, and for navigating large inland
waterways.
General and Sailing - 1:150,0001:6,000,000 - Used for coastal
navigation outside outlying reefs and shoals when the vessel is
generally within sight of land or aids to navigation and its course
can be directed by piloting techniques.
Chart - representation intended primary for navigation. A nautical or marine
chart is one intended primarily for marine navigation. It generally shows
depths of water by soundings and sometimes by depth curves, aids to
navigation dangers and the outline of adjacent land and such features are
useful to navigator.
Plan chart the smallest scale chart used for planning, fixing position at sea,
and for plotting the dead reckoning while proceeding on a long voyage. Scale
is smaller than 1:600,000.
Coastal chart chart intended for inshore coastwise navigation where the
course may lie inside outlying reef and shoals, for entering or leaving bays
and harbors of considerable width, and for navigating large inland water ways.
Scale is from 1:50,000 to 1:150,000.
Ocean chart / General chart are intended for coastwise navigation outside of
outlying reefs and shoals. The scales range from about 1:150,000 to
1:600,000.
The size of the area portrayed by a chart varies extensively according
to the scale of the chart. The larger the scale, the smaller they are
presented. It follows then that large-scale charts show areas in greater
detail. Many features that appear on a large-scale chart do not, in fact,
show up at all on a small-scale chart of the same area. The scale to which a
chart is drawn usually appears under its title in one of two ways: 1:25,000
or 1/25,000. These figures mean that an actual feature is 25,000 times
larger than its representation on the chart. Expressed another way, an
inch, foot, yard, or any unit on the chart means 25,000 inches, feet, or
yards on Earths surface. The larger the figure indicating the proportion
of the scale, the smaller the scale of the chart.
The editions are written at the front page of every publications and the
correction of charts is updated trough the CHARTCO.
To determine that the charts and publications are in their latest and up-to-date
editions, they must check the Weekly Editions of Admiralty Notices to
Mariners contain information which enables the mariner to keep charts and
books published by the UKHO up-to-date for the last reports received. This
publication will help you find out if your publication is in its latest edition.
As to the charts, they can check the charts edition in the Catalogue of
Admiralty Charts and Publications. It gives the limits and details, including
26

1.10

the dates of publication and the dates of current editions, of Admiralty Charts,
plotting sheets and diagrams, and of Australian, New Zealand and Japanese
charts reprinted in Admiralty Series.
To determine again whether your publications are corrected to the latest
NTMs you can easily verify it the on page where the Record of Updates or
Record of Amendments are. This page will give you the latest week of the
latest amendments so that you can rest assure thats it is in the up-to-date
version.

Bridge Equipments
-

Gyro Compass Type: TG-8000/8500 (HDM/ OCA 240), Serial No. :


82119, Maker: TOKIMEC, INC JAPAN.
1. Function of automatic speed error correction.
2. Digital signal processing (conformed to International Standards
IEC61162)
3. Long service life
4. Conformance to IMO Standards ( Series TG-8000/ Series TG-8500 for
high speed ships)
5. There three (3) gyro compass repeaters in this vessel, one is on the
center of the bridge and the other two are mounted on both wings of
the bridge.
Magnetic Compass Saracom A1, Type: MC180, Serial No. : IEC611621(RS422), Maker: SARACOM CO., LTD.
Gyro Compass - Gyrocompasses are used on ocean-going vessels. They are
large, heavy and expensive equipment but invaluable on larger ships because
of their greater accuracy and reliability. The advantages of a gyrocompass are
that it is not magnetic and that it always reads True North. There is no need for
correction of compass readings for variation or deviation. The gyrocompass is
a sensitive, precision instrument. Its construction is of a freely suspended
spinning gyroscope powered by an electric motor. A spinning gyroscope tends
to maintain the direction of its axis and in a gyrocompass this constant
direction of the axis is towards True North.
Thus the compass points to true north and is not affected by magnetic fields,
electrical equipment or other metal objects nearby. The Gyrocompass is
essentially a true north-seeking gyroscope. A basic gyro consists of a
comparatively massive wheel-like rotor balances in gimbals that permit
rotation in any direction about 3 mutually perpendicular axes through the
center of gravity of the rotor. The axes are the spin axis, the torque axis and
the precession axis. Once the gyroscope rotor is made to rotate, its spin axis
would remain forever oriented towards the same point in space unless it was
acted upon by an outside force.

27

Magnetic Compass - Compasses are devices used for determining horizontal


direction for safe and accurate navigation over land, in the air and on water.
There are several types of compass, each for its own purpose. Most vessels are
fitted with a magnetic compass. Most oceangoing vessels, including all navy
warships, have at least one gyro compass installed and use the magnetic
compass as a backup in case of gyro failure, and as a primary means of
checking gyrocompass accuracy while underway. Variation is the angle
between a magnetic line of force and a geographic (true) meridian at any
location on the earth. This is the error caused by the earth's magnetic field
because the earths magnetic and geographic poles do not coincide. For a
magnetic compass, the needle will point towards magnetic north rather than
true north. Variation in most cases will changes as an observer moves along
the globe. Depending on where you are on the earth's surface, this difference
may be as much as 360degrees.Variation may be to east or west of true north,
again depending on where you are on earth's surface. Variation is expressed in
degrees east or west on which side of the geographic meridian the magnetic
meridian lies.

Pelorus/Azimuth Circle Pelorus or commonly known as the Azimuth


Circle is an instrument mounted on a Gyrocompass repeater to get the desired
bearing of a celestial body or terrestrial objects. Ill describe how to use and
what should be done with this instrument.
1. Mount the azimuth circle on top of the repeater.
2. When taking the bearing of a celestial body, for example the sun, the
suns ray should met the azimuths small mirror, this mirror will reflect
the suns ray into the smaller mirror(with a thin line opening), this
mirror will then reflect the suns ray downwards, that means pointing
to its gyro bearing. But just to make sure if its correct, you should
make sure that it is balance (the small bubble is in the center).
3. Taking terrestrial objects bearing are way too simple than taking the
celestial ones. All you have to do is just sight the object with the
azimuths shadow pin then, you will see a mirror reflecting the
gyrocompass bearing just below the shadow pin.
4. Pelorus or Azimuth Circle isnt that hard to use.
Make sure the Pelorus fits to the gyro repeater before getting the gyro bearing
of an object. Focus the mirror to the sun so that you can get the Gyro bearing
see to it the bubbles in the Pelorus appears in the center before getting the
bearing, prepare also the timer to get the exact time deducted to the present
GMT.

28

1.11

Navigation
- Explain briefly using appropriate figure:

29

30

o Rational horizon - is that circle of the celestial sphere formed by the


and perpendicular to the zenith-nadir line. It is also called as celestial
horizon.
o Zenith Distance - is an angular distance from the zenith, or an arc of
vertical circle between the zenith and a point in the celestial sphere.
o Altitude - angular distance above the horizon and is measured along a
vertical circle from 0 at the horizon through 90 degrees at the zenith.
o Azimuth - is an arc of horizon measured from north clockwise through
360 degrees.
31

o Amplitude - is the angular distance of a celestial body North or South


of the Prime Vertical circle.
o Celestial equator (or Equinoctial) - Form by projecting the plane of the
earths equator to the celestial sphere.
o Declination - is the angular distance N or S of the celestial equator and
is measured along the hour circle from 0 at the celestial equator
through 90 degrees at the celestial poles.
o Celestial poles are the extension of the earths poles.

1.12

Practical Navigation.
-

Explain the term comparing compasses.


At sea, the mariner is constantly concerned about the accuracy of the
gyro compass. There are several ways to check the accuracy of the gyro. He
can, for example, compare it with an accurate electronic navigator such as an
inertial navigation system. Lacking a sophisticated electronic navigation suite,
he can use the celestial techniques of comparing the measured and calculated
azimuths and amplitudes of celestial bodies. The difference between the
calculated value and the value determined by gyro measurement is gyro error.
This chapter discusses these procedures. Theoretically, these procedures work
with any celestial body. However, the sun and Polaris are used most often
when measuring azimuths, and the sun when measuring amplitudes.
Variation is the angle between the magnetic meridian and the true meridian at
a given location. If the northerly part of the magnetic meridian lies to the right
of the true meridian, the variation is easterly, and if this part is to the left of
the true meridian, the variation is westerly. The local variation and its small
annual change are noted on the compass rose of all navigational charts. Thus
the true and magnetic headings of a ship differ by the local variation. Chart 42
shows approximate variation values for the world. As previously explained, a
ships magnetic influence will generally cause the compass needle to deflect
from the magnetic meridian. This angle of deflection is called deviation. If the
north end of the needle points east of the magnetic meridian, the deviation is
easterly; if it points west of the magnetic meridian, the deviation is westerly.
Heading Relationships A summary of heading relationships follows:
o Deviation is the difference between the compass heading and the
magnetic heading.
o Variation is the difference between the magnetic heading and the true
heading. The algebraic sum of deviation and variation is the compass
error.
o The following simple rules will assist in naming errors and in
converting from one heading to another:
Compass least, deviation east, compass best, deviation west.
When correcting, add easterly errors, subtract westerly errors.
32

1.13

When uncorrecting, subtract easterly errors, add westerly


errors.

Steering.
-

Off-Course Alarm.
Off-course purpose is a function to alarm it when the difference of the set
course of the automatic steering system from the true bearing of the
sensor which is not used for steering, exceeded the predefined off-course
alarm width. When this alarm is generated, immediately perform
infallible steering. When the set course changes more than two degrees,
this system considers it as a course change, and stops the Off-course
alarm for the previously set constant time. When the automatic steering
system communication abnormality is generated, the off-course alarm
processing stops. When the steering mode of the automatic steering system
is the other mode than AUTO (automatic steering) or NAV (remote
automatic steering), the off course alarm processing stops. Until a constant
time has been elapsed since the gyro-compass started, the off course alarm
processing stops.
This is use to warn the OOW when the ship deviate excessively from its
course.
The alarm should be in use at all times when the auto pilot is in operation.
The use of the off course alarm does not relieve the OOW from frequently
checking the course that is being steered.
Non - activation of the off course alarm will not always mean that the ship is
maintaining its planned track. The ship may be move from its track by winds
and current even though the heading remains unchanged.
OCA Start and Stop.
Start in the other steering mode of the automatic steering system then
AUTO. HDM/OCA does not start by turning ON the power switch
1 when either of No.1 gyro-compass, No.2 gyro-compass or EXT unit is
not turned ON. When this system is with the automatic switching
function, the selected steering system at starting time is the lastly stopped
system.
1. Power turning ON
a. Turn ON the power switch1 of the operating panel.
(Push the switch to turn on.) Normally leave it as it is
ON. In this state, it will start synchronized with the
starting of the gyro-compass or EXT unit.
2. Confirmation of No.1 gyro-compass true bearing.
a. Confirm that No.1 gyro-compass true bearing
indication coincides with No. 1 gyro-compass true
bearing indication of HDM/OCA.

33

3. Confirmation of No.1 gyro-compass true bearing.


a. Confirm that No.2 gyro-compass true bearing
indication coincides with No. 2 gyro-compass true
bearing indication of HDM/OCA.
4. Confirmation of the external heading sensor true bearing.
a. Confirm that the external heading sensor true bearing
indication of EXT unit. Confirm that the external
heading sensor true bearing indication of EXT unit
coincides with the external heading sensor true bearing
indication of HDM/OCA.
Setting of OCA parameters.
The off-course alarm is generated when the difference value of the set
course of the automatic steering system from true bearing of the sensor
which is not used for steering exceeded the preset off course difference
alarm width in this term.
1. Setting of the off-course alarm width
a. Select the off course alarm width indication (OCA
SET :) for the first line of the indicator.
i. HDM SET : 05.0 -PARAMETER SETb. Push ACK/ENT switch 3. The indication changes to
the setting to the off course alarm width as shown
below.
i. SET=ENT ESC=DISP OCA THRESHOLD
c. Push ACK/ENT switch 3 again. The indication
changes as shown below.
i. SET=ENT ESC=DISP OCA SET : 10.0
1. Note: Push DISP switch if the value is
not changed. It returns to normal
indication.
d. Select new value by pushing or switches 4.
i. The setting range is trough 5 to 15 degrees.
e. Push ACK/ENT switch 3 to determine it.
i. Note: Push DISP switch if the value is not
changed. It returns to normal indication.
2. Setting of the sensor combination for the off course alarm
detection.
a. Select the off course alarm width (OCA SET :) for
the first line of the indicator.
i. OCA SET : 05.0 -PARAMETER SETb. Push ACK/ENT switch 3. The indication changes to
the setting to the off course alarm width as shown
below.
i. SET=ENT ESC=DISP OCA THRESHOLD
c. Push ACK/ENT switch 3 again. The indication
changes as shown below.
i. SET=ENT ESC=DISP OCA SET : 10.0
34

1. Note: Push DISP switch if the value is


not changed. It returns to normal
indication.
d. Push ACK/ENT switch 3.
i. The indication changes as shown below. (The
following example shows that the difference
between No.2 gyro-compass true bearing and
set course of the automatic steering system is
detected and the off course alarm is generated.)
1. SET=ENT ESC=DISP OCA SENS :
NO2GYRO
2. The combination for the off course alarm
detection is the following 3 kinds.
3. NO1GYRO: No.1 gyro-compass true
bearing and set course of the
automatic steering system are compared.
4. NO2GYRO: No.2 gyro-compass true
bearing and set course of the
automatic steering system are compared.
5. EXT: External heading sensor true
bearing and set course of the
automatic steering are compared.
o STARTING
1. When necessary, attach a new roll of recording paper.
2. Lower the pen with pen raise-knob.
3. Be sure to match the time of the recording paper to the ships time.
a. To match the two times, turn the power switch to OFF.
Until the time on the recording paper comes to the right
point, slowly turn the chart adjusting gear toward the
operator, taking care not to let the recording paper slacken.
Then, turn on the power switch.
4. To tune the course pen and master compass, after turning off the
repeater switch, slowly turn the indication tuning gear to bring the
zone pen in the same quadrant as the ships course and, the same
time, match the course pen to the proper course on the recording
paper. Id the recorder is not tuned with the master compass, the
course is recorded with a definite error.
a. Caution: The course pen and zone pen must not be tuned by
any method other than the described above. For instance, if
the zone is move forcibly in an effort to adjust, shafts,
gears, etc., will be damaged.
5. Turn on the rudder angle signal switch (rudder switch)
a. In this way, the rudder angle recording pen is tuned to the
actual rudder angle. If the indication from this recording
pen deviates by more than 40 from the actual rudder angle
35

before the rudder angle before the rudder angle signal


switch is turned on, the recording pen cannot be tuned to
the actual rudder angle, but it moves beyond hard over
(45), actuating micro switch. Thus, the pen comes to
standstill. At this time, turn off the rudder angle signal
switch, and then, gradually turn the rudder anglesynchronized gear so that the recording pen may be turned
to approximately + 10 of rudder angle. Thereafter, turn on
the rudder angle signal switch.
i. Caution: Be sure to turn the rudder angle tuning
gear slowly. When turning this gear in the direction
opposite to the turning direction, the rudder angle
shift plate comes into contact with the stopper, and
if the gear is turned further, without noticing that
the said plate has contacted the stopper, the wire
sometimes comes off the pulley. So be careful when
tuning the recording pen.
6. With the above operations, the course recorder attains the
recording condition. However, confirm that the recording paper is
properly set on the pins of the paper feed drums and that the
recording paper switch has been fed is properly folded.
1.14

Admiralty List of Lights


-

Elevation is the vertical distance between the focal plane of the light and
the level of Mean High Water Springs or Mean Higher High Water, whichever
is given in Admiralty Tide Tables. However, charted elevations of fixed lights
are sometimes referred to Mean Sea Level, but the height datum is always
clearly annotated on all Admiralty Charts. Elevations of floating objects,
shown in italic text on the chart, and listed in this Volume, records the
distances between focal plane of the light and the waterline of the object. For
vertical lights, e.g. FR (vert), the elevation listed is for the uppermost light.
Range
o And RANGE Luminous range is the maximum distance at which a
light can be seen at a given time, as determined by the intensity of the
light and the meteorological visibility prevailing at the time; it takes no
account on elevation, height or eye of the observer or curvature of the
earth.
o Nominal range is the luminous range when meteorological visibility
is 10 M.
The ranges included in the List of Lights are those published by
the competent authority.
o Geographical range is the maximum distance at which light from a
light can theoretically reach an observer, as limited only by the
curvature of the earth and the refraction of the atmosphere, and by the
elevation of the light and the height of eye of the observer.
36

Period and Phase - lights exhibit a distinctive appearance by which they are
recognized, e.g. Fixed, Flashing, etc. Those properties of their appearance by
which they are distinguished are referred to as Character or Characteristics
of light. The principal characteristics are generally the sequence of intervals of
light and darkness exhibited and in some cases the sequence of colors of light
exhibited. Lights which are exhibited without interruption or change of
characteristics are called fixed lights. Normally, all lights other than fixed
lights exhibit a sequence of intervals of light and darkness, the whole
sequence being repeated identically at regular intervals. Such lights are called
rhythmic lights, and the time taken to exhibit one sequence is called the
period of the light. Each element of the sequence (e.g. a flash, an eclipse) is
called phase.
Sector light a light presenting different appearances, either of color or
character, over various parts of the horizon. Where no sector lights limit or
arcs of visibility are listed in column 8 of Admiralty List of Lights, then the
light is assumed to be visible all around.
Leading lights Two or more lights associated so as to form a leading line
followed. Lights described as Lts in line are particular cases, and are
intended to mark limits of areas, alignments of cables, alignments for
anchoring, etc.; they do not mark a direction to be followed.
Flashing and Group flashing a light in which the total duration of light in a
shorter than the total duration of darkness and appearance of light (flashes) are
usually of equal duration.
o Flashing a flashing light in which a flash is regularly repeated (at a
rate of less than 50 flashes per minute).

o Long flashing a single flashing light in which an appearance of light


of not less than 2s duration (long flash) is regularly repeated.

o Group flashing a flashing light in which a group of flashes, specified


in number, is regularly repeated.

o Composite group flashing a light similar to a group flashing light


except that successive groups in a period have different number of
flashes.

37

Occulting and Group Occulting a light in which a total duration of light in


a period is longer than the total duration of darkness and the intervals of
darkness (eclipse) are usually of equal duration.
o Occulting an occulting light in which an eclipse is regularly
repeated.
o Group Occulting an occulting light in which a group of eclipses,
specified in number, is regularly repeated. The total duration of light in
which each in which each period may be equal to the total duration of
darkness.

o Composite group flashing a light similar to a group occulting light


except that successive groups in a period have different have different
numbers of eclipses. The total duration of light in each period may be
equal to the total duration of darkness.
-

Quick lights a light in which flashes are repeated at a rate of not less than
50 flashes per minute but less than 80 flashes per minute.
o Quick a light in which a flash is regularly repeated.

o Group quick a light in which a specified group is regularly repeated.

o
Interrupted quick
a quick light in which the sequence of flashes is interrupted by regular
repeated eclipses of constant and long duration.

Very quick lights a light in which flashes are repeated at a rate of 80 flashes
per minute but less than 160 flashes per minute.
o Very quick a very quick light which a flash is regularly repeated.

o Group very quick a very quick light in which a specified group of


flashes is regularly repeated.

38

o Interrupted very quick a very quick light in which the sequence of


flashes is interrupted by regularly repeated eclipses of constant an long
duration.

Ultra quick lights a light in which flashes are repeated at a rate of not less
than 160 flashes per minute.
o Ultra quick an ultra-quick light in which a flash is regularly repeated.

o Interrupted ultra-quick an ultra-quick light in which the sequence of


flashes is interrupted by eclipses of long duration.

1.15

Isophase - a light in which all the duration of light and darkness are clearly
equal.

Navigation Rules
-

Rule 5: Look-out
Every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper look-out by sights and
hearing and as well as by all available means appropriate in the prevailing
circumstances and conditions so as to make full appraisal of the situation and
of the risk of collision.
The OOW shall:
o a) Make every effort at all times for the safe operation of the ship and
for the marine environmental protection. Above all, have due regard
to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
(COLREGS) and the International Convention for the Prevention of
Pollution from Ships (MARPOL);
o b) Strictly comply with the procedures of the SMS manual, the
standing orders prepared by the master, and the contents of the order
book;
o c) While on watch, whether it is day or night, always keep a proper
and effective lookout, understanding that during the watch he is
responsible for the safety and security of the ship. He shall not leave
the bridge until he is relieved by the master or by another deck officer;
o d) Have responsibility until master takeover the Conn even master is
on the bridge.
o e) Check to see if the helmsman on watch is faithfully and properly
performing his duties, and give directions, if necessary, to him;
39

o f) Secure a means of communication and maintain close contact with


the engine room, and, when occasion demands, notify it of any
pertinent matters;
o g) Be thoroughly familiar with the handling of navigation instruments
and use them effectively for the safe operation and marine
environmental protection.
o h) Be thoroughly familiar with vessel maneuvering characteristics,
Basic Ship handling of vessel etc.
o i) Fulfill the reporting duties, giving due care to what to record as well
as what to report to the superiors.
o j) Shall not hesitate to use the helm, engines and sound signaling
apparatus in case of need. However, timely notice of intended
variations of engine speed shall be given where possible or effective
use made of UMS engine controls provided on the bridge in
accordance with the applicable procedures.
o k) Thoroughly familiar with SOLAS requirement of rendering
assistance to other vessels in distress and knowing the fact that failing
to do so may result in criminal prosecution under local and/or
international law.
o l) The OOW may visit the chart room, when essential, for a short
period for the necessary performance of navigational duties, but shall
first ensure that it is safe to do so and a proper look out is maintained.
Watch-keeping on Navigation Bridge
The OOW shall do the bridge watch keeping in accordance with the
following procedures.
- Proper Lookout
A proper lookout shall be maintained, with careful regard to the existing
situation, risk of collision, stranding or any other danger to navigation, by the
following methods:
o a) By visual checks using the naked eyes or binoculars;
o b) By radar and ARPA (use radars in parallel so far as the situation
permits);
o c) Using ECDIS, if equipped.
o d) By Sound Reception System (if fitted), also refer section 3.3.3 for
details)
o e) By hearing (whistles, sirens, distress signals, VHF, etc.); and
o f) All other available means appropriate to the circumstances.
- As it is dangerous to rely on only one means of lookout, a systematic lookout
shall always be kept with a combination of several methods used.
- Calling the Master
The O.O.W. shall call the master immediately under any one or more of
the following circumstances or whenever the O.O.W. is in the slightest
doubt.
o a) If the visibility deteriorates or expected to deteriorate below 3 n.m.

40

o b) If the movements of other vessels, including fishing vessels, are


causing concern.
o c) If difficulty is experienced in maintaining course due to heavy
traffic, rough weather or strong tides or currents or if the vessel is not
steering well.
o d) When OOW has felt uneasy because of the geographical conditions
of the waterway or vessel traffic
o e) If shipping seas heavily, or if the vessel is pounding or rolling
heavily or if speed drops by 25% or more, comparing engine speed
and speed over the ground, or if weather damage is suspected or if
there is any doubt about its possibility.
o f) On failure to sight land or a navigation mark or to obtain depth
soundings by the expected time.
o g) If either land or a navigation mark is sighted unexpectedly or if an
unexpected reduction in water depth occurs.
o h) On the breakdown of the main engine, steering gear, ARPA, satellite
navigation system, ECDIS, other critical machinery or any essential
navigation or communications equipment.
o i) When notification is received from the duty engineer about an
abnormality related to the engine.
o j) If the O.O.W. observes any sudden change in the sea, such as a
sudden swell or water discoloration which may indicate shoals or other
dangers.
o k) If the barometric pressure drops by more than 4 millibars below the
expected range or if there is a sudden drop in pressure.
o l) If any of the signs associated with a TRS are observed.
o m) When O.O.W receives weather forecast predicting bad weather or
development of TRS.
o n) If any hazards to navigation, such as derelicts, unlit craft etc., are
observed.
o o) If a distress broadcast is received or a distress signal is seen.
o p) If the O.O.W. is feeling unwell or fatigued or is unable to stay alert
for any reason whatsoever.
o q) If any unusual phenomena such as Water spout, Halo, Discoloration
of sea, Sighting of whales, Presence of oil sheen, etc. are witnessed.
o r) If any close quarter situation is likely to develop or unavoidable with
another vessel.
o s) If any of the following conditions related to ECDIS are experienced:
i) Failure or Malfunction of ECDIS or any of its sensors
ii) Any alarm, indicator or parameter setting found different
from standard settings.
iii) Any doubt with regards to accuracy of chart or available
data.
iv) Any special instruction by Master.
41

When other matters as per Master's Standing or Night order occur or if there
is an emergency.
OOW shall allow reasonable time for the Master to come on the bridge so as
to adjust himself to the night vision.
Master shall come on the bridge in sufficient time and confirm the situation
with OOW prior taking over of conn by him, so as to have a proper situational
awareness for safe navigation of vessel.
Safe Speed
The ship shall at all times proceed at a safe speed so that she can take
proper and effective action to avoid collision and other dangers and be
stopped within a distance appropriate to the existing circumstances.
In determining a safe speed, full consideration shall be given to Rule No. 6
of COLREGS.
Handing Over Duties
The OOW shall hand over his duties to the relieving officer of the next
watch by checking the following in addition to the matters stipulated in the
order book and other orders from the master. The relieving officer of the
next watch shall take over the watch after checking all the necessary
matters and advising the OOW that "I am relieving you of the watch":
o a) The relationship of the ship to other ships;
o b) The ship's position and the presence or nearness to shoals, danger
reefs, etc.;
o c) Nautical chart of navigating area (one with the course line laid
down);
o d) Settings of ECDIS (not limited to, but including information &
settings of safety depths/contours, display, radar overlay, grounding /
look ahead function etc.)
o e) Weather and sea conditions (particularly what affects the ship's
course or speed);
o f) Course (gyro/magnetic), speed, and amount of deviation from
course;
o g) State of navigation lights;
o h) State of operation of navigation instruments and signal lamps;
o i) If during the ballasting or deballasting operations, then the state of
those operations;
o j) State of work of the deck department (what work is being done, and
where);
o k) State of transfer of fuel oil; and
o l) Gyrocompass errors and deviation or variation of the magnetic
compass.
Items to Be Confirmed after Taking Over Watch keeping Duties
The OOW shall reconfirm the following items immediately after taking
over the watch keeping duties:
o a) The relative relation between the ship's position and the planned
track, or shoals, other dangerous obstructions, etc.;
42

1.16

o b) The intention and tendency of other ships around;


o c) Comparison of the planned track drawn in 360 degrees on the chart
with the course to be steered entered nearby;
o d) The information related to the nautical chart and the bridge
notebook; and
o e) The operational conditions of the manual steering gears.
Noon Calculations
The officer on the 8-12 watch shall obtain the approval of the master
on the results of the following calculations and make them known
throughout the ship:
o a) Noon position and dead reckoning noon position;
o b) Distance (log and over the ground) run from noon on the previous
day;
o c) Average speed (log and over the land) from the previous noon;
o d) H.U.W. and H.P. from noon on the previous day;
o e) Current, set and drift;
o f) Total distance run from the port of departure;
o g) Remaining distance to the port of destination; and
o h) Estimated time of arrival at the port of destination.
State a reporting procedure on what to do when a vessel is sighted.
o Indicate the location by degrees.
o How far the target is to your vessel.
o Lights that you can see on the target.
o Closest Point of Approach and Time of Closest Point of Approach
o Speed and Bearing of the target
What do you understand by the following :
o Right ahead - you are at the astern part of another ship.
o Head on - head on is a situation wherein you can see another ships
forward, aft, and side lights. The bearing of the other vessel is
reciprocal or nearly reciprocal to that of your own vessel.
o Fine on port bow - between 1 point to 0 on port bow.
o 1 pt. on starboard bow - 11.5 degrees to starboard.
o 1 pt. forward of the starboard beam - 78.75 degrees to starboard.
o 2 pts. abaft the port beam - 241.5 degrees to port.
o Right Astern - the target is located on your astern.

Nautical Almanac
-

Magnitude with reference to stars


The relative brightness of celestial bodies is indicated by a scale of
stellar magnitudes. Initially, astronomers divided the stars into 6 groups
according to brightness.

Stars brighter than magnitude 1.0


43

The 20 brightest were classified as of the first magnitude, and the


dimmest were of the sixth magnitude. In modern times, when it became
desirable to define more precisely the limits of magnitude, a first
magnitude star was considered 100 times brighter than one of the sixth
magnitude. Since the fifth root of 100 is 2.512, this number is considered
the magnitude ratio. A first magnitude star is 2.512 times as bright as a
second magnitude star, which is 2.512 times as bright as a third magnitude
star,. A second magnitude is 2.512 2.512 = 6.310 times as bright as a
fourth magnitude star. A first magnitude star is 2.51220 times as bright as
a star of the 21st magnitude, the dimmest that can be seen through a 200inch telescope. Brightness is normally tabulated to the nearest 0.1
magnitude, about the smallest change that can be detected
by the unaided eye of a trained observer. All stars of magnitude 1.50 or
brighter are popularly called first magnitude stars. Those between 1.51
and 2.50 are called second magnitude stars, those between 2.51 and 3.50
are called third magnitude stars, etc. Sirius, the brightest star, has a
magnitude of 1.6. The only other star with a negative magnitude is
Canopus, 0.9.
The following stars are stars which has a magnitude greater than 1:
Achernar 0.5
Aldebaran 0.9
Altair 0.8
Antares - 1.0
Arcturus 0.0
Canopus (-0.7)
Capella 0.1
Hadar 0.6
Lyr 0.0
Procyon 0.4
Rigel 0.1
Rigil Kentaurus (-0.3)
Sirius (-0.6)
Scorpii 1.0
Spica 1.0
Vega 0.0
-

1.17

Magnitude of all planets used for navigation


Venus has a magnitude of about 4.3. Mars has a magnitude of
+0.6.Jupiter has a magnitude of -2.7 and Saturn has a magnitude of +0.6.
The full moon has a magnitude of about 12.6, but varies somewhat. The
magnitude of the sun is about 26.7.

Navigation
44

Define the following terms. Use diagrams where appropriate:


o Latitude - Angular distance from a primary great circle or plane.
Terrestrial latitude is angular distance from the equator, measured
northward or southward through 90 and labeled N or S to indicate the
direction of measurement; astronomical latitude at a station is angular
distance between the plumb line and the plane of the celestial equator;
geodetic or topographical latitude at a station is angular distance
between the plane of the geodetic equator and a normal to the
ellipsoid; geocentric latitude is the angle at the center of the reference
ellipsoid between the celestial equator and a radius vector to a point on
the ellipsoid.
o Longitude - Angular distance, along a primary great circle, from the
adopted reference point. Terrestrial longitude is the arc of a parallel, or
the angle at the pole, between the prime meridian and the meridian of a
point on the earth measured eastward or westward from the prime
meridian through 180, and labeled E or W to indicate the direction of
measurement. Astronomical longitude is the angle between the plane
of the prime meridian and the plane of the celestial meridian; geodetic
longitude is the angle between the plane of the geodetic meridian and a
station and the plane of the geodetic meridian at Greenwich.
o Dlat and Dlong - difference of latitude from and latitude in and
difference of longitude from and longitude in.
o Dead Reckoned Position - Determining the position of a vessel by
adding to the last fix the ships course and speed for a given time.
o Estimated Position - The most probable position of a craft determined
from incomplete data or data of questionable accuracy. Such a position
might be determined by applying a correction to the dead reckoning
position, as for estimated current; by plotting a line of soundings; or by
plotting lines of position of questionable accuracy. If no better
information is available, a dead reckoning position is an estimated
position, but the expression estimated position is not customarily used
in this case. The distinction between an estimated position and a fix or
running fix is a matter of judgment.
o Observed Position - is the present position of the ship wherein course
should be maintained.
o Speed Made Good - The speed estimated by dividing the distance
between the last fix and an EP by the time between the fix and the EP.
o Course Steered - maintained course
o Course Made Good - A misnomer indicating the resultant direction
from a point of departure to a point of arrival at any given time.
45

Enumerate the difference to arise between a DR and an Observed Position.


DR positioned is shown having the same speed in which it changes
depending on the present speed, while Observed Position is an accurate
position based on the time required to observed position it also changes based
on speed through the through the water.

1.17

RADAR
-

Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR) - A radio system which measures


distance and usually direction by a comparison of reference signals with the
radio signals reflected or retransmitted from the target whose position is to be
determined. Pulse-modulated radar is used for shipboard navigational
applications. In this type of radar the distance to the target is determined by
measuring the time required for an extremely short burst or pulse of radiofrequency energy to travel to the target and return to its source as a reflected
echo. Directional antennas allow determination of the direction of the target
echo from the source.

What precautions will you take before you switch on the RADAR?

o Make sure youre not on cargo operation before turning on Radar.


o See to it that no one is working near the Radar.
o Make sure it is in working condition and coincide with the AIS, GPS
and ECDIS.
Explain the following:
Brilliance - the brilliance of the entire screen should be adjusted
according to lighting
conditions. Monitor brilliance
should be adjusted before adjusting relative brilliance levels on the
BRILL menu. Operate the BRILL control on the control unit to adjust
brilliance. Turn it clockwise to increase, counterclockwise to decrease
brilliance.
o Gain - the gain control adjusts the sensitivity of the receiver. The
proper setting is such that the background noise is just visible on the
screen. If you set up for too little sensitivity, weak echoes may be
missed.
o Tuning - To adjust the frequency of a system to obtain optimum
performance, commonly to adjust or to resonance.
o Anti-Sea Clutter Sea clutter describes the particular case of echoes
which arise as a result of the radar energy being scattered back from
the surface of the sea. Sea clutter makes take it difficult to detect some
targets, while the presence of others may only be revealed by skillful
adjustments of the controls or with assistance of some form of signal
processing.
o

46

o
o
o
o

1.18

Anti- Rain Clutter Controls the unwanted echoes in the screen and
these are in practice referred as rain clutter.
Variable Range Marker Range Rings take the form of pattern of equally space circles
concentric with the electronic origin of the picture.
Electronic Bearing Line this may also referred to as the electronic
bearing indicator (EBI) or electronic bearing marker (EBM). It takes
the form of a continuous or dashed line, which is generated
electronically because it emanates from the electronic origin it can be
used even if the origin is not centered.
North Display - One of the three basic orientations of display of
relative or true motion on a radarscope or electronic chart. In the
NORTH UP orientation, the presentation is in true (gyrocompass)
directions from own ship, north being maintained UP or at the top of
the radarscope.
Head Up Display - One of the three basic orientations of display of
relative or true motion on a radarscope. In the HEAD UP orientation,
the target pips are painted at their measured distances and in their
directions relative to own ships heading maintained UP in relation to
the display and so indicated by the HEADING FLASHER.

Admiralty Publication
-

From the appropriate admiralty publication, find out the VHF channel and
correct calling name for the following pilots:
Rotterdam
o The port and industrial area spans 40 km. running from the city center
to the North Sea. Most transshipment entails bulk goods such as oil,
chemicals, coal and ores. Vessel anchoring outside ports should report
vessel name flag and call sign on VHF Ch. 12.
o Buenos Aires
Vessel should report their time of passing and ETA and
destination when passing Canal Punta Indio, Canal Intermedio, and
Paso Banco Chico inward bound and outward bound on VHF Ch. 12.
Paired light buoys No.1, 23,30, Light buoy Km 57 advise ETA
at the Rada La Plata pilot boarding area or Lt buoy Km 37.
Canal de Acceso al Puerto De Buenos Aires, Canal Norte, Canal
Sur and Buenos Aires port inward bound and outward bound on VHF
Ch. 09.
Lt Bouy Km 37, 11
47

Canal Emilio Mitre on VHF Ch. 72


Canal Costanero, Canal Vinculation, Canal Urion, and Canal
Honda on VHF Ch. 72, buoy Km 6.
Rio Parana Guazu Rio Sauce, Rio Parana Bravo and Rio Uruguay
on VHF Ch. 14.: report to La Plata Prefectura NAVAL CRS on VHF Ch 09
when passing Km 7-7 and Cuatro Bocas.
o New York
Compulsory for foreign flag ships, and US ships bound in and
from foreign ports. 24 hours notice of ETA required. NY NJ Sandy Hook
Pilot boat should contact on VHF Ch 16, call Ambrose Pilot, pilot vessel
at channel 13, 8, and 73 or ship to ship channel 2638 or 2738. Vessel
requiring pilot should hoist signal letter G in daytime. In foggy weather
letter X should be sounded on the whistle. Pilot boat is generally found
about 1.5 miles west of Ambrose Light Tower. In bad weather, pilot tries
to stay windward of normal pilot station. In poor visibility an inbound ship
should make Ambrose Tower and proceed at slow speed to the Ambrose
channel sea buoy while letter X on her whistle. If no pilot is obtained by
that time she is in the vicinity of the sea buoy she should then anchor at
about 0.5 mile to 1 mile away of the line from Ambrose tower to the sea
buoy and await pilot.
1.19

Aldis Lamp
-

What is a daylight signaling lamp?


o Day/Night Signaling Light (Aldis Lamp) is a visual signaling device
for optical communication (typically using Morse code) essentially a
focused lamp which can produce a pulse of light.

What is the make and model of this equipment on your vessel


o Type DDS - 84A, SPS -10A

48

1.19

Marine Sextant

49

50

A sextant is an instrument generally used to measure the angle of elevation of


a celestial object above the horizon. Making this measurement is known as
sighting the object, shooting the object or taking sight. The angle, and the time
when it was measured, can be used to calculate a position line on a nautical or
aeronautical chart. A common use of the sextant is to sight the sun at noon to
find one's latitude and also position lines in the morning and evening by using
sun & stars.
Due to the sensitivity of the instrument it is easy to knock the mirrors out of
adjustment. For this reason a sextant should be checked frequently for errors
and adjusted accordingly. There are four errors that can be adjusted by the
navigator and they should be removed in the following order.
Perpendicularity error
o This is when the index mirror is not perpendicular to the frame of the
sextant. To test for this, place the index arm at about 60 on the arc and
hold the sextant horizontally with the arc away from you at arms
length and look into the index mirror. The arc of the sextant should
appear to continue unbroken into the mirror. If there is an error then
the two views will appear to be broken. Adjust the mirror until the
reflection and direct view of the arc appear to be continuous.
Side Error
o This occurs when the horizon glass/mirror is not perpendicular to the
plane of the instrument. To test for this, first zero the index arm then
observe a star through the sextant. Then rotate the tangent screw back
and forth so that the reflected image passes alternately above and
below the direct view. If in changing from one position to another the
reflected image passes directly over the un-reflected image, no side
error exists. If it passes to one side, side error exists. The user can hold
the sextant on its side and observe the horizon to check the sextant
during the day. If there are two horizons there is side error; adjust the
horizon glass/mirror until the stars merge into one image or the
horizons are merged into one.
Collimation error
o This is when the telescope or monocular is not parallel to the plane of
the sextant. To check for this you need to observe two stars 90 or
more apart. Bring the two stars into coincidence either to the left or the
right of the field of view. Move the sextant slightly so that the stars
move to the other side of the field of view. If they separate there is
collimation error.
Index error
o This occurs when the index and horizon mirrors are not parallel to
each other when the index arm is set to zero. To test for index error,
zero the index arm and observe the horizon. If the reflected and direct
image of the horizon is in line there is no index error. If one is above
the other adjust the index mirror until the two horizons merge. This
can be done at night with a star or with the moon.
51

Rigorous Execution of Celestial Observations


o Even if the ship is equipped with effective electronic position fixing
aids, the ship's position must be fixed by celestial observations at
every opportunity and reliance should not be put on just the electronic
position fixing aids. The officers on the 8-12 and 12-16 hours watch in
particular must obtain daily the lines of position by means of solar
sights.
Definition of Terms
o These are the terms which are used when computing observed altitude
(Ho):
Sextant Altitude (Hs) -- the actual angle noted on your sextant.
Index Error (ie) -- the built-in error of the sextant. This may
add or subtract from the sextant reading, depending on the
nature of the error.
Height of Eye (HE) -- height of your eye above the sea level.
Dip -- is due to the curvature of the Earth. Computed from HE.
This always subtracts from the sextant reading.
Apparent Altitude (Ha) -- sextant altitude corrected for index
error and dip.
Semi-diameter -- if an objects shows a disk instead of a point
(i.e. the Sun and the Moon), you need to choose the upper or
lower limb to observe. This will require an additional
correction to be applied.
Horizontal Parallax -- error induced by your distance from the
center of the earth. Insignificant for stars, but can make a huge
difference when observing the Moon.
Refraction (Ro) -- effect of the curvature of light within the
Earth's atmosphere. Especially it is significant at low altitudes.
Observed Altitude (Ho) -- Apparent Altitude corrected for all
parallax and refraction.
o The Nautical Almanac contains correction tables which are used to
compensate for all of these effects. Dip, horizontal parallax and
refraction may also be computed with a calculator. In addition to this,
Nautical Almanac contains a number of
o Altitude Correction Tables. These incorporate combined corrections
for refraction, semi-diameter and horizontal parallax.
LOP Calculation by Sextant
o Sun sights during the daylight hours and stars sights during twilight
are obtained to determine the ship's position. The intercept method
uses the difference between the observed true altitude (obtained by
correcting the sextant altitude for index error, reflection, dip, etc) and
the calculated altitude (obtained by sight reduction tables or
calculations) of the ship's DR position to give an intercept for plotting
the line of position on chart or plotting sheets.

52

1.24

o Given that the celestial bodies are so far away from the earth, we can
safely assume that the arc of this position circles passing the observer's
vicinity are in straight lines. These position lines are running
perpendicular to the Azimuth of the celestial body concerned.
o The result of a sight provides us with the following information:
The calculated altitude;
The observed true altitude; and
The azimuth of the celestial body.
The intercept as measured from the DR position is therefore
the difference between the true and calculated altitudes. It
should be plotted towards the body's azimuth if the true altitude
is greater than the calculated altitude.
The practice of reducing a sight to a line of position is
summarized as below:
If we take the celestial body as the center of a circle, the
position circle formed by using the zenith distance (90
degrees - altitude) of the calculated altitude as radius
will pass through the DR position and that for the
observed true altitude should pass through the
observer's position.
Marine Meteorology
-

Write a short description on the following equipment :


o Anemometer an instrument use to measure the speed of the wind.
Some instruments also indicate the direction from which it is blowing.
o Barometer An instrument use to measure the atmospheric pressure.
Atmospheric pressure is measured with a barometer. A mercurial
barometer measures pressure by balancing the weight of a column of
air against that of a column of mercury. The aneroid barometer has a
partly evacuated thin metal cell which is compressed by atmospheric
pressure; slight changes in air pressure cause the cell to expand or
contract, while a system of levers magnifies and converts this motion
to a reading on a gage or recorder. Early mercurial barometers were
calibrated to indicate the height, usually in inches or millimeters, of
the column of mercury needed to balance the column of air above the
point of measurement. While units of inches and millimeters are still
widely used, many modern barometers are calibrated to indicate the
centimeter-gram-second unit of pressure, the millibar, which is equal
to 1,000 dynes per square centimeter. A dyne is the force required to
accelerate a mass of one gram at the rate of one centimeter per second
per second. A reading in any of the three units of measurement can be
converted to the equivalent reading in either of the other units by
means of tables, or the conversion factors given in the appendix.
However, the pressure reading should always be reported in millibars.
53

o Barograph - an instrument designed to maintain a continuous record of


atmospheric pressure. The barograph is a recording barometer. In
principle it is the same as a non-recording aneroid barometer except
that the pointer carries a pen at its outer end, and the scale is replaced
by a slowly rotating cylinder around which a chart is wrapped. A clock
mechanism inside the cylinder rotates the cylinder so that a continuous
line is traced on the chart to indicate the pressure at any time. The
barograph is usually mounted on a shelf or desk in a room open to the
atmosphere, in a location which minimizes the effect of the ships
vibration. Shock-absorbing material such as sponge rubber may be
placed under the instrument to minimize vibration. The pen should be
checked and the inkwell filled each time the chart is changed.
o Facsimile Recorder the process of transmission of images
electronically.
o Hydrometer an instrument use to measure relative humidity and dew
point.
o Psychrometer most common type of hygrometer. Relative humidity
and dew point are measured with a hygrometer. The most common
type, called a psychrometer, consists of two thermometers mounted
together on a single strip of material. One of the thermometers is
mounted a little lower than the other, and has its bulb covered with
muslin. When the muslin covering is thoroughly moistened and the
thermometer well ventilated, evaporation cools the bulb of the
thermometer, causing it to indicate a lower reading than the other. A
sling psychrometer is ventilated by whirling the thermometers. The
difference between the dry-bulb and wet bulb temperatures is used to
enter psychrometric tables to find the relative humidity and dew point.
If the wet-bulb temperature is above freezing, reasonably accurate
results can be obtained by a psychrometer consisting of dry- and wetbulb thermometers mounted so that air can circulate freely around
them without special ventilation. This type of installation is common
aboard ship.
o Sea water thermometer an instrument use to measure the sea water
temperature.
o Marine bucket o Wet and Dry Thermometer an instrument used to measure and record
the air and sea temperature.
1.25

Mariners Handbook
-

State the Beaufort Wind/Sea Criterion

54

Beaufort
Number

General
Description

Sea Criterion

Wind
velocity in
knots

Calm

Sea like a mirror

Less than 1

Light air

Ripples with the appearance of scales are 1 to 3


formed without foam crest.

Light breeze

Small wavelets, still short


pronounced. Crests have
appearance. And do not break.

Gentle breeze

Large wavelets. Crests begin to break. Foam 7 to 10


of a glassy appearance and do not break.

Moderate
breeze

Small waves, becoming


frequent white caps.

Fresh breeze

Moderate waves taking more pronounced 17 to 21


long foam; many white caps are formed.

Strong breeze

Large waves begin to fall; the white foam 22 to 27


caps are more extensive everywhere.

Near gale

Sea heaps up and white foam from breaking 28 to 33


waves begin to be blown in streaks along the
direction of the wind.

Gale

Moderately high waves of greater length; 34 to 40


edges of crest begin to break into spindrift.
The foam is blown in well-marked streaks
along the direction of the wind.

Strong gale

High waves. Dense streak of foam along the 41 to 47


direction of the wind. Crest of waves begin
to topple, tumble and roll over. Spray may
affect visibility.

10

Storm

Very high wave with overhanging crests. 48 to 55


The resulting foam in great patches is blown
in dense white streaks along the direction of
the wind. On the whole the surface of the
sea takes on a white appearance, the
tumbling of the sea becomes heavy and
shock-like. Visibility affected.

11

Violent storm

Exceptionally high waves. The sea is 56 to 63


completely covered with long white patches
of foam lying along the direction of the
wind. Everywhere the edges of the wave
crests are blown into froth. Visibility
affected.

12

Hurricane

but more 4 to 6
a glassy

longer;

fairly 11 to 16

The air is filled with foam and spray. Sea is 64


completely white with driving spray. over

and

55

FUNCTION 2 - CARGO HANDLING AND STOWAGE AT THE OPERATIONAL LEVEL


STAGE 1
1.1

Ship Construction
-

Locate and identify the following :


o Frame - to construct by fitting and uniting the parts of the skeleton of a
ship.
o Beam the greatest width of the vessel.
o Transverse these are deep plate webs with a facing flat or a flanged
edge that support the longitudinally framed deck.
o Floors A structural member in the bottom of the ship, usually at
every frame and running athwart ship from bilge to bilge.
o Stringers the plates or strakes nearest to the deck edges. Made of
thicker Material because they form the most important joint between
side shell and deck plating.
o Longitudinal one of the girders fitted on each side between center
girder and margin plate in a double bottom. Usually continuous
between solid floors.
o Girder - strong beam of H section used for keelson and other members
requiring considerable strength.
Parts of the Ship
o It is a must that every seafarer must know and use the correct terms for
following commands and instructions. He must also know the general
layout of his vessel. For this reason, good communication will be
established that will lead to safe and smooth operation aboard ship.
Nautical Terminology
o Deck is a term given to the floor of the ship.
o Bulkhead is known as the walls of the ship.
o Passageways refer to the halls or corridor of the ship.
o Overhead compartment refer to the ceilings of any room of a ship.
o Ports are known as openings in the outside of the ship and not window.
o Doors are known as entrances from one compartment to another.
o Hatches refer to openings from one deck to another.
Structural Parts of the Hull
o The hull is the main body of the ship below the main outside deck. The
hull consists of an outside covering (or skin) and an inside framework
to which the skin is secured. The skin and framework are usually made
of steel and secured by welding. However, there may still be some
areas where rivets are used. The steel skin may also be called shell
plating.
o Keel is the main centerline structural part of the hull which runs from
the stem at the bow to the sternpost at the stern. The keel is the
56

backbone of the ship. To the keel are fastened the frames, which run
athwartship. These are the ribs of the ship and gives shape and strength
to the hull. Deck beams and bulkheads support the decks and gives
added strength to resist the pressure of the water on the sides of the
hull.
-

Construction of a Hull

57

o The skin, or shell plating, provides water-tightness. The plates, the


principal strength members of a ship, have various thicknesses. The
heaviest plates are put on amidships. The others are put on so that they
taper toward both ends of the ship (from the keel toward the bilge and
from the bilge toward the upper row of plates). Using plates of various
thicknesses reduces the weight of the metal used and gives the vessel
additional strength at its broadest part. The plates, put on in rows from
bow to stern, are called strakes. They are lettered consecutively,
beginning at the keel and going upward.
o Garboard strakes refer to the bottom row of strakes on either side of
the keel.
o Bilge Strakes are strakes at the turn of the hull, running in the bilge.
o Bottom Strakes are strakes running between the garboard and bilge
strakes.
o Sheer Strake refers to the topmost strakes of the hull.
o Gunwale is the upper edge of the sheer strake.
o Bulkheads divide the interior of the ship and decks into watertight
compartments. A vessel could be made virtually unsinkable if it were
divided into enough small compartments. However, too many
compartments would interfere with the arrangement of mechanical
equipment and the operation of the ship. Engine rooms must be large
enough to accommodate bulky machinery. Cargo spaces must be large
enough to hold large equipment and containers.
o Bulkheads and Decks

58

o The engine room is a separate compartment containing the propulsion


machinery of the vessel. Depending on the size and type of propulsion
machinery, other vessel machinery may be located there (such as
generators, pumping systems, evaporators, and condensers for making
fresh water). The propulsion unit for merchant vessels is a diesel
engine. The "shaft" or rod that transmits power from the engine to the
propeller leads from the aft end of the engine to the propeller.
External Parts of the Hull
o The waterline is the water-level line on the hull when afloat.
o Freeboard is the vertical distance from the waterline to the edge of the
lowest outside deck.
o Draft is the vertical distance from the waterline to the bottom of the
keel. The waterline, draft, and freeboard will change with the weight
of the cargo and provisions carried by the ship. The draft of the ship is
measured in meters and centimeters. Numbered scales are painted on
the side of the ship at the bow and stern.
o Trim is the difference between the forward draft and the aft draft.
When a ship is properly balanced fore and aft, she is in trim. When a
ship is drawing more water forward than aft, she is down by the head.
If the stern is too far down in the water, she is down by the stern.
o External Parts of the Hull

59

o List is a term given when the vessel is out of balance laterally or


athwartship (leaning to one side). She may be listing to starboard or
listing to port. Both trim and list can be adjusted by shifting the weight
of the cargo or transferring the ships fuel and water from one tank to
another in various parts of the hull.
o Forecastle is the general area in the forward part of the ship.
o Life lines are the edges of the weather deck from bow to stern are
removable stanchions and light wire ropes
o Bulwarks refer to the extensions of the shell plating above the deck.
o Scupper refers to the small drains on the deck.
o Weather deck is known as the uppermost deck running from the bow
to the stern.
o Poop deck refers to the main deck area over the stern.
o Bilge is the flat part of the bottom of the ship.
o Turn of the Bilge refers to the curved section where the bottom meets
the side.
o Propellers or Screws are fitted below the waterline which drives the
ship through the water. The propellers are attached to and are turned by
the propeller shafts. A ship with only one propeller is called a singlescrew ship. Ships with two propellers are called twin-screw ships. On
some ships (especially landing craft) there may be metal frames built
around the propellers (called propeller guards) to protect them from
damage. The rudder is used to steer the ship.
o Names of Decks
Deck is the term given to the floor of the ship.
Main deck is the first continuous watertight deck that runs from
the bow to the stern. Any partial deck above the main deck is
named according to its location on the ship. At the bow it is
called a forecastle deck, amidships it is an upper deck, and at
the stern it is called the poop deck.
Weather deck includes all parts of the forecastle, main, upper,
and poop decks exposed to the weather.
Superstructure means any structure built above the weather
deck.
o Weather Decks
60

Shipboard Directions and Locations


o Bow refers to the front end of the ship. When you move toward the
bow, you are going forward, when the vessel is moving forward, it is
going ahead. When facing toward the bow, the front-right side is the
starboard bow and the front-left side is the port bow.
o Amidships (Center) is the central or middle area of the ship. The right
center is the starboard beam and the left center is the port beam.
o Stern (Back) is the rear of a vessel. When you move in that direction
you are going aft, when the ship moves in that direction it is going
astern. When looking forward, the right-rear section is called starboard
quarter and the left-rear section is called the port quarter.
o Locations and Directions aboard Ships

61

o Other Terms of Location and Direction


o
o The entire right side of a vessel from bow to stern is the starboard side
and the left side is the port side. A line or anything else, running
parallel to the longitudinal axis or centerline of the vessel is said to be
fore and aft and its counterpart, running from side to side, is
athwartships.
o From the centerline of the ship toward either port or starboard side is
outboard and from either side toward the centerline is inboard.
However, there is a variation in the use of outboard and inboard when
a ship is on berth (moored to a pier). The side against the pier is
referred to as being inboard; the side away from the pier as outboard.
o Shipboard Measurements
o Length Overall (LOA) in meters and centimeters from the extreme
forward end of the bow to the extreme aft end of the stern. The
dimension is commonly found in the ships particular for each vessel.
o Ships Dimension

62

o Length between Perpendiculars (LBP) is measured in meters and


centimeters from the forward surface of the stem, or main bow
perpendicular member, to the after surface of the sternpost, or main
stern perpendicular member. On some types of vessels this is, for all
practical purposes, a waterline measurement.
o Width known as extreme breadth and it is measured from the most
outboard point on one side to the most outboard point on the other at
the widest point on the ship,
o Depth is measured vertically from the lowest point of the hull,
ordinarily from the bottom of the keel, to the side of the upper deck
amidships.
o Categories of Ships Deck Gear
o Standing Rigging includes the rigging that supports masts or king
posts. This gear includes the shrouds, turnbuckles, stays and backstays
and running rigging.
o Shrouds are heavy wire ropes that provide athwartship support for the
mast or king posts. Two or more shrouds are used on either side of a
mast or king post. They are secured to the outboard side of the deck or
to the bulwark to provide maximum support.
o Turnbuckles are internally threaded collars turning on two screws
threaded in opposite directions. They are used to secure and to take up
the slack in the shrouds and stays.
o Stays and Backstays are heavy wires similar to shrouds. The difference
is that they will lead in a forward or aft direction. They are found at the
mast where the jumbo boom (heavy lift boom) is located. When they
support the mast from a forward direction, they are called stays. When
63

they support the mast from an aft (back) direction, they are called
backstays.
o Running Rigging includes the moving or movable parts that are used
to hoist or operate gear (such as cargo runners, topping lifts, and guy
tackles).
o Standing Rigging Gear

o Deck Fittings
o Bitts are heavy metal bed plates with two iron or steel posts. They are
used on ships for securing mooring or towing lines.
o Chocks are heavy fittings secured to the deck. Lines are passed
through them to bollards on the pier. The types of chocks used are
closed, open, roller, and double roller.
o Cleats are metal fittings having two projecting horns. They are used
for securing lines.
o Pad Eyes are fixtures welded to a deck or bulkhead. They have an eye
to which lines or tackle are fastened and are used for securing or
handling cargo.
o Deck Fittings
o

64

o
o
o Deck Machinery
o Cargo Winches are power-driven machines used to lift, lower, or move
cargo. Electric winches are standard equipment on most vessels. An
electric winch has a steel base on which the winch drum, motor, gears,
shafts, and brakes are mounted. The drum, which has cable wound on
it, is usually smooth with flanged ends. It revolves on a horizontal axis
and is driven through single or double reduction gears by an electric
motor (usually direct current). A solenoid brake and a mechanical
brake are fitted to the motor shaft. The winch is located on deck or on
a deckhouse. The winch controls consist of a master controller or
switchbox located on a pedestal at the end of the hatch square and a
group of relays, contactors switches, and resistors located near the
winch motor.
o Electric winch/Windlass

65

o o Windlass is a special type of winch used to raise and lower the


anchors and to handle the forward mooring lines. It consists of a
wildcat (a steel casting in the form of a deeply grooved drum with
projecting ribs [whelps]) used to grip the anchor chain, controls for
connecting or disconnecting the wildcat from the engine, and a friction
brake which can be set to stop the wildcat when disconnected. There
are horizontal drums at each end of the windlass for warping.
o Capstan is a vertically mounted winch head used aboard ship when
mechanical power is required for lifting heavy weights, or for any
similar work. It is a cast steel drum mounted on a vertical spindle with
the largest diameters at top and bottom and the smallest in the middle
to allow the rope around it to surge up or down as the number of turns
are increased. The drum is fixed to the spindle by keys.
o Capstan

66

67

68

69

70

71

What do you understand by the following:


o Transverse Framing similar in construction to longitudinal
bulkheads and may be flat with stiffeners or corrugated.
o Longitudinal Framing - flat stiffened corrugated oil tight bulkheads
may be employed. It is a method of ship construction in which
large, widely spaced transverse frames are used in conjunction with
light, closely spaced longitudinal members. In longitudinal
framing, very heavy transverse frames are spaced much further
apart than in traditional framingabout 12 feet (3,700 mm) a large
number of longitudinal frames are then attached to hold the shell
plating. The longitudinal frames at the sides fit into notches cut into
the transverse frames, while the ones near the bottom of the ship
are sometimes made continuous between transverse bulkheads. The
transverses are connected to the shell plating at heavy angles and
with a tank top are cut at the margin plate. Strong tie bars extend
from the face angle on the transverses to the tank top plating.
72

Under the tank top, except for notches cut for the bottom and tank
top longitudinal, the transverses are much like ordinary floor
plates. The deck longitudinal furnishes ample strength, even when
large hatch openings must be accommodated.
o Composite Framing - Its the combination of transverse framing
and longitudinal framing.
-

What is a hatch coaming?


o The name applied to the structure raised about a hatch way to
prevent water getting below, and to serve as a framework to receive
the strong backs and hatch cover and for the securing of tarpaulin.

What are the GRT, NRT, and Official Number of your vessel?
o GRT 55534 t
o NRT 23203 t
o Official Number 33328-070-A

Explain how weather tightness is achieved on your vessel?


o Weather tightness is achieved through closing of watertight doors
properly. Securing all movables objects both on weather deck and
engine room.

Explain the operation of opening and closing of hatch covers.


o On the hatch cover, there are lifting to lift it either by a 20 foot or a
40 foot ISO type spreader of a crane. The height of lifting recesses
is 117 millimeters on the surface of the hatch cover. All the hatch
covers can be lifted by crane, which has the lifting capacity of 30
long tons. Required procedure to be followed when lifting hatch
covers by 20 foot or 40 foot spreaders, in case there is a clearance
of more than 12o millimeters between undersides surfaces of the
hatch cover, the covers can be lifted by the spreader directly
without taking away removable positioning cones.
o All hatch covers are secured by nine oil cylinders system per
covers spaced equally around the perimeter of the cover. The ships
crew are responsible for locking and unlocking the cover on board
while the vessel stays in port.
o In opening the hatch cover make sure that the cleats must be put in
a proper position to unlock it before take out using gantry machine.
And in closing the hatch cover by using gantry it was easily picked
up and put it back in what bay they are assign an then lock it for the
safe operation of passage.

What are maintenance procedures to be carried out on hatch covers on


your vessel?

73

o The hatch cover must be tested to ensure satisfactory operation.


They must have watertight integrity. Drain must be free from rust
and dirt non return valves should be functioning properly and must
of all devices must be functioning properly.
-

What is the purpose of the hatch sealing tapes and how will you use this
tape.
o Hatch sealing tapes are tapes used to seal the hatch where water
cannot penetrate inside the holds.

How will you prepare cargo holds/ tanks prior to loading on your vessel
o The bilge, including the bilge strainer, must be clean. It is good
practice to leave the bilge dry. This is an essential requirement for
reefers and ships with sensitive bulk cargo such as grain. The
sounding pipes must be clear and watertight caps should be
checked. The non-return valve must be working. Any high level of
alarm must working.
For tanker vessels it is safe to know first the kind of cargo that need
to be loaded inside the cargo tank to ensure that the tank will be
cleaned thoroughly. Different types of cargo loaded on the same
cargo tank will affect each others chemical composition that could
lead to metal corrosion or even an explosion so make sure that each
tanks are cleaned well and thoroughly to avoid these kind of issues

1.2

Ships Plan
-

How will you prepare cargo holds/ tanks prior to loading on your vessel?
o Since my current vessel is a container vessel no special
preparations done prior to loading inside the cargo holds. And since
my last vessel was a tanker vessel Ill explain what to do prior to
loading on tankers.
o Cleaning and Draining of Tanks
It is imperative to effectively drain all tanks, pump columns
and pipelines at the end of Tank cleaning.
All required precautions, including but not limited to
following, shall be taken to ensure that tanks are fully
drained and fit to receive the nominated grade of oil. The
74

following are the summary of measures, if not carried out


correctly, may cause insufficient draining
a) Some products are very sensitive to even small
quantities of water remaining in tanks or in pumping
systems after washing. Great care shall be exercised
to remove all free water from the tanks and pumping
system prior loading.
b) On completion of line washing and draining,
open all cargo line valves and vacuum breakers to
drop line contents back into the tanks;
c) The tank washing line shall be drained and fixed
machine valves opened to drain all parts of the tank
washing line into the tanks; "Low points" of
pipelines shall be identified and efforts made to
blow through the relevant sections of line to the
nearest cargo tank or drain point;
d) All valves and drains shall remain open during
the tank mopping process;
e) Any list placed on the vessel to assist in draining
tanks and lines shall be removed prior to mopping to
allow any pools of water lying on stringers and
stiffeners to drain down to the tank floor.
f) After mopping, all the gears , rags, jute absorbent
etc shall be removed from tank.
g) The Inert Gas Deck Seal overboard line shall be
checked to ensure that it is clear and valves are fully
open;
h) The inspection hole of N/R valve of Inert Gas
shall be checked to ensure that no water (or other
fluid) is carried over from the seal into the cargo
tanks when the tanks are re-inerted prior to loading;
i)
The IG line on deck shall be checked
intermittently by opening the drain cock of the line
to ensure that IG is not carrying water. As a rule IG
line shall be drain at start of IG, Gas Freeing
operation.
j) Heating coils shall be blown through and isolated
to guard against any leakage from the coils into the
cargo tanks.
If the Cargo tanks are not required to be mopped dry, the
following method shall be adopted to determine that the
cargo tanks are fully drained This procedure shall be carried
out for all tanks one at a time:
a) Keep a good amount of trim, a minimum of 3
meters by stern.
b) Shut all Pump room bulkhead,
c) Shut all tank valves,
d) Open all bottom crossovers in the tanks,
75

e) Open all drop valves,


f) Open all manifold crossovers,
g) Ensure all Delivery valves on the Cargo lines on deck
are shut. (Lines from COP),
h) Open a manifold blank and valve,
i) Pressurize the Cargo tanks with IG to about 800 to 1000
mm wg,
j) Open the Cargo tank valve of say 1S. If the Cargo tank
is well drained and stripped, there will be no water
accumulation in the suction well of that tank and the IG will
find its way from the tank up to the manifold which is open
and we can see the release of IG pressure through that
manifold. In case of any water/cargo accumulation in the
suction well, there will be no release of IG pressure through
the manifold,

o Draining of cargo pipelines and pump


The pumps, separator and associated pipelines shall not be
drained in pump room.
If required by tank cleaning method, all associated lines and
pumps shall be well drained to slop tank so as no liquid
remains in the pumps and pipelines. To achieve this, all
required precautions, including but not limited to following,
shall be taken.
a) The stripper pump shall be used to drain the top
and bottom pipelines of the tank.
b) While draining bottom lines, it shall be ensured
that lines being drained are getting vented from the
top most section (through manifold vents). Failing
to vent the lines from top, will certainly result in
inadequate or even no draining of the bottom lines
due to inability to break the vacuum of the line (e.g.
to drain the bottom line through stripper pump, the
venting should be done through top section by
opening drop valve, intermediate valves and finally
the vent line provided at manifold). During venting
it shall be ensured that stripper pump is not taking
air from other connecting lines.
c) While stripping the top deck line and pump,
again, it shall be ensured that pump and top deck
line are getting vented through top most section.
Failing to observe the proper venting from top
section would certainly result inadequate or no
draining of the line / pump.
e) While setting up the line for venting, it shall
carefully be studied that inert gas has passage to
replace the volume of liquid drained from pipeline
76

and pump. It is worth mentioning to open the by


pass line given on the Non Return Valve (flap) of
the COP discharge side. If this valve is not open, top
line and pump may not be drained at all.
f) While draining the pump / top line, the suction
pressure gauge of COP gives good indication of the
progress of draining.
g) If line for draining and venting is set correctly, at
the beginning of draining of the pump/top line, the
suction pressure of COP should be positive due to
pressure from vertical water column acting on the
pump.
h) The positive pressure should slowly come to
zero and then little negative (or some times it
remains on zero depending upon the rpm of stripper
pump). If vessel is fitted with AUS, the separator
level gives good indication of draining. It is worth
mentioning that some amount of water remains in
the separator, despite the AUS separator level is zero
and that should be drained using the drain cock
provided in the separator.
i)
A special attention shall be paid to drain
MARPOL line.
j) It is misnomer among junior officers that good
draining of the pipelines and pump get indicated by
excessive negative pressure of the COP. On
contrary, the excessive negative pressure of COP
shows strong likelihood of the copious amount of
liquid in pump/pipelines that might not be drained
due to vacuum / inadequate venting of pump.
k) After completion of draining, the pipelines shall
be tapped with hammer to observe the sound to
confirm adequate draining.
l) The drain of the pump shall be opened to see if it
is any liquid is flowing through it. If all the
associated lines are free of liquid, the drain should
give off IG at same pressure as of tank.
m)
After draining the pump and associated
pipelines, at least 02 hours should be allowed before
closing the valves. The status of draining shall be
reviewed again by opening the drain valve of the
pump. If required, the stripper pump shall be used to
drain remnant liquid.
n) Finally the manifold valves and drains on both
the sides shall be opened (after ensuring the venting
through the manifold vent) and shall be kept open
till draining of liquid is completed. It is worth
mentioning, the liquid trapped in manifold bent
would only be drained through manifold valves.
77

Draw to scale a diagram showing the capacity of each hold/tank


o See next page . . .

Attach a typical cargo plan for a particular loaded voyage in your


workbook.
o See workbook . . .

1.3

Cargo Work
-

What are the various methods of segregating different types of cargoes


destined for different ports of discharge on board your ship?
o Explanation of Stowage Plan. Numbering system of Bay, Row and
Tier. Cell positions are to be identified by the following three
factors:
Bay: to be counted in the direction from fore to aft.
Row: to be counted in the direction from the ships center line
to portside or starboard.
Tier: in the vertical direction from bottom to upward.

Example:
01 02 06
Bay Number
Tier Number
Row Number

Bay numbering. Bays are indicated by odd numbers starting


from Fore to aft., for 20-foot containers.
When a pair of 20 footer bays is used as 40-footer
bay, this 40-footer bay is represented by an even
number which is between odd numbers representing
20 footer bays in fore and aft.
Row numbering. Row numbers are to be countered from the
centerline to portside or starboard side.
Portside: even numbers 02, 04, 06,08
Starboard side: odd numbers 01, 03, 05, 07, 09
Tier numbering:
Tier numbers start from 02, which represents a
standard height container (8 feet 6 inches for 20
footers, 8 feet 6 inches for 40 footers) in the lowest
location of a bay.

78

For ordinary height containers only even numbers


are to be used. When a certain row in a bay lacks the
lowest location of the bay, tier numbers starts from
02 but from a number, which represent the
equivalent tier of the central row(s).
Tier numbers of containers stowed on deck start
from 82 and are counted from the first tier to
upward, such as 82, 84, 86, etc.
o On Deck stowage of container.
Containers can be stowed on top of any hatch cover except
for the hatch not designated by the ship builder. All deck
bays are fully interchangeable for either 20-foot or 40-foot
containers.
In order to stow containers on deck, the fixed positioning
cones or sockets for removable positioning cones are fixed
on the hatch covers. Therefore, it is important to set the
removable positioning cones on the suitable sockets on the
hatch cover before stowing containers on deck.
All containers, except reefer containers, must be stowed in
such a manner as door to face aft to protect it from sea
spray.
The pre-planning stowage position of the containers are
done ashore by the planner of the charterer, such activities
does not detract from the Masters responsibility for safety
of his vessel. It is important, therefore, that the Ships
Office pay particular attention to the condition of containers
coming onboard.
o Hazardous cargo
Most countries have their own legislation to provide for the
safe carriage of Dangerous Goods. The classification,
packing and stowage regulations for Dangerous Goods
must in accordance with any legislation which may be in
force in.
The country of origin
The country of destination
Any countries which are entered
The country under whose flag the carrying vessel
operates.
Transportation and handling of dangerous cargo shall be
carried out in accordance with the procedure entitled
Handling Dangerous Goods
1.4 Ship Construction
-

Describe the various types of bulkheads on board


o Bulkhead A vertical portion in a vessel similar to wall between
rooms in a house. Bulkheads divide the interior of the ship and
79

decks into watertight compartments. A vessel could be made


virtually unsinkable if it were divided into enough small
compartments. However, too many compartments would interfere
with the arrangement of mechanical equipment and the operation
of the ship. Engine rooms must be large enough to accommodate
bulky machinery. Cargo spaces must be large enough to hold large
equipment and containers.

o
o
o
o
-

Watertight bulkheads bulkheads exposed to weather


Collision bulkheads bulkhead in the forward part of the vessel.
Fire bulkheads bulkheads that are fire resistance.
Transverse bulkheads its the hull structure of the vessel

What is a Storm Valve


o A Storm Valve is a non-return valve in pipe leading outboard above
the water line. A Storm valve is basically a Swing check valve
with a Closing device. The closing device is usually a hand wheel
but they can also be actuated. Storm valves are usually found on
ships in sanitary piping systems which have a ships side exit. They
prevent sea water entering the system during a heavy sea.

Draw to scale the bilge and ballast piping systems of your vessel
o See next page . . .

How does one determine the amount of cargo or liquid in a tank?


o Total observed volume (TOV)
Total observed volume is the total measured volume of all
petroleum liquids, including sediment and water (S&W)
and free water, measured at the observed temperature and
pressure. It is determined by converting the observed ullage
readings to volumes using the vessels tank calibration
tables and adjusting the volumes with the necessary trims
and list corrections.
o Gross observed volume(GOV)
80

Gross observed volume is the total measured volume of all


petroleum liquids, including S&W, but excluding free
water, at observed temperature and pressure.
GOV = TOV free water
Net observed volume (NOV)
Net observed volume is the total measured volume of all
petroleum liquids excluding S&W and free water, at the
observed temperature and pressure. S&W can be estimated
by centrifuge, but standards petroleum sale contracts call
for S&W measurement by filtration and chemical titration
respectively.
NOV = TOV free water sediment water
correspondingly, there is gross and net standard
volume.
Gross standard volume (GSV)
Gross standard volume is the total measured volume of all
petroleum liquids and S&W but excluding free water and
corrected by the appropriate temperature correction factor
for the observed temperature and API gravity (or density),
to a standard temperature, 60 degrees Fahrenheit and also
corrected by the applicable atmospheric pressure correction
factor.
Net standard volume (NSV)
Net standard volume is the measured volume of all
petroleum liquids excluding S&W and free water and
corrected by the appropriate temperature correction factor
for the observed temperature and API gravity (or density),
to a standard temperature such as 60 degrees Fahrenheit of
and also corrected by the applicable pressure correction
factor. The NSV is the commercially important result of the
calculation process, since it is the basis on which the cost of
the cargo of oil is determined. This figure is used for Net
figure on B/L.
Total calculated volume
Total calculated volume is GSV plus any free water
measured at the observed temperature and pressure. The
TCV is important for the chief officer because it will be the
reference quantity against which transportation losses will
be measured at the discharge port. Since the transportation
has no control over the amount of water contained in the
cargo, such water will often settle out during the voyage,
resulting in a much greater free water quantity at the
discharge port than the loading port. Since free water is not
corrected for temperature, this quantity has to be to be
added back to the GSV in order to accurately compare with
the TCV after loading to the TCV before discharge.
This figure is used for Gross figure on B/L.

81

What are the factors/corrections to consider when finding the quantity of


ballast?
o The factors/corrections to consider when finding the quantity of
ballast is trough trim and list. By sounding and by draft reading,
ensure the depth of water in ballast tank by using a lead line or
depth sounder and gauging tape, measuring stick pneumercator or
electronic gauging device. In ballasting, consider the factors that
affect the stability and trim of the ship like; capacity of every tank:
fresh water, water ballast tank, heeling tank, sludge tank, bilge
water, etc. Also remember where you are in salt water, in fresh
water or in brackish water.
o Safety points as outlined below shall be observed, as the fact that
an error at sea can have more serious consequences than those
emanating from the same error in port, as a result of emptying
/filling ballast tanks during exchange:
Sufficient longitudinal strength (SF, BM, Torsion) as result
of unsuitable ballast exchange steps;
Reduction in ship stability due to free surface effect
resulting in a reduction of ships GM or increase in the
heeling angle;
Structural damage to ship bottom forward caused by
insufficient forward draught;
Reduction in maneuverability and/or ability to make
headway caused by insufficient after draught;
Reduction in bridge visibility forward caused by
insufficient forward draught;
Structural damage to topside and hopper side tanks caused
by inertia loading as result of a full ballast hold with empty
adjacent wing tanks;
Structural damage to partially filled ballast tanks or holds
caused by sloshing as a result of resonance with ships
motion;
Over pressurization damage of ballast water tanks while
filling ballast tanks caused by blockages in air pipes or
using excessive pumping capacity relative to the design of
the ballast system. Blockages may result from lack of
proper maintenance, ball failure, freezing, or unintended
closure;
Under pressurization damage of ballast tanks while
emptying ballast, caused by blockages or air pipes or
insufficient design.

Draw out a cargo or stowage plan showing your calculations


o See following pages . . .
OPERATION OF CARGO GEARS, STANDING AND RUNNING
RIGGING AND SAFE WORKING PRACTICES
82

1.4 Seamanship
-

Name the various parts of a derrick using a suitable diagram.


o Single Swinging Booms or derrick- The single swinging boom
with double purchase is considered one of
the best methods of
rigging and handling loads

capacity of a single

beyond the
capacity of a single whip up to the
boom or derrick.

o Two Swinging Booms or Derrick- A load greater than the capacity


of a single booms or derrick may be handled by using two booms
working together as a single swinging boom. In this case the whip
of the two booms should be fastened to opposite ends of a lifting
bar or strong back.
o HeavyLifted Booms or Derrick- Are normally carried in an
upright position, collared to the mast fully rigged with topping lift,
load purchase, and guy tackles that are already secured. In working
a heavy- lift boom or derrick the handling of the guys requires
special attention.
o Steulchen Jumbo Booms- consist of two supporting mast (usually
inclined outboard at their tops) and a heavy lifted booms or derrick.
83

Among the advantage of the steulchen jumbo booms are its greater
lifting capacity, less deck gear, and the increased in speed of the
cargo hook, The main advantage and chief characteristics is that the
boom head, when fully raised, can be flopped fore ( or aft )
between the support masthead, thereby allowing the boom to work
the adjacent hatch.
o Jumbo derricks - were derricks attached to a Mast and could lift as
the name suggests heavy loads; the forward Jumbo derrick was
generally for extra heavy loads while the aft derrick was for
slightly lesser loads. In preparing for operation the Jumbo derricks
required four winches 1 for topping the derrick, one for lifting the
load and two for swinging the derrick. As such prior using the
Jumbo derrick was rigged and the lashings were then removed. The
rigging entailed that four light derricks were inoperable since their
winches were requisitioned, so efficient planning on the part of the
chief officer was required.
o Stulken derricks - had a single boom but the rigging was such that
a single operator could control the movement of the derrick,
another advantage was that these derricks could service two
adjacent holds by being capable of being plumbed for either hold.
o
-

What is the function of a preventer guy of a derrick?


o Preventer guy is an auxiliary line that supports another line when
an unusual strain is expected.
o Derricks are long hollow steel booms rotating on swivels (heel),
they each have a part rope guy and a steel pendant which is used
for heaving and positioning the derrick and also to keep the derrick
in place. The rope is used in a tackle and can absorb sudden
shocks, which come on the derrick while in operation. On the
opposite side to the cargo being worked a preventer guy made of
wire rope is fitted which is kept slightly slack than the rope guy,
this enables the rope guy to stretch before any load comes on the
preventer guy. This preventer is the last shock and strain absorber,
if the preventer is weak or is damaged it can part with disastrous
consequences. So maintaining the preventer and fixing it right is of
utmost importance.

State the procedure of uncoiling a left and hand wire rope.


o The Right Way To Unreel. To unreel wire rope from a heavy reel,
place a shaft through the center and jack up the reel far enough to
clear the floor and revolve easily. One person holds the end of the
rope and walks a straight line away from the reel, taking the wire
rope off the top of the reel. A second person regulates the speed of
the turning reel by holding a wood block against the flange as a
brake, taking care to keep slack from developing on the reel, as this
can easily cause a kink in the rope. Lightweight reels can be
properly unreeled using a vertical shaft; the same care should be
taken to keep the rope taut.
84

o The Wrong Way To Unreel. If a reel of wire rope is laid on its


flange with its axis vertical to the floor and the rope unreeled by
throwing off the turns, spirals will occur and kinks are likely to
form in the rope. Wire rope always should be handled in a way that
neither twists nor unlays it. If handled in a careless manner, reverse
bends and kinks can easily occur.
o The Right Way To Uncoil. There is only one correct way to uncoil
wire rope. One person must hold the end of the rope while a second
person rolls the coil along the floor, backing away. The rope is
allowed to uncoil naturally with the lay, without spiraling or
twisting. Always uncoil wire rope as shown.
o The Wrong Way To Uncoil. If a coil of wire rope is laid flat on the
floor and uncoiled by pulling it straight off, spirals will occur and
kinking is likely. Torsions are put into the rope by every loop that is
pulled off, and the rope becomes twisted and unmanageable. Also,
wire rope cannot be uncoiled like hemp rope. Pulling one end
through the middle of the coil will only result in kinking.
o Kinks. Great stress has been placed on the care that should be taken
to avoid kinks in wire rope. Kinks are places where the rope has
been unintentionally bent to a permanent set. This happens where
loops are pulled through by tension on the rope until the diameter
of the loop is only a few inches. They are also caused by bending a
rope around a sheave having too severe a radius. Wires in the
strands at the kink are permanently damaged and will not give
normal service, even after apparent "straightening."
-

Practice the following knots and hitches and write the uses of these knots
in your workbook
o Figure of 8- One made in the end of a rope to prevent its unreeling
through a block. The insignia worn by all. Enlisted men of the navy
who have passed through rating of apprentice. A figure of 8 is
made racking fashion around the heads of sheer legs.
o Clove hitch- A most useful and efficient method of making a line
fast to spar or to other ropes. It is extensively used to bind a rope
around an object. It is particularly effective when both ends are
under stress. It should be finished with another half hitch when
only one end is under load.
o Bowline- One of the useful knots it is tied in such a way to make
an eye in the end of a rope. A bowline on a bight is a similar knot
made with a bight of a rope.
o Timber hitch- A turn around a spar, around the standing part and
then several around its own part. This will never loose when the
rope is under tension. When safety is the primary concern as it is
not infallible it should not be used. It is important to leave the rope
end sufficiently out of the hitch.
o Monkey fist- A complicated knot with weight enclosed used at the
end of a heaving line.

85

o Sheet bend- A handy knots for making two ropes end past, as it will
not slip. One end is passed through the bight of the other then
carried around tucked under its own part.
o Reef knot- A square knot.
o Sheep shank- A manipulation for shortening rope.
Knots, Bends, Hitch and Splices

86

o Definition of Terms
Knots is the interlacement of parts of one or more ropes,
cords, plastic materials, commonly used to bind objects
together.
Bends is a term used to bend two lines together such as reef
knot, sheet bend, etc.
Hitch is a term used to tie on an object.
Rope splicing is a method of fixing a loop eye or joining
two ends together.
Knots and Bends

Description

The Marline Spike is a useful knot


which can be tied at any point along a
length of rope without needing to thread
a rope end.

The sheepshank knot is used to


shorten a length of rope. It can also be
used to strengthen a chaffed section of
rope.

Overhand knot is used as a stopper


knot, but will jam if pulled too light.

87

The figure of eight knot is used to


prevent a free rope end from slipping
through another knot.

Knots and Bends

Description

The sheet bend knot is known as


ordinary bend or common bend which is
use in joining two ropes.

Knots: Making a fast to a cleat. To make


a fast, take a turn around the cleat and
make several figure of eight turns to
build up some friction and finish off with
a twisted loop or hitch to look it off.

The bowline is best for forming a loop


or eye, it doest jam and its east to undo
if not under load.

88

The double loop bowline is generally


used at sea for lowering an injured man
from aloft, by putting one leg trough
each loop.

The figure of eight bend provides a


safe, and simple way to join two ropes.

Knots and Bends

Description

The double overhand knot is an


excellent stopper knot.

The double figure of eight can be used


as an improvised seat. It is also use for
equalizing the load on two anchors.

Monkey fist is used as an end knot for


a heaving line for throwing from one
location to another to enable a larger
line that could not be thrown over the
distance to be pulled over.

89

Knots, Bends and Hitches

Description
The reef knot is probably one of the most
popular and best known knots. Its typical
use is tying the ends of a rope around an
object, eg. A parcel, bandage or the neck of
a sack.

The anchor hitch or fisherman's bend is


a knot related to the round turn and two half
hitches but it is more secure. Another use
is to attach to a rope ring eg. on an anchor.

The buntline hitch is used to secure a knot


but it ends to jam so it is not easy to untie.

The cow hitch is used for tying a cow to a


pole and use to secure a lanyard to a
shroud.

Hitches

Description

90

The clove hitch knot is ideal for securing


fenders and the like. It is quick to tie and
easy to adjust.

The rolling hitch is like a clove hitch with


another turn. Ideal for taking the strain off
another rope and it is a useful knot aboard
ship.

The half hitch is a capsized overhand knot


is very useful to carry light loads which
have to be removed easily.

Two half hitches is use for tying a rope


with right angle pull to a pole or ring and it
does not jam.

The marline hitch is a very practical to lash


a long object and it will not slip easy.

Midshipman's hitch is used to create an


91

adjustable loop under tension; similar to the


taut line hitch, except that the second is
jammed inside the first to increase friction.

The rolling hitch is an effective hitch for


pole or spar where constant tension is
maintained.

The single hitch is the simplest knot use to


attach rope to a tree.

Splices

Description
Splicing is a very strong method of fixing a
loop eye; as the rope is pulled tighter so the
spliced strands become more and more
squeezed and locked in place. Splicing also
removes the worry of a knot becoming
undone and a spliced eye is less bulky.

The back splice provides a secure method


of preventing the end of a rope from fraying

92

A short splice is an ideal way of joining


ropes.

Long splice is used to join two rope ends


forming one rope the length of the total of
the two ropes. The long splice, unlike most
splice types, results in a splice that is only
very slightly thicker than the rope without
the splice.

Wire Rope
o A wire rope is a piece of flexible, multi-wired, stranded machinery
made of many precision parts. Usually a wire rope consists of a
core member, around which a number of multi-wired strands are
laid or helically bent. There are two general types of cores for
wire rope; fiber cores and wire cores. The fiber core may be made
from natural or synthetic fibers. The wire core can be an
Independent Wire Core (IWRC), a Strand Core (SC).The purpose
of the core is to provide support and maintain the position of the
outer strands during operation.
o Wire ropes are referred to by two numbers, the first indicates the
number of strands, including a strand which may be used for the
central heart, and the second indicates the number of wires to the
strand.

93

o Types of Lay
Ordinary Lay. The wires are twisted in the opposite
direction to the strands. Right hand rope is normally used,
in which the wires are twisted left handed and the strands
are twisted right handed.
Langs Lay. The direction of twist of the wires is the same
as the direction of strand the strands. This lay provides a
94

greater wearing surface but should only used when both


ends of the rope and the load are secured against rotation. It
is not likely to be used for marine purposes.
o Application
Standing Rigging Wire ropes used for stays, shrouds and
preventers have a steel core to give extra strength.
Cargo Lashings 6 x 12 ropes are recommended for sizes
8-16mm and 6 x 24 constructions for larger sizes.
Cargo Handling. 6 x 24 constructions usually used but 6
x19 ropes are also suitable for ropes up to 24 mm.
Mooring Ropes
Wire ropes of 6 x37 construction are
recommended for general use but for powered winches, 6 x
36 ropes with a wire core.
Boat falls Either 17 x 7 or 36 x 36 for ropes up to 16mm
and 6 x 36 for larger sizes.
o How to Handle Wire Rope
When uncoiling wire rope, it is important that no kinks are
allowed to form, as once a kink is made no amount of strain
can take it out, and the rope is unsafe to work. If possible a
turn-table should be employed (an cart wheel mounted on
spindle makes an excellent one); the rope will then lead off
perfectly straight without kinks.
If a turn-table is not available the rope may be rolled along
the ground. In no case must the rope be laid on the ground
and the end taken over or kinks will result, and the rope will
be completely spoiled.
The life of wire rope depends principally upon the diameter
of drums, sheaves, and pulleys; and too much importance
cannot be given to the size of the latter. Wherever possible
the diameter of the sheave should not be less than 20 times
the diameter of the wire rope. The diameter of drums,
sheaves and pulleys should increase with the working load
when the factor of safety is less than 5 to 1.
The load should not be lifted with a jerk, as the strain may
equal three or four times the proper load, and a sound rope
may easily be broken.
Examine ropes frequently. A new rope is cheaper than the
risk of killing or maiming crew.
One-sixth of the ultimate strength of the rope should be
considered a fair working load.
To increase the amount of the work done, it is better to
increase the working load than the speed of the rope.
Experience has shown that the wear of the rope increases
with the speed.
Wire rope should be greased when running or idle. Rust
destroys as effectively as hard work.
Great care should be taken that the grooves of drums and
sheaves are perfectly smooth, ample in diameter, and
conform to the surface of the rope. They should be in
95

perfect line with the rope, so that the latter may not chafe
on the sides of the grooves.
Wire rope clips
Wire rope clips (grips) provide a quick and effective
substitute for splicing and fastening wire ropes by unskilled
labour.
Thimbles
When the wire rope is terminated with a loop, there is a risk
that the wire rope can bend too tightly, especially when the
loop is connected to a device that spreads the load over a
relatively small area. A thimble can be installed inside the
loop to preserve the natural shape of the loop, and protect
the cable from pinching and abrasion on the inside of the
loop. The use of thimbles in loops is industry best practice.
The thimble prevents the load from coming into direct
contact with the wires.
Wire Splicing
The Docks Regulations of the Factories Act require that a
thimble or eye splice should have at least three tucks with
the whole strand of the rope and two with half the wires cut
out of each strand. The strands must be tucked against the
lay of the rope. The Liverpool Splice is relatively quick
and easy as after the first tuck each end is passed, with the
lay, around the same strand four or five times, but such a
splice should never be used if the end of the rope is free to
rotate. If the splice is made with the lay rotation will cause
the tucks to draw and the splice to pull out.
A long tapering steel marline-spike is required. After
placing it under a strand do not withdraw it until the tuck is
made and all the slack of the strand drawn through.
Wire splices should be parceled with oily canvass and
served with Hambros line.
Splicing Thimbles- Under and Over Style.
An ordinary type of wire rope, serve the rope with wire or
tarred yarn to suit the circumference of the thimble, bend
round thimble and tie securely in place with temporary
lashing till splice is finished. Open out the strands taking
care to keep the loose end of the rope of the left hand now
insert the marline-spike, lifting two strands, and tuck away
towards the right hand ( That is inserting the strand at the
point, and over the spike) strand No.1, pulling the strand
well home. Next insert marline-spike through next strand to
the left, only lifting one strand, the point of the spike
coming out at the same place as before. Tuck away strand
No.2 as before.
The next tuck is the locking tuck. Insert marline-spike in next
strand, and, missing No.3, tuck away strand No. 4 from the point of
the spike towards the right hand. Now, without taking out spike,
tuck away strand No.3 behind the spike towards the left hand. Now
96

insert spike in the strand, and tuck away strand No.5 behind and
over the spike. No. 6 likewise. Pull all the loose strands well down.
This completes the first series of tucks, and the splice will,
if made properly, be as Fig. 76 now, starting with strand
No.1 and taking next strand till all the strands have been
tucked three times. The strand should at this point be split,
half of the wires being tucked away as before, the other half
cut close to the splice. Fig.77 shows the finished splice
ready for serving over.
It will be noticed that this style of splice possesses a plaited
appearance, and the more strain applied to the rope the
tighter the splice will grip, and there is no fear of the splice
drawing owing to rotation of the rope.
1.13 Manuals
-

What precautions are to be taken when topping / lowering the following


gears on board your ship :
o Ramps o Cranes - see to it that emergency button is using, the operator is
trained and all working sheets needed are being signed before using
the crane.
o Derricks - A cargo boom with its foot set at the foot of the mast
used to loading and removing of cargo. Before a derrick is raised or
lowered, all person on deck in the vicinity should be warned so that
no person stands in, or is in danger from bights of wire and other
ropes. Where derricks have not been marked with SWL in union
purchase, they should not be used for loads in excess of one-third
of the SWL of the derrick.
o Davits - these are used only in lifeboat. Make sure that proper
maintenance is obtained and ready for use all the time.

1.14 Cargo work for ships officer


-

What do you understand by Annual Inspection?


o Annual inspection is done yearly for every Vessel to inspect all
safety equipment and ships condition.
o The annual inspection shall be undertaken to include verification
on whether:
All equipment are operational and in satisfactory condition
for the service for which the ship is intended;
Alterations have been made to the hull or superstructures
which would affect the calculations determining the
position of the load lines;
Fittings and appliances for the protection of openings,
guard rails, freeing ports and means of access to crews
quarters are maintained in satisfactory condition;
Ship documents are complete and valid; and
97

Officers and crew are adequate & duly certificated.


o Pre-Inspection.
Prior to the actual conduct of the inspection, the Lead Ship
Inspector shall undertake the following preparatory tasks:
Ensure that members of the Inspection Team are in proper
uniform and possess proper identification and authority to
inspect the ship;
Ascertain the availability of inspection tools and equipment
to be used;
Obtain necessary documents needed including checklist, a
copy of ship specifications, pictures and plans, where
applicable;
Confirm inspection time and location with ship operators or
their representatives;
Hold pre-boarding meeting to coordinate the inspection
work to be performed by each member of the team and to
set a target completion time; and
Inspector/Inspection Team to meet the Master on board the
ship.
-

Which port regulations govern the safety requirement of cargo gear? What
is your general understanding of these regulations?
o Cargo Gear Inspections are required by ILO Convention No.
152Convention on Occupational Health and Safety in Dock Work.
o A member of the ships crew as the "responsible person" under the
convention appointed by the master, normally the chief officer on
board a general cargo ship is responsible for conducting certain
examinations, usually visual, of loose gear and other slings prior to
being used and a record of such examinations is kept in the Cargo
Gear Book.
o The "responsible person" or "authorized person" must be appointed
or authorized by the master or other employer to carry out the
duties and responsibilities of the regulations, again usually the
chief officer on board. A person not so authorized may not carry
out these duties.
o The Cargo Gear Book is normally maintained by this authorized
person such as a ships officer keeping a record of all tests and
inspections of cargo gear including electrical and mechanical tests
and maintenance on related machinery, guards and safety cut-outs
etc.
o The four or five year inspection conducted by the "competent
authority" is an organization delegated this authority such as the
National Cargo Bureau or any one of the internationally recognized
IACS Class societies who ensure all the required weight tests and
marking and certificates of the rigging, booms, wire, chains, ropes
98

and slings and other lifting devices, etc. A certificate is issued


attesting to the testing.
o If the regular examinations and tests nor annual inspections are not
carried out the condition of the cargo gear would be in question by
the dock workers and they could very legitimately refuse to work
the ship until all requirements are brought current. The local
authorities in the port would also have the authority to require that
all cargo gear be examined properly prior to cargo operations
commencing if these requirements are not being followed. This
inspection can be done by the authorized person.
-

Locate the IMDG code books and briefly describe each of the dangerous
classes and giving suitable examples
o Dangerous goods are materials or items with hazardous properties
which, if not properly controlled, present a potential hazard to
human health and safety, infrastructure and/ or their means of
transport. The transportation of dangerous goods is controlled and
governed by a variety of different regulatory regimes, operating at
both the national and international levels. Prominent regulatory
frameworks for the transportation of dangerous goods include the
United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous
Goods, ICAOs Technical Instructions, IATAs Dangerous Goods
Regulations and the IMOs International Maritime Dangerous
Goods Code. Collectively, these regulatory regimes mandate the
means by which dangerous goods are to be handled, packaged,
labeled and transported Regulatory frameworks incorporate
comprehensive classification systems of hazards to provide
taxonomy of dangerous goods. Classification of dangerous goods is
broken down into nine classes according to the type of danger
materials or items present.
o Class 1 Explosives
It means a solid or liquid substance (or a mixture of
substance) which are in itself capable by chemical reaction
of producing gas at such a temperature and pressure and at
such a speed as to cause damage to the surrounding.
Pyrotechnic substance is included even when they do not
evolve gases.
Examples: Gunpowder, nitrate mixture, nitro
compound, chlorate mixture, fulminate,
ammunition, firework.
Pyrotechnic means a substance or a mixture of
substance designed to produce an effect by heat,
light, sound gas or smoke or a combination of these

99

as the result of non-detonative self-sustaining


exothermic chemical reactions.
Explosive article means article containing one or
more explosive substance.
Mass explosion -Means one which affects almost
the entire load virtually instantaneously.
Phlegmatized means that the substance (or
phlegmatizer) has been added to enhance its
safely in handling and transport. The phlegmatizer
renders the explosive insensitive, or less sensitive,
to the following actions: heat shock, impact
percussion or friction. Typical phlegmatizing agents
include, but are not limited to: wax, paper, water,
polymers (such as chlorofluoropolymers), alcohol
and oils (such as petroleum jelly and paraffin.
o The six hazard division of class 1 are:
Division 1.1: Substance and articles which have a mass
explosion hazard.
Division 1.2: Substance and articles which have a
projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard
Division 1.3: Substance and articles which have a fire
hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection
hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard.
This division comprises and articles:
Which gives rise to considerable radiant heat; or
Which burn one after another, producing minor blast
or projection effect or both.
Division 1.4: Substances and articles which present no
significant hazard.
This division comprises substances and articles
which present only a small hazard in the event of
ignition during transport. The effect are largely
confined to the package and no projection of
fragments of appreciable sized or range is to be
expected. An external fire must not cause virtually
instantaneously explosion of almost the entire
contents of the package.
Division1.5: Very insensitive substance which have a mass
explosion hazard.
This division comprises substances which have a
mass explosion hazard but are so insensitive that
there is very little probability of initiation or of
transition from burning to detonation under normal
condition of transport.
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Note: The probability of transition from burning to


detonation is greater when large quantities are
transported in a ship. As a consequence, the stowage
provision for explosives substances in division 1.1
and for those division 1.5 are identical.
Division 1.6: Extremely insensitive articles which do not
have a mass explosion hazard
This division comprises articles which contain only
extremely insensitive detonating substances and
which demonstrate a negligible probability of
accidental initiation or propagation.
Note: The risk from articles of division 1.6 limited
to the explosion of a single article.
o Commonly transported explosives:
Ammunition/cartridges
Fireworks/pyrotechnics
Flares
Blasting caps / detonators
Fuse
Primers
Explosive charges (blasting, demolition etc)
Detonating cord
Air bag inflators
Igniters
Rockets
TNT / TNT compositions
RDX / RDX compositions
PETN / PETN composition
o Class 2 - Gases
A gas is a substance which:
1. At 50 C has a vapor pressure greater than
300 kpa; or
2. is completely gaseous at 20 C at a
standard pressure of 101.3 kpa
The transport condition of a gas is described according to
its physical state as:
Compressed gas A gas which when packed under
pressure for transport is entirely gaseous at -50
C this category include all gases with a critical
temperature less than or equal to 50 C.
Liquefied gas- a gas which when packed under
pressure for transport is partially liquid at
temperature above -50 C. A distinction is
made between:
101

o High pressure liquefied gas- A gas which


critical temperature between -50 C
and + 65 C
o Low pressure liquefied gas a gas with a
critical temperature above +65 C
Refrigerated liquefied gas- a gas which when
packed for transport is made partially liquid
because of its low temperature; or
Dissolved Gas- a gas which when packed for
transport is dissolved in a liquid phase solvent.
The class comprises compressed gas, liquefied gas
dissolved gas refrigerated liquefied gas mixture of one or
more gases with one or more vapour of substances of other
classes article charge with a gas and aerosols.
Gases are normally transported under pressure varying form
high pressure in the case of compressed gas to low pressure
in the case refrigerated gases.
According to their chemical properties or physiological
effects which may vary widely, gases maybe flammable,
nonflammable, non-toxic, toxic, supporters of
combustions ; corrosive, or may possess two or more of
these properties simultaneously.
Some gases are chemically and physiologically inert. Such
gases as well as other gases, normally accepted as non-toxic
will nevertheless be suffocating in high concentration.
Many gases of this class have narcotics effects which may
occur at comparatively low concentration or may evolve
highly toxic gases when involved in fire.
All gases which are heavier than air will present a potential
danger if allowed to accumulate in the bottom of cargo
space.
Class subdivision:
Class 2 is subdivided further according to the
primary hazard of the gas during transport
Note: FOR UN 1950 AEROSOL, see also the
criteria in special provision 63 and for UN 2037
RECEPTACLES, SMALL, and CONTAINING
GAS (GAS CARTRIGEDS) see also special
provision 303.
Class 2.1 Flammable gas
Gases which at 20 C and a standard pressure
of 101.3 kpa:
o Are ignitable when in a mixture of a 13% or
less by volume with air; or
102

o Have a flammable range with air of at least


12 percentage points regardless of the lower
flammable limit. Flammable shall be
determine by test or calculation in
accordance with methods adopted by the
international organization for standardization
( see ISO Standard 10156: 1996). Where
insufficient data are available to use these
methods, test by comparable method
recognized by a national competent authority
may be used.
Class 2.2 Nonflammable, non-toxic gas
Gases which:
o are asphyxiate gases which dilute or
replace the oxygen normally in the
atmosphere; or
o are oxidizing gases which may, generally
by providing oxygen, cause or contribute to
the combustion of other material more than
air does; or
o do not come under the other classes
o Note: gases which cause or contribute to
the combustion of other material more than
air does means pure gases or gas mixture
with an oxidizing power greater than 23.5%
as determined by a method specified in ISO
10156:1996 or 10156-2:2005
Class 2.3 Toxic Gases:
Gases which:
o are known to be so toxic or corrosive to
human as to pose a hazard; or
o are presumed to be toxic or corrosive to
human because they have a LC 50 value (as
defined in 2.6.2.1) equal to or less than
5,000/m3 (ppm)
o Note: Gases meeting the above criteria
owing to their corrosively are to be classified
as toxic with a subsidiary corrosive risk.
Gases and gas mixture with hazard associated with
more than one division take the following
precedence
Class 2.3 take precedence over all other classes;
Class 2.1 takes precedence over class 2.2.

103

Gases of class 2.2 are not subject to the provision of


this code if they are transported at a pressure of less
than 200 kPa at 20 C and are not liquefied or
refrigerated liquefied gas.
Gases of class 2.2 are not subject to the provision of
this code when contain in the following:
o Foodstuffs (except UN 1950) including
carbonated beverages;
o Balls intended for use in sports;
o tyres (except for air transport); or
o light bulb provided they are packaged so that
the projectile effect of any rupture of the
bulb will be contained within the package.
o Commonly transported toxic gases:
Aerosols
Compressed air
Hydrocarbon gas-powered devices
Fire extinguishers
Gas cartridges
Fertilizer ammoniating solution
Insecticide gases
Refrigerant gases
Lighters
Acetylene / Oxyacetylene
o Class 3 - Flammable Liquids
Flammable liquid are liquid or mixture of liquids, or liquids
containing solid in solution or suspension (such as paints,
varnishes, lacquers, etc. but not including substances which,
on account of their other dangerous characteristic, have
been include in other classes)
This also includes:
Liquids offered for transport at temperature at or
above their flashpoint; and
Substances transported or offered for transport at
elevated temperature in a liquid state, which give off
a flammable vapour at the temperature equal to or
below the maximum transport temperature.
However, the provision of this code need not apply to such
liquid with a flashpoint of more than 35 C which do
not sustain combustion.
They have passed the suitable combustibility
test( see the Sustained Combustibility Test
prescribed in part III, 32.5.2 of the united Nation
Manual of Test and Criteria) or
104

There fire flashpoint according to ISO 2592:1973 is


greater than 100 C or
They are water miscible solution with the water
content of more than 90%, by mass.
Liquid desensitized explosive are explosive substance
which are dissolved or suspended in water or other liquid
substance, to form a homogeneous liquid mixture to
suppress their explosive properties. Entries in the
Dangerous Goods List for liquid desensitized explosives are
UN 1204, UN 2059, UN 3064, UN 3343, UN 3357, AND
UN 3379
o Commonly transported flammable liquids:
Aerosols
Compressed air
Hydrocarbon gas-powered devices
Fire extinguishers
Gas cartridges
Fertilizer ammoniating solution
Insecticide gases
Refrigerant gases
Lighters
Acetylene / Oxyacetylene
o Class 4 - Flammable Solids
In this CODE, class 4 deals with substance, other than those
classified as explosives, which under conditions of transport
are readily combustible or may cause or contribute to a fire.
Class 4.1 Flammable solids:
Solids which, under conditions encountered in
transport, are readily combustible or may cause or
contribute to fire through friction; self-reactive
substance ( solids and liquid) which are liable to
undergo a strongly exothermic reaction; solid
desensitized explosives which may explode if but
dilute sufficiently
Class 4.2 Substance liable to spontaneous combustion:
Substance (solids and Liquid) which are liable to
spontaneous heating under normal condition
encountered in transport, or to heating up in contact
with air, and being then liable to catch fire.
Class 4.3 Substance which, in contact with water, emit
flammable gases:
Substance (solids and liquids) which by interaction
with the water, are liable to become spontaneously
105

flammable or to give off flammable gases in


dangerous quantities
Class 4.1 Flammable Solids:
For the purpose of this code, a flammable solid
means readily combustible solids which may cause
fire through friction.
Readily combustible solids means fibers, powdered
granular, or pasty substance which are dangerous if they
can easily ignited by brief contact with an ignition source
such as a burning match, and if the flame spreads rapidly.
The danger may not come not only in the fire but also from
toxic combustion product.
Classification of Flammable solids:
Powdered, granular or pasty substances shall be
classified as readily combustible solids of class 4.1
when the time of burning of one or more of the test
runs, performed in accordance with the test method
prescribed in the United Nation Manual of Test and
Criteria, part III; 33.2.1 is less than 45 s or the rate
of burning is more than 2.2 mm/s.
Class 4.1 Self-reactive substance:
Definitions and properties:
Self-reactive substance is thermally unstable
substance liable to undergo a strongly exothermic
decomposition even without participation of oxygen
(air). Substance are not considered to be selfreactive substances of class 4.1; if
o They are explosive according to the criteria
of class 1;
o They are oxidizing substances according to
the classification procedure for class 5.1 (see
2.5.2) except that mixture of oxidizing
substances which contain 5.0% or more
combustible organic substances shall be
subjective to the classification procedure
defined in note 3.
o They are organic peroxides according to the
criteria of class 5.2;
o Their heat of decomposition is less than 300
J/g; or
Their self- accelerating decomposition temperature (SADT)
(see 2.4.2.3.4) is greater than 75 C for a 50 kg
package

o Class 4.1 Solid desensitized explosive:


106

Definition and properties

Solid desensitized explosive are explosive substances which


are wetted with water or alcohols or are diluted with other
substances to form a homogeneous solid mixture to
suppress their explosive properties. The desensitizing agent
shall be distributed uniformly throughout the substance in
the state in which it is to be transported. Where transport
under condition of low temperature is anticipated for
substance containing or wetted with water, a suitable and
compatible solvent, such as alcohol, may have to be added
to lower the freezing point of the liquid. Some of this
substance, when in a dry state, is classified as explosive.
Where reference is made to a substance which is wetted
with water, or some other liquid, it shall be permitted for
transport as class 4.1 substances only when in the wetted
condition specified. Entries in the dangerous goods list in
chapter 3.2 for solid desensitized explosive are UN
1310,UN 1320, UN 1321, UN 1322, UN 1336, UN 1337,
UN 1344, UN 1347, UN 1348, UN 1349, UN 1354, UN
1355, UN 1356, UN 1357, UN 1517, UN 1571, UN 2555,
UN 2556, UN 2557, UN 2852, UN 2907, UN 3317, UN
3319, UN 3344, UN 3364, UN 3365, UN 3366, UN 3367,
UN 3368, UN 3369, UN 3370, UN 3376, UN 3380, And
3474.

Class 4.2 Substances liable to spontaneous combustion


Class 4.2 comprises:
Pyrophoric substances, which are substances,
including mixture and solution( liquid and solid)
which even in small quantities, ignite within 5
minutes of coming into contact with air. These
substances are the most liable to spontaneous
combustion and
Self-heating substances, which are substances other
than pyrophoric substances, which in contact with
air without energy supply, are liable to self-heating.
These substances will ignite only when in large
amounts (kilograms) and after a long period of time
(hours or days).
Self-heating of a substance is a process where the
gradual reaction of that substance with oxygen in air
generates heat. If the rate of heat production exceeds
the rate of heat loss, then the temperature of the
substance will raise which, after an induction time,
may lead to self-ignition or combustion.
Some substance may also give off toxic gasses if
involved in fire.
107

Class 4.3 Substances which, contact with water, emit


flammable gases
For the purpose for this code, the substances in thus
class are either liquids or solid which, by interaction
with water, are liable to become spontaneously
flammable gases in dangerous quantities.
Certain substances, in contact with water, may emit
flammable gases that can form explosive mixture
with air. Such mixtures are easily ignited by all
ordinary sources of ignition, for example naked
lights, sparking hand tools or unprotected light bulb.
The resulting blast waves and flames may endanger
people and the environment.
Classification of class 4.3 substances:
Substances which in contact with water, emit
flammable gases shall be classified in class 4.3 if in
test performed in accordance with the test method
given in the United Nations Manual of Test and
Criteria, part III 33.4.1:
Spontaneous ignition takes place in any steps of the
test procedure.
There is an evolution of a flammable gas at a rate
greater than1 litre per kilogram of the substances per
hour.

o Commonly Transported Flammable Solids; Spontaneous


Combustibles; Dangerous When Wet Materials:
Alkali metals
Metal powders
Aluminum phosphide
Sodium batteries
Sodium cells
Firelighters
Matches
Calcium carbide
Camphor
Carbon
o Class 5 - Oxidizing substances and Organic peroxides
In this code, class 5 is divided into two classes as follows.
Class 5.1- Oxidizing substances:
Substances which, while in themselves not
necessarily combustible, may, generally by yielding
oxygen, cause, or contribute to, the combustion of
other material. Such substances may contained in an
article
Mixture of oxidizing substances with combustible
material and even with material such as sugar, flour,
108

edible oils, etc, is dangerous. These mixtures are


rapidly ignited, in some cases by friction or impact.
They may burn violently and may lead to explosion.
Class 5.2 Organic peroxides:
Organic peroxides which contain the bivalent-O-Ostructure and may be considered derivatives of
hydrogen peroxide, where one or both of the
hydrogen atoms have been replace by organic
radicals. Organic peroxide are thermally unstable
substances which may undergo exothermic selfaccelerating decomposition. In addition, they may
have one or more of the following properties:
o Be liable to explosive decomposition
o Burn rapidly
o React dangerously with other substances
o Cause damage to the eye.
o
o Commonly Transported Oxidizers; Organic Peroxides
Chemical oxygen generators
Ammonium nitrate fertilizers
Chlorates
Nitrates
Nitrites
Perchlorates
Permanganates
Persulphates
Aluminum nitrate
Ammonium dichromate
o Class 6 Toxic and infectious substances
Note 1: The word toxic has the same meaning as
poisonous.
Note 2: Genetically modified micro-organism which do not
meet the definition of an infectious substances shall be
considered for classification in class 9 and assigned to UN
3245.
Note 3: Toxins from plan animal or bacterial sources which
do not contain any infectious substances, or toxins that are
contained in substances which are not infectious substances,
shall be considered in classification in class 6.1 and
assigned to UN 3172.
Class 6 is subdivided into two classes as follows:
Class 6.1 Toxic substances
These are substances liable either to cause death or
serious injury or to harm human health if swallowed
or inhaled, or by skin contact.
Class 6.2 Infectious substances

109

These are substances known or reasonably expected


to contain pathogens. Pathogens are defined as
micro-organism (including bacteria, viruses,
rickettsia, parasites, and fungi) and other agents
such as prions, which can cause disease to human or
animal health.

o Commonly Transported Toxic Substances; Infectious Substances:


Medical/Biomedical waste
Clinical waste
Biological cultures / samples / specimens
Medical cultures / samples / specimens
Tear gas substances
Motor fuel anti-knock mixture
Dyes
Carbamate pesticides
Alkaloids
Allyls
o Class 7 Radioactive materials
Radioactive material means the presence of radioactive in
the consignment exceed the values specified in 2.7.2.2.2.1
to 2.7.2.2.6
A1 and A2
A1 means the activity value of special form
radioactive material which is listed on the table in
2.7.2.2.2.1 or derived in 2.7.2.2.2 and is used to
determine the activity limits for the provisions of
this Code.
A2 means the activity value of radioactive material,
other than special form radioactive material, which
is listed in the table in 2.7.2.2.1 or derived in
2.7.2.2.2 and is used to determine the activity limits
for the provision.
Fissile nuclides
Means uranium-233, uranium-235, plutonium-239
and plutonium-241. Fissile material means a
material containing any of the fissile nuclides.
Excluded from the definition of fissile material are:
o Natural uranium or depleted uranium which
is unirradiated
o Natural uranium or depleted uranium which
has been irradiated in thermal reactors only.
Low dispersible radioactive material
Means either a solid radioactive material or a solid
radioactive material in a sealed capsule that has
limited dispersibility and is not in powder form.
Low specific activity (LSA)
110

Means radioactive materials which in nature has a


limited specific activity, or radioactive materials for
which limits of estimated average specific activity
applied. External shielding materials surrounding
the LSA material shall not be considered in
determining the estimated average specific activity.
Low toxicity alpha emitters
Natural uranium, depleted uranium, natural thorium,
uranium-235 or uranium-238, thorium-232,
thorium-228, and thorium-230 when contained in
ores or physical or chemical concentrates, or alpha
emitters with half-life of ten days.
Specific activity of a radionuclide the activity per unit
mass of that nuclide. The specific activity of a material
shall mean the activity per unit mass of the material in
which the radionuclides are essentially uniformly
distributed.
Surface contaminated object (SCO)
A solid object which is not itself radioactive but
which has radioactive material distributed on its
surfaces.

o Commonly Transported Radioactive Material


Radioactive ores
Medical isotopes
Yellowcake
Density gauges
Mixed fission products
Surface contaminated objects
Cesium radionuclides / isotopes
Iridium radionuclides / isotopes
Americium radionuclides / isotopes
Plutonium radionuclides / isotopes
o Class 8 Corrosive substances
Class 8 substances, substances which by chemical action
will cause severe damage even destroy other goods or the
means of transport.
Substances and preparation of class 8 are divided among
the packing groups according to their degree of hazard in
transport as follows:
Packing Group 1: Very dangerous substances and
preparation;
Packing Group 2: Subtances and preparations
presenting medium danger;
Packing Group 3: Substances and preparation
presenting minor danger.
111

o Commonly Transported Corrosives


Acids/acid solutions
Batteries
Battery fluid
Fuel cell cartridges
Dyes
Fire extinguisher charges
Formaldehyde
Flux
Paints
Alkyl phenols
o Class 9 Miscellaneous dangerous substances and environmentally
hazardous substances:
Class 9 substances and articles are substances and articles
which, during transport present a danger not covered by
other classes.
Environmentally hazardous substances include inter alia,
liquid or solid substances pollutant to the aquatic
environment and solutions and mixtures of such substances
(such as preparations and wastes)
The aquatic environment may be considered in terms of
aquatic organisms that live in the water, and the aquatic
ecosystem of which they are part. The basis, therefore, of
the identification hazard is the aquatic toxicity of the
substances or mixture, although this may be modified by
further information on the degradation and bioaccumulation
behaviour.
Substances which on inhalation as fine dust, may endanger
health;
Blue asbestos (crocidolite)
Brown asbestos (amosite, mysorite)
White asbestos (chrysotile, actinolite, anthophylite,
tremolite)
Substances evolving flammable vapour
Polymeric beads, expandable, evolving flammable
vapour
Plastic moulding compoumd
Lithium Batteries
Lithium metal batteries
Lithium metal batteries contained in equipment
Lithium ion batteries etc.
Life-saving appliances
Self-inflating
112

Seat belt pretentioners


Other substances
Acetaldehyde ammonia
Carbon dioxide
Zinc dithionite
Castor beans
Engine internal combustion
Battery-powered equipment

o Commonly Transported Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods


Dry ice / cardice / solid carbon dioxide
Expandable polymeric beads / polystyrene beads
Ammonium nitrate fertilizers
Blue asbestos / crocidolite
Lithium ion batteries
Lithium metal batteries
Battery powered equipment
Battery powered vehicles
Fuel cell engines
Internal combustion engines
o Marine pollutants
Substances which are subject to the provisions of Annex III
of MARPOL 73/78, as amended.

What do you understand by segregation and compatibility?


o Incompatible goods shall be segregated from one another.
o For the implementation of this requirement, two substances or
articles are considered mutually incompatible when their stowage
together may result in undue hazards in case of leakage or spillage,
or any other accident.
o The extent of the hazard arising from possible reactions between
incompatible dangerous goods may vary and so the segregation
arrangements required may also vary as appropriate. Such
segregation is obtained by maintaining certain distances between
incompatible dangerous goods or by requiring the presence of one
or more steel bulkheads or decks between them, or a combination
thereof. Intervening spaces between such dangerous goods may be
filled with other cargo compatible with the dangerous substances or
articles in question.
o The following segregation terms are used throughout this Code:
Away from;
Separated from;
Separated by a complete compartment or hold from;
113

Separated longitudinally by an intervening complete


compartment or hold from.
o These terms are defined in 7.2.2 and their use in regard to the
different modes of sea transport is explained further in the other
subsections of this chapter
o The general provisions for segregation between the various classes
of dangerous goods are shown in the segregation table of
7.2.1.16. In addition to the general provisions, there may be a need
to segregate a particular substance, material or article from other
goods which could contribute to its hazard. Particular provisions
for segregation are indicated in the Dangerous Goods List and, in
the case of conflicting provisions, always take precedence over the
general provisions
Segregation groups
For the purpose of segregation, dangerous goods
having certain similar chemical properties have been
grouped together in segregation groups as listed in
7.2.1.7.2. The entries allocated to these segregation
groups are listed in 3.1.4.4. Where in the Dangerous
Goods List entry in column 16 (stowage and
segregation) a particular segregation requirement
refers to a group of substances, such as acids, the
particular segregation requirement applies to the
goods allocated to the respective segregation group.
Segregation groups referred to in the Dangerous Goods
List:
acids
ammonium compounds
bromates
chlorates
chlorites
cyanides
heavy metals and their salts (including their
organometallic compounds)
hypochlorites
lead and its compounds
liquid halogenated hydrocarbons
mercury and mercury compounds
nitrites and their mixtures
perchlorates
permanganates
powdered metals
peroxides
azides

114

alkalis
o It is recognized that not all substances falling within a segregation
group are listed in this Code by name. These substances are
shipped under N.O.S. entries. Although these N.O.S. entries are not
listed themselves in the above groups, the shipper shall decide
whether allocation under the segregation group is appropriate.
Mixtures, solutions or preparations containing substances falling
within a segregation group and shipped under an N.O.S. entry are
also considered to fall within that segregation group.
o The segregation groups in this Code do not cover substances which
fall outside the classification criteria of this Code. It is recognized
that some non-hazardous substances have similar chemical
properties as substances listed in the segregation groups. A shipper
or the person responsible for packing the goods into a cargo
transport unit who does have knowledge of the chemical properties
of such non-dangerous goods may decide to implement the
segregation requirements of a related segregation group on a
voluntary basis.
o In the case of segregation from combustible material, this shall be
understood not to include packaging materials or dunnage.
o Whenever dangerous goods are stowed together, whether or not in
a cargo transport unit, the segregation of such dangerous goods
from others shall always be in accordance with the most stringent
provisions for any of the dangerous goods concerned.
o Compatibility able to agree or exist successfully side by side.
Goods of class 1 are considered to be compatible if they can be
safely stowed or transported together without significant increasing
either the probability of an accident or, for a given quantity, the
magnitude of the effects of such an accident.
-

Describe the precautions to be taken before loading dangerous goods of


different classes. How will you prepare the cargo holds?
o Precautions:
The prevention of fire in a cargo of dangerous goods is
achieve by practicing good seamanship, observing in
particular the following precautions:
Reject any damages or leaking packages
Packages should be stowed in a location, which ensure
protection from accidental damage or excessive heating.
Combustible material must be kept away from ignition
sources.
Goods must be segregated from substances liable to start or
to spread fire.
115

It may be necessary to ensure accessibility of dangerous


goods so those packages in the vicinity of a fire may be
protected or moved to safety.
Enforce prohibition of smoking in dangerous areas.
Post NO SMOKING signs and symbols.
All electrical fittings and cables must be in good condition
and safeguarded against short circuits or sparkling.
All ventilators must have spark arrestors of suitable wire
mesh.
Ensure that goods stowed in same location do not pose
danger in event of contamination.
o Precaution for class 1:
The greatest risk in handling and transport of goods of class
1 is that of fire from a source external to the goods, and it is
vital that any fire is detected and extinguish before it can
reach such goods. Consequently, it is essential that fire
precautions, fire-fighting measures and equipment are of a
high standard and ready for immediate application and use.
Compartments containing goods of class 1 and adjacent
cargo spaces should be provided with a fire-detection
system. If such spaces are not protected by a fixed fireextinguishing system, they should be accessible for a firefighting operation.
No repair work should be carried out in a compartment
containing goods of class 1. Special care should be
exercised in carrying out repairs in adjacent space. No
welding, burning, cutting or riveting operations involving
the use of fire, flame, spark, or arc-producing equipment
should be carried out in any space other than machinery
spaces and workshop where fire-extinguisher arrangements
are available, except in any emergency and, if in port with
prior authorization of the port authority.
o Precaution for class 2:
Effective ventilation should be provided to remove any
leakage of gas from within the cargo space or spaces,
bearing in mind that some gasses are heavier than air and
may accumulate in dangerous concentrations in the lower
part of the ship.
Measures should be taken to prevent leaking gasses from
penetrating from any other part of the ship.
If there any reason to suspect any leakage of a gas, entry
into cargo spaces or other enclosed spaces should not be
permitted until the master or responsible officer has taken
all safety considerations into account and is satisfied that it

116

is safe to do so. Emergency entry under other circumstances


should be only under taken by trained crew wearing selfcontained breathing apparatus, and protective clothing
when recommended, and always under the supervision of
responsible officer.
Leakage from pressure receptacles containing flammable
gasses may give rise to explosive mixtures with air. Such
mixtures, if ignited, may result in explosion and fire.
Precautions for class 3:
Flammable liquids give off flammable vapours which,
especially in an enclosed space, form explosive mixtures
with air. Such vapours if ignited may cause a flashback to
the place where the substances are stowed. Due regards
should be paid to the provision of adequate ventilation to
prevent accumulation of vapours.
Precaution for class 4.1:
Flammable solids will easily ignite, and the appropriate
EmS Fire Schedule should be consulted. Self-substances are
sometimes transported under temperature controlled
conditions where the control temperature will depend upon
the specific properties of the substance being transported.
Precaution for class 4.2:
This class of substance includes pyrophoric substances,
which will instantly burn on contact with air, and selfheating substances, which lead to spontaneous combustion.
Precaution for class 4.3:
This substance reacts violently with water, evolving
flammable gasses. The heat of the reaction is sometimes
sufficient to initiate a fire.
Precaution for class 5.1:
This class of substances is liable to evolve oxygen and
therefore to accelerate fire. Fires in which these substances
are present are difficult to extinguish, because the ships
fire-fighting installation may not be effective. Everything
possible should be done to prevent the spread of fire to
containers containing these dangerous goods.
Precaution for class 5.2
This class of substances is liable to burn vigorously, if the
temperature control cannot be stored, the manufacturer
should be consulted as soon as possible even if evolution of
smoke has ceased. The cargo should then be kept under
surveillance.
Precaution for class 6.1

117

Substance of this class are poisonous by contact or


inhalation, and the used of self-contained breathing
apparatus and fire-fighters outfits is therefore essential.
Precaution for class 6.2
These substances which are known or reasonably expected
to contain pathogens (micro-organism that are known to
cause infectious disease to humans and animals). Pathogens
may survive the fire and self-contained breathing apparatus
should therefore be used.
Precaution for class 7:
The radioactive contents of Excepted, Industrial and Type A
packages are so restricted that, in the event of an accident
and damage to the package, there is a high probability that
any material released or shielding efficiency lost, would not
give rise to such radiological hazard as to hamper firefighting or rescue operations.
Type B(U) packages, Type B(M) packages and Type C
packages are designed to be strong enough to withstand
severe fire without significant loss of contents or dangerous
loss of radiation shielding.
Precaution for class 8:
These substances are extremely dangerous to humans, and
many may cause destruction of safety equipment. Burning
cargo of these classes will produce highly corrosive
vapours. Consequently, wearing self-contained breathing
apparatus is essential.
Precaution for class 9:
This substance includes those substances, materials and
articles which are deemed to possess some danger, but
which are not classified within the criteria of classes 1-8.
No general guidelines are applicable to these goods.
Marine pollutant:
A number of substances within all of the above classes have
also been designated as marine pollutants.
Preparation of cargo holds:
Prior to loading and after discharging, hold spaces must be
inspected and the cargo/ballast system should be tested. The
inspection is primary directed towards checking the ships
integrity.
Fire/smoke detecting system in the cargo holds must be
working (heat or smoke tested).
Thermometer or sampling pipes must be clear and their
watertight caps should be checked.
All portable thermometer and their rope lines should be
checked

118

1.15 STCW

Describe the precautions to be taken before loading dangerous goods of


different classes. How will you prepare the cargo holds?
o Precautions:
The prevention of fire in a cargo of dangerous goods is
achieve by practicing good seamanship, observing in
particular the following precautions:
Reject any damages or leaking packages
Packages should be stowed in a location, which ensure
protection from accidental damage or excessive heating.
Combustible material must be kept away from ignition
sources.
Goods must be segregated from substances liable to start or
to spread fire.
It may be necessary to ensure accessibility of dangerous
goods so those packages in the vicinity of a fire may be
protected or moved to safety.
Enforce prohibition of smoking in dangerous areas.
Post NO SMOKING signs and symbols.
All electrical fittings and cables must be in good condition
and safeguarded against short circuits or sparkling.
All ventilators must have spark arrestors of suitable wire
mesh.
Ensure that goods stowed in same location do not pose
danger in event of contamination.
o General Precautions during Cargo Watch
Control of ship's draught, trim, list, etc.
Ample illumination of work place at night time.
Achieving work environment such as setting up of
stanchions and ropes when hatch covers are opened etc.
Check of stowage locations of special cargoes, including
dangerous goods and refrigerated containers, in accordance
with the pre-stowage plan, and of whether there is no
damage to containers.
Appropriate progress of cargo operations and estimation of
completion time.
Check of container lashing in accordance with the CSM
(Cargo Securing Manual).
Attendance at hatch opening and closing.
Adjust ballast as instructed by the Chief Officer.
When gantry crane is traveling, be careful with the possible
contact with masts, funnel, gangways, etc.
o Special Cargo Work
119

The Officer on watch shall be in attendance when heavy


weight cargo is being loaded as special cargo.
When loading, record the sling points, diameter and length
of sling used, method of lifting, etc.
The lashings shall be in number and strength in accordance
with the CSM.
The officer on watch shall report to the chief mate upon
completion of lashing and have it checked by him.
o Cargo Work on Reefer Containers
The chief mate shall give, in advance, the chief engineer
such information as the estimated time of loading and
stowage location of refrigerated containers.
The chief mate shall check in advance whether the ship's
hands shall be used to connect or disconnect plugs to
containers, and inform the chief engineer accordingly.
The chief engineer shall give necessary instructions on
cargo work concerning refrigerated containers.
The engineer in charge shall connect monitoring cords after
the loading of containers to check the operating conditions
of refrigerating units and report to the chief mate condition
of all units loaded on board.
Report the gist of the trouble and a container number of the
reefer container that is discharged, to the terminal, loading
port agent, and booking agent (via the loading port agent).
A report on landed refrigerated containers shall be given
describing outlines of respective trouble and container
numbers to the terminal, the ship's agent of the loading port,
and the shipping company which booked such containers
(through the shipping agent at the loading port).
The chief mate shall check loaded reefer containers against
the reefer container list in terms of the number of such
containers actually loaded, set temperatures, and the
opened/closed ventilation, report discrepancies, if any, to
the shipping agent or parties concerned, and record the fact.
o As per STCW, while in port, the various duties of an OOW during
cargo operations are:

In port assisting the Chief and Second Officers with the


supervision and organization of cargo operations.
Review the Maintenance, Tests and Inspection Manual to
ensure that maintenance of all safety and pollution
prevention equipment has been carried out as planned.
Assist the Chief Officer with the supervision and
organization of cargo work when the vessel is in port.
Supervised the cargo operation.
120

Able to identify what kind of cargo were being loaded.


Report any damages that will encounter especially
dangerous cargo in the container.
Know how to make a step especially in case of emergency
situation in the port.
The safety and efficiency of the ships operation in port rest
on the shoulder of the OOW. He is the first point of contact
between the ship and the personnel from ashore. His
initiative dedication and professionalism can have major
impact of the safety, efficiency and commercial operation of
the vessel.
The role of the OOW in port is to supervise and monitor all
the activities onboard the ship and all external factors that
could affect his ship. A properly carried out port watch will
ensure operating efficiency and safety of the ship, crew,
people and environment.
The OOW shall make rounds to inspect the ship at
appropriate intervals.
Pay particular attention to:
The condition and securing of accommodation
ladder anchor chain, and moorings.
The draft under keel clearance and general state of
the ship to avoid dangerous listing or trim during
cargo handling and ballasting.
The weather and sea state.
The observance of all regulations concerning safety
and fire protection.
The water level in bilges and ballast, and other tank.
All persons onboard and their location, especially
those in enclosed spaces. Lights and signal are
properly exhibited

Explain the procedures for reporting damaged goods. Described the


actions that you will take.
o In reporting damaged goods, inform first the cargo supervisor or
the duty foreman about the goods that was not able to load because
of the damage. After that, make a damage report signed by the
chief officer or the duty officer on that day. The OOW should make
him/her familiar with the layout of this publication including its
supplements so that he will be able to extract quickly all the
information which is relevant to the cargo carried on that particular
voyage. The OOW should read the entry of each item of dangerous
goods that is to be loaded and ask the chief officer for clarification
of any point that he doesnt understand. With rapid loading and
121

large quantities of dangerous cargo, the OOW may not have time to
read all these entries. He should ensure that they are clearly marked
with their appropriate class and IMO numbers described in the
IMDG Code.
-

How will you ensure that the correct cargo is being discharged or loaded
o Many vessels may have two loading programs on board such that
only one of them is only Class Approved (e.g. TSB Supercargo and
Powerstow, out of which TSB Supercargo may be Class approved
though Powerstow is the commonly utilized program).
o For such vessels with two loading programs, the stability results of
the class approved program should be compared with Powerstow
(or other commonly used onboard non-class approved program)
and Standard conditions from the Stability Booklet at intervals of 3
months as specified by SMS ZZ-S-P-07.42.00 'Trim and Stability
Longitudinal strength ' section 9 Loading Computer,
o The stability results of Powerstow (or other commonly used
onboard non-class approved program) should also be similarly
compared with Standard Conditions at similar intervals.
o Vessels may have some standard test condition numbers listed in
their respective Class Approved Certificates. Irrespective of the
number of loading programs, the loading program's stability results
should be compared with these conditions which are listed on the
vessel's Class Approval Certificates.
o It is important to note that Classification Societies require their
classified vessels to be fitted with a loading instrument (loading
computer) together with the Loading Manual onboard for satisfying
Regulation 10(1) of International Convention of Load Lines 1966.
This requirement is applicable to NK classed vessels which are
contracted to construction on or after 01-Jan-1994, and LR classed
vessels for which mid-ship drawing is certified on or after 26th
July 1984. The vessel at similar stages before these dates are not
required to have a class approved loading instrument.
o Monitor the stowage plan and keep watch on the cargo operation,
especially when there are dangerous cargoes to be loaded or
discharged. Proper segregation and placards must be checked.
o Before loading and discharging, the chief officer gives the deck
officer and the crew a pre-loading and pre-discharging plan, in
where you can find all information regarding the cargo as number,
kind, type and specification of container, POL or POD, all other
additional information (IMDG, Reefer, etc.)
o Chief Officer should check the following on receipt of the stowage
plan: Lashing strengths should be checked using the loading
computer.
122

The intended lashings (Actual lashings as per cargo


securing manual) should be correctly entered in the loading
computer before performing the above mentioned check.
Any lashing violations should then be attended to as
required.
The planners, lashing foreman and duty officers should be
advised clearly about requirement of any additional
lashings.
Due diligence should be exercised to input correct stability /
vessel condition data before using the above mentioned
check function.

How will you ensure that the correct amount or quantity is discharged or
loaded?
o In cargo plan all the information regarding stowage and
discharging location, weights, destination, etc. are indicated.
o Following checks should be done on deck during cargo operations
by the duty officer and crew members: Ensure that the cleats / jumping stoppers are closed once
hatch cover is closed.
During loading ensure that the correct type of twist-lock is
used depending on the containers stowage (on deck / hatch
top / intermediate).
Closely monitor the progress of lashing, which is done by
stevedores to ensure that the lashings are done in
accordance the vessel's lashing plan as per the Cargo
Securing Manual and Chief Officer's additional instruction,
if any, for additional lashings.
Confirm that the twist-locks are locked, locking nuts of
turnbuckles properly tightened and that the extensions
hooks do not exceed the allowable number as per lashing
plan.
For parallel bar, para-double bar lashings etc., it should be
ensured that the lashing bars crisscross each other, for the
same vertical stack. Special charterers' instruction should be
complied with for lashing in case for 7 high loading on
large container ships. Long External lashing should be
taken together with a parallel lashing in following cases: Loading 40' containers or 45' empty containers up to
7 tiers.
Loading 45' laden containers at 6th tier.
If the container lashing strength exceeds an
allowable range even when 40' containers are loaded
less than 7 tiers.
123

The lashing rods should be connected to the correct pad


eyes.
It is recommended that the Duty officers and duty A/B's
also report the bay numbers, for which they have checked
the lashing, so that the gangway person can record same in
the port log simultaneously.
Record should be maintained on the stowage plan or port
log on completion of checking of lashing. Whilst handing
over cargo watches, this information should be handed over
the incoming watch keepers to ensure no location is missed
out for carrying out and checking of lashings.
Information should be confirmed and updated in case of
amended plans.
In case of any discrepancy the lashing foreman and planner
should be notified to ensure containers are lashed as per
requirement prior to vessel's departure.
If any major problems are encountered relating to lashing of
containers by stevedores, chief officer should inform
Master who may inform agents and charterers (e.g LPO /
TRUNKLINER / OTMC etc.) immediately.

FUNCTION 3 SHIP HANDLING AND MANEUVERING

1.2 Mooring Keep a proper Look-Out by sight and hearing


-

Lookout
o Proper Lookout
o A proper lookout shall be maintained, with careful regard to the
existing situation, risk of collision, stranding or any other danger to
navigation, by the following methods:
By visual checks using the naked eyes or binoculars;
By radar and ARPA (use radars in parallel so far as the
situation permits);
Using ECDIS, if equipped.
By Sound Reception System (if fitted), also refer section
3.3.3 for details)
By hearing (whistles, sirens, distress signals, VHF, etc.);
and
All other available means appropriate to the circumstances.

124

As it is dangerous to rely on only one means of lookout, a


systematic lookout shall always be kept with a combination
of several methods used.
Lookouts
The lookout shall give full attention to the keeping of a
proper lookout and no other duties shall be undertaken or
assigned which could interfere with that task.
The duties of the lookout and helmsman are separate and
the helmsman shall not be regarded as the lookout while
steering. The trainee/cadet shall not be considered as a
lookout person or helmsman.
A lookout shall not leave the bridge during the watch as this
contravenes the requirements of SOLAS and STCW. Safety
Patrols of the vessel as per SMS ZZ-S-P-07.43.00 "Ship
Security Matters and Safety Patrols" shall be conducted
after the end of each watch during the hours of darkness,
typically from 2200 to 0600 hrs.
Watch-keeping Arrangements and Watch Level
The navigational watch shall be kept at least by two persons. The
watch level (the number of persons in BTM) and role assignment
of BTM shall be as per the S-071000-04FIG "Watch Level" in
accordance with section 5.4.3 of "Passage Planning".
Meeting Policy on Navigation Bridge
As a company policy, the Master shall avoid conducting meetings
(e.g. Onboard Safety and Sanitary
Committee Meeting, Shipboard Management Meetings, Debriefing after completion of drills, etc) on the Bridge to avoid
distraction to the OOW.
B-1 Watch-Keeping / Sole Lookout
Tankers (VLCC, Product, Chemical Tankers & LNG
Tankers) B-1 watch-keeping is not permitted on Tanker
Vessels (Oil, Product, Chemical & LNG Tankers).

Dry Cargo and LPG Vessels


At the discretion of Master, the helmsman may be
assigned to other duties (hereinafter referred to as
"B-1 watch-keeping"), during the period from
sunrise to sunset. This is to re-emphasize that B-1
watch-keeping shall not be performed from sunset
to sunrise.

B-1 watch level shall only be allowed in open sea areas.

B-1 Watch shall not be allowed on the day of departure


from port, to allow the OOW to be well rested.
Risk Assessment Prior B- 1 Watch-Keeping

o
o

o
o
o

125

A risk assessment shall be carried out and reviewed prior B1 watch keeping, for each leg of sea passage, to confirm
without doubt that it is safe to do so.
The result of risk assessment review and measures shall be
disseminated to all concerned.
The result of risk assessment review shall be entered in the
"Record of Risk Assessment and Review" ' S-090000-02
FRM'.
o Factors to be Considered Prior B- 1 Watch-Keeping:
o In assessing the situation for B-1 Watch-Keeping and OOW as the
sole look out, full account of all relevant factors shall be
considered, including but not limited to following:
State of weather and sea conditions.
State of visibility.
Traffic density including fishing vessels.
Proximity of dangers to navigation, coastal passage, narrow
channels.
The attention necessary when navigating in or near traffic
separation schemes.
Operational condition of navigational equipment and other
Critical Machinery.
Experience of OOW and master's confidence in the
professional competence and experience of the OOW.
OOW shall have met the STCW and ILO rest hours criteria.
o Measures to be Followed During B-1 Watch-keeping
OOW is not assigned any other duties which may interfere
with the safe watch keeping.
In the judgment of the Master, the anticipated workload on
OOW is well within his capacity to maintain a proper lookout and he can remain in full control of the prevailing
circumstances.
Back-up assistance (AB) to the OOW has been clearly
designated.
The back up shall not be designated any job which restricts
his response time, ability to hear general alarm and call on
hand held radio. (e.g. jobs like entering in to enclosed
space, stand by person monitoring personnel in enclosed
space, job in noisy areas, chipping, etc).
The duties assigned to back-up shall be such that he is able
to respond to call and be summoned on bridge promptly to
be able to change over to hand steering in sufficient time.
Duty AB shall carry a hand held radio with him during his
watch.
Alternative means of communication shall be established,
in case of hand held radio failure.

126

Master shall periodically verify that the B-1 watch-keeping


requirements are being complied with.
o The OOW during B-1 watch-keeping shall observe the following:

The OOW confirms the AB designated for back-up


assistance and test communication link (hand held radio)
with him prior start of B-1 watch-keeping.
The communication between OOW and AB shall be tested
and verified periodically.
One Man (dead-man) alarm / BNWAS shall be kept on, if
fitted.
OOW is well aware of the situations when to call back up.
All essential equipment and alarms on the bridge are fully
functional.
Understand that he alone is the lookout and shall not engage
in desk work or in any other duties that may interfere with
the safe navigational watch keeping. For example, Charts
and Nautical publications correction and other ancillary
work (preparing port papers etc.) shall not be done whilst
on B-1watch.
When he considers it necessary to have the helmsman on
the bridge, judging from weather conditions, visibility, or
traffic congestion, he shall immediately place the helmsman
on it.
The criteria of sole look out shall be displayed prominently
in bridge (other than on Oil and Chemical Tankers) and
known to all concerned.

1.3 Monitoring and Control of a Safe Watch (Mooring Stations)


-

Duties of Duty Officer


o The duty officer shall perform his duties of watch keeping in port,
in accordance with the following procedures:
Cargo Watch Duty
o The duty officer, when cargo work is being conducted, shall
perform duties as the officer on cargo work watch, following the
instructions given by the chief officer, and shall direct the cargo
work related duties.
Mooring Lines
o The duty officer, when the ship is alongside a wharf, shall ensure
that the state of the mooring lines is good, and if there is any
deficiency in the state, he shall have it rectified.
o A check of the mooring lines shall be made once per hour but in
harbors where there are large tides, swells and where the effects of
passing vessels can be expected, checks shall be made at shorter
intervals
127

While Anchored
o The duty officer shall carry out the detection of a running anchor in
accordance with Section 2.1 of the procedures of "Anchoring".
o Accommodation Ladder (and Gangway if used)
o The duty officer shall check, at appropriate times, and maintain the
following:
That the gangways are suitably lowered to permit safe
embarkation and disembarkation;
That adequate lights are provided at night;

That safety nets are properly strung underneath the


gangways;
That lifebuoys with lifelines and self-igniting lamps are
always provided in the vicinity of the gangways; and
Those steps are not slippery.
Accident Prevention
The duty officer shall make the utmost effort to prevent
accidents on board and around the ship, and shall make the
crew and contractors abide strictly by the procedures of the
SMS manual and laws and regulations related to safety.
Security
The duty officer shall strive for security on the ship in
accordance with the SMS procedures titled "Security
Matters and Safety Patrols" (ZZ-S-P-07.43.00).
Measures against Rough Weather
The duty officer, when rough weather is expected, shall
check and consider the following:
Maintain close contact with agents
Check to see if there is the necessity of increasing the
number of mooring lines (considering wind and current,
windage area, strength of lines, etc.);
Check to see if there is the necessity of arranging for a
tugboat to support the mooring;
Judge whether or not the engine needs to be used and if
required, notify the duty engineer in ample time;
Consider the necessity of suspending or ceasing cargo
work; and
Note to see if there is the necessity of instructing the crew
members on shore to return to the ship.
Upon receiving instruction from Master, preparing to leave
the berth in order to shift the vessel to safe water area, if
required.
Ensign and Illuminations

128

The duty officer shall have the necessary flags (flag of port
of registry, flag of port state, other flags required by law,
etc.) hoisted from sunrise to sunset.
At night, he shall ensure that all the flags have been
lowered and put away, and that necessary lights on the
decks, in the
While the ship is anchored, he shall ensure that all lights
and shapes stipulated by the regulations for preventing
collision at sea are properly lit or hoisted.

o Prevention of Sea Pollution


The duty officer, while on watch, shall monitor the vessels
activity such that oil, garbage, daily wastes, etc. are not
improperly discharged overboard.
He shall also notify the master and the duty engineer if he
discovers any oily bilge, floating in the vicinity of the ship,
and if necessary, shall take action in accordance with the
procedures of "Oil Spills".
o Change of Watch
The duty officer shall hand over the following matters to
the relieving officer:
The state of the tide and tidal current;
The depth of water and ship's draft;
Anchors used and shackles (when anchored);
The state of mooring lines (number of ropes, tension, etc.);
The state of readiness of the engine;
Cargo work related information;
Oil replenishment, and the state of ballasting and
deballasting;
Crew members remaining on board;
Visitors to the ship; and
Master and chief officer's instructions.
Relief of Watch
o Handing Over Duties
The OOW shall hand over his duties to the relieving officer
of the next watch by checking the following in addition to
the matters stipulated in the order book and other orders
from the master. The relieving officer of the next watch
shall take over the watch after checking all the necessary
matters and advising the OOW that "I am relieving you of
the watch":
The relationship of the ship to other ships;
The ship's position and the presence or nearness to shoals,
danger reefs, etc.;

129

Nautical chart of navigating area (one with the course line


laid down);
Settings of ECDIS (not limited to, but including
information & settings of safety depths/contours, display,
radar overlay, grounding / look ahead function etc.)
Weather and sea conditions (particularly what affects the
ship's course or speed);
Course (gyro/magnetic), speed, and amount of deviation
from course;
State of navigation lights;
State of operation of navigation instruments and signal
lamps;
If during the ballasting or deballasting operations, then the
state of those operations;
State of work of the deck department (what work is being
done, and where);
State of transfer of fuel oil; and
Gyrocompass errors and deviation or variation of the
magnetic compass.
In addition, check list 'S- 071000-03CHK' shall be used by
O.O.W. for handing over navigational watch. A laminated
copy of the handing over check list shall be kept in bridge
and compliance to the check list shall be recorded in the log
book by taking over officer by writing phrase "Check list S07100-03CHK complied with". The hard copy of the check
list 'S- 071000-03CHK' for each watch is not required to be
maintained on board.
Inappropriate Relief
o The watch shall not be relived when the OOW is engaged in
navigating the ship to avoid danger of collision, etc
o The OOW shall not hand over his watch if he judges that his
successor is injured, sick, under the influence of alcohol or drugs,
or otherwise unfit to keep watch. He shall immediately report the
facts to the master and receive instructions from him.
o The next OOW may refuse to take over the watch if he has some
doubts about the handing over of the watch of his predecessor and
judges that it is not appropriate to relieve the watch. In such a case,
he shall immediately report the facts to the master and receive
instructions from him.
o The next OOW on night watch shall not take over the watch until
his eyes have become accustomed to the dark.
Items to Be Confirmed after Taking Over Watch keeping Duties
o The OOW shall reconfirm the following items immediately after
taking over the watch keeping duties:

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The relative relation between the ship's position and the


planned track, or shoals, other dangerous obstructions, etc.;
The intention and tendency of other ships around;
Comparison of the planned track drawn in 360 degrees on
the chart with the course to be steered entered nearby;
The information related to the nautical chart and the bridge
notebook; and
The operational conditions of the manual steering gears.

1.4 Mooring

Operations and Handling


Planning
o The key element for safe and successful mooring operation is
planning. Planning shall take into account not only the mooring
layout of the vessel and the berth but the prevailing and expected
weather conditions, tide, currents and any other factors affecting
the moorings of the vessel.
o Before arrival at a port, all necessary mooring equipment shall be
made ready for use and all mooring machinery shall be inspected
and proved to be in good condition. The inspection shall be carried
out by the Chief Officer.
o The Officer in charge of the mooring operation before arrival at the
berth shall carryout mooring equipment safety checks and reports
his findings to the bridge. A log book entry is to be made of these
checks. Any deficiency reported to be advised immediately to the
pilot. He shall also hold a briefing with the mooring party and
make them aware of the mooring arrangement and the hazards
involved.
Communication
o The Master shall discuss the mooring arrangement and plan with
the pilot before coming alongside and this information to be
entered on the "Master Pilot Information Exchange (S-07200301FRM)" . The mooring plan shall take into account the layout of
the berth, prevailing and expected weather conditions, tides,
currents and traffic movements. The information shall be relayed to
the person in charge of mooring parties.
o Person's carrying out adjustments to the lines shall first take
permission from the OOW. OOW shall carefully assess the effect
of adjusting the lines on the position of the vessel before giving
permission. Moorings are to be adjusted in such a way that vessel
does not move position or comes off the fenders or berth.
Adjustments shall also ensure that severe loads are not placed on
individual lines.
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o Whistle signals are provided for guidance so that if it is in use on


board our vessels then common method is followed : Heave in: (2 short)
Stop: (1 long)
Slack: (3 short)
Attention: (1 short)
O.K.:(no whistle signal)
Dismiss the station: - -
Cancel/Danger/Emergency:
Direction: (no whistle signal)
In any case, use of standard hand signals shall be
mandatory.
Safe Practice
o Mooring Operations onboard present significant risks to the crew.
All personnel engaged in these operations shall be trained to ensure
they are competent and aware of the hazards involved. Risk
Assessment shall be carried out prior all mooring operations.
o All personnel involved with mooring operations shall wear
Personal Protective Equipment, including safety helmets, safety
shoes, and gloves. Safety goggles are to be worn during anchoring.
o The responsible officer of mooring operations shall wear following
safety gear so that he can easily be distinguished from the other
crew members during the mooring operation:
Helmet (Red) and / or High Visibility Safety Vest , and
Whistle
o LNG vessels: All three safety gear listed above shall be donned by
responsible officer.
o All mooring areas shall be free of obstructions and litter and well
illuminated at night. The working area adjacent to mooring
equipments shall be painted with non skid paint. Example of
working area around mooring fitting are Bollard, Warping end,
Chock, Capstan, Stand roller, etc or any area where workers need
to stand and apply force. Mooring winches shall never be left
running unattended. The person in charge of mooring operation
shall give clear instructions to the winch operator. Mooring
equipment shall be operated by competent persons. The personnel
shall never stand in the rope bights and when moorings are under
strain they shall stand clear of the "snap back zones".
o Additional gas/fire detection and extinguishing systems shall be
confirmed to be available for monitoring any enclosed spaces
containing mooring equipment power supplies.
o The maximum number of turns on a smooth mooring drum or
warping end shall not exceed four.

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o Moorings are to be adjusted by putting the winch into gear,


opening the brake and walking back the line. On no account the
moorings shall be slackened off by releasing the brake only.
o The person in charge of the mooring party shall ensure that the
mooring crew is kept well clear of the tugs lines when under load.
When the tug is made fast or let go the person in charge shall
ensure that operation is carried out in a controlled manner keeping
in close contact with the bridge and the tug.
o All personnel involved with mooring operations shall consult the
relevant industry guidelines and publications available onboard,
e.g. "Effective Mooring", COWSP, ISGOTT and OCIMF
publication "Mooring Equipment Guidelines".
Protection of Power Supply
o The electric switch board (Power-supply) to mooring equipment
shall be sufficiently and adequately protected against water spray,
water leaks or leaks of other kind. An electric insulating mat or
appropriate wooden grating shall be placed under electric switch
board as an additional measure to protect against electrocution.
Minimum Manning
o For safety of operations, following minimum personnel shall man
each mooring stations:
Mooring/ Unmooring at berth, Pier, Buoy, STS, SBM: 3
crew and Deck Officer
Making fast and letting go of Tug: 3 Crew and Deck Officer
Anchoring and heaving up anchor: 2 Crew and Deck
Officer
Laying up and storing of ropes/wires on deck: 3 Crew
o Vessel fitted with all mooring ropes/wires on winches (self stow
winches) a minimum of 2 deck crew and one officer shall be
minimum requirement.
Risk Assessment
o Vessel shall carry out a Risk Assessment of Mooring Operations,
which shall include following:
Mooring arrangement & lay out as per plan.
Condition of mooring winches, fairleads, rollers, bitts and
other equipment.
Condition of mooring ropes, wires, tails, chocks and
stoppers.
External factors including tides, current and weather
conditions such as sea, swell, winds, fronts and squalls
likely to be experienced.
Snap-back and safe zones.
Communications
Berth lay out or other shore mooring arrangement
Safe working practices.
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Ship to Ship transfer operation, mooring to buoys or other


special operations.
o The result of risk assessment shall be filed and this shall be
reviewed prior every mooring operations. If any parameters are
different from the hazards identified earlier, additional measures to
be taken shall be considered.
o The Chief Officer shall discuss and highlight the safety precautions
to be taken during the daily job order meeting, on or prior to the
day of mooring. This shall serve as constant reminder and prevent
accidents.
Snap-back Zone
o Handling of mooring lines has a higher potential accident risk than
most other shipboard activities. The most serious danger is snapback, the sudden release of static energy stored in the synthetic line
when it breaks.
o When a line is loaded, it stretches. Energy is stored in the line
proportion to the load and the stretch. When the line breaks, this
energy is suddenly released. The ends of the line will snap-back,
striking anything in their path with tremendous force.
o Snap-back is common to all lines. Even long wire lines under
tension can stretch enough to snap back with considerable energy.
Synthetic lines are much more elastic, increasing the danger of
snap-back.
o Synthetic lines normally break suddenly and without warning.
Unlike wires, they do not give audible signals of pending failure;
nor do they exhibit a few visible broken elements before
completely parting.
o Line handlers shall stand well clear of the potential path of snapback, which extends to the sides of and far beyond the ends of the
tensioned line.
o As a general rule, any point within about a 10 degree cone around
the line from any point at which the line may break is in danger. A
broken line will snap back beyond the point at which it is secured,
possibly to a distance almost as far as its own length. If the line
passes around a fairlead, then its snap-back path may not follow the
original path of the line. When it breaks behind the fairlead, the end
of the line will fly around and beyond the fairlead.
o If an activity in a danger zone cannot be avoided, the exposure time
can at least be reduced by observing some simple rules. When it is
necessary to pass near a line under tension, do so as quickly as
possible. If it is a mooring line and the ship is moving about, time
your passage for the period during which the line is under little or
no tension. If possible, do not stand or pass near the line while the
line is being tensioned or while the ship is being moved along the

134

pier. If you shall work near a line under tension, do so quickly and
leave the danger zone as soon as possible. Plan your activity before
you approach the line. Never have more people than necessary near
the line. If the activity involves line handling, make certain that
there are enough personnel to perform it in an expedient and safe
manner. Instruct observers to stand well clear.
General Precautions
o REMEMBER, you stand a greater risk of injuring yourself or your
shipmate, during mooring and unmooring operations than at any
other time. Following shall be taken account to ensure safety
during such operation
Stand clear of all wires and ropes under heavy loads even
when not directly involved in their handling.
When paying out wires or ropes, watch that both your own
and shipmate's feet are not in the coil or loop, BEWARE
OF THE BIGHT!
Always endeavor to remain in control of the line.
Anticipate and prevent situations arising that may cause a
line to run unchecked. If the line does take charge, do not
attempt to stop it with your feet or hands as this can result
in serious injury.
Ensure that the "tail end" of the line is secured on board to
prevent complete loss.
Do not leave winches and windlasses running unattended.
Do not stand on machinery itself to get a better view.
Do not attempt to handle a wire or rope on a drum end,
unless a second person is available to remove or feed the
slack rope to you.
Do not work too close to the drum when handling wires and
ropes. The wire or rope could "jump" and trap your hand.
Stand back and grasp the line about one meter from the
drum or bitts.
Always wear safety helmets with chin straps properly
tightened during mooring operations.
Very short lengths of line shall be avoided when possible;
as such lines will take a greater proportion of the total load,
when movement of the ship occurs.
Two or more lines leading in the same direction shall, as far
as possible, be of the same length.
Two or more lines leading in the same direction shall
always be of the same material. Never mix wire and soft
moorings, if you can avoid it.
Always stand well clear of a wire under load.
Always wear gloves when handling ropes and wires.

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Upon completion of mooring the winch shall be left with


the brake on and out of gear.
Do not leave the ropes on the warping drums but fast on
bitts.
Always use stopper ropes of material which is compatible
to mooring ropes. (e.g. Manila Rope stopper should not be
used with polypropylene ropes).
Synthetic fiber ropes give little or no warning when about
to break, and possess low resistance to chafing when under
load.
When making synthetic fiber ropes to bitts, do not use a
"figure of eight" alone to turn them up. Use two round turns
(but not more) around the leading post of the bitts before
taking figure of eight for large size bitts, or around both
posts before figure of eight for bitts with smaller
circumference posts. This method allows better control of
the rope, is easy to use and is safer. Do not apply too many
turns; generally 4 turns shall be taken with synthetic linesif too many are applied then the line cannot be released in a
controlled manner. Take at least 4-5 figure of eight turns of
wires on bitts.
When using winch stored ropes, do not run them through
leads which are not on a direct line from the drum, as they
are liable to chafe on the edge of the spool.
Do not allow oil leaks from hydraulic winches to go
unnoticed; it could lead to slips on deck.
Spray shields/guards should be fitted to protect personnel
and adjoining equipment/motors from the risk of leaks.

o Operations and Handling


o The responsible Deck Officer and the operators of the machines
must operate the windlass and mooring winch in accordance with
the following.
o Preparations for Operations
Make sure that the mooring line is wound on the drum in
such a direction that when the drum rotates in the forward
direction, the winch is wound up. Band brakes are designed
for the line to pull directly against the fixed end of the brake
band. Reeling the line on to the drum in the wrong direction
may reduce the brake holding power by up to 50%. Winch
drums should be marked to indicate the correct reeling
direction.
Make sure that the each clutch of a windlass and a mooring
winch is in the DISENGAGE position, and that the
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operating handles of each control stand are in the neutral


position.
Remove the canvas cover of the windlass and the mooring
winch to be used, release the lashing of the anchor, anchor
chain, and hawser.
Make sure that all the bearings and gears of the mooring
winch are efficiently applied with grease.
Check that the hydraulic line is properly lined up for its
operation.
If a control device (e.g., switch or lever) to change over the
operation of a windlass and a mooring winch is provided,
the proper operation mode must be selected.
Check the amount of oil in the oil tank.
Where a head tank is installed, confirm that the amount of
oil in the piping is sufficient to check to see, by operating
the hand pump that the oil over-flows from the head tank
through a sight glass.
Check the temperature of the hydraulic oil. If it is higher or
lower than the normal condition, allow the cooling sea
water to pass or shut the passage of the cooling water line
as appropriate.
Ensure that heave-in and slack-out directions are
clearly marked on the winch handles and controls.
o Starting
Start the necessary hydraulic pump. While driving the
pump for few seconds, check to see that there is no
abnormality with its operation including the rotational
direction; if no trouble is found, continue the operation.
If the required number of hydraulic pumps for driving the
windlass is different from that for the mooring winch, a
proper number of pumps must be started for the operation
in hand.
In cold climates, start normal operation after properly
warming the pumps.
Make sure that there is no oil leakage from the hydraulic
pipe lines.
Make sure that the remote control equipment normally
operates by maneuvering the operating handles of each
control stand.
Make sure that brakes and the clutches of the windlass and
the mooring winch to be used normally operate.
Pay attention to the temperature of the hydraulic oil. Adjust
the opening of the cooling water valve of the oil cooler as
needed.
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Make sure that the emergency stop equipment normally


operates.
Precautions during Operations
The operators of each handle must operate the clutches,
brakes, and handles in accordance with the instruction and
command by the responsible deck officer.
Before operating the windlass or mooring winch, "engage"
the clutch and insert the clutch pin, with the brake "off." In
the event of a mooring line under excessive tension, in
particular, release the brake after taking off the play
between the drum clutch and shaft clutch in the hauling
direction.
Operate the handles gently. A quick operation will cause a
surge pressure, adversely affecting the machines; great care
is necessary.
During operation, pay attention to the noise generated from
the hydraulic machinery. If a noise is generated,
immediately stop the machine, locate the cause, and take
corrective actions.
When operating a winch or windlass, ensure that the
operator understands the controls and is in visual or radio
contact with the officer or person in charge for instructions.
Marking on the Winch and Windlass:
The winch and windlass shall be marked boldly with
following details:
Heaving and slacking direction of winch/windlass operating
lever.
Brake rendering capacity.
Lowering and hoisting direction of winch drum.
Date when brake was tested last (Tankers & Gas Carriers).
Date of rope change end to end or replacement.
The working area adjacent to mooring equipment shall be
painted with non-skid paint.
Stopping Operations
Bring the operating handle to the neutral position, and apply
the stopper.
Apply the brake.
Disengage the clutch.
Stop the hydraulic pump.
Check the pump for oil leakage, loosening of bolts. If any,
immediately repair for next operation.
Safety
During Mooring

o
o

138

REMEMBER, you stand a greater risk of injuring yourself


or your shipmate, during mooring and unmooring
operations than at any other time.
Stand clear of all wires and ropes under heavy loads even
when not directly involved in their handling.
When paying out wires or ropes, watch that both your own
and shipmate's feet are not in the coil or loop, BEWARE
THE BIGHT!
Always endeavour to remain in control of the line.
Anticipate and prevent situations arising that may cause a
line to run unchecked. If the line does take charge, do not
attempt to stop it with your feet or hands as this can result
in serious injury.
Ensure that the "tail end" of the line is secured on board to
prevent complete loss.
Do not leave winches and windlasses running unattended.
Do not stand on machinery itself to get a better view.
Do not attempt to handle a wire or rope on a drum end,
unless a second person is available to remove or feed the
slack rope to you.
Do not work too close to the drum when handling wires and
ropes. The wire or rope could "jump" and trap your hand.
Stand back and grasp the line about one meter from the
drum or bitts.
Always wear safety helmets with chin straps properly
tightened during mooring operations.
Very short lengths of line should be avoided when possible
as such lines will take a greater proportion of the total load,
when movement of the ship occurs.
Two or more lines leading in the same direction should, as
far as possible be of the same length.
Two or more lines leading in the same direction should
always be of the same material. Never mix wire and soft
moorings, if you can avoid it.
Always stand well clear of a wire under load.
Always wear gloves when handling ropes and wires.
Upon completion of mooring the winch should be left with
the brake on and out of gear.
Do not leave the ropes on the warping drums but fast on
bitts.
Synthetic fiber ropes give little or no warning when about
to break, and possess low resistance to chafing when under
load.
When making synthetic fiber ropes to bitts, do not use a
"figure of eight" alone to turn them up. Use two round turns
139

(but not more) around the leading post of the bitts before
figure of eighting for large size bitts, or around both posts
before figure eighting for bitts with smaller circumference
posts. This method allows better control of the rope, is easy
to use and is safer. Do not apply too many turns; generally 4
turns should be taken with synthetic lines- if too many are
applied then the line cannot be released in a controlled
manner. Take at least 4-5 figure of eight turns of wires on
bitts.
When using winch stored ropes, do not run them through
leads which are not on a direct line from the drum, as they
are liable to chafe on the edge of the spool.
Do not allow oil leaks from hydraulic winches to go unnoticed, it could lead to slips on the pool.
o Whilst at Berth
The safety of the ship does not finish once the ship is finally
moored but continues all the time she is alongside.
Mooring lines shall be regularly tended whilst the ship is
moored at a jetty and when other vessels are passing close
to the jetty and/or mooring unmooring of other vessels
ahead or astern of own vessel
Check traffic movement with agent and pay special
attention during the passing of other vessels.
Frequently obtain weather information for local agent or
other means. Take additional ropes or wires, as necessary. If
considered unsafe, ask for tugs to be stand-by. If required
cast off and shift to sea, well in advance of onset of bad
weather.
It should be noted that the heaving power of the winch is
always less than the render force and it is thus impossible to
heave in after a winch has rendered unless there is a change
in the forces acting on the moorings. Use main engine, bow
thruster or tug assistance to keep the ship alongside, as
required.
Brakes should be tightened at frequent intervals even if
there is no sign of slipping, allowing for change of
freeboard due to cargo operations and/or tides.
Do not surge synthetic ropes on the drum end; in addition to
damaging the rope, as it melts it may stick to the drum or
bitt and jump, with a risk of injury to people nearby.
Always walk a winch back to ease the weight off the rope.
o Snap-back
Handling of mooring lines has a higher potential accident
risk than most other shipboard activities. The most serious
140

danger is snap-back, the sudden release of static energy


stored in the synthetic line when it breaks. When a line is
loaded, it stretches. Energy is stored in the line proportion
to the load and the stretch. When the line breaks, this
energy is suddenly released. The ends of the line snap-back,
striking anything in their path with tremendous force.

Snap-back is common to all lines. Even long wire lines


under tension can stretch enough to snap back with
considerable energy. Synthetic lines are much more elastic,
increasing the danger of snap-back.

Mooring line Arrangement

o Synthetic lines normally break suddenly and without warning.


Unlike wires, they do not give audible signals of pending failure;
nor do they exhibit a few visible broken elements before
completely parting. Line handlers must stand well clear of the
potential path of snap-back, which extends to the sides of and far
beyond the ends of the tensioned line.
o As a general rule, any point within about a 10 degree cone around
the line from any point at which the line may break is in danger. A
broken line will snap back beyond the point at which it is secured,
possibly to a distance almost as far as its own length. If the line
passes around a fairlead, then its snap-back path may not follow the
original path of the line. When it breaks behind the fairlead, the end
of the line will fly around and beyond the fairlead.
o If an activity in a danger zone cannot be avoided, the exposure time
can at least be reduced by observing some simple rules. When it is
necessary to pass near a line under tension, do so as quickly as
possible. If it is a mooring line and the ship is moving about, time
your passage for the period during which the line is under little or
141

no tension. If possible, do not stand or pass near the line while the
line is being tensioned or while the ship is being moved along the
pier. If you must work near a line under tension, do so quickly and
leave the danger zone as soon as possible.
o Plan your activity before you approach the line. Never have more
people than necessary near the line. If the activity involves line
handling, make certain that there are enough personnel to perform
it in an expedient and safe manner. Instruct observers to stand well
clear.
1.5 Anchoring
-

Anchoring
o Anchoring Plan
The master shall prepare a plan for anchoring in accordance with the
following:
o Selection of Anchorage
Investigate the port conditions beforehand, and select the most suitable
anchorage.
o Determining of Anchoring Method
Normal anchoring is by a single anchor. The master shall determine
which anchoring is the best among a single anchoring, double
anchoring, two-anchor mooring or any other appropriate anchoring by
considering weather and sea conditions, when anchoring the ship and
also while the ship is at anchor, or the depth of, or room for the
anchoring area for use, etc.
o Deciding Which Anchor To Be Used
Decide which anchor (port or starboard) to use by considering the
anchoring method, direction of approach, tidal current set, frequency of
use of both anchors until now, or measures against expected rough
weather, etc. Also, when using the anchors on both sides of the ship,
decide on the sequence in which they will be cast.
Deciding on Extension of Anchor Chains
When deciding on the length of anchor chains to be extended, give
consideration to the duration of anchoring, room of the anchoring area
for use, weather conditions while the ship is at anchor and holding
power of the anchor
o Anchoring Plan
Prepare a plan for the gradual decreasing of the speed suitable for the
maneuverability of the ship.
o Critical Wind Velocity for dragging anchor (
To avoid any disasters resulting from dragging anchor, Master shall
calculate the critical wind velocity for dragging anchor. This should be
utilized in developing the anchoring plan and the anchor watch
instructions / checks. It should also be noted that this calculation
provides only a guidance to grasp the wind velocity for dragging
anchor and that the ship may even start to drag its anchor if the wind
142

velocity is lesser than the critical wind velocity. It should be carefully


examined to determine whether safe anchoring can be maintained
especially when heavy weather is forecasted.
Note that the critical wind velocity is subject to preconditions such as
size or shape of the ship, depth of water, bottom sediment, etc.
The followings to be considered when examining risk of dragging
anchor:
Even if the wind velocity is not more than the critical wind
velocity, the ship may drag or damage her anchor due to other
additional factors such as swells, waves, currents, age &
condition of anchor itself, its chain, shackles etc.
It is very difficult to heave up anchor if the weather, especially
the sea condition, becomes heavy or unfavorable.
o Pre Arrival Checks (Prior Entering Harbor / Arrival Anchorage)
Checks as per Entering Harbor checklists 1 and Entering Harbor
Checklists 2 shall be carried out as applicable prior arrival anchorage
(as prior entering harbor).
o Preparing To Cast Anchor
Conduct the preparatory work for anchoring in accordance with the
following:
The master, at an appropriate time before arriving at the
anchoring area for use, shall station the forecastle chain-party at
forward and advise the chief officer of the anchors to be used,
expected number of chains to be laid out, expected depth of
anchoring area for use, and other necessary information.
Officer on Watch Conducts Following on Bridge:
When the ship is approaching the anchorage, take continuous
soundings to check the depth and report to the master;
Check the head way of the ship (over ground and through the
water) and report to the master at appropriate time;
Check frequently the ship's position and distance from other
ships, and report to the master;
Keep a particularly close lookout of the surroundings to check
the movements of other ships, and successively report to the
master; and
Plot, as occasion demands, the positions of other anchored
ships on the nautical chart.
The chief officer (or Officer as assigned by Master -ref Ch ZZS-P-02.10.02 , section 6.1 ), after taking up the station at
forecastle, checks the number of crew members there and
reports to the bridge. He shall confirm from Master regarding
the anchors to be used, expected depth of anchoring area and
expected length of anchor chains to be laid out. In addition, in
consultation of master, he directs the deck crew members to be
ready to cast anchor in accordance with the following
procedures:
Start up the windlass and test operate it to check for any
abnormality; then take off the stopper;
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Veer anchor chains to a' cockbilled state or walk back the


anchor chains to expected full length and apply the brake and
put out of gear to stand by the anchor lowering state;
When walking back the anchor chains under water, do it after
the ship has sufficiently lost its head way;
For security and emergency purposes while anchoring, put the
anchor on the opposite side on S/B. (Check the space between
the stopper and the anchor chains on S/B. The putting on or
taking off of the stopper shall be done according to the
directions of the master.)
After the above work is finished, report to the bridge that
preparations to lower the anchor have been completed; and
Report about the ship's way to the bridge at appropriate times
judging from the state of the cutwater.
o Operations to Cast Anchor
The chief officer, on the master's order to "Let go anchor" shall let go
anchor in accordance with the following procedures. When letting go
anchor into deep water, he shall do it in accordance with Par.1.3.3:
On the order from the bridge to "Let go anchor", the chief officer lets
go anchor after checking that it will be safe on the deck and on the
surface of the water for casting anchor;
Pay attention to the speed in which the anchor and anchor chains fall;
Report to the bridge at appropriate times, the direction to which the
anchor chains are being extended, the length of extension and the
tautness of the chains;
When the planned length of extension is reached, bring it up with the
ship's residual inertia; and
After checking that the anchor has been brought up, put on the stopper,
apply the brake on the windlass so as not to put a load on it, and put
out of gear.
While using stopper bar upon vessel being brought-up, it is required
that the in-board vertical link of the chain does not touch the bar and
that there is sufficient clearance between the vertical link and the
stopper to detect any slippage of the brake.
The OOW determines the anchor position in accordance with the
following procedures and enters the "Bridge Turning Circle" on the
nautical chart:
Immediately after checking the heading at the time of anchoring, select
a conspicuous object in the surroundings, and plot the ship's position
(position of the bridge) on the nautical chart;
From the above position on the nautical chart, the anchor position shall
be the bridge-to-stem distance away on the heading; and
With the anchor position as the center, draw the "Bridge Turning
Circle" with a radius of the distance of the bridge to the stem plus
amount of anchor chain laid out.
o Anchoring in Deep Water
Lowering of the anchor in deep water shall be done in accordance with
the following procedure:
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When the depth of the water exceeds 25 meters:


Walk back the anchor under water close to the sea bottom (10
to 5 meters) and then let it go;
When the depth of the water exceeds 50 meters:
Walk back the anchor until it reaches the sea bottom and pay
out the anchor chain under power to the scheduled amount of
chain to be laid out while laying the anchor chain along the sea
bottom; and
In the above case, when paying out the anchor chain, speed over the
ground shall be 0.5 knots or less.
o Points To Be Observed When Anchoring
The master, when anchoring at an anchorage with strong winds or
currents, shall carry out risk assessment and shall be careful of the
following:
Avoid anchoring for shorter periods unless as per Charterer's and/or
Owner's requirements. Master shall avail berthing information and
vessel's schedule well in advance so as to adjust speed and arrive at the
pilot station on time.
Pay Due consideration to the condition of hydraulic gear, windlass
motors, anchors, cable, and brake lining;
The anchor chain is liable to be subjected to an unexpected load
causing the anchor to drag in the initial stage of laying out the chain
after the anchor is let go, or causing the chain to lie curved or snaked
on the sea bottom so that a good hold of the anchor cannot be obtained;
If judging the speed over the ground is difficult, set a landmark that is
exactly abeam to the ship to obtain the speed over the ground;
Make the approach and lower the anchor with the tide from the bow.
(In case of single anchoring);
Check the current set from the headings of other anchored ships nearby
are facing;
Pay out ample anchor chain so that the anchor does not drag initially;
When the current is from the side of the ship, since the lee way
becomes bigger as the ship loses her way becomes smaller, approach
the anchorage keeping course with a sufficient inertia, face the current
immediately before, and when the ship stops, pay out the anchor of the
side of the current for about 1.5 times the depth of the sea, then stop
the anchor and face the bow into the current. After that pay out the
chain while slowly going astern;
Try as much as possible not to have the current from behind, but if this
is unavoidable, lessen the way of the ship and let go the anchor on the
turning side of the ship at a short distance from the scheduled
anchorage; and
When there is a ship already anchored in the vicinity of scheduled
anchorage, avoid the course on which the ship may drag her anchor.
PCC vessels are more susceptible to winds due to large superstructure
and are likely to encounter difficulty in holding anchor when the wind
velocity exceeds 12m/sec.

145

o Anchor Watching under Normal Weather Conditions


The master, after making the necessary entries in the "Anchor Watch
Duties, shall give the necessary instructions for keeping an anchor
watch to the officer of the watch (OOW).
The OOW shall pay careful attention to any changes of the weather
and sea condition, and grasp at any time the relationship of the position
between the own ship and the others , or shoal and dangerous objects.
In particular, he shall strive to detect running (dragging) anchor at least
once an hour to find such critical condition well in advance.
o Detecting Running (Dragging) Anchor
Check of Ship's Position
To determine the ship's position by means of radar or by
landmark and judge whether or not the anchor is dragging by
checking to see if the ship's position is inside the "Bridge
Turning Circle"
Record of Course Recorder
The anchor might be dragging when the recorder stops drawing
a steady sine curve.
Swinging of Ship
The anchor might be dragging when the ship stops making
steady swings and remains in one posture against the wind. The
number of times when the vessel swings to complete 360 turns
should be recorded.
Tautness of Anchor Chain
The anchor might be dragging when the anchor chain does not
slacken and remains taut.
Speed over Ground
To check the speed over the ground by Doppler log.
Changes in Relative Positions of Other Ships
To pay careful attention to any changes in the relative positions
of other ships.
o Dragging Anchor of Own or Other Ships
To monitor for dragging not only the anchor of the ship but those of
other ships as well. Critical Wind Velocity should be known and
monitored.
When the cable is slipping or anchor is dragging, situation shall be
reviewed.
An extra length of cable may be paid out or anchor heaved up. At
initial anchoring, it is recommended to keep lengths of reserve cable,
which may be used later. Vessels with large windage area (i.e. PCC)
shall avoid paying out long cables, as it may not significantly prevent
anchor from dragging and may pose additional risks of damage to
machinery and equipment, if required to heave up anchor later.
o Watching Other Ships
When other ships pass near by, the master shall pay careful attention to
the movement of the ship and attract their attention in order to prevent
collision (contact) using the day-light signals and/or VHF if necessary.

146

When other ships drop their anchor close to the own ship and the
master considers it dangerous as the anchoring position is too close to
the own ship, he shall immediately request the other ship to heave up
their anchor and change their anchoring position.
o Anchor Watch under Rough Weather Conditions
The master shall take the following necessary countermeasures when
rough weather is expected while anchored:
Check with the agent or the nearest maritime safety authorities whether
or not there have been any gale warnings, etc:
Keep a listening watch on VHF Ch16 and obtain information of other
ships, warnings, etc.;
Obtain weather information from weather maps, navigational
warnings, etc.;
Maintain a safe distance from other ships and, if possible, shift her
anchorage;
Grasp the critical wind velocity for dragging anchor
Lay out the anchor chain for an appropriate length considering the
draft and length of the ship, the depth of water, the nature of the sea
bottom, etc., or carry out double anchoring, stand by the other anchor,
and drop another anchor to check her swing;
Place engine on S/B if, judging from the weather and sea conditions, it
is necessary;
Make steering equipment ready for immediate use;
When the ship's draught is light, take on more ballast water to reduce
the wind age area, and also trim the ship by the head; and
Pay out extra anchor chain and use the engine at appropriate times to
prevent the anchor from dragging.
Weather conditions shall be periodically monitored. Anchors shall be
heaved well in advance of the onset of bad weather. Vessel may
proceed to a safe place where vessel can keep safe distance from other
vessels, while drifting.
If it is unavoidable and required to weigh anchor under unfavorable
weather conditions, due regard shall be given to the excessive load
coming on the windlass and chain. Burst of engine, bow thruster and
steering etc may be used to ease the load on the cable and an efficient
communication shall be maintained between forward station and
bridge to closely monitor the lead and load on the anchor cable.
o Weighing Anchor
o Preparatory Work and Operations To Weigh Anchor
Carry out preparatory work and operations to weigh anchor in
accordance with the following procedure:
The Chief Officer, after taking up his station at the forecastle, shall
check the number of crew members at fore station and report to the
bridge. He shall also direct the deck crew, in accordance with the
following procedure, to prepare to weigh anchor:
Start the windlasses and test operate them to check that there is nothing
wrong with them;

147

For security and emergency purposes while anchoring, put the opposite
side anchor on S/B. (Check the space between the stopper and the
anchor chains on S/B. The putting on or taking off of the stopper shall
be done according to the directions of the master.);
After engaging the gears, release the brakes and remove the stopper;
and
Request the bridge for a supply of sea water to wash the anchor chain.
The chief officer shall direct the deck crew, in accordance with the following
procedure, to carry out the work of heaving in the anchor:
On the master's order to "Heave in anchor", start heaving in the anchor
chain;
Check the tension on the anchor chain and, if necessary, request the
bridge for the use of the engine; and
Report to the bridge the direction in which the anchor chain is
extended and the state of the heaving in process (at every shackle).
Officer stationed on the forecastle, after weighing anchor shall confirm
by visually sighting that the anchor is not damaged and is clear of all
obstructions.
Points To Be Observed When Weighing Anchor
The master shall observe the following when raising anchor:
When the wind or current is strong, the anchor will drag as the chain is
being hove up and the ship will start to go astern. In such a case, use
the engine at appropriate times to reduce the load on the windlass;
When the ship heads, while heaving anchor, in a direction excessively
different from the one she intends to proceed after the anchor is up,
carry out anchor weighing operation to help her turn to the favorable
direction by using the engine and rudder in combination in its process;
When weighing anchor in swells, the windlass motors are subjected to
excessive forces, so be careful about the damage they are liable to
incur; and
When rough weather is expected, do not lose the right opportunity to
weigh anchor.
Checking of Anchor cable, links and D-Shackle
The condition of all moving parts, confirming the proper condition of
cables and fittings, detection of twists in the cables, cracks in stud link
welds, spile and other 'locking' pins that hold Kenter-type joining
shackles together and the pin of the 'D' shackles shall be checked at
every opportunity and reported to Bridge. The diligence of the Chief
Officer in proper inspection and reporting may prevent the loss of the
anchor, or worse.
A spare Kenter-type shackle shall always be kept on board.
Inspecting Anchor
When the ship remains at anchor for a long period, if prevailing
circumstances permit, the master should temporarily heave up her
anchor and let go again at the interval mentioned below as a standard
in order to maintain good anchoring condition:
In a river or estuary where tidal current is significant:
Once every 3 days;

148

At area where there is a lot of moving muddy sand in sea bed:


Once every 5 days;
Other area:
Once every 1 week.
If 10 completed 360 turns are made earlier than above listed intervals
in 'a', 'b' or 'c', as applicable.
o Collision Avoidance at Anchor
When on watch at anchor, comply with following:
Maintain proper lookout for the need to appraise the situation fully
including the dragging of anchor and as well as to establish whether
risk of collision exists with other vessels.
If the circumstances allow, a ship at anchor could be expected to take
action to avoid collision by either using the engines to move the ship or
by releasing more of the anchor cable to drop astern.
Keeping engines ready for immediate maneuver, during restricted
visibility.

FUNCTION 4 SHIP CONTROL, OPERATIONS, AND CARE FOR PERSONS ON


BOARD
STAGE 1
1.1 Participate in a Fire Muster, and Drill
-

RECORD OF DRILLS has been developed as a reference sheet to identify


drill intervals and requirements as well as to record the dates when the
drills were conducted. All drills shall be conducted as if the crew were
required to deal with a real emergency. At the discretion of the Master the
crew may receive onboard training sessions or presentations related to
lifesaving and firefighting measures in lieu of an actual drill if weather
conditions do not permit the planned drill to be executed safely.
Drill is conducted every week. Type of drill depends on the requirements
given by the Company and on SOLAS regulations.

1.2 Understand the use of the following


-

Safety signs - safety signs are used for safety purposes.


Escape Routes escape routes are located in the different decks in the
accommodation.

1.3 Demonstrate precautions in preventing fire in:


- Loading - make sure PV valves and Mast risers are ready for use.
Emergency stop are working properly.
- Alarms are tested prior loading.

149

Discharging - introduced IG before discharging. Make sure all pumps are


working properly.
Maintenance work - important details are being introduced during the
toolbox meeting.
Hot Works - hot work is any work involving sources of ignition or
temperatures sufficiently high enough to cause the ignition of a flammable
gas mixture. This includes any work requiring the use of welding, burning
or soldering equipment, blow torches, some power-driven tools, portable
electrical equipment which is not intrinsically safe including cameras or
contained within an approved explosion-proof housing, and internal
combustion engines. There have been a number of fires and explosions due
to Hot Work in, on, or near cargo tanks or
other spaces that contain,
or that have previously contained, flammable substances or substances that
emit flammable vapors. Hot Work should only be considered if there are
no practical alternative means of repair.

1.4 Use, inspection and maintenance of:


-

Fire Hose Check that all fire hoses, as indicated in the ships
safety record, are in place in accordance with the ships fire plan. All fire
hoses are free of damage. Hydrant couplings are of matching types. All fire
hoses coupling joints are available and in good condition and spare hoses
are available.
Nozzles - Check that all nozzles, as indicated in the ships safety record,
are in place including gasket. Nozzles are free of damage. Couplings are of
matching types. Joints are in good condition and spare nozzles are
available.
Fire Hydrants - Check the condition of all hydrants, as indicated in the
ships safety record, and make sure that the hand wheels, spindles are free
of damage. All hydrants are properly painted. Hydrant caps are in place
and that pressure relief holes are clear. All hydrant joints are in good
condition. Check that nom leaks are apparent.
Flaps - Check proper operation of all ventilators. Check condition of
ventilators. Test means of control for stopping forced and induced draught
fans.
Dampers > Check proper operation of all ventilators. Check condition of
ventilators. Test means of control for stopping forced and induced draught
fans.
Fire Pumps - Rotate the pump shaft by hand. Check condition of the pump
casing, report leakage or damage immediately. Refill or renew pump
lubricant / oil if fitted. Check vacuum pump (if fitted) free to turn. Inspect
and refill vacuum pump priming tank (if fitted). Test run the pump, checks
mechanical seal or pump gland for leakage. Adjust packing gland
150

carefully, if fitted. When running check motor and pump bearings


temperatures.
Use, inspection and maintenance of Fire Extinguishers
o Water- Pump prime mover is isolated and secured. Grease bearings
and bulkhead stuffing box.
o CO2- Check that CO2 room is clear of improperly stored items.
Instruction panel is properly posted. Cylinders and pipes are in
good condition. Verify that cylinders are securely clamped in
position. Check that no leakages are present. Check that alarm
system is operational and time delay fitted. Check that CO2 room
door is properly marked.
o Foam -Do not test alone, inform master or chief engineer before
testing. Check proper operation of all ventilators. Check condition
of ventilators. Test means of control for stopping forced and
induced draught fans.
o Powder- Weekly maintenance carried out and all in good condition
and ready for immediate use.
Use, inspection and maintenance of :
o Fire Doors - Check all fire door automatic release and doors closes
firmly. If fire doors are not fitted with automatic release be sure to
close doors firmly.
o Emergency Alarm System- Start and check the operational
condition of the alarm system. Carry out operational test by
diverting flow into fire mains.
o Fire Detectors- Test the sensors; follow the test schedule for each
sensor and push buttons. Check the alarms at the control panel in
the bridge and the engine room alarm. Check all alarm bells and
lights are operational. Check the test using the battery power
supply of fire alarm system.
o Smoke Detectors - Using the approved smoke detectors and test
equipments, test the sensors. Follow the test schedule for each
sensor and push buttons. Check the alarms at the control panel in
the bridge and the engine room alarm. Check all alarm bells and
lights are operational. Check the test using the battery power
supply of fire alarm system.
Use, inspection and maintenance of :
o Breathing Apparatus-Check that breathing apparatus cylinders do
not present leakages.
o Protective Clothing -These procedures shall apply to all Company
seagoing and shore based employees as well as all outside
contractors, vendors, service technicians and visitors, unless
otherwise indicated, while aboard Company vessels. It is a
Company requirement that suitable items of safety equipment and
protective clothing are
available to everybody on board.
Employees who are issued PPE are responsible and accountable for
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its care and use. All PPE shall be maintained in good working
order. PPE that is found to be worn and/or defective shall be
reported to the appropriate supervisor and replaced prior to use.
Failure to wear PPE when required shall result in disciplinary
actions up to and including
termination. Department
Supervisors are responsible for ensuring that the equipment
provided is
readily available to employees, and that it is
being worn in accordance with this procedure. Defective or
ineffective protective equipment provides no defense. Therefore,
personal protective equipment or clothing shall always be checked
by the wearer each time before use. Employers shall comply with
the training they have received in the use of protective items, and
follow the manufacturers instruction for use. Training should
include awareness of any limitations.
1.8 Demonstrate Knowledge in filling of Air Bottles
-

Procedure in filling up air bottles


o First you must check the remaining pressure of the BA cylinder.
o After checking unplug it to the equipment by disconnecting the
hose at the back of the cylinder. And connect it to the hose of the
charging device.
o After connecting it to hose of the charging device open the cylinder
then the pressure gauge of the device will also let you know the
remaining air pressure inside the cylinder.
o After setting it all up you can now start the device by pushing start
then the charging device will start supplying air to the cylinder.
o When the air compressor is now supplying air to the cylinder make
sure that you constantly open the tube or the small hoses bellow the
charging device to ensure that no water of oil will enter the
cylinder this small hoses will spit out all the water and the oil
generated when starting and supplying air to the cylinder.
o After getting the desired amount of air pressure you needed you
can now shut the device and also close the opening of the cylinder.
This will allow the air not to go out or escape anymore, then
disconnect it to the device, then the release the remaining air on the
device by opening the small hoses bellow the device or opening the
hole on the connecting hose of the charging device.

1.9 Participate in a Boat Muster, and Drill


-

Boat station is on port side. I am assigned to assist the 3/O and bring
potable water and food. My muster station is in Bridge together with the
command team.
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1.10 Understand internal instructions For Abandoning Ship


-

Torch, life jacket and immersion suit must be carried by all persons.
Everyone must cooperate in trying to load as much food and potable water
as possible.
With no exclusive Chief or other Radio Officer available on board, the
duties of shipboard radio communication must be conducted by appointed
GMDSS officer and the important documents and EPIRB, specified as
article to be carried by the R/O, must be carried by 3/O.
Transceivers must be carried by all persons who are provided in the
Muster List.
No. 1 is identified as Rescue Boat.
One long blast, repeated on ships whistle, bells and sound system followed
by public address.
The subsequent orders are given verbally by Master, either via transceiver
or the shipboard public address system
Substitute: for Master = C/O; for C/E = 1/E

1.12
-

Demonstrate Knowledge in Launching:

Life Boats > the lifeboat is your LAST resort - your best lifeboat is the
ship itself. Many lives have been lost by premature and unnecessary
abandonment of ships.
o Lead a discussion of the limits of your lifeboats include the
following:
o Maximum ships speed for launching a lifeboat
o Maximum angle of list during launching.
o Maximum angle of trim to safely launch a lifeboat.
o The capacity of the lifeboats - explain that one lifeboat can hold
all the crew.
o Maximum speed of the lifeboat with all crew and all systems
operational, and for how long?
The crew must be organized to board the lifeboat in an
orderly fashion. They must sit and secure themselves in the
boat at the extremes to ensure all crew can board the boat.
Once everyone is inside, close the doors.
Inside the boat one of the officers will show the lifeboat
equipment and explain each item and how it is used.
Dont forget to take the GMDSS radios, SART and EPIRB.
Take time to explain the differences of each piece of
equipment and when it should be used, including Water where is it located and the procedures for rationing.
Pyrotechnics - types and when to use each type
Sea Anchor purpose and how to rig it.

153

Sea Sickness tablets to be issued once clear from the


sinking vessel.
Bilge Pump how to operate it
Painter release
Air system
Spray clutch.
After the equipment has been explained, the engineer can
start the engine. Have somebody on deck below the lifeboat
to verify that the propeller is clear before the engine is
started.
Stow the equipment first.
The last part of the exercise requires a senior officer to
explain launching and lowering of the boat and operation of
the release gear.
This must only be simulated and no actual operation of the
equipment is to be carried out.
o The use of the release wire must be explained, including how to
operate the release wire and the problems that may be encountered
with the counterweight, the need to maintain weight on the wire
during launching (dont stop the launch and let the brake come on
that might damage the boat), and the back up systems that can be
used if the release wire fails. Refer to a previous incident where a
drill had been completed and the crew was ready for bringing the
boat back to its stowage position. While securing the lifeboat,
greasing of the remote control wire was in progress. The release
wire had become entangled and started to be gathered into its drum
anticlockwise (it should have been clockwise) - this caused the
brake to be heaved up resulting in an automatic lowering of the
lifeboat. Have a close up EXPLANATION of the on load release
system. Explain how it is armed and how the hydrostatic release
operates.

Life Rafts - Liferaft, if located at the aft/forward end of the ship and at a
distance of more than 100 meters from the closest survival craft, as
required by SOLAS regulation III/31.1.4, should be regarded as remotely
located survival craft with regard to SOLAS regulation III/7.2.1.2.
The area where these remotely located survival craft are stowed, should be
provided with:
o a minimum number of 2 lifejackets and 2 immersion suits;
o adequate means of illumination complying with SOLAS regulation
III/16.7, either fixed or portable, which should be capable of
illuminating the liferaft stowage position as well as the area of
water into which the liferaft should be launched. Portable lights,
when used, should have brackets to permit their positioning on
both sides of the ship; and
154

o an embarkation ladder or other means of embarkation enabling


descent to the water in a controlled manner in accordance with
SOLAS regulation III/11.7.
On 11 December 2008, IMO issued MSC.1/Circ.1285 which indicated the
following:
o Regulation III/16.1 - Survival craft launching and recovery
arrangements
o Ships as defined in SOLAS regulation III/31.1.3 which are
fitted with non-davit launched liferafts as per SOLAS regulation
III/16.1 should be provided with an embarkation ladder at each side
of the ship.
o As a result, most administrations including Marshall IslandsI
(Marine Notice No. 2-011-5) suggest that an acceptable
embarkation ladder could be a Jacobs ladder with efficient non slip
surface, which can be secured in a safe and efficient manner and is
properly maintained. At the same time they, as well as other
administrations, make it very clear that the use of a knotted rope is
no longer acceptable.
o In order to confirm that all OSG vessels are in compliance with the
regulations concerning remotely located non-davit launched
liferafts, please confirm the following via e-mail with your
Superintendent as well as copy to the DPA for your respective
managing offices.
Confirm that the romotely stowed liferaft forward has at a
minimum 2 lifejackets and 2 immersioon suits readily
available nearby.
Confirm that there is an adequate means of illumination
capable of illuminating the liferaft stowage position as well
as the area of water into which the liferaft should be
launched.
Confirm if the vessel is equipped with an embarkation
ladder or a knotted rope.
Confirm the arrangement forward for securing the
embarkation ladder (ie. single padeye or double padeye).
Those vessels not in compliance with the requirements stated above, are
to generate an SDR and link the appropriate requisitions and/or work
orders to the SDR so that we can track and properly manage each vessels
corrective action independently.
WORK ENVIRONMENT

1.15

Knowledge and proper use of :


-

Personal Protective Equipment

155

o Personal Protective Equipment - It is a Company requirement that


suitable items of safety equipment and protective clothing are
available to everybody on board. Employees who are issued PPE
are responsible and accountable for its care and use. All PPE shall
be maintained in good working order. PPE that is found to be worn
and/or defective shall be reported to the appropriate supervisor and
replaced prior to use.
o Failure to wear PPE when required shall result in disciplinary
actions up to and including termination. Department Supervisors
are responsible for ensuring that the equipment provided is readily
available to employees, and that it is being worn in accordance
with this procedure.
o Defective or ineffective protective equipment provides no defense.
Therefore, personal protective equipment or clothing shall always
be checked by the wearer each time before use. Employers shall
comply with the training they have received in the use of protective
items, and follow the manufacturers instruction for use. Training
should include awareness of any limitations.
-

Working Aloft >


o Shall be considered as undertaking any activity that places a person
1.8 meters (six feet) or more above a permanent deck below that is
not protected by handrails. In other words, if the distance from the
surface the employee is standing on aloft, to a solid surface below,
is more than 2 meters (seven feet) and the area is not protected by
handrails, working aloft guidelines shall apply.
o The Chief Officer shall approve or disapprove the request based on
the circumstances at the time, taking into consideration all hazards
and risks associated with the
work. If there is any doubt as to
the safety of any person working aloft or over the side, the
operation shall be suspended.
o When working over the side or where there is a risk of falling
overboard or being washed overboard from the ship or ship's boat,
an approved personal flotation device (FPD), safety harness, shock
absorber and safety lanyard shall be worn.
Work Permits
o The permit to work system consists of an organized and predefined safety procedure, which contributes to eliminating hazards
and improves safety on board. Department Heads, when having
their crew engage in dangerous work, shall ensure the safety of the
worker by taking the measures mentioned in section 2.1 to 2.8
below in accordance with the nature of the respective work.
Additionally, for items a) to f) as above corresponding checklists
shall be complied with. Besides checking safety measures before
156

the work is commenced, the Department Head shall give in writing


instructions and notes of caution necessary for the work in question
to the person in-charge of the work. When the motion of the ship or
the wind force is extremely great, Department Heads shall not have
work in high places and over the sides of the ship carried out
except in emergencies. It shall be remembered that "cross
reference", i.e. "more than one permit for a job" may be applicable
when using these permits.
o Common Rules to All Type of Permits
Validity
All Permits-to-Work listed above are to specify the
period of validity. This period shall NOT exceed
twelve hours. All Permits-to-Work are automatically
suspended on the sounding of any ships emergency
alarm, or if the task changes significantly.
Safety Measure
Only the work specified on the permit shall be
undertaken. Before signing the permit the Safety
Officer shall check that all the measures specified
have in fact been taken and that all appropriate
safety arrangements are maintained until the permit
is cancelled.
Responsible Officer
Anyone who takes over from the Responsible
Officer as routine or in an emergency shall assume
full responsibility until the permit is cancelled or he
hands over to another nominated person who is fully
conversant with the situation. This person shall
countersign the permit. On completion of the work
the Safety Officer shall be notified.
Negative Answers
Shall any checklist contain an entry with a negative
answer, work is not to be undertaken until the
Master has made a full appraisal of the situation. In
this situation, only the Master can decide whether it
is safe for a work activity to commence.
Use of More than One Permit to Work
The use of more that one permits for a job may be
required. For example: when working on the radar
antenna, both "Permit to work Working Aloft" and
"Permit to Work - Electrical Equipment" shall be
issued or, if carrying-out hot work in an enclosed
space, both "Permit to Work -Hot work" and "Permit
to Work - Enclosed Space Entry" are to be used.
157

Any Hot Work in dangerous or hazardous area shall


be subject to a full risk assessment as per procedures
titled "Risk Management", and procedures as per
"Hot Work " shall be followed. Unless a
compartment is designated safe for Hot Work by
ZZ-S-P-09.10.03, non-approval lights or nonintrinsically safe electrical equipment, including
non-intrinsically safe type camera, shall not be take
into an enclosed space.

Hot works
o Hot work is any work involving sources of ignition or
temperatures sufficiently high enough to cause the ignition of a
flammable gas mixture. This includes any work requiring the use
of welding, burning or soldering equipment, blow torches, some
power-driven tools, portable electrical equipment which is not
intrinsically safe including cameras or contained within an
approved explosion-proof housing, and internal combustion
engines.
o There have been a number of fires and explosions due to Hot Work
in, on, or near cargo tanks or other spaces that contain, or that have
previously contained, flammable substances or substances that emit
flammable vapour.
o Hot Work should only be considered if there are no
practical alternative means of repair.

Entry into an Enclosed Space


o An enclosed space is one with restricted access that is not subject
to continuous ventilation and in which the atmosphere may be
hazardous due to the presence of hydrocarbon gas, toxic gases,
inert gas or oxygen deficiency.
o This includes cargo tanks, ballast tanks, fuel tanks, water tanks,
lubricating oil tanks, slop and waste oil tanks, sewage tanks,
cofferdams, duct keels, void spaces and trunking, pipelines or
fittings connected to any of these.
o It also includes inert gas scrubbers and water seals and any other
item of machinery or equipment that is not routinely ventilated and
entered, such as boilers and main engine crankcases.
o Entry into enclosed spaces is subject to an onboard risk assessment.

Paints, Solvents and other Chemicals


o Paints may contain toxic or irritant substances and solvents may
give rise to flammable mixtures, especially in enclosed spaces.
o If the manufacturers instructions are not given on the container,
information shall be obtained at the time the paint is supplied about

158

any special hazards and any special precautions that may be


required during application.
o In particular:
Painted surfaces shall be rubbed down wet before applying
new paint, as the dust from the old paint may be toxic.
Dust masks shall be worn when dusting down or rubbing
down.
Rust removers must not be used unless all skin is protected.
Eye protection must be worn when rust remover is used.
When painting aloft, care must be taken to ensure that paint
does not splash onto ropes.
Interior and enclosed spaces should be well ventilated
whenever painting is undertaken.
There shall be no smoking or use of exposed lights in area
where painting is ongoing or where paint is drying
-

Gas detectors
o Equipment is provided for monitoring the oxygen content of spaces
and should be used in accordance with the manufacturers
instructions.
o At least two (2) explosimeter are available onboard for measuring
the concentration of hydrocarbons as a percentage of LEL, and this
shall be used in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
o At least two (2) personal oxygen detector units, at least two (2)
personal hydrocarbon detector units and at least two (2) personal
H2S detector units are available onboard all ships.
o Ships are equipped either with Dragger or MSA pumps. For sake of
good order each pump shall be used with its manufacturers
recommended detection tubes.
o Tubes and pumps from different manufacturers are not
interchangeable and shall be used in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions.
o Vessels shall maintain an adequate stock of tubes

Explosimeter
o All Company vessels are fitted with portable gas detection
instruments for measuring oxygen, concentrations of hydrocarbon
gas in inerted and non-inerted atmospheres and other toxic gases.
These instruments are also provided with calibration kits and
instruction manuals. Each vessel shall create and maintain an
inventory of such instruments including at least one copy of the
manufacturers instruction manual for each piece of portable gas
testing equipment.
o The Chief Officer is responsible for the following:

159

o Maintenance, calibration, and operation of equipment used in


testing gas/vapour concentrations, required by various shipboard
operations, in accordance with the manufactures instruction
manual.
o Maintaining all testing equipment in a dedicated place.
o Maintaining a log of the operational working condition, tests, and
calibrations of each apparatus.
o Keeping track of any equipment sent ashore for repairs
o Familiarizing and training other officers and crew members in the
use and limitations of portable gas testing equipment including
relevant chapters of the ISGOTT and the manufacturers
instruction manual.
o Ensuring the unit is sent ashore for annual calibration
-

Oxygen analyzer
o This unit is frequently checked, tested and calibrated by Engine
Room staff, according to the manufacturers instructions. Details of
checks and maintenance/calibration works affected on this unit are
recorded in the QR-LOG-20 I.G S DAILY RECORD BOOK by the
Chief Engineer. The Company shall be informed if the defect is not
repairable onboard. Additionally this unit shall be also calibrated
(e.g. third party) at each dry docking.

IMDG

1.18
-

Knowledge of types and treatments and use of:

Paints - Paint-Dangers from Fire and Explosion


o If a fire involving paint does occur:
Do NOT extinguish with water, as paint solvents
float on water and this helps to spread fire.
Use a CO2 foam or dry chemical extinguisher.
Individuals should protect themselves from fumes
with breathing apparatus.
o Oxygen may also be removed from an atmosphere by chemical
reactions, such as the hardening of paints or coatings.
o Paint Spillage and Contact with Skin and Eyes
o If paint is spilled the following precautions shall be taken:
Ventilate the area to remove the fumes;
Mop up all spilt paint with absorbent material, ensuring that
all materials used to mop up the paint are disposed of in
closed metal containers.
o The following precautions should be taken to prevent paint coming
into contact with skin and eyes:
Always wear gloves and eye protection;
Do not touch the mouth or eyes with gloves;
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Read and observe precautionary notices on paint containers;


In case of being splashed in the eyes by paint or thinners
flood the eyes immediately with fresh water for at least ten
(10) minutes. It may be necessary to seek medical advice if
eyes become abnormally inflamed;
In case of paint splashing on skin, remove it with soap and
water or an industrial skin cleaner. NEVER USE
SOLVENT.
o The instructions given in this section are only general. With the
advances of paint technology, proper guidance on product use and
safety can only be provided through the manufacturers Material
Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) which should always be available
onboard and consulted as needed.
Not all paints require the same surface preparation and
treatment.
Not all paints have the same characteristics and, thus, they
might well be not appropriate for the purpose.
Identify the products material safety data sheet (MSDS)
and use as guidance.
Not all solvents can be used in all types of paint.
Make sure that personnel are familiar with the use of the
particular paint which is used onboard for the different ship
areas.
Always consult the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for
first aid guidance.
o Paint Spraying
In the process of paint spraying, paint liquid is converted
into a mist of paint droplets which are directed onto a
surface to produce an evenly distributed film of the required
thickness and texture.
Inevitably, not all the paint sprayed is deposited on the
workplace. Some is lost as overspray from the spray gun
itself and some by ricochet of the paint droplets from the
surface being sprayed. Both overspray and ricochet can be
reduced by a skilled operator using well-designed and
maintained equipment.
There are basically two methods used: one which uses a
compressed air-operated gun and one utilizing the airless
spray.
Vapour that evolves during the spraying of paint may
present a serious fire and health hazard unless the process is
controlled. Some finishes, particularly lacquers, may
contain up to eighty percent (80%) of volatile solvent which
must evaporate in order for drying to take place.

161

If the vapour of certain solvents are allowed to accumulate


even in concentrations as low as two hundred parts per
million (200 ppm), a toxic hazard may be created. If the
concentration is increased to about ten thousand parts per
million (10,000 ppm) (that is, one percent (1%) of solvent
in the atmosphere by volume which is the lower flammable
limit for a number of common solvents) a fire or explosion
may occur if the vapour-and-air mixture is ignited.
With airless spraying the paint is pumped out of the gun at
high pressure. Paint particles so formed are expelled at such
pressure that they can penetrate the skin. Great care must be
taken to avoid pointing the gun at any person.
General Precautions
When paint spraying, the principal safeguards
necessary to prevent fire or explosion and to
minimize the risk to health are effective separation
from other processes, enclosure and ventilation. All
possible sources of ignition of both solvent vapours
and solid residues must be removed from the
vicinity of the work.
For this reason, spray application of solvent paints is
not recommended in machinery spaces unless all the
plant in the area of application can be shut down.
Spraying must not be carried out in confined spaces
where the permanent or portable mechanical
ventilation provided is insufficient to guarantee the
reduction of the vapour concentration below the
Threshold Limit Value (TLV).
Eye Protection
It is recommended that personnel should wear
goggles classified for gas and chemicals protection
when there is a risk of paint splashing into the eyes
(e.g. when painting deck heads).
Splashes of paint in the eyes should be treated
immediately by plenty of washing and irrigation
with clean water. Prompt medical attention should
be sought and the Shipmasters Medical Guide and
MSDS sheets should be consulted immediately.
Additionally, means of eye irrigation should be
provided at the site of the spraying operations.
Ingestion
The ingestion of paint or thinners should always be
avoided. Food and drink should not be brought into,

162

stored, prepared or consumed in the areas where


paints are stored, handled or used.
If paint or thinners are accidentally swallowed,
immediate medical attention must be obtained. In
the absence of professional medical advice,
procedures described in the Shipmasters Medical
Guide must be followed.
Inhalation
The inhalation of paint droplets or fumes should be
avoided and adequate ventilation must be provided,
especially in confined spaces. Where for any reason
adequate ventilation cannot be provided and it is
essential to apply paint, suitable respirators or face
masks should be worn and changed regularly.
Polyurethane paints, which contain the chemical hardener
ISOcyanate, can, under certain circumstances, cause
irritation to the upper respiratory passages resulting in
coughing and spasms.
Attacks of an asthmatic nature can occur either
immediately, or some hours later following exposure.
Polyurethane paints normally contain less than one half of
one percent or five thousands parts per million (0.5% or
5,000 ppm) of free volatile ISO-cyanates but the
exceptionally low Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of two
hundredths parts per million (0.02 ppm) means that a very
high ventilation level is necessary.
In practice, this is very difficult to attain and, therefore,
polyurethane paints must not be used inside any
accommodation spaces. When applied to external surfaces
it must be applied by brush or roller only because the use of
spray equipment can produce droplets of paint which are of
reparable size and may cause ill effects as described above.
Personal Hygiene
It is strongly recommended that after work, and
especially before taking food, personnel who have
been working with paint should thoroughly cleanse
themselves with soap and water.
Storage and Handling Of Flammable Liquids
The quantity of paint, varnish, lacquer, enamel,
polish, thinners or other flammable liquid present in
a work area should be kept to the minimum
practicable. All drums or cans should be securely
closed when not in use.

163

When empty, the drums or cans should be closed


and removed from the work area. Adequate
ventilation must be maintained in the area of use
and in any spaces provided for the storage or
handling of paint.
Steel Surfaces - The vessels planned maintenance includes
fabric maintenance of all ships areas including conducting
inspections on the vessels structural and coating condition,
and evaluating the steel structure for existing defects,
potential defects and areas of concern (e.g. high
stress/fatigue concentrations).
The frequency of the vessels inspection is dependent upon
its age, its structural composition and its trading pattern.
Additionally, the Chief Engineer, aided by the Master and
Senior Officers, should carry out inspections and report to
the Company headquarters on the condition of the
following items through PMS NS5:
Hull and superstructure steel work and coatings;
Cargo and ballast tank steel work, coatings, anodes
and fittings;
Safety, damage control, firefighting, life-saving,
pollution combating and control equipment;
Communications equipment;
Navigational equipment;
Steering gear;
Main propulsion machinery and auxiliary
machinery;
Anchoring and mooring equipment;
Smoke, gas and heat detection equipment;
Bilge and ballast pumping systems;
Pipelines and valves;
Oily water separation system;
Cargo loading and discharging equipment;
Waste disposal and sewage systems

o
Painting Works
o Paint is a liquid substance or mastic composition applied to an
object or surface that serves as a protective coating to prevent
corrosion or rust formation.
o Product Variants
Alkyd A modern synthetic resin widely used in the
manufacture of paints and varnishes. Alkyd paints must be
thinned and cleaned up with solvent or paint thinner. The

164

terms alkyd paint and oil-based paint are generally used


interchangeably.
Binder Binders help bind the pigment particles together.
The most common binder was, and still is, oil. Chalk was
sometimes added to bind pigment particles together in
water based paints. Glue and gelatin were other common
binders.
Black Japan A black bitumen-based coating traditionally
used for decorative painting of timber particularly floor
borders, furniture and ironwork. It may also be found in
brown or red.
Casein also known as milk paint, was traditionally made
with hydrated (slaked) lime, milk and pigment. A strong
emulsion paint could be made by adding oil. Additives
increased durability.
Distemper was traditionally used for interior applications. It
consisted of water, glues (one or more different natural
glues, gelatine or gum) with whiting as the basic pigment to
which other tinting pigments were added.
Enamels Traditionally a natural resin varnish was added to
oil-based paints to provide a hard, more glossy and durable
surface known as enamel. Enamels were usually used on
exteriors and on surfaces that were required to be hard
wearing such as doors, windows, architraves and skirtings.
Epoxies are extremely tough and durable synthetic resins
used in some coatings. They are highly resistant to
chemicals, abrasion, moisture and alcohols. Epoxies are
often used in floor finishes, paints and sealers.
Fish eyes The presence of craters in a coating each having a
small particle of impurity in the centre.
Glazes were traditionally made using oil or turpentine with
a small amount of pigment and were often part of historic
paint treatments.
Kalsomine A proprietary name for distemper.
Latex paints Modern, water-based paints made with a
synthetic binder (latex), such as acrylic, vinyl acrylic or
styrene acrylic latex. Advantages of latex paints include
quick drying time, great strength and water clean up. Latex
paints often have very good colour retention with little
fading and are available in a complete range of gloss levels.
Limewash or whitewash was often used on interior plaster
surfaces as a first finish. As plaster could take up to two
years to dry properly the limewash allowed the plaster to
breathe. Limewash traditionally consisted of water, slaked
165

lime, salt and a variety of other materials. Pigment was


added to provide a tint or colour.
Oil-based paints compose of a linseed oil binder,
turpentine thinner or vehicle, colouring pigments
and a hiding pigment such as white lead.
Pigment provides the colour in paint and makes it opaque.
This prevents ultra violet light penetration and the
deterioration of the substrate. In traditional paints, white
lead (a whitish corrosion product of lead) was most often
used to provide opacity. Pigments used in early paints were
coarsely and unevenly ground and mixed by hand which
provided a finish with subtle unevenness and texture.
Shellac is a decorative/protective coating manufactured by
melting seedlac by heating or solvents. Seedlac is resin
created by lac insects.
Solvent-borne paints (oil-based/alkyd) compose of nonvolatile oils and resins with thinners. (Alkyds are synthetic,
gelatinous resins compounded from acids and alcohol.
Soybased oils are often used in combination with linseed
oil. Solvent-borne paints dry hard with a high sheen making
them suited to areas of wear and tear.
Stains are shellacs or varnishes with colourants. The stain
colours but does not obscure the grain of the surface.
Urethanes Urethane is a collective name for a group of
resins or binders that form polyurethanes. They produce a
tough and chemical-resistant finish.
Varnish includes oil, water and spirit types were a popular
coating material which formed a solid transparent,
protective and decorative film over the substrate.
Vehicle The fluid that carries the pigment is called the
vehicle or medium. Traditionally, turpentine was the vehicle
in oil paints and water was used in water-based paints.
Other vehicles include milk in casein paints.
Water-based paints include water, pigment and a binder
such as hide glue, other natural glues or gums. Usually used
on interior plaster surfaces.
o Mixing of Paint
Paints should be mixed, or blended, in the paint shop just
before they are issued. Mixing procedures vary among
different types of paints. Regardless of the procedure used,
try not to over-mix; this introduces too much air into the
mixture. Mixing is done by either a manual or mechanical
method.

166

Manual Method is less efficient than mechanical in terms of


time, effort, and results. It should be done only when
absolutely necessary and be limited to containers no larger
than 1 gallon. Nevertheless, it is possible to mix 1-gallon
and 5-gallon containers by hand. To do this, the following
should be done accordingly:
Pour half of the paint vehicle into a clean, empty container.
Stir the paint pigment that has settled to the bottom of the
container into the remaining paint vehicle.
Continue to stir the paint as you return the other half slowly
to its original container.
o Stir and pour the paint from can to can. This process of mixing is
called boxing paint.
o The mixed paint must have a completely blended appearance with
no evidence of varicolored swirls at the top. Neither should there
be lumps of undispersed solids or foreign matter.

167

o Mechanical Method
168

Prior to spraying any paint, the following mixing must be


done:
Put paint barrel on - line with small mixer.
Turn mixer on and increase the mixing speed slowly
until the paint around the edges of the barrel is
beginning to move in a circular fashion.
Maintain that mixing speed until all the paint is
flowing free enough to rapidly circulate. Paint has a
smooth consistent appearance.
If air bubbles begin to form in the paint - the mixer
is set too high 6 lower the speed and allow it to mix
longer.
Turn the mixer down to a level that will maintain a
smooth consistent appearance (even around the
edges) during pumping.
Paint is now ready to spray.

o Thinning
When received, paints should be ready for application by
brush or roller. Thinner can be added for either method of
application, but the supervisor or inspector must give prior
approval. Thinning is often required for spray application.
Unnecessary or excessive thinning causes an inadequate
thickness of the applied coating and adversely affects
coating longevity and protective qualities. When necessary,
thinning is done by competent personnel using only the
thinning agents named by the specifications or label
169

instructions. Thinning is not done to make it easier to brush


or roll cold paint materials. They should be preconditioned
(warmed) to bring them up to 65F to 85F.
o Straining
Normally, paint in freshly opened containers does not
require straining. But in cases where lumps, color flecks, or
foreign matter are evident, paints should be strained after
mixing. When paint is to be sprayed, it must be strained to
avoid clogging the spray gun.
Skins should be removed from the paint before mixing. If
necessary, the next step is thinning. Finally, the paint is
strained through a fine sieve or commercial paint strainer.
o Tinting
Try not to tint paint. This will reduce waste and eliminate
the problem of matching special colors at a later date.
Tinting also affects the properties of the paint, often
reducing performances to some extent. One exception is the
tinting of an intermediate coat to differentiate between that
coat and a topcoat; this helps assure you dont miss any
areas. In this case, use only colorants of known
compatibility. Try not to add more than 4 ounces of tint per
gallon of paint. If more is added, the paint may not dry well
or otherwise performed poorly.
When necessary, tinting should be done in the paint shop by
experienced personnel. The paint must be at application
viscosity before tinting. Colorants must be compatible,
fresh, and fluid to mix readily. Mechanical agitation helps
distribute the colorants uniformly throughout the paint.
o Application
The common methods of applying paint are brushing,
rolling, and spraying. The choice of method is based on
several factors, such as speed of application, environment,
type and amount of surface, type of coating to be applied,
desired appearance of finish, and training and experience of
painters. Brushing is the slowest method, rolling is much
faster, and spraying is usually the fastest by far. Brushing is
ideal for small surfaces and odd shapes or for cutting in
corners and edges. Rolling and spraying are efficient on
large, flat surfaces. Spraying can also be used for round or
irregular shapes.
o
Local surroundings may prohibit the spraying of paint
because of fire hazards or potential damage from overspraying (accidentally getting paint on adjacent surfaces).
170

When necessary, adjacent areas not to be coated must be


covered when spraying is performed. This results in loss of
time and, if extensive, may offset the speed advantage of
spraying.
Brushing may leave brush marks after the paint is dry.
Rolling leaves a stippled effect. Spraying yields the
smoothest finish, if done properly. Lacquer products, such
as vinyl, dry rapidly and should be sprayed. Applying them
by brush or roller may be difficult, especially in warm
weather or outdoors on breezy days. The painting method
requiring the most training is spraying. Rolling requires the
least training.
o Paint Work
Before the execution of painting activity, ensure that the
area is totally clean and free from rust, solid particles, and
other solid materials. Do not paint over the rust; it is only a
waste of time and money. Sometimes it will be necessary to
remove defective paint as the crispness and detail of
metalwork can be lost under many layers of paint.
o Greasing
A grease gun is a common workshop and garage tool used
for lubrication. The purpose of the grease gun is to apply
lubricant through an aperture to a specific point, usually on
a grease fitting. The channels behind the grease nipple lead
to where the lubrication is needed. The aperture may be of a
type that fits closely with a receiving aperture on any
number of mechanical devices. The close fitting of the
apertures ensures that lubricant is applied only where
needed. There are three types of grease gun:
Hand-powered, where the grease is forced from the aperture
by back-pressure built up by hand cranking the trigger
mechanism of the gun, which applies pressure to a spring
mechanism behind the lubricant, thus forcing grease
through the aperture.
Hand-powered, where there is no trigger mechanism, and
the grease is forced through the aperture by the backpressure built up by pushing on the butt of the grease gun,
which slides a piston through the body of the tool, pumping
grease out of the aperture.
Air-powered (pneumatic), where compressed air is directed
to the gun by hoses, the air pressure serving to force the
grease through the aperture.

171

The grease gun is charged or loaded with any of the various


types of lubricants, but usually a thicker heavier type of
grease is used.
Manual grease guns have their place in industry. They have
a few disadvantages, the chief of which is poor control that
can lead to over- and under lubrication. Grease guns also
present a higher risk of inducing contaminants. However,
they do have advantages, such as low cost, ease of use once
the technician is properly trained, and allowing the
technician to inspect the equipment during lubrication tasks.
Just remember not to overlook.
o Common tips for using a grease gun:
Calculate the proper amount of grease needed for
lubrication of bearings, based upon the calibrated delivery
volume of the selected grease gun.
Use a vent plug on the relief port of the bearing to help
flush old grease to reduce the risk of too much pressure on
the bearing.
Use extreme caution when loading grease into the grease
gun to ensure that contaminants are not introduced. If using
a cartridge, be careful when removing the metal lid that no
metal slivers are introduced into the grease.
Make sure the grease gun is clearly marked to identify the
grease with which it should be charged. Do not use any type
of grease other than that which is identified.
Always make sure the dispensing nozzle of the grease gun
is clean before using. Pump a small amount of grease out of
the dispensing nozzle.
Clean the grease fitting of all dirt before attaching the
grease gun. Inspect and replace damaged fittings. Also
clean the grease fitting after applying grease. It is helpful to
use grease-fitting caps to keep them clean, but still wipe
fittings clean before applying grease.
Ensure the proper grease is used at every grease point.
Applying the wrong grease can cause an incompatibility
problem which can quickly cause bearing failure.
Lubrication points should be clearly identified with which
grease is to be used. This can be done with colored labels,
adhesive dots or paint markers.
Grease guns should be stored un-pressurized in a clean,
cool, dry area and in a horizontal position to help keep the
oil from bleeding out of the grease. Grease gun clamps
make storage easy and organized. Also cover the coupler to
keep it free from dirt and contaminants.

172

Calibrate grease guns regularly to ensure the proper


delivery volume.
Use caution and safety when working around moving
equipment and when using a grease gun.

1.19 Describe participation in:


-

Ballasting
o In preparation for ballasting in port, the operation should be
discussed and agreed in writing between the Responsible Officer
and the Terminal Representative and this fact shall be recorded.
DCT and the port Slop Tank must be crude oil washed and all
pumps and lines to be used in the ballasting process must be
drained as thoroughly as possible.
o Prior to the commencement of the ballasting operation a risk
assessment covering the installation of the cargo system to ballast
system interconnecting spool piece and the ballasting operation is
to be completed.
o At this time a detailed pump start up sequence and valve line up is
to be developed. A tag out system shall be adopted to ensure
correct valve and line setting for the operation, and cargo tank
venting capacity should also be considered during the planning
stage.
o When starting to ballast, the cargo pump should be operated so that
no oil is allowed to escape overboard when the sea suction valve is
opened. Reference should be made to MOI 7.11.2 and the
ICS/OCIMF publication. Prevention of Oil Spillages through
Cargo Pump room Sea Valves.
o Once the ballasting operation has commenced all other cargo tanks
innage/ullage should be closely monitored in case of valve leakage.
I.G pressure, tank ullage and stresses should thereafter be verified
at regular intervals until the ballast operation is complete.

Deballasting
o Proper line-up of valves. On commencement of deballasting, a
visual watch shall be established to observe the ballast as it
discharges into the sea. The operation shall be stopped immediately
in the event of contamination being observed.
o Slops generated by tank washings, oil residues or sediments and
dirty ballast residues which cannot be discharged into the sea shall
be retained into the slop tank segregated or discharged to the shore
reception facilities.
Ballast Operations (Ballasting / De-ballasting / Internal Transfer)

173

o The chief officer, if necessary, as a result of stowage calculations,


shall make adjustments by carrying out ballasting work in
accordance with the following in order to maintain the optimum
draught, trim, stability, and hull strength of the ship.
o Conform to this too when carrying out ballasting work during
heavy weather, and when passing through confined waterways, etc.
o The chief officer shall carry out the following before commencing
ballasting operations:
Preparing a ballasting plan (quantity of water to be filled or
discharged from each tank, sequence, timing, stability, hull
strength information at various stages etc.);
Give prior notice to the chief engineer or the duty engineer
of the ballasting work schedule and discuss the operations
thoroughly with them; and
When having the ballasting work carried out by the officer
of the watch, get him to have a full understanding of the
operations and give him written instructions on the
necessary particulars.
o Ballast Operations Procedures and Points to Be Observed
The chief officer or the officer of the watch shall carry out
ballast operations in accordance with the following:
o Operation Procedures
Before starting up the ballast pumps, notify the duty
engineer.
Establish the correct line and valves setting.
Start the ballast pumps after checking that they can be
started up.
Execute the work in accordance with the ballast operation
plan and the chief officer's instructions. Periodically sound
the ballast tank to check the amount being filled in or
emptied.
When the work is finished close all but the necessary
valves.
Notify the duty engineer that the work has been finished.
When ballasting / de-ballasting cargo holds or tanks, ensure
that the vents are opened (Not applicable to LNG carriers)
Prior ballasting / deballasting cargo hold, the Vessel
Manager of the vessel to be informed by telephone to
confirm all due precautions have been taken care of. (Not
applicable to LNG Carriers)
o Points to Be Observed
During the ballast operation, do not leave the vicinity of the
ballast control panel.
Pay careful attention to prevent an overflow from the air
vent.
174

Frequent rounds to check the condition of the ballast /


heeling pump should be carried out.
Pay attention to trim, heel, stability (GoM), hull strength
etc. of the ship.
Carry out alarm and lamp tests at appropriate times.
When a harbor has regulations on the filling and emptying
of ballast, vessels shall comply with those.
Vessels using Auto heeling tank systems shall ensure that
there is adequate ballast in both heeling tanks and the same
shall be monitored.
o Ballast Exchange Operation
Safety points as outlined below shall be observed, as the
fact that an error at sea can have more serious consequences
than those emanating from the same error in port, as a result
of emptying /filling ballast tanks during exchange:
Sufficient longitudinal strength (SF, BM, Torsion)
as result of unsuitable ballast exchange steps;
Reduction in ship stability due to free surface effect
resulting in a reduction of ships GM or increase in
the heeling angle;
Structural damage to ship bottom forward caused
by insufficient forward draught; Reduction in
maneuverability and/or ability to make headway
caused by insufficient after draught;
Reduction in bridge visibility forward caused by
insufficient forward draught;
Structural damage to topside and hopper side tanks
caused by inertia loading as result of a full ballast
hold with empty adjacent wing tanks;
Structural damage to partially filled ballast tanks or
holds caused by sloshing as a result of resonance
with ships motion;
Over pressurization damage of ballast water tanks
while filling ballast tanks caused by blockages in air
pipes or using excessive pumping capacity relative
to the design of the ballast system. Blockages may
result from lack of proper maintenance, ball failure,
freezing, or unintended closure;
Under pressurization damage of ballast tanks while
emptying ballast, caused by blockages or air pipes
or insufficient design.
o Ballast Exchange Plan
Each vessel shall prepare a Ship Specific Ballast
Exchange Sequence Plan as per S-074201-01FIG, (Flow

175

through / Sequential method) based on the ship assessment


criteria and approved by the master. The ballast exchange
plan shall contain step by step instructions for the safe
exchange of ships ballast water. The use of pumps or by
gravity shall be clearly stated in ballast exchange plans.
Sequential Exchange Method
Vessels planning to carry out sequential exchange methods
shall comply with following:
Prepare an exchange plan bar chart listing tanks being
emptied or refilled with Trim, Draft, Stability and Hull
Strength calculations at frequent stages of operation

176