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A Report on

A Report on Production of Phenol from 99.9% pure Cumene from Naptha Cracker Production of 99.9%

Production of Phenol from 99.9% pure Cumene from Naptha Cracker

Production of 99.9% pure Bisphenol A from 99.9% pure Phenol

February-14-2015

Major Project Report Submitted by Mukul Goyal Department of Chemical Engineering IIT Roorkee

Index

  • 1. Material and Energy Balance

    • 1.1 Material Balance

    • 1.2 Energy Balance

  • 2. Environmental Protection & Energy Conservation

    • 2.1 Air Pollution

    • 2.2 Liquid Effluents

    • 2.3 Solids disposal

    • 2.4 Noise Pollution

    • 2.5 Energy conservation

  • 3. Organizational Structure and Manpower Requirement

    • 3.1 Organizational Principles and Basics

    • 3.2 Hierarchy

    • 3.3 Manpower Requirement

  • 4. SITE SELECTION & PROJECT LAYOUT

    • 4.1 Plant Location

    • 4.2 Plant Layout

  • 1.

    MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCE

    • 1.1 Material Balance

    BASIS: 22831 kg/hr production of phenol

    • 1.1.1 Overall reactions:

      • 1. Oxidation of Cumene:

    NaOH

    C 6 H 5 CH(CH 3 ) 2

    +

    O 2

    C H CH(CH ) + O C H C (CH3) OOH

    C 6 H 5 C (CH3) 2 OOH

    (120)

    (32)

    (152)

    • 2. Decomposition of Cumene hydroperoxide:

     

    C 6 H 5 C (CH 3 ) 2 OOH

    +

    H 2 S0 4

    C H C (CH ) OOH + H S0 C H OH + CH COCH

    C 6 H 5 OH

    +

    CH 3 COCH 3

    (152)

    (94)

    (58)

    • 1.1.2 Molecular weights of components:

     

    Cumene (Isopropyl benzene) = 120 kg moles

     

    Cumene Hydroperoxide Oxygen Phenol Acetone

     

    = 152 kg moles = 32 kg moles = 94 kg moles = 58 kg moles

    Mass of inlet of Cumene and oxygen Mass of outlet of phenol and acetone INLET

    =

    • 1.1.3 Feed:

    = 120+32=152 kg moles = 94+52= 152 kg moles OUTLET

    Cumene = 1650 kg (For 1000 kg of Phenol) Required oxygen = 440 kg 1 kg of air contains 0.23 kg of O 2 X kg of air contains 440 kg of O 2 Amount of air supplied = 1913 kg of air 25% excess air supplied = 478 kg of air Actual amount of air supplied = 2319 kg of air

    • 1.1.4 Balances:

    OXIDIZER:

    COMPONENTS

    INLET kg/hr

    OUTLET kg/hr

    Cumene

    35786.025

    9065.793

    Air

    51857.2035

    ---

    Cumene hydroperoxide

    ---

    36263.172

    Off gases

    ----

    42314.2635

    Total

    87643.2285

    87643.2285

    ACIDIFIER:

    COMPONENTS

    INLET kg/hr

    OUTLET kg/hr

    Cumene hydroperoxide

    38171.76

    9545.223

    Cumene

    9542.94

    ---

    Cleavage

    ---

    38180.892

    H2SO4

    11.415

    ---

    Total

    47726.115

    47726.115

    SEPARATOR:

    COMPONENTS

    INLET kg/hr

    OUTLET kg/hr

    Cumene hydroperoxide

    38180.892

    9545.223

         
         

    Carryover Cleavage

    ---

    954.294

    Cleavage

    9545.223

    37226.598

    Total

    47726.115

    47726.115

    WASH TOWER:

    COMPONENTS

    INLET kg/hr

    OUTLET kg/hr

    Cleavage

    37226.598

    ---

    Water

    547.92

    ---

    Acid free Cleavage

    ---

    37112.448

    Acidified wash water

    ---

    662.07

    Total

    37774.518

    37774.518

    ACETONE COLUMN:

     

    COMPONENTS

    INLET kg/hr

    OUTLET kg/hr

    OVERHEAD

    BOTTOM

    Cleavage

    37112.448

    ---

    ---

    Acetone

    ---

    11387.604

    ---

    Carryover cleavage

    ---

    114.15

    ---

    Carryover acetone in residue

    ---

    ---

    114.15

    Residue

    ---

    ---

    25496.544

    Total

    37112.448

    11501.754

    25610.694

    CUMENE COLUMN:

    COMPONENTS

    INLET kg/hr

    OUTLET kg/hr

    OVERHEAD

    BOTTOM

    Feed

    25610.694

    ---

    ---

    Cumene

    ---

    1856.079

    ---

    Carryover acetone in Cumene

    ---

    114.15

    ---

    Residue

    ---

    ---

    23640.465

    Total

    25610.694

    1970.229

    23640.465

    α - METHYL STYRENE COLUMN:

     

    COMPONENTS

    INLET kg/hr

    OUTLET kg/hr

    OVERHEAD

    BOTTOM

    Feed

    23640.465

    ---

    ---

    α - methyl styrene

    ---

    520.524

    ---

    Residue

    ---

    ---

    23119.941

    Total

    23640.465

    520.524

    23119.941

    PHENOL COLUMN:

    COMPONENTS

    INLET kg/hr

    OUTLET kg/hr

    OVERHEAD

    BOTTOM

    Feed

    23119.941

    ---

    ---

    Phenol

    ---

    22896.207

    ---

    Carryover acetophenone

    ---

    86.754

    ---

    Acetophenone

    ---

    ---

    114.15

    Total

    23119.941

    22982.961

    114.15

    The amount product phenol = 22983 kg/hr Purity of the product phenol = 99.9%

    1.2

    Energy Balance

    OXIDIZER:

    • A) Inlet heat@ 70°C:

     
    • 1. Cumene @ 30°C

     
     

    mass 1

    35786.025

    kg

    Cp1

    0.415

    kcal/kg °C

    ΔT1

    5

    °C

    Q1

    • 74256.00188 Kcal

     
     
    • 310761.3678 KJ

     
     
    • 2. Air @ 30°C

     

    mass 2

    54586.53

    kg

    Cp2

    1.005

    kJ/kg °C

    ΔT2

    5

    °C

    Q2

    274297.313

    KJ

     
    • 3. Total heat inlet

     

    Q = Q 1 + Q 2 = 327117.229 + 274297.313 Q = 601414.54 kJ

    B)

    Outlet heat@ 110°C:

    • 1. Cumene Hydroperoxide @ 110°C

     

    mass 1

    38171.76

    kg

    Cp1

    0.45

    kcal/kg °C

    ΔT1

    85

    °C

    Q1

    1460069.82

    Kcal

     

    6110392.2

    KJ

     
    • 2. Cumene @ 110°C

     
     

    mass 1

    38171.76

    kg

    Cp1

    0.45

    kcal/kg °C

    ΔT1

    85

    °C

     

    Q1

    1460069.82

    Kcal

     

    6110392.2

    KJ

    • 3. Off gases @ 110°C

     
     
    • a) Oxygen

     

    mass 3

     

    2511.3

    kg

     

    Cp3

     

    0.936

    kJ/kg °C

    ΔT3

     

    25

    °C

    Q3

     
    • 58764.42 KJ

     
     
    • b) Nitrogen

     
     

    mass 4

     
    • 42030.03 kg

       

    Cp4

     

    1.035

    kJ/kg °C

    ΔT4

     

    25

    °C

    Q4

     

    1087527.026

    KJ

    • 4. Total heat outlet Q= Q1+ Q2+ Q3+ Q4 Q = 8801255 KJ Heat of reaction of Cumene Hydroperoxide = 736 KJ/kg For 1672 kg of Cumene Hydroperoxide

    = 8361192.254

    COMPONENTS

    INLET HEAT kJ

    OUTLET HEAT kJ

    Cumene

    327117.229

    1544571.361

    Air

    274297.313

    ---

    Cumene hydroperoxide

    28094415.4

    ---

    Cumene hydroperoxide

    ---

    6110392.197

    Off gases

    ---

    1146291.446

    Heat removed by water

    ---

    19894575

    Total

    28695829.9

    28695830

    COOLER:

    • A) Inlet heat @ 110°C:

    Heat taken by Cumene Hydroperoxide =6110392.19 KJ

    Heat taken by Cumene = 1544571.361 KJ

    Total heat inlet = 7654963.55 KJ

    • B) Outlet heat @70°C:

      • 1. Cumene hydroperoxide @ 70°C:

    mass 1

    38171.76

    kg

    Cp1

    0.45

    kcal/kg °C

    ΔT1

    45

    °C

    Q1

    772978.14

    Kcal

     

    3234913.516

    KJ

     

    mass 2

    9542.94

    kg

    Cp2

    0.435

    kcal/kg °C

    ΔT2

    45

    °C

    Q2

    • 186803.0505 Kcal

     
     
    • 781770.7663 KJ

     
    • 2. Cumene @ 70°C:

    • 3. Total heat outlet

    Q= Q1+ Q2 = 3234913.52+781770.76 Q = 4016684.282 KJ

    COMPONENTS

    INLET HEAT kJ

    OUTLET HEAT kJ

    Cumene hydroperoxide

     
    • 6110392.197 3234913.516

    Cumene

     
    • 1544571.361 781770.7663

    Heat removed by water

    ---

    3638279

    Total

     
    • 7654963.558 7654963.282

    ACIDIFIER:

    • A) Inlet heat @ 70°C:

      • 1. Heat taken by Cumene Hydroperoxide = 3234913.516KJ Heat taken by Cumene = 781770.7663 KJ Total heat inlet in product (Q1) = 4016684.282 KJ

      • 2. H 2 SO 4 @ 30°C:

    mass 2

    11.415

    Kg

    Cp2

    1.44

    kJ/kg °C

    ΔT2

    45

    °C

    Q2

    739.692

    KJ

    • 3. Total heat inlet Q =

    Q1+Q2 = 4016684.282 +739.69 =4017423.974 KJ

    • B) Outlet heat @ 80°C:

      • 1. Mass of cleavage = 38180.892 kg

    COMPONENTS

    MASS kg

    SPECFIC HEAT KJ/Kg°C

    Phenol

    23672.427

    2.29

    Acetone

    11835.072

    1.481

    Cumene

    1908.588

    1.842

    α - methyl styrene

    536.505

    1.406

    Acetophenone

    232.866

    1.97

    Q1=((23672.4×2.29)+( 11835.072×1.481)+( 1908.58×1.842)+( 536.50×1.406)+( 232.866×1.97))

    ×(80-25)

    Q1= 4205645.983 kJ

    • 2. Cumene hydroperoxide@ 80°C:

    mass 2

    9545.223

    kg

    Cp2

    0.45

    kcal/kg °C

    ΔT2

    55

    °C

    Q2

    • 236244.2693 Kcal

     
     
    • 988682.2668 KJ

     
    • 3. Total heat outlet Q =

    Q1+Q2 = 5194328.25 kJ

    Heat of reaction of cleavage = 2983 KJ/kg For 38180.9 kg of cleavage =113893624.7

    COMPONENTS

    INLET HEAT KJ

    OUTLET HEAT KJ

    Cumene Hydroperoxide

    3234913.516

    988682.2668

    Cumene

    781770.7663

    ---

    H 2 SO 4

    739.692

    ---

    Heat of reaction of cleavage

    113893624.7

    ---

    Cleavage

    ---

    4205645.983

    Heat removed by water

    ---

    112716720.4

    Total

    117911048.7

    117911048.7

    SEPARATOR:

    • A) Inlet heat @80°C: Heat in Cumene Hydroperoxide = 988682.2668 kJ Heat in Cumene = 4205645.983 kJ Total heat inlet = 5194328.25 kJ

    • B) Outlet heat @80°C: Heat in Cumene Hydroperoxide = 988682.2668 kJ Heat in cleavage = 4205645.983 kJ Total heat outlet = 5194328.25 kJ

    WASH TOWER:

    • A) Inlet heat @80°C:

      • 1. Mass of Cleavage =37226.598 kg

     

    COMPONENTS

    MASS kg

    SPECFIC HEAT KJ/Kg°C

    Phenol

    23081.13

    2.29

    Acetone

    11540.565

    1.481

    Cumene

    1860.645

    1.842

    α - methyl styrene

    520.524

    1.406

    Acetophenone

    223.734

    1.97

    Q1= 4100100.69 kJ

    2.

    Water @ 30°C
    Water @ 30°C

    mass 2

    547.92

    kg

    Cp2

    4.18

    kJ/kg °C

    ΔT2

    5

    °C

    Q2

    11451.528

    KJ

    • 3. Total heat inlet Q =

    Q1+Q2 = 4111552.218 kJ

    • B) Outlet heat @75°C:

      • 1. Acid free cleavage = 37112.48 kg

     

    COMPONENTS

    MASS kg

    SPECFIC HEAT KJ/Kg°C

    Phenol

    23008.074

    2.29

    Acetone

    11501.754

    1.462

    Cumene

    1856.079

    1.821

    α - methyl styrene

    520.524

    1.367

    Acetophenone

    223.734

    1.97

    Q1=4071995.728 kJ

    • 2. Acidified wash water @ 40°C

    mass 2

    547.92

    kg

    Cp2

    4.18

    kJ/kg °C

    ΔT2

    15

    °C

    Q2

    34354.584

    KJ

    • 3. Heat taken by carryover cleavage Q3=5201.9KJ

    • 4. Total heat outlet Q= Q1+Q2+ Q3= 4111552.212 kJ

     

    COMPONENTS

    INLET HEAT KJ

    OUTLET HEAT KJ

    Cleavage

    4100100.69

    ---

    Water

    11451.528

    ---

    Acid free cleavage

    ---

    4071995.728

    Acidified wash water

    ---

    34354.584

    Carryover cleavage

    ---

    5201.9

    Total

    4111552.218

    4111552.212

    HEATER:

    • A) Inlet heat @75°C: Cleavage Mass of cleavage = 37112.48 kg

     

    COMPONENTS

    MASS kg

    SPECFIC HEAT KJ/Kg°C

    Phenol

    23008.074

    2.29

    Acetone

    11501.754

    1.462

    Cumene

    1856.079

    1.821

    α - methyl styrene

    520.524

    1.367

    Acetophenone

    223.734

    1.97

    Q = 4071995.728 kJ

    • B) Outlet heat @90°C: Mass of cleavage = 37112.448 kg

    COMPONENTS

    MASS kg

    SPECFIC HEAT KJ/Kg°C

    Phenol

    23008.074

    2.29

    Acetone

    11501.754

    1.509

    Cumene

    1856.079

    1.863

    α - methyl styrene

    520.524

    1.445

    Acetophenone

    223.734

    1.97

    Q = 4108248.352 kJ

     

    COMPONENTS

    INLET HEAT KJ

     

    OUTLET HEAT KJ

     

    Cleavage

    4071995.728

     

    4108248.352

    Heat added by steam

    36252.62

     

    ---

    Total

    4108248.348

     

    4108248.352

    ACETONE COLUMN:

     

    A)

    Inlet heat @90°C:

    Mass of cleavage =37112.448 kg

     
     
     

    COMPONENTS

     

    MASS kg

    SPECFIC HEAT KJ/Kg°C

     

    Phenol

     

    23008.074

    2.29

     

    Acetone

     

    11501.754

    1.509

     

    Cumene

     

    1856.079

    1.863

     

    α - methyl styrene

     

    520.524

    1.445

     

    Acetophenone

     

    223.734

    1.97

    Q = 4855202.59 KJ

    • B) Outlet heat:

      • 1. Acetone vapours @ 56°C

     

    Mass 1

    11387.604

    kg

    λ1

    212.3

    kJ/kg °C

    Q1

    2417588.329

    KJ

    • 2. Cleavage vapours @ 56°C

     
     

    Mass 2

    • 114.15 kg

     

    λ2

     
    • 109.96 kJ/kg °C

    Q2

    12551.934

    KJ

    • 3. Total heat outlet as vapour = 2430140.263

    4.

    Bottom residue @90°C

    Mass of residue= 2666.544 kg

    COMPONENTS

    MASS kg

    SPECFIC HEAT KJ/Kg°C

    Phenol

    22939.584

    2.32

    Cumene

    1856.079

    1.863

    α - methyl styrene

    520.524

    1.445

    Acetophenone

    223.734

    1.97

    Q3= 2025471.813 kJ

    • 5. Carryover acetone @90°C

     

    mass 4

    114.15

     

    kg

     

    Cp4

    1.509

     

    kJ/kg °C

    ΔT4

    65

     

    °C

    Q4

    11196.40275

     

    KJ

     
    • 6. Total heat outlet

     

    Q = Q1+Q2+ Q3+ Q4 Q =4466808.479 kJ

     

    COMPONENTS

     

    INLET HEAT KJ

    OUTLET HEAT KJ

     

    Cleavage

     

    4855202.598

    ---

     

    Vapour acetone

     

    ---

    2417588.329

     

    Vapour cleavage

     

    ---

    12551.934

     

    Bottom residue

     

    ---

    2025471.813

    Carryover acetone in residue

     

    ---

    11196.40275

     

    Total

     

    4855202.598

    4855203

    OVERHEAD ACETONE CONDENSER:

     

    A)

    Inlet heat @ 56°C:

    • 1. Acetone vapours @ 56°C

     

    Mass 1

    11387.604

     

    kg

     
     

    λ1

    212.3

    kJ/kg °C

    Q1

    2417588.329

    KJ

    • 2. Cleavage vapours @ 56°C

     
     

    Mass 2

    • 114.15 kg

     

    λ2

     
    • 109.96 kJ/kg °C

    Q2

    • 12551.934 KJ

     
    • 3. Total heat inlet as vapour Q = Q1+Q2

     

    Q= 2430140.263kJ

     
    • B) Outlet heat@50°C:

    • 1. Acetone

     

    mass1

    • 11387.604 kg

     

    Cp1

    1.397

    kJ/kg °C

    ΔT1

    25

    °C

    Q1

    397712.0697

    KJ

    • 2. Heat produced by Cleavage Q2 = 4837.75 kJ

    • 3. Total heat outlet Q = Q1+Q2 Q = 402549.8197kJ

       
     

    COMPONENTS

    INLET HEAT KJ

    OUTLET HEAT KJ

     

    Vapour acetone

    2417588.329

    ---

     

    Vapour cleavage

    12551.934

    ---

     

    Heat removed by water

    ---

    2027590.4

     

    Condensed acetone

    ---

    397712.0697

     

    Condensed cleavage

    ---

    4837.75

     

    Total

    2430140.263

    2430140.22

    HEATER:

    • A) Inlet heat @90°C:

    1.

    Mass of residue= 2666.544 kg

     
     

    COMPONENTS

     

    MASS kg

    SPECFIC HEAT KJ/Kg°C

     

    Phenol

     

    22939.584

    2.32

     

    Cumene

     

    1856.079

    1.863

     

    α - methyl styrene

     

    520.524

    1.445

     

    Acetophenone

     

    223.734

    1.97

     

    Q1 = 2025471.813 kJ

     
    • 2. Acetone

     

    mass2

    114.15

     

    kg

     

    Cp2

    1.509

     

    kJ/kg °C

    ΔT2

    65

     

    °C

    Q2

    11196.40275

     

    KJ

     
    • 3. Total heat inlet Q = Q1+Q2

     

    Q =2036668.215 kJ

     

    B)

    Outlet heat @95°C:

    • 1. Mass of residue= 2666.544 kg

     
     
     

    COMPONENTS

     

    MASS kg

    SPECFIC HEAT KJ/Kg°C

     

    Phenol

     

    22939.584

    2.32

     

    Cumene

     

    1856.079

    1.863

     

    α - methyl styrene

     

    520.524

    1.445

     

    Acetophenone

     

    223.734

    1.97

    Q1=2025471.813 kJ

    • 2. Acetone

    mass2

    114.15

    kg

    Cp2

    1.51

    kJ/kg °C

    ΔT2

    70

    °C

    Q2

    12065.655

    KJ

    3. Total heat outlet Q = Q1+Q2 =2037537.468 kJ COMPONENTS INLET HEAT KJ OUTLET HEAT KJ
    • 3. Total heat outlet Q = Q1+Q2 =2037537.468 kJ

    COMPONENTS

    INLET HEAT KJ

    OUTLET HEAT KJ

    Residue

    2025471.813

    2025471.813

    Carryover acetone

    11196.40275

    12065.655

    Heat added by steam

    869.25

    ---

    Total

    2037537.465

    2037537.468

    CUMENE COLUMN:

    • A) Inlet heat @95°C:

      • 1. Mass of feed= 2666.544 kg

     

    COMPONENTS

    MASS kg

    SPECFIC HEAT KJ/Kg°C

    Phenol

    22939.584

    2.32

    Cumene

    1856.079

    1.863

    α - methyl styrene

    520.524

    1.445

    Acetophenone

    223.734

    1.97

    Q1=4050943.625 KJ

    • 2. Acetone

     
     

    mass2

    114.15

    kg

    Cp2

    1.51

    kJ/kg °C

    ΔT2

    70

    °C

    Q2

    12065.655

    KJ

    • 3. Total heat inlet

     

    Q = Q1+Q2 = 4063009.28 kJ

    • B) Outlet heat:

      • 1. Cumene vapours @ 90°C

     

    Mass 1

    1856.079

    kg

    λ1

    343.9

    kJ/kg °C

    Q1

    638305.5681

    KJ

    • 2. Acetone vapours @ 90°C

     
     

    Mass 2

    114.15

    kg

    λ2

    212.3

    kJ/kg °C

    Q2

    24234.045

    KJ

    • 3. Residue @ 95°C

    Mass = 23640.465 kg

    COMPONENTS

    MASS kg

    SPECFIC HEAT KJ/Kg°C

    Phenol

    22939.584

    2.32

    Cumene

    1856.079

    1.863

    α - methyl styrene

    520.524

    1.445

    Q3 = 4050943.625 kJ

    • 4. Total heat outlet Q = Q1+Q2+Q3=4713483.238 kJ

     

    COMPONENTS

    INLET HEAT KJ

    OUTLET HEAT KJ

    Feed

    4050943.625

    ---

    Vapour Cumene

    ---

    638305.5681

    Vapour acetone

    ---

    24234.045

    Residue

    ---

    4050943.625

    Carryover acetone in feed

    12065.655

    ---

    Total

    4713483

    4713483.238

    CUMENE VAPOUR CONDENSER:

    • A) Inlet heat:

      • 1. Cumene vapours @ 90°C

     

    Mass 1

    1856.079

    kg

    λ1

    343.9

    kJ/kg °C

    Q1

    638305.5681

    KJ

    • 2. Acetone vapours @ 90°C

     
     

    Mass 2

    114.15

    kg

    λ2

    212.3

    kJ/kg °C

    Q2

    24234.045

    KJ

    • 3. Total heat inlet Q

     

    Q1+Q2 = 662539.61 kJ

    • B) Outlet heat@80°C:

    • 1. Cumene

     

    mass1

    1856.079

    kg

    Cp1

    1.842

    kJ/kg °C

    ΔT1

    55

    °C

    Q1

    188039.3635

    KJ

    • 2. Acetone

     

    mass1

    114.15

    kg

    Cp1

    1.51

    kJ/kg °C

    ΔT1

    55

    °C

    Q1

    9480.1575

    KJ

    • 3. Total heat outlet Q = Q1+Q2 = 197519.521 kJ

    COMPONENTS

    INLET HEAT KJ

    OUTLET HEAT KJ

    Vapour Cumene

    638305.5681

    ---

    Vapour acetone

    24234.045

    ---

     

    Heat removed by water

    ---

    465020.1

     

    Condensed Cumene

    ---

    188039.3635

     

    Condensed acetone

    ---

    9480.1575

     

    Total

    662539.6131

    662539.621

     

    HEATER:

    • A) Inlet heat @ 95°C:

    • 1. Mass = 23640.465 kg

     

    COMPONENTS

    MASS kg

    SPECFIC HEAT KJ/Kg°C

     

    Phenol

    22939.584

    2.32

     

    α - methyl styrene

    520.524

    1.445

     

    Acetophenone

    223.734

    1.97

     

    Q = 3808892.363 kJ

    • B) Outlet heat @ 110°C:

    • 1. Mass = 23640.365 kg

     

    COMPONENTS

    MASS kg

    SPECFIC HEAT KJ/Kg°C

     

    Phenol

    22939.584

    2.32

     

    α - methyl styrene

    520.524

    1.445

     

    Acetophenone

    223.734

    1.97

     

    Q=4625083.583 kJ

     

    COMPONENTS

    INLET HEAT KJ

    OUTLET HEAT KJ

     

    Residue

    3808892.363

    4625083.583

     

    Heat added by steam

    816191

    ---

     

    Total

    4625083.363

    4625083.583

    α - METHYL STYRENE COLUMN:

    • A) Inlet heat @ 110°C:

      • 1. Mass 23640.465 kg

    COMPONENTS

     

    MASS kg

    SPECFIC HEAT KJ/Kg°C

     

    Phenol

     

    22939.584

     

    2.32

    α - methyl styrene

     

    520.524

    1.523

    Acetophenone

     

    223.734

    1.97

    Q=4628534.658kJ

     
    • B) Outlet heat:

    • 1. α - methyl styrene vapours @ 100°C

     
     

    Mass 1

    520.524

    kg

     

    λ1

    449.1

    kJ/kg °C

    Q1

    233767.3284

    KJ

    • 2. Residue @110°C

     

    Mass = 23119.941kg

    COMPONENTS

     

    MASS kg

    SPECFIC HEAT KJ/Kg°C

     

    Phenol

     

    22896.207

     

    2.32

    Acetophenone

     

    223.734

    1.97

    Q2 = 4552596.279 KJ

    • 3. Total heat outlet Q = Q1+Q2 = 4786363.607 KJ

    COMPONENTS

    INLET HEAT KJ

    OUTLET HEAT KJ

    Residue

    4628534.658

    ---

    Vapour α - methyl styrene

    ---

    233767.3284

     

    Bottom residue

     

    ---

    4552596.279

     

    Total

     

    4628534.658

    4628534.5

     

    α - METHYL STYRENE CONDENSER:

     
    • A) Inlet heat:

    • 1. α - methyl styrene vapours @ 100°C

     
     

    Mass 1

    520.524

    kg

     

    λ1

    449.1

    kJ/kg °C

    Q1

    233767.3284

    KJ

     
    • B) Outlet heat:

     
    • 1. α - methyl styrene condensed @ 95°C

     
     

    mass 1

    520.524

    kg

     

    Cp1

    1.445

    kJ/kg °C

    ΔT1

    70

    °C

    Q1

    52651.0026

    KJ

     
       
     

    COMPONENTS

     

    INLET HEAT KJ

    OUTLET HEAT KJ

     

    Vapour α - methyl styrene

     

    233767.3284

    ---

     

    Heat removed by water

     

    ---

    181116.3

     

    Condensed α - methyl styrene

     

    ---

    52651.0026

     

    Total

     

    233767.3284

    233767.3026

    HEATER:

    • A) Inlet @110°C

      • 1. Mass =23119.941kg

    COMPONENTS

    MASS kg

    SPECFIC HEAT KJ/Kg°C

    Phenol

    22896.207

    2.32

    Acetophenone

    223.734

    1.97

    Q=4552596.279 kJ

    • B) Outlet @130°C

      • 1. Mass =23119.941kg

     

    COMPONENTS

    MASS kg

    SPECFIC HEAT KJ/Kg°C

     

    Phenol

    22896.207

    2.32

     

    Acetophenone

    223.734

    1.97

     

    Q=5623795.403 KJ

     

    COMPONENTS

    INLET HEAT KJ

    OUTLET HEAT KJ

     

    Residue

    4552596.279

    5623795.403

     

    Heat added by steam

    1071199

    ---

     

    Total

    5623795.279

    5623795.403

     

    PHENOL COLUMN:

    • A) Inlet @130°C

    • 1. Mass =23119.941kg

     

    COMPONENTS

    MASS kg

    SPECFIC HEAT KJ/Kg°C

     

    Phenol

    22896.207

    2.32

     

    Acetophenone

    223.734

    1.97

    Q=5623795.403 KJ

    • B) Outlet heat

      • 1. Phenol vapours @ 120°C

    Mass 1

    22896.207

    kg

    λ1

    296.7

    kJ/kg °C

    Q1

    6793304.617

    KJ

    • 2. Acetophenone vapours @ 120°C

    Mass 2

    86.754

    kg

    λ2

    116.1

    kJ/kg °C

    Q2

    10072.1394

    KJ

    • 3. Bottom acetophenone @130°C

     

    mass 3

    114.15

    kg

     

    Cp3

    1.97

    kJ/kg °C

    ΔT3

    105

    °C

    Q3

    23611.9275

    KJ

     
    • 4. Total heat outlet

     

    Q= Q1+Q2+ Q3= 6826988.684 kJ

     
     
     

    COMPONENTS

     

    INLET HEAT KJ

    OUTLET HEAT KJ

     

    Feed

     

    6826988.5

    ---

     

    Vapour phenol

     

    ---

    6793304.617

     

    Vapour Acetophenone

     

    ---

    10072.1394

     

    Acetophenone

     

    ---

    23611.9275

     

    Total

     

    6826988.5

    6826988.684

     

    PHENOL VAPOUR CONDENSER:

     
    • A) Inlet heat

    • 1. Phenol vapours @ 120°C

     
     

    Mass 1

    22896.207

    kg

     

    λ1

    296.7

    kJ/kg °C

    Q1

    6793304.617

    KJ

     
    • 2. Acetophenone vapours @ 120°C

     
     

    Mass 2

    86.754

    kg

     

    λ2

    116.1

    kJ/kg °C

    Q2

    10072.1394

    KJ

    • 3. Total heat inlet Q= Q1+Q2=6803376.756 kJ

    • B) Outlet heat@ 100°C

      • 1. Mass = 22982.961 kg

       
     

    COMPONENTS

     

    MASS kg

     

    SPECFIC HEAT KJ/Kg°C

     
     

    Phenol

     

    22896.207

     

    2.32

     

    Acetophenone

     

    86.754

     

    1.97

     

    Q=3996757.922kJ

    COMPONENTS

    INLET HEAT KJ

    OUTLET HEAT KJ

    Vapour phenol

    6793304.617

    ---

    Vapour Acetophenone

    10072.1394

    ---

    Heat removed by water

    ---

    2806618

    Condensed phenol & acetophenone

    ---

    3996757.922

    Total

    6803376.756

    6803375.922

    2. Environmental Protection & Energy conservation

    2.1 AIR POLLUTION

    In this section, air emissions are characterized by location, effective emission heights, and emission factors for criteria pollutants and selected pollutants; the hazard potential of each pollutant is quantified, and the affected population is determined; the national and state emission burdens are

    calculated; and the growth factor of the industry’s emissions is determined. The data in this section

    were obtained through industry cooperation.

    SELECTED POLLUTANTS

    Compounds identified as potential emissions from the manufacture of acetone and phenol from cumene are listed in Table 12. A sampling program was undertaken to quantify these compounds plus others which may not previously have been known to be present.

    TABLE 12. SUSPECTED EMISSIONS FROM ACETONE AND PHENOL MANUFACTURE FROM CUMENE PRIOR TO SAMPLING

    Acetaldehyde

    Acetic acid

    Acetone

    α-Hydroxyacetone

    Diacetone alcohol

    Acetophenone

    Benzene

    Ethylbenzene

    n-Propylbenzene

    Methyl isobutyl carbinol

    Cumene

    Cumene hydroperoxide

    Dicumyl peroxide

    1,1,2, 2Tetramethyll,2diphenylethane

    Formaldehyde

    Formic acid

    2-Methylbenzofuran

    Methylgioxal

    Heavy tars

    2, 6Dimethyl-2, 5heptadiene4-one

    l-Hydroxyethyl methyl ketone

    Methyl isobutyl ketone

    Lactic acid

    Methanol
    Methanol

    α-Methylstyrene

    Dimers of α-methylstyrene

    2-Methyl-3, 4-pentanediol

    4-Hydroxy-4-methyl- 2-pentanone

    Phenol

    2,4,6-Tris (2-phenyl-2-propyl)phenol

    Toluene

    2-Phenyl-2- (4-hydroxyphenyl) propane

    TABLE 13. CHARACTERISTICS OF EMISSIONS IDENTIFIED DURING SAMPLING OR REPORTED FROM ACETONE AND PHENOL PLANTS USING CUMENE PEROXIDATION

    MATERIAL EMITTED

    HEALTH EFFECTS

    Acetaldehyde

    Local irritant; central nervous system narcotic

    Acetone

    Skin irritant, narcotic in high concentrations

    Acetophenone

    Narcotic in high concentrations

    Benzene

    Carcinogen

    Cumene

    Narcotic ; toxic

    Ethyl benzene

    Skin and mucous membrane irritant

    Formaldehyde

    Irritant ; toxic

    α methyl styrene

    Toxic

    Naphthalene

    Moderate irritant

    Phenol

    Toxic & irritant

    TABLE 14. EMISSION SOURCES BY PROCESS TYPE AT A PLANT MANUFACTURING ACETONE AND PHENOL FROM CUMENE

    Process

    Emission source

    technology

    Allied

    Cumene peroxidation.

    Cumene hydroperoxide concentration vent.

    Separation column vent.

    Acetone concentration column vent.

    Cumene column vent.

    α Methylstyrene column vent.

    Refined α-methylstyrene column vent.

    Phenol column vent.

    Acetophenone column vent.

    Cumene tank vent.

    Acetone tank vent.

    Catalyst tank vent.

    Acetone transport loading vent.

    α-Methylstyrene transport loading vent

    Phenol transport loading vent.

    Acetophenone transport loading vent.

    Acetophenone transport loading vent.

    Hercules

    Cumene peroxidation vent.

    Cumene hydroperoxide wash vent.

    Cumene hydroperoxide concentration vent.

     

    Vent of cuxnene hydroperoxide cleavage and product wash operations

    combined.

    Separation column vent.

    Acetone column vent.

    Separation column vent.

    Dewatering column vent

    Hydrogenation column vent

    Acetone tank vent

    α-Methylstyrene tank vent

    Phenol tank vent

    Buffer tank vent

    TABLE 15. EMISSION SOURCES AT A REPRESENTATIVE PLANT MANUFACTURING ACETONE AND PHENOL FROM CUMENE

    • 1. Cumene Peroxidation Vent

    The cumene feed is contacted with air in a reaction vessel to peroxidize the cumene. Air is continuously introduced and removed. The offgas stream carries vaporized hydrocarbons and some volatile trace elements. Cumene is recovered from the spent gas for recycle by condensation. The emission control equipment is the last piece of equipment before the gas is emitted to the atmosphere. That is, any prior equipment is process equipment, and the control of any material released to the atmosphere is performed by the last piece of equipment prior to release. For example, in the Allied process the emission control equipment is the carbon bed system, and in the Hercules process it is the refrigerated condenser, unless another piece of equipment is added on.

    • 2. Cleavage Section Vents, Combined

    The composite emission factors, Table 18, are determined by aggregation of the emission factors available from sampling and industry communication. These emission factors combine values for the cumene hydroperoxide concentration vent (Allied process technology) and the cumene hydroperoxide wash vent, the cumene hydroperoxide concentration vent, and the combined cunene hydrøperoxide cleavage and product wash vent (Hercules process technology).

    TABLE 18. AVERAGE EMISSION FACTORS FOR THE CLEAVAGE SECTION

    Material emitted

    g/kg phenol produced

    Total nonmethane hydrocarbon

    0.17

    Acetone

    0.0000060

    Acetophenone

    0.0000044

    Benzene

    0.000031

    2Butanone 0.0000018

    0.0000018

    2Butenal

    0.000000085

    tButylbenzene

    0.000023

    Cumene

    0.14

    Ethylbenzene

    0.0000050

    Formaldehyde

    <0.00000026

    2Hydroxy-2phenylpropane

    0.0000034

    Isopentanal

    0.00000085

    Briefly, in the cleavage section the CUMENE hydroperoxide stream is Washed (Hercules process only) and concentrated to 80% or more cumene hydroperoxide, the cumene removed is recycled, the cumene hydroperoxide is cleaved to products using an acid catalyst, and the catalyst is removed from the product stream.

    • 3. Storage Tank Vents, Combined

    The emission factor for the Phenol tanks in an average of the calculated value 0.06g phenol/kg phenol produced and an estimate of 0.012 g phenol/ phenol produced. However, based upon plant experience, he used other data for some of the input variables Such as storage temperature, vapor pressure, etc. The two estimates were determined using the same procedure but different input variables; therefore, the estimates were averaged.

    • 4. Product Transport Loading Vent; Combined

    The emissions from product transport loading are caused by displacement of hydrocarbon- containing vapors in the compartment being filled. One source reports emissions of 0.061 g acetone/kg phenol produced from the acetone loading area and 0.20g Phenol/kg phenol produced from the phenol loading and shipping area.

    • 5. Fugitive emissions

    Fugitive emissions occur from pressure relief valves, pump seals, compressor seals, pipeline valves and flanges, equipment purges, Process drains, wastewater separators, and laboratory analysis Sampling. An estimate of the total non-methane hydrocarbons (as methane equivalents) from pumps and sewers has been reported to 0.022 g/kg phenol produced. Pump and sewer caused emissions are not the total fugitive emissions, nor are they necessarily the most significant.

    CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

    Air emissions from the manufacture of acetone and phenol from cumene Consist of hydrocarbons. Existing emission control technologies for the industry are described in this section. These control methods include condensation, absorption, adsorption, floating roof tanks, and incineration. Future considerations in emissions control technology are also discussed in this section.

    Adsorption is the most commonly used method to control emissions from the cumene peroxidation vent. Condensation, absorption and incineration are also used.

    Emissions in the cleavage section are most often controlled by condensation. Absorption and incineration are also used.

    Emissions in the product purification section are controlled by condensation, adsorption, absorption, and incineration.

    Floating roofs are used to control emissions from tanks, particularly acetone and cumene storage tanks. Condensation, sealed dome roofs, and conservation vents are also used for this purpose, but not as commonly as floating roofs.

    Product transport loading emissions are controlled by absorption or vapor recovery. Not all plants control this emission source.

    The Scope of fugitive emissions and control methods are under study by EPA.

    VARIOUS EMISSION CONTROL METHODS IN USE AT CUMENE PEROXIDATION PLANTS

    VAPOUR CONDENSATION

    Organic compounds can be removed from an air stream by condensation. A vapor will condense when, at a given temperature, the partial pressure of the compound is equal to or greater than its vapor pressure. Similarly, if the temperature of a gaseous mixture is reduced to the saturation temperature (i.e., the temperature at which the vapor pressure equals the partial pressure of one of the constituents), the material will condense. Thus, either increasing the system pressure or lowering the temperature can cause condensation. In most air pollution control applications, decreased temperature is used to condense organic materials, since increased pressure is usually impractical. Equilibrium partial pressure limits the control of organic emissions by condensation. As condensation occurs, the partial pressure of material remaining in the gas decreases rapidly, preventing complete condensation.

    ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORPTION

    Adsorption is a phenomenon in which molecules become attached to the surface of a solid. The process is highly selective, and a given adsorbent, or adsorbing agent, will adsorb only certain types of molecules. The material adhering to the adsorbent is called the adsorbate. Adsorption involves three steps.

    First, the adsorbent comes in contact with the stream containing the adsorbate, and separation due to adsorption results. Next, the unadsorbed portion of the stream is separated from the adsorbent. Finally, the adsorbent is regenerated by removing the adsorbate.

    Activated carbon is the most suitable adsorbent for organic vapors. Carbon adsorbs 95% to 98% of all organic vapor from air at ambient temperature regardless of variations in concentration and humidity given a sufficient quantity of carbon. The adsorption of a mixture of organic vapors in air by carbon is not uniform, however, higher boiling point components are preferentially adsorbed. When a contaminated gas stream is passed over an activated carbon bed, the organic vapor is adsorbed and the purified stream passes through. Initially, adsorption is rapid and complete, but as

    the carbon bed approaches its capacity to retain vapor, traces of vapor appear in the exit air. This is the breakpoint of the activated carbon. If gas flow is continued, additional amounts Of Organic material are adsorbed, but at a decreasing rate.

    SOLVENT ABSORPTION

    Absorption is a process for removing one or more soluble component from a gas mixture by dissolving them in a solvent. Absorption equipment is designed to insure maximum contact between the gas and the liquid solvent to permit interphase diffusion between the materials. Absorption rate is affected by factors such as the solubility of gas in the particular solvent and the degree of chemical reaction; however, the most important factor is the solvent surface exposed.

    A vent gas scrubber-cooler system used on a cumene peroxidation vent is illustrated in figure. In this system off gases are scrubbed in a tray tower to absorb hydrocarbons into the scrubbing liquid, which is an aqueous Na2CO3 solution. Some of the scrubbing liquid is sent to the oxidation section, and some is recycled through the scrubber with makeup solution. The scrubbed gas is cooled, condensate is removed and sent to the oxidation section, and the gas is released to the atmosphere.

    INCINERATION

    Complete combustion of the hydrocarbons present in the emissions from a cumene peroxidation phenol plant produces carbon dioxide and water. NOx may be produced depending on the method of combustion the temperature. SOx production depends on the sulphur content of the auxiliary fuel, if any. The types of incinerators (i.e., direct flame afterburners, catalytic after burners, or flares), used to combust hydrocarbons at plants manufacturing acetone and phenol from cumene were not reported.

    STORAGE TANKS

    Six kinds of evaporation loss from storage of organic materials occur: breathing, standing storage, filling, emptying, wetting, boiling. Vapors expelled from a tank because of thermal expansion, barometric expansion, or additional vaporization are breathing losses. Vapor loss from such areas as seals, hatches, other openings (but not due to breathing or level changes) constitute standing storage loss. Vapors expelled from a tank is filled constitute filling loss. Vapors expelled from tank during emptying (due to the fact that vaporization occurs slowly, air enters to equalize pressure, vaporization stabilizes, and there is excess vapor in the tank) are emptying loss. Wetting loss is the vaporization of liquid from wetted exposed wall in a floating roof tank when the roof is lowered. Vapors expelled because of boiling are boiling loss.

    FLOATING ROOF TANKS

    Floating roof tanks are of various designs but the basic concept is that the roof floats on the surface of the stored material. A seal provides intimate contact between the roof and the tank wall. These tanks reduce breathing and filling losses by reducing the space available for vapor accumulation. Wetting losses are small and not a problem.

    SEALED DOME ROOF TANKS

    This type of tank can withstand relatively large pressure variations without incurring a loss. There is little or no breathing loss. Filling loss will depend on the tank design.

    CONSERVATION VENT FOR TANKS

    The conservation vent is a device to inhibit evaporation loss while protecting the tank from possible damage due to under pressure or overpressure. The vent has two set points, an upper a lower pressure. If the pressure is outside this range the vent opens to allow pressure equalization with the atmosphere. This reduces evaporation losses.

    VAPOR RECOVERY SYSTEM ON PRODUCT LOADING FACILITIES

    This control device collects the vapors produced from product loading and disposes of them by one of the control methods previously described, such as condensation, adsorption, etc. Vapor recovery is a general term for emission control practices.

    2.2 Liquid effluents

    Acetophenone

    Acetophenone is a colorless liquid with a sweet, pungent odor that is sparingly soluble (0.55 wt % at 20°C) in water. Acetophenone is used as a chemical Intermediate for resins, pharmaceuticals, corrosion Inhibitors and dyestuffs; as a solvent for gums, resin dyestuffs and highmelting aromatic chemicals; as a polymerization catalyst and photosensitizer. In organic synthesis; as a flavoring agent for tobacco and in perfumery. If acetophenone is released to water, microbial degradation and volatilization are expected to be the major environmental fate and transport processes. Biodegradation studies have shown that acetophenone is significantly biodegradable. The volatilization halflife from a river 1m deep flowing at 1 m/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec was estimated to be 3.7 days. Hydrolysis, oxidation, adsorption to sediments and bioconcentration are not expected to be significant. When acetophenone is released to the ambient atmosphere, reaction with photochemical)yproduced hydroxyl radicals is expected to be the dominant removal mechanism; the halflife for this reaction has been estimated to be 2 days (U.S. EPA. 1981). In the atmosphere, acetophenone will exist almost entirely in the vapor phase. If acetophenone is released to soil, microbial degradation is likely to be the major degradation process. Based on various adsorption studies acetophenone is expected to be mobile in soil and susceptible to significant leaching. Acetophenone is also expected to evaporate from dry soil surfaces. Acetophenone occurs naturally. In varius plant oils, in the buds of balsam poplar and In Concord grapes (Dorsky et al., 1963; NIcholas, 1973). It has been detected in drinking waters, surface waters, groundwaters and waste effluent waters. The presence of acetophenone in environmental waters is most likely the result of discharges from industrial sources. Metabolism and toxicity data indicate that acetophenone is absorbed by both gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Studies using rabbits indicate that acetophenone Is metabolized to ()1phenylethanol, which is excreted in the urine as glucuronide and sulfate conjugates.

    Health Hazard Information

    Acute Effects:

    Acute exposure of humans to acetophenone vapor may produce skin irritation and transient corneal injury. One study noted a decrease in light sensitivity in exposed humans. Acute oral exposure has been observed to cause hypnotic or sedative effects, hematological effects, and a weakened pulse in humans. Congestion of the lungs, kidneys, and liver were reported in rats acutely exposed to high levels of acetophenone via inhalation. Tests involving acute exposure of rats, mice, and rabbits have demonstrated acetophenone to have moderate acute toxicity from oral or dermal exposure.

    Reproductive/Developmental Effects:

    No information is available on the reproductive or developmental effects of

    acetophenone in humans. In one study of pregnant rats exposed dermally, no effects on reproduction or

    development were noted.

    Cancer Risk:

    No information is available on the carcinogenic effects of acetophenone in humans or

    animals. EPA has classified acetophenone as a Group D, not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity.

    Potential Health Effects

    Inhalation:

    May cause irritation to the respiratory tract; symptoms may include sore throat, coughing,

    headache, and dizziness. Higher concentrations may cause narcosis.

    Ingestion:

    May cause sore throat, abdominal pain, nausea, coughing, headache, dizziness, anesthetic

    effects, and central nervous system effects.

    Skin Contact:

    May cause irritation with redness and pain.

    Eye Contact:

    May cause severe irritation, redness, pain, and transient corneal injury.

    Chronic Exposure:

    Prolonged or repeated skin exposure may cause dermatitis.

    Aggravation of Pre-existing Conditions:

    No information found.

    First Aid Measures Inhalation:

    Remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Call a physician.

    Ingestion:

    Induce vomiting immediately as directed by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Call a physician.

    Skin Contact:

    In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. Call a physician.

    Eye Contact:

    Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, lifting lower and upper

    eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention immediately.

    Fire Fighting Measures As in any fire, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Combustible liquid and vapor. Extinguishing Media: Use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or appropriate foam. Flash Point: 77 deg C ( 170.60 deg F) Autoignition Temperature: 570 deg C ( 1,058.00 deg F) Explosion Limits, Lower:1.1% Upper: 6.7%

    Accidental Release Measures

    Ventilate area of leak or spill. Remove all sources of ignition. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment as specified in Section 8. Isolate hazard area. Keep unnecessary and unprotected personnel from entering. Contain and recover liquid when possible. Use non-sparking tools and equipment. Collect liquid in an appropriate container or absorb with an inert material (e. g., vermiculite, dry sand, earth), and place in a chemical waste container. Do not use combustible materials, such as saw dust. Do not flush to sewer! Environmental Regulations require reporting spills and releases to soil, water and air in excess of reportable quantities.

    Handling and Storage

    Keep in a tightly closed container, stored in a cool, dry, ventilated area. Protect against physical damage. Isolate from any source of heat or ignition. Isolate from oxidizing materials. Containers of this material may be hazardous when empty since they retain product residues (vapors, liquid); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product. Keep away from heat and flame. Keep

    away from sources of ignition. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.

    Exposure Controls/Personal Protection Airborne Exposure Limits:

    - Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 10 ppm (TWA)

    Ventilation System:

    A system of local and/or general exhaust is recommended to keep employee exposures below the Airborne Exposure Limits. Local exhaust ventilation is generally preferred because it can control the emissions of the contaminant at its source, preventing dispersion of it into the general work area.

    Please refer to the ACGIH document, Industrial Ventilation, A Manual of Recommended Practices,

    most recent edition, for details.

    Personal Respirators (NIOSH Approved):

    If the exposure limit is exceeded, a respirator with an organic vapor cartridge may be worn for up to ten times the exposure limit. Since this compound has been identified as possibly existing in both vapor and particulate phase, a dust/mist prefilter is recommended. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator. WARNING: Air-purifying respirators do not protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres.

    Skin Protection:

    Wear protective gloves and clean body-covering clothing.

    Eye Protection:

    Use chemical safety goggles and/or a full face shield where splashing is possible. Maintain eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area.

    Stability:

    Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage.

    Hazardous Decomposition Products:

    Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may form when heated to decomposition.

    Hazardous Polymerization:

    Will not occur.

    Incompatibilities:

    Strong oxidizers.

    Conditions to Avoid:

    Heat, flame, other sources of ignition.

    Maharashtra Pollution Control board Standards under Water Act

    The daily quantity of trade effluent from the factory shall not exceed 18 m 3 .

    The daily quantity of sewage effluent from the factory shall not exceed 7 m 3 .

    (i) Trade Effluent Treatment: The applicant shall provide comprehensive treatment system consisting of Primary / secondary and / or tertiary treatment and is warranted with reference to influent quality and operate and maintain the same continuously so as to achieve the quality of the treated effluent to the following standards:

    pH

    Between

    5.5

    to 9.0

    Suspended Solids

    Not to Exceed

    100

    mg/l.

    BOD

    Not to Exceed

    100

    mg/l.

    COD

    Not to Exceed

    250

    mg/l

    Oil & Grease

    Not to Exceed

    10

    mg/1.

    TDS

    Not to Exceed

    2100

    mg/1.

    Chlorides

    Not to Exceed

    600

    mg/1.

    Sulphates

    Not to Exceed

    1000

    mg/1.

    Chromium

    Not to Exceed

    0.1

    mg/l

    Total Chromium

    Not to Exceed

    2.0

    mg/l

    Total metal

    Not to Exceed

    10

    mg/l

    Iron

    Not to Exceed

    5.0

    mg/l

    (ii) Trade Effluent Disposal: The treated effluent shall be used in the process to the maximum extent and remaining shall be used on land for green belt development.

    (iii) Sewage Effluent Treatment: The applicant shall provide comprehensive treatment system as is warranted with reference to influent quality and operate and maintain the same continuously so as to achieve the quality of treated effluent to the following standards.

    (1) Suspended Solids - Not to exceed 100 mg/I. (2) BOD 3 days 27° C - Not to exceed 100 mg/I.

    (iv) Sewage Effluent Disposal: The treated domestic effluent shall be soaked in a soak pit, which shall be got cleaned periodically. Overflow, if any, shall be used on land for gardening / plantation only.

    (v) Non-Hazardous Solid Wastes:

    Sr. No.

    Type of waste

    Quantity

    Disposal

    • 1 Slag

     

    158267MT/Yr

    Landfill

    • 2 Machine returns

     

    10000

    MT/Yr

    By reuse in own sinter plant

    • 3 Flue Dust

     

    24000

    MT/Yr

    By reuse in own sinter plant

    • 4 Fly ash

     

    12000

    MT/Yr

    Sale to brick & cement mfg. & landfill

    (vi) Other conditions: The industry shall monitor effluent quality regularly. The applicant shall comply with the provisions of the Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Class Act, 1977 (to be referred as Class Act) and Rules there under: The daily water consumption for the following categories is as under:

    (i) Domestic -80 CMD (ii) Industrial Processing CMD (iii) Industrial Cooling - 3135 CMD (iv) Agriculture/Gardening - 16 CMD

    The applicant shall regularly submit to the Board the returns of water consumption in the prescribed form and pay the Class as specified under Section 3 of the said Act.

    • 2.3 Solid Waste Disposal

    There is no substantial solid waste in the plant; the only solid waste will be dried sludge from the effluent treatment plant, canteen wastes, worn office equipment and tools, stationery, cleaning rags, packing boxes, broken pallets and broken office chairs. Solid waste disposal is done by thermal incineration or by tipping. The design of a solid waste incinerator is difficult to do due to the wide variety of feed to be disposed. It is important to determine the burning characteristics of the solid waste material. A major problem with the solid incinerator is fly ash control. Various methods employed for this purpose ate two-stage combustion, filter baffle and provision of large secondary chambers where velocities are low and settling takes place. If the fly ash problem is chronic, special separation devices like electrostatic precipitators can be employed. The flash produced can be used as a land fill.

    • 2.4 Noise Pollution

    The major sources of noise pollution in our plant are:

    Pumps

    Burners

    Electric motors

    Valves

    Steam Vents

    Various equipment‘s noise levels and control measures are listed in the table below:

    Equipment

    Sound level at 3ft(dB)

    Possible

    Noise

    Control

    measures

    Electric motors

    90-110

    Acoustically lined fan covers, enclosures and motor mutes, absorbent mounts.

    Pumps

     

    Acoustically lined fan covers,

    Vane(Industrial)

    75-82

    enclosures and motor mutes,

    Vane(mobile)

    84-92

    absorbent mutes.

    Axial position

    76-85

    Screw type

    72-78

     

    Gear

    78-88

    Heaters and furnaces

    90-110

    Acoustic plenums, intake mufflers, lined/ damped ducts

    Valves

    80-108

    Avoid sonic velocities, limit pressure drop and mass flow,and replace with special low noise valves.

    Piping

    90-105

    Isolation and lagging, in liner silencers, vibration isolators.

    Apart from the listed noise sources, minor sources of the noise pollution may be pipes and hoses hitting the floor, panels etc. i.e. rattling noises, which can be stabilized with adsorbent mounts. All the bolts should be tightened to prevent vibration and clatter. Venting of process gas out the condensers may result in serious noise pollutions. This is due to turbulent mixing of high velocity gas with the stationary gas. Steam leaks and another common noise problem with the sound level are reaching sometimes 100 dB at the distance of 25 feet of the leak. All steam leaks should be timely repaired. Where noise levels cannot be reduced to acceptable levels of a person, ear protection equipment should be used. The industry shall take adequate measures for control of noise levels from its own sources within the premises so as to maintain ambient air quality standard in respect of noise to less than 75 dB(A) during day time and 70 dB(A) during night time. Day time is reckoned in between 6 a.m. and 10 p.m. and night time is reckoned between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.

    Maharashtra Pollution Control Board Standards for Noise Pollution:

    1) The industry should not cause any nuisance in surrounding area. 2) The industry should monitor stack emissions and ambient air quality regularly. Conditions for D.G. Set:-

    1] Noise from the D.G. Set should be controlled by providing an acoustic enclosure or by treating the room acoustically.

    2] Industry should provide acoustic enclosure for control of noise. The acoustic enclosure/acoustic treatment of the room should be designed for minimum 25 dB(A) insertion loss or for meeting the ambient noise standards, whichever is on higher side. A suitable exhaust muffler with insertion loss of 25 dB(A) shall also be provided. The measurement of insertion loss will be done at different points at 0.5 m from acoustic enclosure/room and then average.

    3] The industry shall take adequate measures for control of noise levels from its own sources within the premises in respect of noise to less than 55 dB(A) during day time and 45 dB(A) during the night time. Day time is reckoned between 6 a.m. to 10 p.m and night time is reckoned between 10 p.m. to 6 a.m.

    4] Industry should make efforts to bring down noise level due to DG set, outside industrial premises, within ambient noise requirements by proper siting and control measures.

    5] Installation

    of

    DG Set

    much be strictly in compliance with recommendations of DG Set

    manufacturer.

    6] A proper routine and preventive maintenance procedure for DG set should be set and followed in consultation with the DG manufacturer which would help to prevent noise levels of DG set from deteriorating with use.

    7] D.G. Set shall be operated only in case of power failure.

    8] The applicant should not cause any nuisance in the surrounding area due to operation of D.G. Set.

    2.5 Energy Conservation

    Chemical plants have always been designed to operate economically due to product competition. However before 1970, the objectives of building a low cost plant was generally considered more important than low operating cost. This concept changed due to the oil crisis of 1973 and the subsequent action at several environment protection agencies in promoting the use of non-low polluting attention has been paid to such topics such as energy conservation schemes, process integration, heat exchanger network design, cogeneration etc. This attention is evident by the large number of books and journals published on these topics in the recent years. The design engineer must consider appropriate energy conservation schemes that are designed to:

    • (i) Utilize as much of the energy available within the plant.

    (ii) Minimize the energy requirements for the plant.

    The energy balances performed for the plant items provide the initial key to identify areas of high energy availability or demand. An attempt can then be made to utilize excess energy in those areas where energy must be provided. However, this is not always possible because:

    • (i) A high energy load may constitute a large volume of liquid at relatively low temperature, exchanging

    this energy may require large and expensive equipment.

    (ii) This energy source may be distant from the sink and piping and insulating costs may make utilization uneconomic, sometimes a rearrangement of the plant lay out required.

    (iii) The energy source may be corrosive.

    Any energy conservation scheme must also consider the costs involved in removing or transferring the excess energy i.e. capital cost of heat exchangers, piping, valves, pumps, insulation and operating costs of pumping and maintenance. Energy conservation is only worthwhile if the reduction in energy costs exceed the cost of implementation. A scheme maybe devised for a plant and then held over until energy prices make the proposal attractive. This type of forward planning requires that the plant layout adopted can be easily modified. Energy conservation can be achieved at three levels:

    • (i) Correct plan and operation and maintenance

    (ii) Major changes to existing plant and processes. (iii) New plants and new processes.

    The time required to implement energy conservation measures, the capital cost required, and the potential savings, all increase from level (i) to (iii) above. The cost of downtime for level.(ii) can be significant, and the level (iii) offers the greatest long term potential for energy conservation. This latter objective can be achieved either by designing new, energy efficient plants for established process routes, or adopting new and less energy- intensive process routes. The basic approach towards conservation of energy should be taken into account:

    i. Operational modification ii. Research and development iii. Design modification iv. Insulation v. Maintenance vi. Process integration vii. Process modification viii. Waste utilization

    In the near future all industrial operations that have reacted to the energy crisis must be organized to institute a systematic approach towards conserving energy in all forms through more efficient utilization of existing processes and carefully studied reduction of losses and wastes. The following examples illustrate some application of the basic engineering principles t the design of equipment for improved energy efficiency.

    (i) Plant Operation:

    Energy savings can be achieved by good engineering practice and the application of established principles. These measures may be termed as good housekeeping and include correct plant operation and regular maintenance. The overall energy savings are usually small and may not be easy to achieve and significant time may be required for regulate maintenance and checking. However, such measures do help to establish commitment of a company to a policy of energy conservation.

    (ii) Heat Recovery: