Will Malson

Brazilian Ethanol NEG

Page 1 of 17

Brazilian Ethanol NEG Index (1/2)
Brazilian Ethanol NEG Index (1/2)....................................................................................1 Trade Interdependence DA ................................................................................................3
A. Trade interdependence not only does not lead to peace, but inevitably leads to war. George Friedman 963 B. Statistical analysis shows free trade increases the risk of war. Katherine Barbieri 96...................3

Amazon Deforestation DA Shell........................................................................................4
Link: Brazilian Ethanol necessarily requires Amazon deforestation, which effectively wipes out a large percentage of global biodiversity. Food & Water Watch Network for New Energy Choices 07..........4 Impact: Biodiversity loss empirically causes conditions that threaten human survival – increased loss threatens ecosystem collapse and humanity’s very existence. David Diner ’94..................................4

Amazon DA Link XTs.......................................................................................................5
The Amazon will be in danger from increased production of sugarcane ethanol. AP 07....................5 Expansion of Brazil’s sugarcane industry will require destruction of the Amazon. Anna Gangadharan and Albert Larcada 07...............................................................................................................................5

Amazon DA Impact XTs....................................................................................................6
Accepting biodiversity loss is like playing Russian Roulette…with humanity’s existence. Paul Warner 94 ....6

AT: Deforestation Being Reduced.....................................................................................7
The reduction in deforestation was due to an overvalued currency. AP 07 ........................................7

Monocropping (Big business) DA .....................................................................................8
Link: Lifting the tariff increases incentive for big business – big business kills small farming. George Monbiot, 2008 ....................................................................................................................................8 Internal Link: Big business engages in monocropping, “the most troubling aspect of the sugar-ethanol industry.” Isabella Kenfield 07 ..........................................................................................................8 Impact: Here are 25 impacts to monocropping. (HUGE laundry list) Scot Nelson 06........................8

Slavery DA Shell................................................................................................................9
Link: The Brazilian ethanol industry is causing an upswing in the slave trade. WSJ 08 ....................9 Impact 1: Slaves in the Brazilian ethanol industry are treated worse than prisoners, dying from excess work in untold numbers. LA times 08 ..........................................................................................................9 Impact 2: They’re slaves! We can’t support a policy option that supports the slave trade. Dehumanizing people to the point of slavery justifies any and every atrocity to humans and must be rejected in every instance. David Berube 97..................................................................................................................9

Slavery Link XTs ............................................................................................................10
Brazilian ethanol markets directly encourage slave labor. The Independent 07...............................10

Slavery Impact XTs..........................................................................................................11
The new face of slavery is net worse than the old – conditions have worsened and a modern slave is easily disposable. Dr. Kevin Bales 99 .........................................................................................................11

AT: Squo fines (etc) reduce slavery ................................................................................12
Even Brazil says that doesn’t work. Come on! LA times 08 ..............................................................12

AT: No slave numbers......................................................................................................13
1. 200,000 workers live in prison-like conditions. The Guardian 07.................................................13 2. An estimated 25k to 40k workers are originally forced into labor. Growth Energy 09..................13

Will Malson

Brazilian Ethanol NEG

Page 2 of 17

3. We don't need numbers - slavery is a moral issue that needs to be rejected in all instances. <insert Berube 97>....................................................................................................................................................13

Consult CP (1/2)...............................................................................................................14
Observation 1: CP Text .........................................................................................................14

Consult CP (2/2)...............................................................................................................15
Observation 2: Net Beneficial.................................................................................................15
A. CP is necessary to revive the historic consultative relationship between the US and Brazil. Henry Kissinger 01......................................................................................................................................15 B. Consultations are key to ensure long-term sustainability of US-Brazilian relations. Genuine consideration of Brazil’s opinions is essential and ensures they’ll ultimately go along with the US agenda. Peter Hakim 04 ..........................................................................................................................................................15 C. Consultations are vital to sustain US-Brazilian relations. James Carragher 02..........................16

AT: Consultation is Normal Means; we do it...................................................................17
1. It isn’t normal means.....................................................................................................................17 2. Plan doesn’t do it..........................................................................................................................17

Will Malson

Brazilian Ethanol NEG

Page 3 of 17

Trade Interdependence DA
A. Trade interdependence not only does not lead to peace, but inevitably leads to war. George Friedman 96
George Friedman [founder and chairman of Stratfor, and Meredith Friedman], The Future of War, 1996, p. 7-9 (HEG)

The argument that interdependence gives rise to peace is flawed in theory as well as in practice. Conflicts arise from friction, particularly friction involving the fundamental interests of different nations. The less interdependence there is, the fewer the areas of serious friction. The more interdependence there is, the greater the areas of friction, and, therefore, the greater the potential for conflict. Two widely separated nations that trade little with each other are unlikely to go to war—Brazil is unlikely to fight Madagascar precisely because they have so little to do with each other. France and Germany, on the other hand, which have engaged in extensive trade and transnational finance, have fought three wars with each other over about seventy years. Interdependence was the root of the conflicts, not the deterrent. There are, of course, cases of interdependence in which one country
effectively absorbs the other or in which their interests match so precisely that the two countries simply merge. In other cases, interdependence remains peaceful because the economic, military, and political power of one country is overwhelming and inevitable. In relations between advanced industrialized countries and third-world countries, for example, this sort of asymmetrical relationship can frequently be seen. All such relationships have a quality of unease built into them, particularly when the level of interdependence is great. When one or both nations attempt, intentionally or unintentionally, to shift the balance of power, the result is often tremendous anxiety and, sometimes, real pain. Each side sees the other’s actions as an attempt to gain advantage and becomes frightened. In the end, precisely because the level of interdependence is so great, the relationship can, and frequently does, spiral out of control.

Consider the seemingly miraculous ability of the United States and Soviet Union to be rivals and yet avoid open warfare. These two powers could forgo extreme measures because they were not interdependent. Neither relied on the other for its economic well-being, and therefore, its social stability. This provided considerable room for
maneuvering. Because there were few economic linkages, neither nation felt irresistible pressure to bring the relationship under control; neither felt any time constraint. Had one country been dependent on the other for something as important as oil or long-term investment, there would have been enormous fear of being held hostage economically. Each would have sought to dominate the relationship, and the result would have been catastrophic. In the years before World War I, as a result of European interdependence, control of key national issues fell into the hands of foreign governments. Thus, decisions made in Paris had tremendous impact on Austria, and decisions made in London determined growth rates in the Ruhr. Each government sought to take charge of its own destiny by shifting the pattern of interdependence in its favor. Where economic means proved insufficient, political and military strategies were tried.

B. Statistical analysis shows free trade increases the risk of war. Katherine Barbieri 96
Katherine Barbieri [Department of Political Science, University of North Texas], February 1996, Journal of Peace Research, p. 42-43 (HEG)

This study provides little empirical support for the liberal proposition that trade provides a path to interstate peace. Even after controlling for the influence of contiguity, joint democracy, alliance ties, and relative capabilities, the evidence suggests that in most instances trade fails to deter conflict. Instead, extensive economic interdependence increases the likelihood that dyads engage in militarized dispute;
however, it appears to have little influence on the incidence of war. The greatest hope for peace appears to arise from symmetrical trading relationships. However, the dampening effect of symmetry is offset by the expansion of interstate linkages.

Will Malson

Brazilian Ethanol NEG

Page 4 of 17

Amazon Deforestation DA Shell
Link: Brazilian Ethanol necessarily requires Amazon deforestation, which effectively wipes out a large percentage of global biodiversity. Food & Water Watch Network for New Energy Choices 07
“The Rush to Ethanol: not all biofuels are created equal,” 2007 (HEG)

Significant expansion of biofuel feedstock production may cause widespread deforestation as land is cleared to make room for these crops. It is well known that destruction of the world’s rainforests poses a major threat to the earth’s capacity to absorb greenhouse gases, as well as to the survival of a large percentage of global biodiversity. What is less known is that the world’s largest rainforest, the Amazon, is being clear-cut to make way for expanding crop production. In fact, soy production in Brazil has been a major force behind recent destruction of the Amazon. As demand for soy increases with the promotion of biodiesel, and as Brazil’s ethanol industry continues to put pressure on sugarcane supplies it is likely that even more of the Amazon will be cut to make room for these crops. Impact: Biodiversity loss empirically causes conditions that threaten human survival – increased loss threatens ecosystem collapse and humanity’s very existence. David Diner ’94
[JD Ohio State, Military Law Review, Winter, Lexis] (HEG)

As the current mass extinction has progressed, the world's biological diversity generally has decreased. This trend occurs within ecosystems by reducing the number of species, and within species by reducing the number of individuals. Both trends carry serious future implications. Biologically diverse ecosystems are characterized by a large number of specialist species, filling narrow ecological niches. These ecosystems inherently are more stable than less diverse systems. "The more complex the ecosystem, the more successfully it can resist stress... [l]ike a net, in which each knot is connected to others by several strands, such a fabric can resist collapse better than a simple, unbranched circle of threads -- which is cut anywhere breaks down as a whole." By causing widespread extinctions, humans have artificially simplified many ecosystems. As biologic simplicity increases, so does the risk of ecosystem failure. The spreading Sahara Desert in Africa, and the dustbowl conditions of the 1930s in the United States are relatively mild examples of what might be expected if this trend continues. Theoretically, each new animal or plant extinction, with all its dimly perceived and intertwined affects, could cause total ecosystem collapse and human extinction. Each new extinction increases the risk of disaster. Like a mechanic removing, one by one, the rivets from an aircraft's wing, mankind may be edging closer to the abyss.
4. Biological Diversity. -- The main premise of species preservation is better than simplicity.

Will Malson

Brazilian Ethanol NEG

Page 5 of 17

Amazon DA Link XTs
The Amazon will be in danger from increased production of sugarcane ethanol. AP 07
The Associated Press, 2007, “Brazil's ethanol push could eat away at Amazon”, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/17500316/page/2/ (HEG)

Achim Steiner, head of the U.N. Environment Program, added his voice, saying that growing international demand for ethanol threatens the Amazon if safeguards are not put in place because the world's largest remaining tropical wilderness is a target area for agriculture. Brazil's ethanol is made from sugarcane. And while sugarcane cultivation is minimal now in the Amazon, some environmentalists fear growing demand for the fuel could push cane growers there. "I think at the end of the day ... it's a question of whether the Amazon is sufficiently protected and
On Monday, whether the expansion of the ethanol production happens in the context of government policies that try and direct that growth potential in a sustainable base," Steiner said after meeting with Brazil's ministers of environment, energy and foreign relations. Steiner praised Brazil for reducing Amazon deforestation by 11 percent last year and said he was hopeful the government would develop sufficient safeguards to protect the wilderness. But many environmentalists say much of the reduction in deforestation was due to an overvalued currency and stagnant prices for soybeans on the international market, which made it far less lucrative to cut down remote forest plots to grow soybeans. In the near term, soybean growers likely will continue to expand into the Amazon as farmland in the Brazil's south and central regions moved to sugarcane, which requires greater infrastructure. "While the whole process of alcohol fuel is less damaging to the climate than fuel from gasoline or oil, what can be positive for the environment can turn negative depending on the extension of the plantations," said Paulo Adario, director of the Greenpeace's Amazon Campaign. The Amazon region, which covers nearly 60 percent of Brazil, has lost 20 percent of its forest — 1.6 million square miles — to development, logging and farming.

Expansion of Brazil’s sugarcane industry will require destruction of the Amazon. Anna Gangadharan and Albert Larcada 07
Anna Gangadharan and Albert Larcada [COHA Research Associates], “Aspiring To Leadership: Brazil, President Lula and Sugar-Cane Ethanol”, 8/24/07, http://www.coha.org/2007/08/aspiring-to-leadership-brazil- president-lula-and-sugar-cane-ethanol (HEG)

The possible elimination of a 54 cents-per-gallon tariff on imports of Brazilian ethanol to the U.S. has become a vital issue in Brasilia due to the country’s potential economic, environmental, and social repercussions. Lifting the tariff would ultimately produce a surge in demand for Brazil’s domestic bio-fuels in the U.S., where crude oil imports currently dominate the domestic energy industry. Not being able to handle the positive economic impact this move could have in Brazil, various domestic and overseas environmental organizations have uttered concerns over threats to the Amazon rainforest, a region that comprises nearly 60 percent of the nation’s expanse. They argue that higher sugar-cane ethanol exports, resulting in enhanced earnings to the nation’s economies, could do harm to the Amazon by transforming the rainforest into a normal agricultural terrain. Currently, Brazil is home to 336 sugarcane plantations which have enlisted 10.3 million hectares of land usage. Should the U.S. tariff be lifted, demand for sugar-cane ethanol will further skyrocket, making it difficult for Brazil’s President Lula to convey anything but unqualified support for such an expansion. The fact is that Brazil now finds itself immured in the conflictive engagement of attempting to simultaneously expand its economy
while still addressing its poverty, income inequality, and racial concerns. Most of all, this blueprint does not even begin to lay siege to the country’s overpowering split between rich and poor – which makes it a nation of two nations.

Will Malson

Brazilian Ethanol NEG

Page 6 of 17

Amazon DA Impact XTs
Accepting biodiversity loss is like playing Russian Roulette…with humanity’s existence. Paul Warner 94
[American University, Dept of International Politics and Foreign Policy, August, Politics and Life Sciences, 1994, p 177] [brackets in original] (HEG)

[read the whole card, it’s worth it.] Massive extinction of species is dangerous, then, because one cannot predict which species are expendable to the system as a whole. As Philip Hoose remarks, "Plants and animals cannot tell us what they mean to each other." One can never be sure which species holds up fundamental biological relationships in the planetary ecosystem. And, because removing species is an irreversible act, it may be too late to save the system after the extinction of key plants or animals. According to the U.S. National Research Council, "The ramifications of an ecological change of this magnitude [vast extinction of species] are so far reaching that no one on earth will escape them." Trifling with the "lives" of species is like playing Russian roulette, with our collective future as the stakes.

Will Malson

Brazilian Ethanol NEG

Page 7 of 17

AT: Deforestation Being Reduced
The reduction in deforestation was due to an overvalued currency. AP 07
The Associated Press, 2007, “Brazil's ethanol push could eat away at Amazon”, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/17500316/page/2/ (HEG)

On Monday, Achim Steiner, head of the U.N. Environment Program, added his voice, saying that growing international demand for ethanol threatens the Amazon if safeguards are not put in place because the world's largest remaining tropical wilderness is a target area for agriculture. Brazil's ethanol is made from sugarcane. And while sugarcane cultivation is minimal now in the Amazon, some environmentalists fear growing demand for the fuel could push cane growers there. "I think at the end of the day ... it's a question of whether the Amazon is sufficiently protected and whether the expansion of the ethanol production happens in the context of government policies that try and direct that growth potential in a sustainable base," Steiner said after meeting with Brazil's ministers of environment, energy and foreign relations. Steiner praised

Brazil for reducing Amazon deforestation by 11 percent last year and said he was hopeful the government would develop sufficient safeguards to protect the wilderness. But many environmentalists say much of the reduction in deforestation was due to an overvalued currency and stagnant prices for soybeans on the international market, which made it far less lucrative to cut down remote forest plots to grow soybeans. In the near term, soybean growers likely will continue to expand into the Amazon as farmland in the Brazil's south and central regions moved to sugarcane, which requires greater infrastructure. "While the whole process of alcohol fuel is less damaging to the climate than fuel from gasoline or oil, what can be positive for the environment can turn negative depending on the extension of the plantations," said Paulo Adario, director of the Greenpeace's Amazon Campaign. The Amazon region, which
covers nearly 60 percent of Brazil, has lost 20 percent of its forest — 1.6 million square miles — to development, logging and farming.

Will Malson

Brazilian Ethanol NEG

Page 8 of 17

Monocropping (Big business) DA
Link: Lifting the tariff increases incentive for big business – big business kills small farming. George Monbiot, 2008
George Monbiot is the author Heat: How to Stop the Planet from Burning; "Why Fair Trade May Be Our Only Hope", http://www.alternet.org/environment/87832/?page=2&ses=a059e3e454e65b2945ef5499454296bf (HEG)

Big business is killing small farming. By extending intellectual property rights over every aspect of production; by developing plants which either won't breed true or which don't reproduce at all, it ensures that only those with access to capital can cultivate. As it captures both the wholesale and retail markets, it seeks to reduce its transaction costs by engaging only with major sellers. If you think that supermarkets are giving farmers in the UK a hard time, you should see what they are doing to growers in the poor world. As developing countries sweep away street markets and hawkers' stalls and replace them with superstores and glossy malls, the most productive farmers lose their customers and are forced to sell up. The rich nations
support this process by demanding access for their companies. Their agricultural subsidies still help their own, large farmers to compete unfairly with the small producers of the poor world.

Internal Link: Big business engages in monocropping, “the most troubling aspect of the sugarethanol industry.” Isabella Kenfield 07
Isabella Kenfield, Latin American affairs specialist, “Brazil’s Ethanol Plan Breeds Rural Poverty, Environmental Degradation,” published in America’s Program, an American policy journal, March 6, 2007 (HEG)

Industry, government, and mainstream media in Brazil generally argue that increasing ethanol exports will boost economic growth and sustainable rural development, while simultaneously helping to curb global warming by helping the world reduce its dependency on fossil fuels. But contrary to the "green" image evoked by industry advocates, the monoculture of sugarcane leads to massive environmental destruction. According to Melo, in Pernambuco only
2.5% of the original forest of the sugarcane region remains. In order to satisfy future global demand, Brazil will need to clear an additional 148 million acres

The damaging environmental effects of monocropping sugarcane are, in the São Paulo banker's mind, the most troubling aspect of the sugar-ethanol industry. He claims that the sugar takeover is "pushing other crops to the agricultural frontier." He explains that, "because sugarcane generates a high
of forest, says Eric Holt-Gimenez of the NGO FoodFirst, based in Oakland, CA. price per hectare, the regions with better climactic conditions are dominated by this crop, which results in sugarcane occupying lands that before were planted to grains and used for grazing livestock. Grain producers move to more remote regions, such as the center-west, which before were used for cattle. The result of this flux is that cattle ranchers seek new areas such as the Amazon region."

Impact: Here are 25 impacts to monocropping. (HUGE laundry list) Scot Nelson 06
[PhD, University of Hawai‘i at Manoa, May 16-19 2006, Poly- and Monocultures: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. http://www.agroforestry.net/events/afwksp2006/pres/Nelson_Monocrops_script.pdf] (HEG)

“Bad and Ugly” aspects of monocropping include: 1) Soil depletion and erosion; 2) Destruction of biological diversity; 3) Loss of rainforests; 4) Climate change; 5) Atmospheric degradation; 6) Pollution of water tables; 7) Destruction of coral reefs (sedimentation); 8) Plant disease epidemics of enhanced severity; 9) Famine, death; 10) Loss of agrarian way of life and displacement of agrarian populations; 11) Loss of seed biodiversity and plant genetic resources; 12) Desertification; 13) Poverty; 14) Nutrient imbalances in soils. More “Bad and Ugly” aspects of monocropping include: 1) Invasive species introduced and/or established; 2) Draining of our precious aquifers; 3) Exploitation of laborers; 4) Dependence on corporations; 5) Loss of traditional social structure and values; 6) Loss of geographic and species interdependence; 7) Increased crop susceptibility to weather; 8) Poor land stewardship, land abandonment; 9) Extinction of native species; 10)Destruction of culturally significant sites; 11) Evolution of cleared lands into real estate ventures; 12) Increased use of pesticides.

Will Malson

Brazilian Ethanol NEG

Page 9 of 17

Slavery DA Shell
Link: The Brazilian ethanol industry is causing an upswing in the slave trade. WSJ 08
“Brazilian Ethanol: Of Human Bondage,” June 10, 2008 (HEG)

[important: make sure you understand the grammar of this

card before using it.] In Brazil, home of ethanol made from sugar cane, it's had another unintended consequence: slavery. The use of forced labor to work in sugar cane plantations is "a growing trend," according to the U.S. State Department's latest report on human trafficking. The annual
The biofuels boom has contributed to the recent spike in food prices that threatens the world's poor. report, released last week, documents sexual exploitation and forced labor in 170 countries. It is always a tough read. This year's edition records the appalling abuse of men, women and children in brothels, factories and farms – often while government looks the other way – and spots trends. Every country receives a ranking based on its record in prosecuting exploiters, protecting victims and preventing abuses.

Impact 1: Slaves in the Brazilian ethanol industry are treated worse than prisoners, dying from excess work in untold numbers. LA times 08
“Human Cost of Brazil’s Biofuels Boom,” June 16 2008 (HEG)

In the last four years, said a lawyer from the Public Ministry, which acts as the Sao Paulo state district attorney, at least 18 cane cutters have died of dehydration, heart attacks or other ailments linked to exhaustion in this region, where the forests long ago gave way to agriculture. That does not include an unknown number of others who died in accidents, said the lawyer, Luis Henrique Rafael, part of a two- attorney team from the Public Ministry's office that recently toured the area to investigate abuses of the labor code. "They died from excess work," Rafael said. "Even prisoners have a better life. These men's only form of leisure is cachaca," he added, referring to the liquor distilled from sugar cane. In its annual report, Amnesty International last month highlighted the plight of Brazil's biofuel workers, more than 1,000 of whom were rescued in June 2007 after allegedly being held in slave-like conditions at a plantation owned by a major ethanol producer, Pagrisa, in the Amazonian state of Para. Brazilian officials acknowledge that fines and
prosecutions have largely failed to improve the workers' lot. Cases drag on in court until sanctions are reduced or owners cleared. Few, if any, violators go to jail. Too few inspectors are available to police this giant country and its behemoth agribusiness, which have made it a world leader in exports of soybeans, beef and coffee, among other foodstuffs.

Impact 2: They’re slaves! We can’t support a policy option that supports the slave trade. Dehumanizing people to the point of slavery justifies any and every atrocity to humans and must be rejected in every instance. David Berube 97
[Ph.D. in Communications, “Nanotechnological Prolongevity: The Down Side”, NanoTechnology Magazine, June/July 1997, p. 1-6 http://www.cla.sc.edu/ENGL/faculty/berube/prolong.htm] (HEG)

the dehumanization of humanity. They warn “its destructive toll is already greater than that of any war, plague, famine, or natural calamity on record – and its potential danger to the quality of life and the fabric of civilized society is beyond calculation. For that reason this sickness of the soul might well be called the Fifth Horseman of the Apocalypse… Behind the genocide of the Holocaust lay a dehumanized thought; beneath the menecide of deviants and dissidents… in the cuckoo’s next of America, lies a dehumanized image of
This means-ends dispute is at the core of Montagu and Matsou’s treatise on man… (Montagu & Matsou, 1983, p. xi-xii). While it may never be possible to quantify the impacts dehumanizing ethics may have had on humanity, it is safe to conclude the foundations of humanness offer great opportunities which would be foregone. When we calculate the actual losses and the virtual

Dehumanization is nuclear war, environmental apocalypse, and international genocide. When people become things, they become dispensable. When people are dispensable, any and every atrocity can be justified. Once justified, they seem to be
benefits, we approach a nearly inestimable value greater than any tools which we can currently use to measure it. inevitable for every epoch has evil and dehumanization is evil’s most powerful weapon.

Will Malson

Brazilian Ethanol NEG

Page 10 of 17

Slavery Link XTs
Brazilian ethanol markets directly encourage slave labor. The Independent 07
“Brazilian ethanol 'slaves' freed in raid on plantation”, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20070704/ai_n19340891 (HEG)

More than 1,000 "enslaved" workers have been released from a sugar cane plantation in the Amazon following a raid that has high- lighted the dark side of the current ethanol boom. Brazilian authorities said that the workers in the northern state of Para were being forced to work 14-hour days in horrendous conditions cutting cane for ethanol production. Police said the raid was Brazil's biggest to date against debt slavery, a practice reminiscent of indentured labour where poor workers are lured to remote rural areas, then pushed into debt to plantation owners who charge exorbitant prices for everything from food to transportation.

Will Malson

Brazilian Ethanol NEG

Page 11 of 17

Slavery Impact XTs
The new face of slavery is net worse than the old – conditions have worsened and a modern slave is easily disposable. Dr. Kevin Bales 99
Dr. Kevin Bales [the world's leading expert on modern slavery and President of Free the Slaves, the US Sister organization of Anti-Slavery International (the world’s oldest human rights organization). He is Emeritus Professor of Sociology at Roehampton University in London, Visiting Professor at the Wilberforce Institute for the Study of Slavery and Emancipation, University of Hull, as well as serving on the Board of Directors of the International Cocoa Initiative], “Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy”, 1999 (HEG) The same thing happens in the new slavery. Buying

a slave is no longer a major investment, like buying a car or a house (As it was in the old slavery); it is more like buying an inexpensive bicycle or a cheap computer. Slaveholders get all the work they can out of their slaves and then throw them away. The nature of the relationship between slaves and slaveholders has fundamentally altered. The new disposability has dramatically
increased the amount of profit to be made from a slave, decreased the length of time a person would normally be enslaved, and made the question of legal ownership less important. When

slaves cost a great deal of money, that investment has to be safeguarded through clear and legally documented ownership. Slaves of the past were worth stealing and worth chasing down if they escaped. Today slaves cost so little that is not worth the hassle of securing permanent, “legal” ownership. Slaves are disposable.

Will Malson

Brazilian Ethanol NEG

Page 12 of 17

AT: Squo fines (etc) reduce slavery
Even Brazil says that doesn’t work. Come on! LA times 08
“Human Cost of Brazil’s Biofuels Boom,” June 16 2008 (HEG) In the last four years, said a lawyer from the Public Ministry, which acts as the Sao Paulo state district attorney, at least 18 cane cutters have died of dehydration, heart attacks or other ailments linked to exhaustion in this region, where the forests long ago gave way to agriculture. That does not include an unknown number of others who died in accidents, said the lawyer, Luis Henrique Rafael, part of a two- attorney team from the Public Ministry's office that recently toured the area to investigate abuses of the labor code. "They died from excess work," Rafael said. "Even prisoners have a better life. These men's only form of leisure is cachaca," he added, referring to the liquor distilled from sugar cane. In its annual report, Amnesty International last month highlighted the plight of Brazil's biofuel workers, more than 1,000 of whom were rescued in June 2007 after allegedly being held in slave-like conditions at a plantation owned by a major ethanol producer, Pagrisa, in the Amazonian state of Para. Brazilian

officials acknowledge that fines and prosecutions have largely failed to improve the workers' lot. Cases drag on in court until sanctions are reduced or owners cleared. Few, if any, violators go to jail. Too few inspectors are available to police this giant country and its behemoth agribusiness, which have made it a world leader in exports of soybeans, beef and coffee, among other foodstuffs.

Will Malson

Brazilian Ethanol NEG

Page 13 of 17

AT: No slave numbers
1. 200,000 workers live in prison-like conditions. The Guardian 07
"Brazil's ethanol slaves: 200,000 migrant sugar cutters who prop up renewable energy boom", The Guardian, March 2007, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/mar/09/brazil.renewableenergy (HEG)

Behind rusty gates, the heart of Brazil's energy revolution can be found in the stale air of a squalid redbrick tenement building. Inside, dozens of road-weary migrant workers are crammed into minuscule cubicles, filled with rickety bunk-beds and unpacked bags, preparing for their first day at work in the sugar plantations of Sao Paulo. This is Palmares Paulista, a rural town 230 miles from Sao Paulo and the centre of a South American renewable energy boom that is transforming Brazil into a global reference point on how to cut carbon emissions and oil imports at the same time. Inside the prison-like construction are the cortadores de cana - sugar cane cutters - part of a destitute migrant workforce of about 200,000 men who help prop up Brazil's ethanol industry. 2. An estimated 25k to 40k workers are originally forced into labor. Growth Energy 09
Growth Energy [America’s Ethanol Producers], “Brazilian Ethanol: Good for America?” PT-US-0067, 2009, http://www.growthenergy.org/2009/Brochures/Brazilian_Ethanol.pdf (HEG)

Workers recruited to harvest sugar cane in Brazil are often victims of exploitation. With miniscule paychecks, they are forced to depend on food and shelter provided by the plantation, who they soon become indebted to. Trapped between backbreaking labor and piles of debt, they effectively become slaves. While slavery is against both international and Brazilian law, authorities have been unsuccessful in reigning in the culprits. Today, an estimated 25,000 to 40,000 men and women in Brazil are still subjected to forced labor, according to the International Labour Organization.
In contrast, American ethanol is revitalizing our rural economy.

3. We don't need numbers - slavery is a moral issue that needs to be rejected in all instances. <insert Berube 97>

Will Malson

Brazilian Ethanol NEG

Page 14 of 17

Consult CP (1/2)
Observation 1: CP Text Agency & Enforcement: Congress, the President, and any others needed. Mandates: The USFG should enter into prior binding consultation with the Federative Republic of Brazil over the mandates of the affirmative plan. The outcome of the consultation should be implemented. Funding: General Revenue. Timeline: Work to achieve the mandates will begin immediately. …And the Negative team reserves the right to clarify as needed.

Will Malson

Brazilian Ethanol NEG

Page 15 of 17

Consult CP (2/2)
Observation 2: Net Beneficial A. CP is necessary to revive the historic consultative relationship between the US and Brazil. Henry Kissinger 01
[Former National Security Adviser under Nixon and Ford, “Avoiding a collision course over trade,” San Diego Union-Tribune, May 6, LN] (HEG)

A "special relationship" between the United States and Brazil emerged in the Americas not unlike that practiced by the United States with Britain in Europe after World War II. A Brazilian division fought in Italy at our side in World War II; Brazilian troops joined U.S. forces in the Dominican Republic in 1965. As late as the presidency of Gerald Ford, the United States formally accorded Brazil a special consultative status. The relationship began to atrophy soon afterward. In the United States, there was concern about the
military government then ruling in Brazil; in Brazil, irritation mounted regarding U.S. trade legislation considered protectionist. While the concerns about Brazil's domestic circumstances evaporated with the restoration of democracy in the 1980s, the economic disagreements intensified as Brazil's economy gathered momentum. Brazilian officials frequently emphasize that FTAA will provide relatively few benefits to Brazil's agricultural sector so long as the United States farm-support programs confer undue advantages to U.S. domestic producers. Finally, the FTAA would imply the dismantling or, at a minimum, significant reduction of tariff barriers that Brazil has set up to nurture manufacturing and high-tech industries. This does not sit well with some of Brazil's leading industrialists. In the light of these controversies, the FTAA is perceived by many in Brazil as designed for the benefit of the United States; concerns about environmental conditions are interpreted as a subterfuge for diminishing Brazilian sovereignty, while U.S. antidumping policies and labor standards are castigated as pretexts for protectionism. Therefore, Brazil has apparently decided that the vagaries of U.S. domestic and international politics prohibit, and Brazil's growing strength no longer requires, a special status in essence bestowed by the United States. Brazil henceforth seeks to rely on the vibrancy of its economy, the size of its population and the partners it is able to enlist in Mercosur to forge a dominant position in Latin America. As Brazil emerges as one of the major economic and political countries of the 21st century, it has concentrated on slowing down the FTAA in order to solidify Mercosur; on binding Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay to its conception of Latin America's future; and on obliging the United States to deal with a regional bloc rather than with individual countries. And beyond the Atlantic, Europe beckons with a comparable seduction. On a visit to Latin America in March 1997, French President Jacques Chirac identified the future of Latin America not with the "north," meaning NAFTA and the United States, but with Europe. Mercosur could orient itself as a distinct entity toward Europe and in institutional rivalry with NAFTA and the United States. This would not be simply a setback to U.S. economic prospects in a market of 400 million people, accounting for 20 percent of its overseas trade. Above all, it challenges the United States' historic position in the hemisphere and its aspiration for a world order based on a growing community of

The United States should make it a national priority to restore the traditional intimacy between the two countries. It needs to move its dealings with Brazil to the highest levels of its government and to display greater sensitivity to the pride and dignity of a society on the verge of becoming a major power. This also requires a commitment to resolve the bitter trade
democracies in the Americas. Both sides should mount major efforts to avoid this looming contest. disputes over Brazilian sugar, citrus and steel exports.

B. Consultations are key to ensure long-term sustainability of US-Brazilian relations. Genuine consideration of Brazil’s opinions is essential and ensures they’ll ultimately go along with the US agenda. Peter Hakim 04
[President of Inter-American Dialogue, “The Reluctant Partner,” Foreign Affairs, Jan/Feb, Academic Search Elite] (HEG)

analysts and U.S. officials have advocated a far tighter relationship between the two countries, with more regular and structured collaboration. But Brazilians have traditionally preferred pragmatic and opportunistic cooperation with the United States on specific issues. Still somewhat distrustful of Washington, Brasília is wary of creating the expectation that it will quasi-automatically support U.S. positions, compromise its ability to set an independent course for itself, or diminish the diversity of its other international relations. Brazil, in other words, has little interest in
To sustain constructive ties, Washington must keep its expectations realistic. Some developing a privileged relationship with the United States of the type Argentina once sought. That leaves Washington with having to earn Brasília's cooperation issue by issue, without presuming it will be granted. Still, the relationship has been remarkably stable and consistent over the years. The two countries have not been steady allies or continuing adversaries, but they have usually worked productively together. Today the United States can usually count on Brazil for an important measure of collaboration on most issues and can usually avoid its outright opposition on others. The Bush administration should continue its good start, bolstering friendly U.S.-Brazil relations. Lula's administration welcomed the White House's two invitations and U.S.

Washington must remain attentive to Brasília's interests. It would be good policy to systematically solicit Brazil's views on the full range of issues relevant to the hemisphere
recognition of Brazil's special role in South America.

Will Malson

Brazilian Ethanol NEG

Page 16 of 17

and take serious account of them. That will require Washington to pursue a less unilateral approach, particularly in South America, and be willing to accept compromises on its policies and programs. No U.S. administration yet has been able to do this on a sustained basis, and it may be particularly difficult for the Bush White House.
Brasília's ambivalence about its regional and international roles complicates Washington's task. Brazilian politicians have long argued that Brazil is among

Brazil has insisted on playing a lead part in shaping regional politics, resisting U.S. attempts to dominate them. At the same time, it subscribes to a traditional understanding of state
the world's great powers, alongside the United States, Russia, China, and India. As a result, sovereignty and frowns on intervention in a state's domestic affairs even in the name of human rights and democratization. (Lula said on his trip to Cuba, "I don't comment on the internal policies of other countries.") That view has led Brazil almost viscerally to oppose the United States' activist agenda in the hemisphere and elsewhere. Although the United States cannot change Brazil's position, it can moderate it in specific circumstances.

C. Consultations are vital to sustain US-Brazilian relations. James Carragher 02
[Director of Brazilian and Southern Cone Affairs at US State Department, CSIS Forum on 2002 Brazilian Elections, Federal News Service, Oct 29, LN] (HEG)

We consider Brazil a regional partner, and we consult on hemispheric challenges. We will continue to consider
Brazil a regional partner. We will continue to consult with them on hemispheric challenges. Brazil and we are two of the largest and therefore, both for geographic and numerical side, most important democracies in the hemisphere.

It is important, it is natural, and it will continue to be the case that

we have broad consultations across the board.

We've worked on major regional security issues, including the border dispute between Peru and Ecuador; stability of democratic institutions in Paraguay; and the near coup in Ecuador. There are tactical differences. There always will be tactical differences. What we share and what we will continue to share for the next four years and, I believe, for the foreseeable future is a dedication to preserving democratic -- preserving and expanding democratic governance in the hemisphere. I think

it's important to note too that we

work closely -- the two countries -- together and have joint programs in areas not often in public view, prominently in public view. And that would be,
for example, areas of health, science, technology and education. And we would like to see more public attention to those areas and others where we work well together. And six weeks into the job, don't raise your hand, please, and ask me, "What are those areas?" I'll just refer you to the desk officers, and they can give you more details. Thank you very much. First, the first meeting of the senior consultative panel on science and technology, for one example, was held in Brasilia in July. We have regular mechanisms to strengthen and deepen our relationship, regular meetings, the last one of which was last week, the most recent one of which -- sorry -- between our political undersecretaries in our two foreign ministries, law enforcement communities, the defense departments, among others. We also on October 22nd, which was when we had the bilateral consultations, tried a first -- for the first time a trilateral consultation as well, with Mexico, Brazil and the United States. I think Ambassador Barbosa and his colleague was there. All sides felt that was a beneficial thing to do, and I think all sides agreed that it would be beneficial to do it in the end -- in the future, as well. Now if I could look just briefly to the future, we do expect change in Brazil's foreign policy. This is a new administration. New administrations bring changes. They bring changes domestically. They bring changes in foreign policy. Just as with a change in our administrations, even the most dramatic changes at times, we think that probably much of the change will be tone and style, rather than substance. We noted that in his speech after election, the president-elect said Brazil will negotiate FTAA with sovereign determination and seeking to elect protectionism. He also, if I recall correctly, has characterized the United States in the past as a negotiating style of aggressiveness in defending its own interest. That's exactly what democracies are supposed to do. I don't think there's a single person in this room that would trade -- that would not trade the world we have today for a world in which we had 160 democracies who were aggressively defending and negotiating their positions. We expect that from democracies, and we look forward to doing so with the da Silva administration. We think, talking about tone and style, that we will have perhaps to work harder with a da Silva administration to gain support on some of the issues we will be pursuing in multilateral fora. However, I would note that on Colombia, the president-elect opposes outside military intervention, the same position as the Cardoso government has held. The comment -- and this is a playoff of Ambassador Harrington's remark -- the view that he is close to President Chavez of Venezuela and to Fidel Castro -- note, however, that the PT has urged Chavez and the opposition to engage in constructive dialogue, and Lula himself has personally called on President Castro to hold -- the self- designated President Castro to hold free elections. I don't want to get into a bottom line and characterize our bilateral relationship with a da Silva administration vis-a-vis a President Cardoso's administration. We will be working as hard as we possibly can on a number of fronts to -- and I don't think I'm going too far here – to improve

We recognize the importance of Brazil to the hemisphere. President-elect da Silva and his party and his coalitions of parties recognize, we believe, the importance of Brazil's relationship with the United States and our role and interest in the hemisphere. This realization on both sides will lead us, I believe, to continue to consult each other constantly, in a broad variety of fora, and to work together in a constructive, not necessarily fully agreement manner, but always in a constructive manner in which, as two democracies should, we will be able to sit down and clearly lay out our agreements, our areas of agreement and our areas of differences, and work at ways to bridge those differences.
what I think is an excellent bilateral relationship.

Will Malson

Brazilian Ethanol NEG

Page 17 of 17

AT: Consultation is Normal Means; we do it
1. It isn’t normal means. Our Kissinger ev says the consultative relationship with Brazil began to atrophy after Ford’s presidency and that we have to revive it. If anything is normal means, it’s reduced relations. 2. Plan doesn’t do it. Even if consultation is normal means in the real world, the plan doesn’t do it.

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