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Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Engineering Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct

**The sensitivity of seismic response parameters to the uncertain modelling
**

variables of masonry-inﬁlled reinforced concrete frames

Daniel Celarec a, Paolo Ricci b, Matjazˇ Dolšek a,⇑

a

b

**Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
**

Department of Structural Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 10 June 2011

Revised 7 October 2011

Accepted 2 November 2011

Available online 7 January 2012

Keywords:

Sensitivity

Seismic performance assessment

Epistemic uncertainty

Masonry inﬁlls

Inﬁlled RC frame

a b s t r a c t

The sensitivity of the seismic response parameters to the uncertain modelling variables of the inﬁlls and

frame of four inﬁlled reinforced concrete frames was investigated using a simpliﬁed nonlinear method for

the seismic performance assessment of such buildings. This method involves pushover analysis of the

structural model and inelastic spectra that are appropriate for inﬁlled reinforced concrete frames. Structural response was simulated by using nonlinear structural models that employ one-component lumped

plasticity elements for the beams and columns, and compressive diagonal struts to represent the

masonry inﬁlls. The results indicated that uncertainty in the characteristics of the masonry inﬁlls has

the greatest impact on the response parameters corresponding to the limit states of damage limitation

and signiﬁcant damage, whereas the structural response at the near-collapse limit state is most sensitive

to the ultimate rotation of the columns or to the cracking strength of the masonry inﬁlls. Based on the

adopted methodology for the seismic performance assessment of inﬁlled reinforced concrete frames, it

is also shown, that masonry inﬁlls with reduced strength may have a beneﬁcial effect on the near-collapse capacity, expressed in terms of the peak ground acceleration.

Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Reinforced concrete frames with masonry inﬁlls are commonly

found in most parts of Europe and in other places around the world.

The uniform distribution of inﬁlls in a building usually increases the

latter’s strength, provided that the columns have sufﬁcient shear

resistance [1]. On the other hand, irregular positioning of masonry

inﬁlls in the plan or elevation of a building is detrimental for the

structural response, since it can trigger torsional and/or soft-storey

effects. However, a concentration of damage in the lower storeys

of buildings, sometimes resulting in soft-story collapse mechanisms, has also been observed in RC frames which are uniformly

inﬁlled in elevation (e.g. [2,3]). Negative effects were observed, for

instance, during the L’Aquila earthquake, which once again

highlighted the vulnerability of RC frames with masonry inﬁlls [4,5].

Quite numerous comprehensive experimental and analytical

investigations have been performed on RC frames with inﬁlls (e.g.

[1–8]). Some of these studies mainly involved research in the ﬁeld

of the frame–inﬁll interaction, and the latter’s effects on the global

seismic behaviour of inﬁlled frame structures. Several structural

models have been used to model the seismic response of inﬁlled

RC frames. Masonry inﬁlls are usually modelled by equivalent

⇑ Corresponding author.

E-mail address: mdolsek@ikpir.fgg.uni-lj.si (M. Dolšek).

0141-0296/$ - see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2011.11.007

**diagonal struts (e.g. [9–14]). Alternatively, inﬁlled RC frames can
**

be modelled by means of four-node element [15] or by even more

demanding FEM models (e.g. [16,17]). All these different types of

structural models have their pros and cons, but, in general, it is difﬁcult to predict the response of inﬁlled RC frames since their response is extremely nonlinear. As a result, several of the input

parameters of the structural models are uncertain, which is usually

neglected in the structural assessment or design procedure. Lack of

information on how epistemic uncertainty can affect the seismic response of inﬁlled RC frames is not surprising, since uncertainty studies involve simulations which are computationally demanding.

However, some such studies have been performed. For example,

Dymiotis et al. [18], as well as Erberik and Elnashai [19], performed

fragility analyses of inﬁlled structures with consideration of the

material uncertainties. The effects of uncertainties on the seismic response parameters have, however, been more frequently investigated for other structural systems, such as masonry buildings [20],

steel frames [21] and RC frames (e.g. [22]). Different methodologies

for the simultaneous incorporation of the uncertainties for seismic

performance evaluation have been proposed within the framework

of these studies, which are usually computationally demanding.

Sensitivity analysis [23–25] is therefore a typical intermediate

step for uncertainty analysis, since it is aimed at identifying the

input variables which have the greatest impact on the structural

response. These variables can then be the focus of further study

which serves for the determination of the limit-state top displacements corresponding to the three limit states. the results of the pushover analysis were combined with the seismic load in terms of the elastic acceleration spectrum. The results are presented by means of tornado diagrams. and the idealized forcedisplacement relationship. / Engineering Structures 35 (2012) 165–177 in order to extend our knowledge about how these variables affect the structural response. in order to determine the characteristics of the SDOF model. Since. when the last inﬁll in a storey totally collapses. ybc ð1Þ where yi. T 6 TC . and near-collapse (NC). the N2 method [26. ductility demand can be calculated as follows [26]: 1 c ( l ¼ ðR R0 Þ þ l0 . The variability of the output variable y with respect to the variability of each input variable was then calculated as follows: Dy ¼ 100 1 ls . Celarec et al. . . SD and NC limit states.e. the seismic response parameters were computed for the base-case model. However. R 6 Rðls Þ Rðls Þ . corresponds to the equivalent single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) model. . . as well as. . . variation of one random variable to its 16th or 84th fractile was performed. R 6 Rðls Þ. in which case each input variable of the model was set to the best-estimate value. 1. R > Rðls Þ R0 ¼ 2. The most basic type of deterministic sensitivity analysis was used to measure the sensitivity of the limit-state top displacement and corresponding peak ground acceleration to the input variables which contribute to it. 1). the N2 method is more practical to use. which is attained when the maximum strength is reached in the case of most of the inﬁlls in a storey. e. A more detailed explanation about the procedure used by the N2 method is given elsewhere. SD and NC limit states. The ductility demand for the corresponding multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) system can be determined through the modiﬁcation factor C. which were determined by repeating the N2 approach for increasing ground motion intensity.166 D. which are often used in decision analysis (e. [25. . Summary of the sensitivity study and the seismic performance assessment procedure ð3Þ ð5Þ ð6Þ where ru = F3/F1 and ls = D2/D1 (see Fig. In the second step of the evaluation procedure. which relates the spectral displacement of an equivalent SDOF model to the roof displacement of the MDOF model. and global nonlinear structural models. the ductility and the period (R–l–T).j ybc ð%Þ. . The SD limit state was deﬁned by the top displacement. which was performed at the limit states of damage limitation (DL). . . R 6 Rðls Þ 1 ð4Þ . 1). A typical pushover curve of an inﬁlled RC frame. as is prescribed in Eurocode 8-3 [31]. and they usually collapse due to a concentration of damage in one storey in the lower part of a building.g.29]. Fig. Finally. In such a formulation the ductility demand (l) is an unknown quantity. which are capable of simulating the global response of the structure provided that the columns have sufﬁcient shear resistance. . Whenever the period T of the equivalent single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) model does not exceed a corner period between the constant acceleration and constant velocity part of the elastic spectrum (TC). in [26.27]. . whereas ybc corresponds to the value of the output variable estimated for the base-case model. The seismic response parameters were evaluated by using a simpliﬁed nonlinear method. . i. inﬁlled frames are good examples of structures which vibrate primarily in the fundamental mode. . pushover analysis of the MDOF system was performed. With the aim of addressing the above-mentioned issues. The evaluation procedure consisted of the following basic steps. The relationship between the peak ground acceleration and the displacement demand was obtained from the IN2 curves [30]. for the purpose of this study. c¼ 0:7ðT=T c Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p1ﬃﬃﬃ 0:7 r u ðT=T c Þ ru ð2Þ . that the DL limit state at the structural level is attained at a top displacement corresponding to the maximum base shear resulting from the pushover analysis. It is therefore very likely that the N2 method gave good estimates of the investigated response parameters of the sensitivity study. The sensitivity analysis was performed for the seismic response parameters corresponding to three performance levels. with l0 ¼ yi.28]). Note that the reduction factor R [27] is deﬁned as the ratio between the elastic spectral acceleration (Sae) and the acceleration (Say) corresponding to the yield force of the idealized force-displacement relationship (F1 in Fig. and is typical for inﬁlled RC frames. Finally. 16th or 84th). knowing the IN2 curve. . the DL. T 6 TC . First. . Note that the ductility demand of a structural system (l). The resulting pushover curve was then idealized with a quadrilinear force-displacement relationship (Fig. there is a lack of information about the limit states at different structural performance levels. in order to determine the IN2 curve. which is the case for the examples presented in this study. R > Rðls Þ . 1). T 6 T C .e. reducing their uncertainty. which is computed by using the relationship between the reduction factor. as well as all the remaining quantities in the above equations.j is the value of the output variable computed for the variation of the i-th input variable to the j-th fractile (i. it was assumed. First. Rðls Þ ¼ 0:7ðT=T C Þðls 1Þ þ 1 . showing the points corresponding to the DL. it was assumed that structural behaviour at the near-collapse limit state is attained when the rotation of any . R > Rðls Þ. with the approximate assumption that the structure fails after the NC limit state is attained. the limit-state points were evaluated by seeking the intersections of the IN2 curve with the top displacements corresponding to the DL. signiﬁcant damage (SD). and the output variables were calculated. with the aim of obtaining the base shear – top displacement relationship of the frame (the pushover curve).g. where numerical problems often cannot be avoided if structural systems with highly negative post-capping stiffness are analysed. This relationship was developed in a previous study [26]. In comparison with nonlinear dynamic analysis. SD and NC limit states. In the following steps. potentially. the sensitivity of the seismic response parameters to the uncertain modelling variables of masonry inﬁlled frames has been examined for four inﬁlled RC frames.27. in Eurocode 8-3 [31].

However. The yield displacement D1 was determined in such a way that the areas under the pushover curve and under the idealized force – displacement relationship were equal (this is termed the ‘‘equal energy rule’’). a more detailed explanation of the 167 way in which the hinge parameters were determined has been omitted. the height and the length of the inﬁll panel. Force-displacement relationship of the diagonal struts The masonry inﬁlls were modelled by means of diagonal struts. however. although relatively simple. was simulated by using simple nonlinear structural models. whereas in the case of the columns. The shear cracking strength is given by: F cr ¼ scr Aw . and is deﬁned by means of the parameter a as: K deg ¼ aK el : ð13Þ There is a lack of data regarding the estimation of the parameter a. 3. obtained by the pushover analysis. assuming an equivalent strut width equal to: bw ¼ 0:175ðkh hw Þ0:4 dw .39]. by Mainstone’s formula [40]. Ic is the moment of inertia of the RC column. taking into account the interval between the top displacement at the SD limit state and the top displacement at the NC limit state. which were used as examples in the study. This model is supported in the PBEE toolbox [33]. [37]. were assumed to be equal to the maximum base shear of the frame. 4Ec Ic hw ð11Þ where Ew and Ec are the Young’s moduli of the inﬁlls and of the RC frame. Structural modelling The seismic response of the four inﬁlled frames.D. is widely used [8– 14. A similar rule was used to determine the displacement D2. respectively. In this study. whereas the inﬁlls were modelled by in-plane equivalent diagonal struts. Some of them were summarized and reviewed in a previous paper by Dolšek and Fajfar [38]. ð10Þ where dw is the clear diagonal length of the inﬁll panel. it was additionally assumed that bending controls the nonlinear behaviour of the RC columns and beams. The yield and the maximum moments were calculated by moment-curvature analysis. and hw is the clear height of the inﬁll panel. The stiffness and strength of the beams were determined taking into account effective slab widths according to Eurocode 2 [35]. The columns and beams were modelled by one-component lumped plasticity elements. H and L are. Taking into account the test results [9. Its stiffness depends on the elastic stiffness. and that shear failure of columns or beams does not occur. which allows rapid generation of simple nonlinear models and the analysis of inﬁlled RC frames in conjunction with OpenSees [34]. Only the nonlinear model of the masonry inﬁlls is described here in more detail. i. The residual strength of the idealized system (F3) was estimated by again applying the equal energy rule. Note that such a simpliﬁed model is unable to simulate the local effects on the columns due to the presence of the masonry inﬁlls. tw is the thickness of the masonry inﬁll. hw ð7Þ where Aw is the cross-sectional area of the inﬁll panel. Gw is the elastic shear modulus of the inﬁll material. h ¼ arctanðhw =lw Þ is the inclination of the diagonal with respect to horizontal plane. lead to overestimates of the strength and ductility capacity of the example structures. The forces F1 and F2. the force-displacement relationship of the diagonal strut consisting of four branches (Fig. The near-collapse rotations of the hinges in the columns were determined by using the CAE method [36]. since it is numerically stable and computationally efﬁcient.2. After this point constant negative post-capping stiffness was adopted. Considering Eqs.32]. which is estimated as: F max ¼ 1:30 F cr . 1. ð9Þ and the corresponding displacement is evaluated assuming that the secant stiffness is given.38. respectively. is presented in Fig. in Fajfar et al. 3. which consisted of an elastic column/beam elements. Panagiotakos and Fardis [8]) it has been suggested that a should be within the range of values . e. carrying loads only in compression. since it is available in the referenced literature. two independent rotational hinges for bending about the two principal axes were deﬁned. which runs from the maximum strength to the residual strength. In the literature. For this reason the model adopted in this study may.g. Moment-rotation relationship of the plastic hinges in the columns and beams The moment-rotation relationship in the plastic hinges of the beams and columns was assumed to be bi-linear until the maximum moment was attained. the single strut model is not able to reproduce realistic moments and shear forces in the columns. 2) and it based on the approach deﬁned by Panagiotakos and Fardis [8]. and hw is the height of the masonry inﬁll. taking into account the interval between zero displacement and the displacement at maximum base shear.e. Its main uncertainty is related to the deﬁnition of the force-displacement relationship of the diagonal strut. Here. A brief description of the nonlinear model of the RC elements and a detailed description of the model of the masonry inﬁlls are provided in following two sections. This model. and the rotation capacities of the hinges in the beams were estimated according to Eurocode 8-3 [31]. The ﬁrst branch corresponds to the linear elastic behaviour up to the ﬁrst cracking of the inﬁll with a stiffness of: K el ¼ G w Aw . The idealized quadrilinear force-displacement relationship. by assuming zero moment point at the mid span of the beams. and in Dolšek [33]. taking into account the axial forces in the columns due to gravity loads. (10) and (11). many different proposals for the determination of the stiffness and strength of masonry inﬁlls have been made. In the case of the beams. each with two inelastic rotational hinges at its ends.1. deﬁned by three characteristic points. the plastic hinge was used for the major axis of bending only. which correspond to the yield force of the idealized system. and the coefﬁcient kh is deﬁned by the expression: sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4 Ew t w sinð2hÞ kh ¼ . 3. in some cases. The second branch of the envelope runs from the ﬁrst cracking point up to the point of maximum strength. For example.g. the secant stiffness which targets the maximum strength of the inﬁll can be calculated from the expression: Ew bw tw K sec ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ cos2 h: L2 þ H2 ð12Þ The third branch of the envelope is the post-capping degrading branch. in the literature (e. up to maximum strength. Celarec et al. provided that the displacement D3 is equal to the structural top displacement at the SD limit state. / Engineering Structures 35 (2012) 165–177 column becomes greater than or equal to the corresponding ultimate rotation. ð8Þ where scr is the shear cracking stress. whereas the axial forces in the beams were considered to be equal to zero. and Fardis [9].

the second frame (frame B) was designed according to the previous version of Eurocode 8 [42]. The inﬁll’s cracking strength amounted to 0. which was conservatively assumed to be equal to 2% of the maximum strength. The third structure that was analyzed in the study is an RC frame with masonry walls as presented in Fig. 4. frames C and D). 3). It is symmetric in plan with respect to one direction (Fig. with material characteristics taken from wallette tests carried out at the University of Pavia [45]. the strengths of the concrete and the reinforcement steel amounted to 16 and 343 MPa. Most of the uncertain parameters were adopted to follow lognormal distribution. the material characteristics were assumed to be the same as those adopted for the case of the second structure. measured in the horizontal direction and determined according to the described procedure.e. In the case of frame A. 0. measured in the horizontal direction.575 MPa. and was consequently treated as two separate examples (i.41]). It reproduces the design practice in European and Mediterranean countries about 40–50 years ago [32]. Additionally. which was assumed by other researches as presented in Table 1. the stiffness. It was designed on the basis of the design practice and codes which were prescribed in Italy between the 1950s and the 1970s [43]. . The material characteristics of frames A and B were adopted from the corresponding experiments [9. 3. The inﬁll panels in all of the storeys were 19 cm thick. However. Unlike the ﬁrst frame.g. and the parameters which deﬁne the masonry inﬁlls. respectively. The masonry inﬁlls are constructed without openings in all four storeys of the external frames which are oriented in the direction of the loading (Fig 3). and the effective slab width. [20]. and the yield strength of the steel reinforcement to 370 MPa. This study was performed by Verderame et al. 2. the cracking strength of the inﬁlls affects not only the cracking and maximum strength of the panel. the latter being calculated as 1.3 times the corresponding cracking strength.171 GPa [44].28 MPa and 1. Ceramic hollow bricks of width 12 cm were used for the masonry inﬁlls in all of the storeys. The highest coefﬁcients of variations were deﬁned for the parameters of the moment-rotation relationship of the columns and beams. the third structure was independently analyzed in both the longitudinal (X) and transverse (Y) directions. The total number of parameters considered to be uncertain is twelve. Similarly. the following uncertain input variables were considered: the mass of the structure. The described model of the masonry inﬁll was implemented in the PBEE toolbox (see [33. The structure is dual-symmetric and has inﬁll panels which are regularly distributed along the elevation of the external frames in both directions (Fig. based on the study by Rota et al. some of these variables affected more than one modelling parameter.005 and 0. 3). 3). between 0. The ﬁrst frame (frame A) was an RC frame with uniformly distributed masonry inﬁlls (Fig. Since the sensitivity analysis was performed by assuming only one direction of loading. strength and rotational capacity of the plastic hinges in the columns and beams [33].2) was adopted. and (b) the corresponding relationship of the diagonal struts used in the analysis. the variation of post-capping stiffness of masonry inﬁlls is probably larger. for the analyzed inﬁlled frames. in the case of frames C and D. a was assumed to have a value of 0. The envelopes plotted correspond to the different material characteristics and geometry of the masonry inﬁlls which were used in the analyzed inﬁlled frames. [5. the effective slab width. the characteristics of the concrete and of the steel reinforcement were estimated based on the results of a statistical analysis of the mechanical characteristics of the concrete and reinforcing steel used in Italy between 1950 and 1980. 2. the strengths of the concrete and reinforcing steel were. 42 and 580 MPa. According to the adopted model. A relatively low value of the coefﬁcient of variation of the post-capping stiffness of masonry inﬁlls (0.05 for all the masonry inﬁlls. the strengths of the concrete and of the reinforcement steel. the parameters which describe the characteristic rotations in the plastic hinges of the columns and beams. / Engineering Structures 35 (2012) 165–177 Fig. The fourth branch of the envelope is the horizontal branch corresponding to the residual strength. in Fig. as a high ductility class structure [9]. In the case of the presented examples. such as their cracking strength. according to the Italian standards. are shown.1. the steel strength. the cracking strength of the inﬁlls was considered to be fully correlated with the maximum strength. Some examples of the force-displacement relationships of the masonry inﬁll. In the case of the performed sensitivity analysis. The uncertain input variables 4. as described in the next section. In the case of the inﬁll panels. e. the concrete strength. their shear modulus and Young’s modulus.168 D. In the general case. respectively. assumed to be equal 3. respectively. Description of the selected inﬁlled RC structures The sensitivity analysis was performed for four inﬁlled RC frames.2. The concrete compressive strength amounted to 25 MPa. Young’s modulus of the inﬁlls was.32]. and for the cracking strength and the Young’s and shear moduli of the masonry inﬁlls. In the case of frame B. Although all the random variables deﬁned have been assumed to be uncorrelated.24 GPa. Celarec et al. affect the different moment-rotational characteristics of the RC elements. and the post-capping stiffness of the inﬁlls.46].33 times the value of shear modulus Gw [47]. (a) The schematic quadrilinear force-displacement relationship of the diagonal struts (in compression). Their cracking strength and corresponding shear modulus amounted to.1. Description of the example structures and deﬁnition of the uncertain input variables 4. although the upper value corresponds to very brittle inﬁll. they are presented in Table 1. with a corresponding shear modulus of 1.

the best-estimate values of the uncertain parameters for the four example frames. apart from the statistical characteristics. assuming a complete correlation between the parameters corresponding to elements of the same type. However. 3.D. but also the corresponding displacements. In Table 1 are presented. Celarec et al. The global geometry and typical reinforcement of the columns and beams of the example structures. the values of all the random variables have been uniformly assigned over the entire structure. These values have been applied for the base-case structural models. . / Engineering Structures 35 (2012) 165–177 169 Fig.

20 Lognormal Lognormal Lognormal Lognormal [18. / Engineering Structures 35 (2012) 165–177 Table 1 The statistical characteristics of the input random variables. The impact of Gw on the period is an expected result. The results are presented only for the positive direction of loading. For these cases. scr directly inﬂuences the maximum base shear of the inﬁlled frames through the variation in the strength of the inﬁlls.23. 0.20 Normal [49] hyc hyb Calculated Calculated Calculated Calculated Calculated Calculated 0. the base shear coefﬁcients are equal to 0. For example.170 D. The structural models of these cases differ from the base-case model. respectively. For the NC limit state.90 GPa 0. the seismic behaviour of the example frames is governed predominantly by the RC elements. The maximum base shear of the investigated inﬁlled frames is attained at a relatively small top displacement. which roughly depends on the square root of the lateral stiffness of the inﬁlled frame. where the greatest increase in the top displacement at the NC limit state is observed when the cracking strength of the inﬁlls is reduced to its 16th fractile. quite large strength degradation can be observed after the inﬁlls start to collapse.58 MPa 1. Results of the sensitivity analysis 5.05 0. as is marked in Fig. slab width Yield rotation Columns Beams Ultimate rotation Columns Beams Masonry inﬁlls Cracking strength Shear modulus Young’s modulus Ratio between post-capping and elastic stiffness Symbol Median Statistical characteristics Frame A Frame B Frames C and D COV Distribution Ref. if only the bare frame is considered.40 0. For example.24 GPa 4. at 0. however. The maximum positive and minimum negative variations of the described parameters resulting from variations of the random variables to their 16th and 84th fractiles are presented in Table 2. although the coefﬁcients of variation of Gw and scr are of the same order of magnitude.36 Lognormal Lognormal [50] huc hub Calculated Calculated Calculated Calculated Calculated Calculated 0.33. In the case of larger storey drifts. The top displacements at the NC limit states are small. their contribution to the maximum strength. 0.5) for all of the investigated frames. much larger compared to those corresponding to the cases when the inﬁlls are neglected in the structural models.17 GPa 3.28 MPa 1. Celarec et al. However. From here onwards. the inﬁlls degrade until the last inﬁll in the formed plastic mechanism totally collapses (the SD limit state). C and D. This is also an expected result since Gw linearly affects the initial stiffness of the inﬁlls but not the period. which is the highest for frame D.20 0. calculated using the PBEE toolbox [33].28 MPa 1. The notation ‘‘calculated’’ therefore means the best-estimate value for the corresponding variable.16% storey drift for the other frames (Fig.20.71. therefore. since the deformations are mainly localized in the storeys where a soft storey effect was observed. where a soft-storey is formed in the ﬁrst and second storeys. whereas scr linearly affects the maximum strength of the inﬁlls and. 0. and at 0. An exception is frame D.47 and 0.05 0. 4). These values are.24 GPa 4. Variable Concrete strength Steel strength Mass 1st Storey 2nd Storey 3rd Storey 4th Storey Eff. 3. The top displacements at the DL. due to the stiff and brittle behaviour of the inﬁlls.13 GPa 0. 4 by full black lines) amount to 0. Gw and Ew) has the greatest impact on the top displacement at the DL and SD limit states. The uncertainty in the mechanical parameters of the inﬁlls (scr. The presence of the inﬁlls affects the maximum base shear force.20 and 0. the corresponding maximum base shear versus weight ratios can be approximately estimated by subtracting the contribution of the masonry inﬁlls from the base shear of the structure. the inﬁlls reach their maximum strength at relatively small deformations.40 0.05 0. i.3% storey drift in the case of frame A.17. since one random variable was set to its 16th or 84th fractile.10 Normal [48] beff 46 t 46 t 46 t 40 t Calculated 0. since . due to the large contribution of the inﬁlls to the lateral stiffness of the frame. Based on the results of the pushover analyses (Fig. for frames A. Similarly. the maximum base shear and the periods corresponding to the 1st mode shape are presented in Table 2 for the cases of base-case models. 3). The variations in the maximum base shear are much larger (25% to 35%) in comparison to those in the period (12% to 15%). The exception is frame B.36 0.1. in order to compute the sensitivity of the seismic response parameters to the input random variables.45.40 0. Note that the values of the effective slab widths and those of the rotational capacities of the plastic hinges in the columns and beams differ from element to element. the top displacement is most inﬂuenced by the variations in the ultimate rotation of the columns.51] [47] [47] [20] Gw Ew a 5. Pushover analysis In addition to the pushover analyses of the base-case structural models. SD and NC limit states.05 Normal Lognormal [46] [48] m 97 t 95 t 95 t 88 t Calculated 173 t 173 t 173 t 173 t Calculated 0. indicating that the ratio between the spectral acceleration and the peak ground acceleration is practically the same (2. The small periods of the investigated inﬁlled frames practically correspond to the highest spectral acceleration deﬁned in the Eurocode 8 spectrum.e. while simultaneously holding the rest of the random variables to their median values. the base shear coefﬁcient) for the base-case structural models (see the pushover curves which are denoted in Fig. fcm fsy 16 MPa 343 MPa 42 MPa 580 MPa 25 MPa 370 MPa 0. 0.13 GPa 0. 24 pushover analyses were performed for each of the investigated inﬁlled frames.60 Lognormal Lognormal [36] [50] scr 0.30 0. B. respectively. Additionally. The period and maximum strength are most inﬂuenced by the shear modulus (Gw) and cracking strength (scr) of the inﬁlls. the maximum base shear versus weight ratio (i. The horizontal load pattern for the pushover analyses was determined by the product of the storey masses and the ﬁrst modal shape in the analyzed direction. the deformation capacity of the columns and beams is high since the frame was designed according to the capacity design rules which form part of Eurocode 8.e. which indicates that the presence of the inﬁlls signiﬁcantly affects the initial stiffness and the strength of the inﬁlled frames.

4). the lesser strength of the inﬁlls with respect to this frame leads to a more favourable collapse mechanism. Changing the cracking strength of the inﬁlls (scr) to the 16th or 84th fractiles inﬂuences both the maximum base shear and displacement capacities at the DL and the SD limit states (Fig. if scr is set to its 84th fractile. and huc and Gw (on the right) were set to their 16th or 84th fractiles. The pushover curves are presented for the base-case model and for the investigated models. the displacements at both the DL and SD limit states decrease by about 17% and more. Quite a large variability in the maximum base shear. which are presented for each of the investigated inﬁlled frames. except in the case of frame D. 4 is to show the impact of the most important random variables (scr. which affects the period of the frame. since the effect of increasing huc to its 84th fractile had just the opposite effect. This was . The aim of Fig. which will be explained later. and Ew (on the left). where the 16th fractile of scr causes an increase in the SD limit-state top displacement. The pushover curves with highlighted DL.D. SD and NC limit states for the inﬁlled frames A–D. In this case. since scr linearly affects the cracking and maximum strengths of the inﬁlls. C and D the effect of the ultimate rotation of the columns on the shape of pushover curve is presented only for the case when huc is reduced to the 16th fractile. Note that in the case of the inﬁlled frames A. and the initial stiffness. The top displacements at the DL and SD limit states increase in all cases by approximately 28% and more. The opposite effect occurs if scr is reduced to its 16th fractile. where scr. Gw. can be observed in the cases when one random variable is set to its 16th or 84th fractile. / Engineering Structures 35 (2012) 165–177 171 Fig. as well as the corresponding deformations. Celarec et al. 4. Ew and huc) on the pushover curves. the limit-state displacements. whereas the initial stiffness is practically the same as that obtained in the case of the base-case model. This is a direct consequence of the adopted model of the masonry inﬁlls.

max (%) DDt. which correspond to variations of the random variables to their 16th or 84th fractile. The shear modulus of the inﬁlls Gw also signiﬁcantly affects the structural initial stiffness. An increase in the Young’s modulus of the inﬁlls (Ew) results in an increase in the secant stiffness of the inﬁlls according to the adopted diagonal strut model. 5b). if such a slope decreases. but even more severe effect is observed if Ew is set to its 16th fractile. and the periods corresponding to the 1st mode shape for the base-case models. Although. due to the reduced effect of the inﬁlls. However. Frame Period Max. For example. the top displacements at the SD and NC limit states increase by. Soft storey mechanisms and the associated damage to the columns. respectively. This is not only the consequence of the reduced stiffness of the structure but also that of the more evenly distributed deformations along the structural height. the maximum base shear. Consequently.0 11. 5a). whereas in the case that scr is set to its 16th fractile the inﬁlls collapsed in the 1st and the 2nd storeys (see Fig. since both Gw and a are linearly related (Eqs.4 5. about 36% and 74%.6 4. although it has been observed in some other cases. The variations in the shear modulus (Gw) affect the top displacements at the DL and SD limit states (Fig. Consequently the top displacement at maximum strength is reduced (Fig.12 0. the formation of different soft-storey mechanisms due to variation of the input random variables is rare. base shear Displacement capacity Dt. from around +30% to 12% and more of the displacements of base-case model.SD (%) DDt.4 41. The post-capping stiffness parameter (a) has a similar effect on Dt. Uncertainty in the ultimate rotation of the columns (huc) strongly affects the top displacement at the NC limit state. / Engineering Structures 35 (2012) 165–177 Table 2 The top displacements at the DL. beams and inﬁlls for frames A and D. the variation of Ew from its median to its 84th fractile reduces the top displacements at the DL limit state by at least 20%. 4). SD and NC limit states. The soft storey mechanisms are presented for the base-case model as well as for the variation of scr to its 16th fractile.27 1260 1671 3240 1623 2. Note that a colour version of this ﬁgure is available in the online issue of the journal. In the case of the inﬁlled frame A it was observed that a soft storey mechanism is formed in the 1st storey if the input parameters of the model are set to their best-estimated values. respectively.4 1. An opposite. Celarec et al. setting Gw to its 16th and 84th fractiles causes the top displacement at the SD limit state to vary.16 0.DL (%) DDt. in this case. (7) and (13)) to the slope of the degrading part of the inﬁll’s force-displacement relationship. The increased displacements at the DL limit state therefore induce a larger base shear in the frame. 5. Adoption of the 16th fractile of Gw leads to an increased top displacement at the DL limit state.172 D.2 2. but in the case when scr is reduced to its 16th fractile a soft-storey mechanism forms in the 2nd storey (Fig. . consequently.LS (cm) T1 (s) Fb. the global top displacements of the inﬁlled frames at the DL and SD limit states. In all cases. The inelastic displacements of the inﬁlls and.4 2.max (kN) DL SD NC 0. which Fig. since the response of the frame is still elastic for the displacements at the DL limit state.SD.13 0. the strength of the inﬁlls is unchanged. are inversely proportional to Ew. 4). the displacement corresponding to the collapse of the inﬁll increases. and their maximum positive and minimum negative variations.8 1.8 Minimum DT1 (%) DFb.2 11.2 1. the base shear of the structure at the DL limit state increases.NC (%) A 12 G84 w 25 21 11 G84 w 28 G84 w s16 cr 29 s16 cr 26 h16 uc B C 12 G84 w 29 E84 w 17 G84 w 29 h16 uc D 9 G84 w s16 cr 25 s16 cr 26 s16 cr 26 s16 cr s16 cr 21 G84 w 28 h16 uc s84 cr s84 cr 33 s84 cr 34 s84 cr A B C D 25 s16 cr 24 30 h16 uc Maximum A 15 G16 w 30 36 E16 w 30 B 13 G16 w 35 66 G16 w 102 C 14 D 11 G16 w G16 w 43 44 E16 w G16 w 33 36 s84 cr s84 cr 38 h84 uc G16 w 16 cr 43 h84 uc s 44 h84 uc 74 s16 cr because a soft-storey mechanism was formed in the 2nd storey of the base-case model.9 7.

due to the high deformation capacity of its columns. Other uncertain parameters of the model of the RC frame have much less impact on the response parameters of the inﬁlled frames. Celarec et al.0 s). in addition to the most important input variables that have been so far discussed. the variations in the yield rotation (hyc) cause a relatively high swing in the top displacement at the DL limit state. The seismic load consisted of the elastic acceleration spectrum deﬁned according to Eurocode 8-1 [42] for soil class B (S = 1. Peak ground acceleration corresponding to the DL. The highest peak ground acceleration at the DL limit state is observed in the case of frame A. TC = 0. The highest peak ground acceleration corresponding to the NC limit state is observed in the case of frame B. 6. Tornado diagrams for the top displacements at the DL. Fig. The sensitivity of the top displacement to the six most important input variables is presented. 173 5. This can be well seen in the tornado diagrams presented in Fig. 6. .15 s. / Engineering Structures 35 (2012) 165–177 varies from 26% to +38% if huc is changed to its 16th and 84th fractiles.27]. in the case of frame B.LS if assessed by using the base-case models of the investigated frames. For example. However.D. at the three limit states. extending from 27% to +20% around the base-case value if hyc is set to its 84th and 16th fractiles. since the base shear coefﬁcient of frame A amounts to around 71%. Still. these (less important) random variables may have a moderate effect on the seismic response parameters. In these two cases the variations in fcm to the 16th and 84th fractiles cause the top displacement at the NC limit state to vary from 7% to +6% around the base-case value.2. the situation changes with increasing severity of the limit states. Concrete strength (fcm) is of moderate importance for frames C and D. SD and NC limit states (agLS) were estimated by using the N2 method [26. which show the sensitivity of the top displacements. which is a very high value even if compared to that of the remaining inﬁlled frames under investigation. The values of ag.2. respectively. SD and NC limit states The peak ground accelerations corresponding to the DL. The remaining random variables have a negligible effect on the limit-state top displacements. SD and NC limit states for the inﬁlled frames A–D.5 s and TD = 2. in some cases. respectively. to ﬁve input variables. TB = 0. are presented in Table 3.

57 Minimum Dag. For this reason. An increase in scr (to the 84th fractile) causes an increase in ag. which were used to construct the IN2 curves. This means that higher strength of the inﬁlls may reduce the peak ground acceleration ag. which correspond to the variations of the random variables to their 16th or 84th fractile. / Engineering Structures 35 (2012) 165–177 Table 3 Peak ground accelerations at the DL. Such a strong inﬂuence of scr on ag. 7. Celarec et al. However. This is true in the case of frames B. It can be observed that the cracking strength of the inﬁlls (scr) has the greatest effect on the peak ground accelerations corresponding to the DL and SD limit states in almost all cases. the results are presented only for frame A. and their maximum positive and minimum negative variations.32 0. C and D.SD could be expected.SD. are also presented in Table 3. since qualitatively quite similar results were obtained in the case of the remaining three frames. For reasons of simplicity. the opposite effect can be observed in the case of the NC limit state.NC). the most important variable which causes the minimum negative variation of ag.28 0. at least in the case of frames B and C.NC (%) s16 cr s s 21 s 9 11 23 h16 uc 21 21 s84 cr s84 cr 27 s84 cr 25 s84 cr 26 41 23 h16 uc 16 h16 uc 18 28 s84 cr s16 cr 22 h84 uc 61 s16 cr The maximum positive and minimum negative variations of ag. .DL and ag.NC whereas an increase in ag. The IN2 curves are presented for the base-case model and for the investigated models. which relates the residual strength to the maximum base shear. but in several cases it is the ultimate rotations in the columns (huc) which have the greatest impact on the peak ground acceleration ag. an increase in scr decreases the value of the parameter ru (Section 2). which results in a gentler slope of the IN2 curve.NC due to the 16th fractile of scr with respect to frame D results from the higher available ductility due to the formation of a more favourable soft-storey mechanism at the NC limit state (see Section 5. since according to the adopted model scr affects the maximum base shear of the frames and also the available ductility corresponding to the DL and SD limit states. (2) and (3)). The IN2 curves with highlighted DL. the variation of the shear modulus (Gw) to its 84th fractile is.46 0. Consequently. The inﬂuence of scr on the IN2 curves and on the peak ground acceleration corresponding to the DL. 8 Fig.SD.1). in the case of frame D. SD and NC limit states is presented in Fig.33 0. One reason for such response of frames can be found in inelastic spectra.DL and ag.35 0.NC with respect to that estimated for the base-case. The impact of Ew.174 D.DL (%) A B C D s s 27 s 25 s 23 26 16 cr 16 cr 16 cr 16 cr B Maximum 30 s84 cr 34 s84 cr C 37 D 33 A s84 cr s84 cr Dag.SD (%) 16 cr 16 cr 16 cr G84 w Dag.57 2. The cracking strength of the inﬁlls (scr) still has a signiﬁcant impact on the peak ground acceleration corresponding to the NC limit state (ag.52 0. From Fig.22 0. except for the SD limit state in the case of frame D.NC. which also have an important inﬂuence on the prediction of the IN2 curves and the peak ground accelerations corresponding to the DL. 8. the ductility demand at a given peak ground acceleration is signiﬁcantly increased (Eqs. The remaining parameters of the masonry inﬁlls have a minor effect on the maximum base shear. For the same reasons. huc and m.62 0. where scr was set to its 16th or 84th fractile. Frame A B C D Peak ground acceleration agLS (g) DL SD NC 0. For example. SD and NC limit states for the inﬁlled frames A–D. SD and NC limit states for the base-case models.LS resulting from the variations in the random variables to their 16th and 84th fractiles. but importantly affect the ductility demand. Gw. 7 for all of the investigated frames.52 0. a decrease in scr leads to an increase in ag. which may eventually prevail on the impact caused by scr. SD and NC limit states. This can sometimes prevail against the positive effect of the higher strength of the inﬁlls.16 0. is shown in Fig.

which were important for the limit-state displacements. Ew and huc were set to their 16th or 84th fractile. The IN2 curves (Fig. SD and NC limit states for inﬁlled frame A.LS (±10%). From the tornado diagrams (Fig. in this case. The seismic displacement demand decreases in the case of a reduced period. In general. The sensitivity of limit-state peak ground accelerations for the six most inﬂuential random variables is presented in the tornado diagrams shown in Fig. It is shown that the impact of uncertain input parameters on the structural response is expected and could be predicted in advance for most of the presented examples.LS. In all cases it was observed that smaller masses cause larger values of ag. are dominant also for the prediction of the limit-state peak ground accelerations. since.LS of a similar order of magnitude is caused by variation of the shear modulus Gw but its impact can signiﬁcantly vary with respect to the investigated frames. The IN2 curves with the highlighted DL. inﬁlls with higher values of Gw with respect to frame A result in a slight increase in safety. as well as the ultimate rotation in the beams (hub). The latter was.LS is similar for all of the investigated frames and limit states. The results are presented and discussed only for cases where a high sensitivity of the seismic response parameters to the input random variables was observed. In addition. The opposite can be observed for the other three frames. The impact of variation of mass on ag. an increase in the peak ground acceleration ag. where scr. C and D. the seismic demand is increased in the region beyond the SD limit state. Gw. 9. The variation of Ew to its 16th or 84th fractile has only a moderate effect on ag. since the input random variables may significantly affect the collapse mechanism if compared to that of the base-case model. the frame was designed with a strong column – weak beam concept. 9). This can be directly related to the fact that reducing Ew has a positive effect on the limit-state top displacement and the maximum strength as discussed above (Section 5. which is a logical result. and near-collapse (NC). The IN2 curves are presented for the base-case model and for the investigated models. since the 16th fractile of Ew causes a decrease in the residual-strength factor (ru). has been adopted in the sensitivity study. and can sometimes prevail against the beneﬁcial effect of the increased strength and limit-state displacement. which is caused by the reduced mass. Conclusions A simpliﬁed nonlinear procedure for the seismic performance assessment of inﬁlled RC frames. The ultimate rotation in the columns (huc) affects only the peak ground accelerations at the NC limit state. An impact on ag.1). For these reasons the sensitivity of the response . leading to the relatively important role of the beam’s rotational capacity at the NC limit state. Celarec et al. mass signiﬁcantly affects the predicted limitstate peak ground acceleration. it can be observed that the magnitude of this effect is not negligible. The sensitivity of the response parameters was measured at the limit states corresponding to damage limitation (DL).LS is observed if Ew is reduced to its 16th fractile. Consequently. since the limit states are attained at higher value of ag. / Engineering Structures 35 (2012) 165–177 175 Fig.NC of about ±25%. since variation of huc to its 16th or 84th fractile can cause a variation in ag. the opposite effect of Ew on ag. However. since the structural behaviour at the NC limit state is based on the ultimate rotation of the columns.LS is observed. in the case of NC limit state and the frames B. 8) are thus shifted vertically in the positive and negative direction if the mass is set to its 16th and 84th fractile. which can be observed from the tornado diagrams presented in Fig. But more importantly.LS and vice versa. 9. More or less the same random variables. 6. However. signiﬁcant damage (SD). in general. as well as simpliﬁed nonlinear structural models which are capable of predicting the global response of inﬁlled and RC frames provided that the columns do not fail in shear. 8. respectively. as well as from the IN2 curves.D. there is an inverse relationship between the acceleration that causes nonlinear structural response and mass. such a claim is not possible. observed only in the case of frame B. however.

the shear modulus (Gw). The concrete strength (fcm). hyb).LS is signiﬁcantly affected also by the cracking strength of the masonry inﬁlls. . and initial stiffness of the columns and that of the beams (hyc. the calculated top displacements and the corresponding peak ground accelerations in the region up to the SD limit state can vary by more than 30% when scr. Young’s modulus (Ew). Consequently. the cracking strength (scr). In all cases. However. / Engineering Structures 35 (2012) 165–177 Fig. can be given as follows: The uncertainty in the characteristics of the masonry inﬁlls has the greatest impact on the seismic response parameters. but. in some cases. SD and NC limit states for the inﬁlled frames A–D. Tornado diagrams for the peak ground acceleration at the DL. if expressed in terms of the maximum base shear or displacement quantities. of lesser importance. The sensitivity of the top displacement to the six most important input variables is presented. For example. depending on the frame analyzed and the limit state considered. the ultimate rotation of the beams (hub). and the parameter of the post-capping stiffness of the inﬁlls (a). the maximum base shear and the displacement characteristics of the analyzed frames. for the example inﬁlled frames. Ew or a are set to their 16th or 84th fractile. the relative contributions of beff and fsy to the global structural response parameters. are. parameters to the input random variables cannot be simply predicted. do not exceed 5% of the values calculated for the base-case model. which are typical at least for the investigated inﬁlled frames. Celarec et al. these parameters do affect the seismic structural performance of the frames (up to 10%). Gw. 9. whereas the corresponding peak ground acceleration ag. are the random variables which most signiﬁcantly affect the initial stiffness. The effective slab width (beff) and the steel strength (fsy) are classiﬁed as not important variables.176 D. some general conclusions. The top displacement at the NC limit state is most sensitive to the ultimate rotation of the columns huc.

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