 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 

٢١٢

‫א‬

 ٢١٢

‫א‬





 
 W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،  
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬   
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬??? ?‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   W    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



 ٢١٢

‫א‬





 
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫?א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

??‫א‬?‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬WW‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬



 ٢١٢

‫א‬





 W‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

K?‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



‫א‬

‫א‬

١

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬W

‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-١-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


 W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ∗

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ∗

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ∗

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ∗

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ∗

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

١١٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE


-٢-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬W١J ١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬W٢J ١
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
drilling ‫א‬
shaping ‫א‬

milling

‫א‬

turning

boring ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

broaching

grinding

‫א‬

sawing
planning

‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬   •
K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،‫א‬  ‫א‬   •

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ •
 K

-٣-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٣J ١
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬    ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Castings‫א‬ •
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬forgings‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬      •
K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
Cutting Motions‫א‬W٤J ١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬EK١-١F‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

 K‫א‬‫א‬

-٤-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


 

‫א‬WE١-١F‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

Cutting motion‫א‬W١٤١

 Wwork piece‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬tool‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

Feed motion‫א‬W٢٤١

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

Setting the cutting depth motion‫א‬W٣٤١

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٢١F‫א‬
-٥-

 ‫א‬

 -

‫א‬E3

‫א‬E٢

K‫א‬E٤

 K‫א‬(1 

 ‫א‬‫א‬E٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٢١F‫א‬

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

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 -



 The cutting process‫א‬W٥١
  Formation of chipsE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W١٥١

‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E ß1F‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

K ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 K‫א‬E٣١F‫א‬


‫א‬WE٣١F‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢٥١

‫א‬KEγF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

KContinuous chip  ‫א‬  Shear chip  ‫א‬ Broken chip‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤J ١F‫א‬

-٧-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

EF

 °٥<‫א‬

 ‫א‬




 

°٥>‫א‬°١٥Z‫א‬


          EF  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  χ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   E٥J ١F ‫א‬

 ‫א‬Fh‫א‬‫א‬A ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 KEd‫א‬Fb‫א‬‫א‬Ef

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A = b . h = d . f [mm2]

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٥١F‫א‬

 Built -up edge‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٦١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 KL٨٠

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
 K‫• א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 -



 developed heat‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٧١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E٦J ١F‫א‬Kº٨٥٠<‫א‬ ،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E٧ ١F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٧١F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٦١F‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬      K‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬    K ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

- ١٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 -



 Cooling and lubrication‫א‬‫א‬W٨١
  K ‫א‬       ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

    ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬   K‫א‬
 K‫א‬.،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

  ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫• א‬
 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E Mineral oilsF‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬E٣١F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢١F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 -




 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 L١٩

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 L١٣٢

 ٢٥

 L١٧٠

 ٥٠

 L٢٢٧

 ٧٥

 ‫א‬

 L١٩

 

 L٢٢٧
 L١١–٨

 

 ‫א‬

 ٢٥

 ‫א‬xL٠{٤
 L٧٦

 

 ‫א‬
 

 L١٥١

 

‫א‬L٠{٧٥

 ‫א‬

 EF

 L٣٨

 

‫א‬‫א‬x ‫א‬L٠{٤٥

 

 

 LL١١

 

 LL١٩

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١١F‫א‬

- ١٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬





‫ א‬

‫א‬

‫ א‬

HDO -S

GPO S

HDS

GPS

HDS

HDAC

HDAC

HDO - S

HDAC
GPO S

HDS

HDS

HDS

HDS

GPO - S

GPS

GPO – S

HDO NS
GPO NS
GPO NS
HDO NS

GPO NS
GPO NS
GPO NS
GPO NS

HDO –
NS
GPO –
NS
GPO –
NS
HDO –
NS


‫א‬

GPO –
S
HDO – S
HDO - S
GPS

HDS

HDAC
HDAC
GPO –
HDO – S
S
HDO - S


GPO S
GPS

‫א‬
J 
‫א‬



HDAC
GPO S

‫א‬

HDS

HDS



GPS

GPO - S

GPS



GPO –
NS
GPO –
NS
GPO –
NS
GPO –
NS

HDO NS
GPO NS
GPON NS
HDO NS

GPO NS
GPO NS
GPO NS
GPO NS



‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬



HDS

HDS

HDS

HDS

HDS

HDS

‫א‬‫א‬

HDAC
GPS

HDAC
GPS

HDAC
GPS

HDAC
GPS

HDAC
GPS

HDAC
GPS

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢J ١F‫א‬

- ١٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

GPO General purpose mineral oil

 ‫א‬
 HDO Heavy duty mineral oil
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 GPS General purpose soluble oil
 ‫א‬
 HDS Heavy duty soluble oil
‫א‬‫א‬

GPAC General purpose aqueous coolant

‫א‬

HDAC Heavy duty aqueous coolant

 ‫א‬
S Staining

 ‫א‬
NS NonJ staining

- ١٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


 W

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬K‫א‬E١

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢

 K‫א‬E٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٨

 K،‫א‬‫א‬E٩

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠

 ‫؟‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١

 ‫א؟‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٢

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦




- ١٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


 W‫א‬‫א‬E١٧

 EF

EF

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


(‫أ‬
(‫ب‬
(‫ج‬
(‫ح‬
(‫خ‬
(‫د‬
(‫ذ‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٨

 

 ‫א‬

(‫أ‬

 ‫א‬

(‫ب‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(‫ت‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(‫ث‬



 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 º٨٥٠<

º٢٥٠J ١٥٠



‫א‬‫א‬
º ١٥٠>

 WE١٩

 K‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EF‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٦ -

(‫أ‬
(‫ب‬
(‫ت‬
(‫ث‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬E٢٠

- ١٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


 Cutting Parameters ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 WW١J ٢
 K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬W‫א‬
 J 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

  ‫א‬  ‫א‬        ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 [m/min]
Cutting speed ‫א‬W٢J ٢
K‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  
،‫א‬‫א‬

  EF ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   K E ٢F ‫א‬ 

‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢F
 KEL

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   K‫א‬     

 K‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 -



  ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

   ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬    •
K

‫א‬KFinishing •


‫א‬   KRoughing  ‫א‬    •


‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ •
K

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •


 (n)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 n =1000* V / πd



 [m/min]‫א‬VW

 [rev/min] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬n  

 [mm] K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬d  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
- ١٩ -

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢J ٥FE٤-٢F،E٣-٢F،E٢-٢F،E١-٢F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 FEED SPEED [mm/rev]‫א‬W٣J ٢
 ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   
،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬    K         ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬ •

‫א‬‫א‬ •
KMild steel‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ E٥-٢F E٤-٢F ، E٣-٢F ،E٢-٢F ،E١-٢F ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Depth of cut ‫א‬W٤J ٢
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KK
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ٢٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬   •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ •
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ 
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

 ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   •
K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬

‫א‬

L‫א‬
 



L

١٤٠

٢٠٠J ١٦٠



0.8

0.2 - 0.4

1.6

0.2 - 0.8

H.S.S
90 –
125
56 –
100

3.2

0.2 - 1.6

32 - 80

4.8

0.2 - 1.6

25 - 71

6.4

0.2 - 1.6

25 - 63

220 320
140 250
71 200
63 180
45 140

9.6

0.4 - 2.4

16 - 45

12 .7

0.4 - 3.2

19

0.4 -- 3.2

 

H.S.S



٣٦٠J ٢٢٠
H.S.S



32 - 63

150 200
100 180

20 - 50

63 - 140

10 -- 25

110 140
71 120
45 100

16 - 45

56 - 125

10 -- 25

36 – 90

16 - 40

36 - 120

8 -- 20

25 – 80

40 - 90

10 – 25

32 – 80

6 -- 16

20 – 56

10 -- 40

36 - 90

8 -- 25

25 – 71

4-- 16

32 – 50

10 -- 25

25 - 55

7 -- 16

20 – 40

3 -- 8

20 – 50

56 - 71

25 - 36
16 - 32

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١-٢F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K١٢٠–٩٠‫א‬‫א‬
- ٢١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬


L‫א‬
 



L

H.S.S



0.8

0.2 - 0.8

63 - 90

1.6

0.2 - 0.8

50 - 80

3.2

0.2 - 1.6

32 - 71

4.8

0.2 - 1.6

32 - 63

6.4

0.2 - 1.6

25 - 63

110 –
160
100 –
140
63 –
140
63 –
125
56 –
120

9.6

0.4 - 3.2

20 - 40

12 .7

0.4 - 2.4
0.4 -3.2

19

٢٠٠J ١٦٠

١٦٠

H.S.S



 

٣٦٠J ٢٢٠
H.S.S



20 – 32

63 –
100

16 – 25

56 – 90

25 - 45

71 –
120
63 –
110

20 - 40

45 - 90

10 – 25

40 – 71

16 - 32

36 - 80

9 – 20

32 – 71

16 - 32

36 - 71

8 – 20

25 – 63

36 – 80

9 -- 20

32 - 56

5 – 16

25 – 45

16 - 40

25 – 80

8 -- 20

32 - 50

5 -- 10

20 – 40

10 - 36

20 – 71

7 -- 20

25 - 45

4 -- 10

20 -32

32 - 50

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE2J ٢F‫א‬
 ‫א‬K١٢٠–٩٠‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬



L

L‫א‬
،‫א‬

،،

،‫א‬

H.S.S



H.S.S



H.S.S



o.8

0.1 - 0.4

56 - 90

150 - 250

90 - 150

220 - 400

110 –
200

280 –
500

1.6

0.1 - 0.8

32 - 71

100 - 220

56 - 120

140 - 300

71 – 150

180 –
400

3.2

0.1 - 1.6

20 - 63

63 - 180

32 - 95

71 - 250

40 – 120

110 –
300

6.4

0.1 - 1.6

16 - 45

40 - 140

25 - 80

46 - 180

36 – 110

71 –
250

9.6

0.1 - 2.4

9 -- 40

25 - 140

16 - 71

32 - 150

20 – 90

45 –
200

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣J ٢F‫א‬
KK١٢٠–٩٠‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

- ٢٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -




 ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬







‫ﺧﺮاﻃﺔ‬

‫ دﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬/ ‫م‬

24 - 37

18 - 37

‫أﺳﺘﻘﺮاﺑﻴﺔ‬

‫ دورة‬/ ‫ﻣﻢ‬

0.3 - 3.8

‫ﺧﺮاﻃﺔ‬

‫ دﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬/ ‫م‬

‫ﺗﺸﻄﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬



–‫א‬

46 - 107

18 - 46

61 - 91

183 - 549

46

91

0.3 - 3.8

1.3 - 0.38

0.5 - 0.13

0.3 - 2.5

0.25 – 2.5

1.5

1.5

30 - 46

38 - 61

61 - 122

37 - 61

76 - 152

183 - 549

91

122

‫ دورة‬/ ‫ﻣﻢ‬

0.08 - 0.25

0.08 - 0.25

0.2 - 0.1

0.2 - 0.13

0.1 - 0.25

0.1 - 0.25

0.38

0.25

‫ﺗﺤﺰﻳﺰ‬

‫ دﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬/ ‫م‬

15 - 23

15 - 27

37 - 61

30 - 37

30 - 61

107 - 152

46

91

‫و ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ دورة‬/ ‫ﻣﻢ‬

0.25 - 2.03

0.25 - 1.5

0.2 - 0.1

0.15 - 0.1

0.25 - 0.76

0.25 – 1.3

0.25

0.13

‫ﺗﺠﻮﻳﻒ‬

‫ دﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬/ ‫م‬

60 - 125

18 - 38

43 - 11

20 - 30

61 - 91

549

46

61

Boring

‫ دورة‬/ ‫ﻣﻢ‬

0.13 - 0.5

0.13 - 0.5

0.13 - 0.1

0.13 - 2.5

0.13 - 0.5

0.2 – 1.5

0.5

0.5

‫ دﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬/ ‫م‬

24 - 55

18 - 40

30 -- 11

14 - 20

61 - 91

154 - 549

30

91

‫ دورة‬/ ‫ﻣﻢ‬

0.13 - 0.5

0.25 - 3.3

0.13 - 0.76

0.13 - 0.38

0.25 - 0.76

0.25 – 1.3

0.13 - 0.76

0.13 – 0.5

‫ دﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬/ ‫م‬

12 -- 30

18 - 30

11 -- 30

12 -- 18

61 - 91

152 - 549

30

61

‫ دورة‬/ ‫ﻣﻢ‬

0.13 - 0.5

0.25 - 3.3

0.13 - 0.76

0.13 - 0.38

0.25 - 0.76

0.25 – 1.3

0.13 - 0.76

0.13- 0.5

‫ﺗﻔﺮﻳﺰ‬
‫واﺟﻬﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻔﺮﻳﺰ‬
‫ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ‬

‫א‬

 

 –



 

Rough turningZ‫א‬‫א‬

recessingZ

finish turningZ‫א‬

CutoffZ

Face millingZ‫א‬

Periphery millingZ

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٤٢F‫א‬

- ٢٣ -

‫א‪ ‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪  ١٢١‬‬

‫א‪‬א‪ ‬‬

‫‪ -‬‬

‫‪‬א‪ ‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬

‫ﻣﺎدة اﻟﺸﻐﻠﺔ‬

‫اﻟﺼﻼدة‬

‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻘﻄﻊ )م ‪/‬‬
‫دﻗﻴﻘﺔ(‬
‫آﺮﺑﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺮاﻣﻴﻚ‬

‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ )ﻣﻢ ‪/‬‬
‫دورة(‬
‫آﺮﺑﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺮاﻣﻴﻚ‬

‫ﻋﻤﻖ اﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻢ‬

‫ﻋﻤﺮ اﻷداة ) دﻗﻴﻘﺔ(‬
‫آﺮﺑﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺮاﻣﻴﻚ‬

‫ﺧﺮاﻃﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻄﺮوﻗﺎت‬
‫ﺻﻠﺐ‬

‫روآﻮﻳﻞ‪32‬‬

‫‪366‬‬

‫‪168‬‬

‫‪0.25‬‬

‫‪0.25‬‬

‫‪0.51‬‬

‫‪55‬‬

‫‪17‬‬

‫ﺧﺮاﻃﺔ‬
‫ﺧﺸﻨﺔ‬

‫ﻣﺴﺒﻮآﺎت‬
‫زهﺮ‬

‫ﺑﻴﺮﻧﻴﻞ ‪241‬‬

‫‪1524‬‬

‫‪198‬‬

‫‪0.64‬‬

‫‪0.51‬‬

‫‪4.75‬‬

‫‪18‬‬

‫‪21‬‬

‫ﺧﺮاﻃﺔ‬
‫ﺧﺸﻨﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻄﺮوﻗﺎت‬
‫ﺻﻠﺐ‬

‫ﺑﻴﺮﻧﻴﻞ‪200‬‬

‫‪549‬‬

‫‪213‬‬

‫‪0.46‬‬

‫‪0.41‬‬

‫‪6.35‬‬

‫‪15‬‬

‫‪28‬‬

‫ﺧﺮاﻃﺔ‬
‫ﺧﺸﻨﺔ‬

‫ﻣﺴﺒﻮآﺎت‬
‫زهﺮ‬

‫ﺑﻴﺮﻧﻴﻞ‪241‬‬

‫‪671‬‬

‫‪198‬‬

‫‪0.51‬‬

‫‪0.41‬‬

‫‪4.75‬‬

‫‪23‬‬

‫‪33‬‬

‫ﺧﺮاﻃﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻄﺮوﻗﺎت‬
‫ﺻﻠﺐ‬

‫روآﻮﻳﻞ ‪32‬‬

‫‪610‬‬

‫‪152‬‬

‫‪0.25‬‬

‫‪0.25‬‬

‫‪0.51‬‬

‫‪63‬‬

‫‪36‬‬

‫א‪WE٥٢F‬א‪‬א‪‬א‪‬א‪‬א‪‬א‪‬א‪ K‬‬

‫‪- ٢٤ -‬‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 -



 W

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢

 K‫א‬E٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦

 K‫א‬E٧

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٨

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١

 ‫א‬E١٢

 EF



K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 EF

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 EFK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 EF

 K‫א‬‫א‬E

- ٢٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 Cutting Tools

 W‫א‬‫א‬W١٣
،E،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ •

، ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ •

 ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ،‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬      

K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬   •
K‫א‬

،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  

 E١ ٣F ‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  

 K‫א‬

- ٢٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬WE١٣F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ،‫א‬    W‫א‬   •
 KKKK،،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ •

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ،‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬

K‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬ ،‫א‬  ‫א‬  W‫א‬ ‫א‬  •

‫א‬       ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ٢٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤ ٣F،E٣ ٣F،E٢ ٣F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٣F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣٣F‫א‬
- ٢٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬



 WE٤٣F‫א‬
 Tool angles‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٣٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥٣F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٥٣F‫א‬

،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬    W     ‫א‬‫א‬   

    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ،‫א‬ 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

- ٢٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


EγF‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  
 º٢٠J ٨

‫א‬ E βF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ º٧٠ ٦٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ º٥٠ ٤٠
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 º٨٥‫א‬

E‫א‬αF‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬ εF‫א‬‫א‬
 º٩٠J ١١

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EχF‫א‬‫א‬

 º٩٠J ٠

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥٣FE٣٣FE١٣F‫א‬‫א‬

 Tool signature ‫א‬‫א‬W٤٣
  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ،‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬    

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  K‫א‬ ‫א‬  ISO ‫א‬ ‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 ISO2 DIN4972 L 25q k10


 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ٢٥‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٣٠ -

ISO2

DIN4972
 L 
 25q

K10

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٥-٣
K‫א‬     ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K
         ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ،º٢٠٠ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

º ٦٠٠،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EInsertsF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬ º٩٠٠‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬   Kº١٢٠٠    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

  ، H   ‫א‬ F ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EKKKK،‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦٣F،E٤٣F،E٢٣F‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬  
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 EFE F

 KEFEFWE٦٣F‫א‬
- ٣١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


 ١٨٧٠‫א‬‫א‬E٦٣F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

 W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬،‫א‬ •

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
    ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٣٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬
،

8 - 10

0 J 7

6-8

7-9

،‫א‬

8 - 12

0 - 12

8 - 10

8 - 10

١٠٤٥SAE 

10 - 14

0 - 14

7-9

7-9

١١١٢SAE 

10 - 16

0 - 14

7-9

7-9

١٣٣٥SAE 

8 - 10

0 - 10

7-9

7-9

٣١٣٥SAE 

8 - 10

0-8

7-9

٦١٤٠SAE 

8 - 12

0-5

6-8

7-9
8 J 10

15

0

14

12 - 14



4-6

0

8 - 10

8 - 10



12 - 20

0 - 16

12 - 14

12 - 14



0-8

0

6 - 10

8 - 10



0 - 10

0-2

8 - 12

10 - 12





SAE = Society of automative Engineers

 EF‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٣F‫א‬






- ٣٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬



٪‫א‬‫א‬
 
Co
V

8
8

1
2
2
1.15
1.15

8
5
5

1
2
2
5

 

Mo
W Cr
C
‫א‬

AISI
Type

8.5
1.5
4
0.85
5
6
4
1.05
8.75
1.75
4
1
9.5
1.5
4
0.9
9.5
1.5
3.75
1.1
‫א‬

M1
M2
M7
M 33
M 42

18
18
14
12

4
4
4
4

0.75
0.8
0.75
1.5

T1
T5
T8
T 15

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٣F‫א‬

- ٣٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬


‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

10 – 20 0 J 10

6 - 10

6 - 10

‫א‬

15 – 20
8J 5

0-4

6-8

6-8



0-5

6-8

6-8

‫א‬

6-7

0-7

5-8

5-8



‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬
6-7

0-7

5 - 10

١٠٢٠SAE

5 - 10

١٠٢٥SAE 
6-7

0-7

5-8

5-8



6-7

0 -7

5-8

5-8



6-7

0 -٧

–
5 -- 10

EF

5 -- 10

F–
6-7

0 -7

5-8

E

5-8

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣٣F‫א‬



- ٣٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 -



‫א‬‫א‬



  

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬





3

97

P10





6

94

P20

‫א‬‫א‬



8

92

 P50

‫א‬‫א‬

،،

10

5

85

M10

‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬،


8

14

78

M20





6

15

79

 M40

‫א‬‫א‬

،

4

30

66

K10



،

5

50

45

K20



،

6

60

34

 K40



‫א‬‫א‬

٪

٪

٪

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٤٣F‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬

8 - 20

8 - 20

7

7



8

8

5

5



4

0

5

5



4

4

5

5




8 - 20
8 - 20
7
7
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٥٣F‫א‬

- ٣٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

٪‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬


‫א‬

١٠٠

٥٢٥‫א‬

TX - 90

41.5 - 43.5

40 - 45

42 - 45

‫א‬

max 1.5
32.75 34.25
18.25 19.25

1 -- 7

1 -- 7

‫א‬

25 - 30

27 - 32

‫א‬

16 - 21

14 - 19

‫א‬

1.85 - 2.05

2 -- 4

2-4

‫א‬

3 -- 8

2 -- 5

‫א‬

max 0.75

1 -- 3

1 -- 3

‫א‬

max 2

2 -- 5

2 -- 5

‫א‬

0.4 - 0.6

0.3 - 0.7

0.3 - 0.7

‫א‬
‫א‬

0.85 - 1.05
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٦٣F‫א‬

- ٣٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


 Tool wear ‫א‬‫א‬W٦٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WW‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ •
 ‫א‬

   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫• א‬
K‫א‬

 WW‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬Flank wear land‫א‬‫א‬ -

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Wear Crater‫א‬‫א‬ -

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧٣F‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٧٣F‫א‬

BK‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،
 ٠{٣ ٠{٢٥ Cd / CmK‫א‬‫א‬ ١{٦ ١{٢‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ٣٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


 Tool life‫א‬‫א‬W٧٣
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K٤٨٠،١٨٠،١٢٠٩٠،٦٠،٣٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 V.Tn = C
 K‫א‬V

 W

 K‫א‬‫א‬T

 K‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬n
 ‫א‬



‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ١–0.60.25–0.20.5 – 0.1n

 ‫א‬‫א‬W١٧٣

 WE١F

L٢٨٤‫א‬‫א‬ ٢‫א‬‫א‬

L ٢٣٢ ‫א‬‫א‬K ١٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K٦٠‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫؟‬٣٠‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٣٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


V10= π d n / 12 = π(2) (284) / 12 = 149 f/min
V60 = π d n / 12 = π (2) (232) / 12 = 122 f/min
 ‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬
n

n

V1 T1 = V2 T2 = C
V1 / V2 = (T2 / T1) n
149 /122 = (60 / 10) n
1.22 = 6n
n = 0.11
C = VTn = 149 (10) 0.11 = 149 (1.288) = 192
V T0.11 = 192
V30 = 192 / (30)0.11 = 192 / 1.455
 V30 = 132 fpmin (L)

KL١٢٢‫א‬‫א‬٣٠‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

n = 12 v / π d

= (12)(122)/ π(2)

n =233L

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K = V . Tn . fn1 . d n2

 ٠{٨J ٠{٥Z‫א‬ K

 ٠{٤J ٠{٢Z‫א‬ f

‫א‬d

 ٠{٨٠{٥‫א‬n1

 ٠{٤٠{٢‫א‬n2

- ٤٠ -

 W

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 -



 :E٢F

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬AISI 2340 J
 2.035 = VT 0.13 f 0.77 d 0.37
L٧٥Z‫א‬‫א‬ ١٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KL٠{٠١٢٥Z٠{١
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 20%‫א‬‫א‬ (١

 20%‫א‬‫א‬ (٢



 20%‫א‬‫א‬ (٣
20%‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٤

 W‫א‬

20%‫א‬‫א‬E١
V = 1.2 x 75 = 90 (f / min)
n1 n2
T = K / V f d = 2.035 / 90 (0.0125)0.77 (0.1)0.37
= 2.035 (0.034) (0.426) = 1.56
T = 1.561 / 0.13 = 1.567.7

= 31min
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢٠%‫א‬‫א‬E٢

f = 0.0125 0 1.2 = 0.015 iprELF
T0.13 = 2.035 / 75 (0.015)0.77 (0.1)0.37 = 2.035 / 75 (0.038) ( 0.426)
T = (1.67)7.7 = 31min
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٪٢٠‫א‬‫א‬E٣

d = 1.2 x 0.1 = 0.12 in
T0.13 = 2.035 / 75 (0.0125)0.77 (0.12)0.37 = 2.035 / 75 (0.034) ( 0.456)
T = (1.745)7.7 = 73 min

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 20%‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤
- ٤١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

V = 90 fpm,

S = 0.014 ipr,

 ‫א‬


d = 0.12 mm

Τ = K /VSn1d n2 = 2.035/ 90(0.0125)0.77 (0.1)0.37
T0.13 = 2.035 / 90 (0.038) (0.456) =
T = (1.3)7.7  = 7.5 min
K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،٧{٥١٠٠

- ٤٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


 W

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤

 ‫؟‬γ‫א‬‫א‬E٥

 ‫؟‬λ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦

 ‫؟‬αs‫א‬‫א‬α ‫א‬‫א‬E٧

 ‫؟‬β‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨

 ‫؟‬χ‫א‬‫א‬E٩

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬E١٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥

 WEFE‫א‬FE١٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬E

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E

- ٤٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٧

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WE١٨

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫أ( א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K?‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(‫ب‬
(‫ت‬
(‫ث‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٩

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٠

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢١

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٢٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٤

- ٤٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


 Cutting forces‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WW١J ٤
‫א‬‫א‬ Fs‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Fz‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KFSN‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،Φ
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤F‫א‬

 ‫א‬WE١٤F‫א‬
 W‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ت‬
 K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(‫ج‬

‫א‬    ‫א‬     E FixturesF ‫א‬   E
 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
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 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ,  ‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 Calculation of cutting force‫א‬W٢٤
٢١‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Richter, Kronenberg,       K ‫א‬ ‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Taylor, Merchant and Kinziele
،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

Fc = b . h . ks

 W‫א‬Kinziele
ks= ks.1.1 / hz = ( 3 – 5) σs

 ‫א‬‫א‬

h

 W

K‫א‬‫א‬b

 ١Z‫א‬‫א‬١Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Ks.1.1

K‫א‬z
 ‫א‬

σs

 E١٤F‫א‬zk s.1.1 

- ٤٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 -




 ‫א‬

kp * mm

Z

‫א‬‫א‬
[kp * mm-2]

176

0.17

50

٤٢

199

0.26

52

٥٠

211

0.17

62

٦٠

222

0.14

67

ck ٤٥c,45 ‫א‬

213

0.18

77

ck ٦٠c,60 ‫א‬

210

0.26

77

16Mn Cr 5 

225

0.3

63

18Cr Ni 6 

224

0.21

60

34Cr Mo 4 

250

0.25

73

42 Cr V 4 

174

0.24

94

55 NiCrMoV 6 

192

0.24

HB 352

 55NiCrMoV 6

255

0.18

60 - 70



332

0.22

160

0.17

30 - 50

٤٥

205

0.19

Rc 46



95

0.2

hB 200

١٥J 

116

0.25

HB 200

٢٥

65

0.24

78

0.19

K
-2




HB80 - 120



‫א‬
65
0.24
HB30 - 42
10N/mm2‫א‬ kp/mm2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٤F‫א‬

- ٤٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 -



 W١J ٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١{٢–١{١

 ‫א‬

 E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٠{٩

 E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬١{٥J ١{٣
‫א‬‫א‬L١٢٥‫א‬‫א‬١{٢J ١{١

Calculation of machine power ‫א‬W٣٤
 Pc = FC. V / 102 . 60 [kw]
 Pc‫א‬
 [ N]‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FC 

 W

 [m / min]‫א‬

V

 K‫א‬‫א‬١٠٢‫א‬٦٠‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

η‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 WEF
Pmotor = Pc / η



[kw]
 K‫א‬٠{٩٠{٧η

 Cutting force components ‫א‬W٤٤
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ FT‫א‬‫א‬E١٤F‫א‬

K‫א‬    ‫א‬        

FE FCFT‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٤F‫א‬
 KFRFFFE

- ٤٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


 ‫א‬WE٢٤F‫א‬
 W

‫א‬   ٦٧%    Etangential componentF ‫א‬ ‫א‬  FC

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
    ‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬    
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬ ‫א‬   ٢٧%  Eradial componentF ‫א‬ ‫א‬  FR
‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ١٢ <‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KEsteady or follower restF

K‫א‬ ‫א‬   ٦%  Eaxial componentF ‫א‬ ‫א‬  FF

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
- ٤٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


Factors affecting the cutting force ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٥٤

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(‫أ‬
(‫ب‬
(‫ت‬
(‫ث‬
(‫ج‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٥٠ -

(‫ح‬
(‫خ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١٢١

 ‫א‬

 -

 ‫א‬


 W

 K‫א‬‫א‬E١

 ‫؟‬‫א‬E٢

 ‫؟‬‫א‬E٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫؟‬‫א‬E٥

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٨

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠

 ‫؟‬‫؟‬‫א‬E١١

 W‫א‬E١٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(‫أ‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬L٤٥st 50‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٣

٢

٢{٤

 W‫א‬K٢L٢٠٠٠Ks.1.1‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
K‫א‬

K٠{٨Zη‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ٥١ -

(‫أ‬
(‫ب‬
(‫ت‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



‫א‬

‫א‬

٢

-١-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

،‫א‬‫א‬ ، ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ W     ‫א‬ 

،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ،‫א‬       

 ‫א‬   ،   ،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K     ،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬

   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬

 K‫א‬




 K‫א‬‫א‬
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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 Drilling‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 E١-٥

،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ، ‫א‬    ، E‫א‬F   ،E‫א‬ F  
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫ א‬ W   ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ،‫א‬     ‫א‬  K‫א‬    

 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬E١٥F‫א‬

         Drilling  ‫א‬  E٢  ٥F ‫א‬

،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ Counter boring‫א‬K
 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬WE١٥F‫א‬

- ٥٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٥F‫א‬

 W‫א‬E٢-٥
،،W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ،‫א‬،،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

- ٥٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬






 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬E١٢٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   ٦٠ – ١        Twist drill ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬٠{٨–٠{١
◦١١٨١١٦‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ˚١٤٠ ١٣٠ ‫א‬˚١٢٥ ١٢٠،‫א‬

KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٥F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

WTaper shank‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

WCutting part‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

WEFluteF‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

WMagrin‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬K١

 ‫א‬K١

 ‫א‬‫א‬K٢

 ‫א‬K٢

 ‫א‬K٤

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬K٣

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٥
 ‫א‬K٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٣٥F‫א‬
- ٥٦ -

K٣

 ‫א‬K٤

 ‫א‬K٥
‫א‬K٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤٥F‫א‬K

 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٤٥F‫א‬
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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





‫א‬K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬E١J ٥F

 K‫א‬WE١٥F‫א‬
- ٥٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 Counter Boring‫א‬E٣٥
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
٨٠–٨E‫א‬FK‫א‬

 ˚٩٠‫א‬‫א‬ ˚٧٥ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ˚٦٠‫א‬

 K‫א‬ ˚١٢٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E٢ ٥F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬E٥ ٥F‫א‬K٪ ٥٠ – ٣٠
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬WE٥٥F‫א‬

- ٥٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٥F‫א‬

- ٦٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬






 Reaming‫א‬E٤٥

‫א‬‫א‬٠{٠٤‫א‬

٠{٠٠٥‫א‬‫א‬KIT 10
    ،         K IT 8   

K IT 6 ٠{٠٠١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ١٤–٦‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬    ٠{١  ‫א‬    ٠{٣    K‫א‬   
d = 0.005 . D + 0.1 [mm]W‫א‬K‫א‬

E٣J ٥F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬E٦٥F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



J 
 ‫א‬J 
 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٦٥F‫א‬

- ٦١ -



 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬






 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٣٥F‫א‬

- ٦٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬E٥-٥
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 ‫א‬WE٤٥F‫א‬

- ٦٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦J ٥

 ،‫א‬  ،‫א‬  ‫א‬   E٧  ٥F  E٦   ٥F ، E ٥   ٥F ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬





١٥٠J ١٠٠ ٦٠J ٣٠
٠{٦–٠{١



st
60

‫א‬

٣٠J ١٢

٤٠J ٣٠

 

٠{٦–٠{١

٠{٤–٠{١

٠{٦–٠{١

 

‫א‬
 

‫א‬

 ‫א‬WE٥٥F‫א‬


٧٠–٥٠
0.2 -- 0.4





>

<

٢٠٠
0.4 -0.7

٢٠٠
0.3 -0.5

0.3 -- 0.5

0.2 -- 0.4

25 – 40

0.4 -- 0.8

0.2 -- 0.3

8 -- 12

6 – 10

40 – 60
‫א‬

0.3 -- 0.6

0.5 -- 1

0.4 -0.8

6 – 10

8 -- 15

6 -- 12

١٠٠>

١٠٠<

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WEJ ٦٥F‫א‬

- ٦٤ -

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬






L‫א‬
‫א‬




٢٠٠<
0.63 0.8
0.25 -0.4
0.8 - 0.9 0.4 - 0.5
0.9
0.50.56
0.9 - 0.1 0.56 0.71
0.71 -1 - 1.12
0.8
1.12
0.8 -- 0.9
1.12 1.25
0.9 - 1
1.25
1 - 1.1
1.25 -1.4
1.1 - 1.25
1.4
1.25 1.4
> 1.4

> 1.4

12 – 20

7 -- 10


٧٠<

٧٠>

‫א‬

0.63 - 0.8
0.8 - 0.9
0.9
0.9 - 1

0.11 - 0.18
0.18 - 0.22
0.22 - 0.25
0.25 - 0.31

0.25 - 0.4
0.4 - 0.5
0.5 - 0.56
0.56 - 0.71

٥
5–8
8 – 10
10 – 15

1 - 1.12
1.12-.25

0.31 - 0.35
0.35 - 0.4

0.71 - 0.8
0.8 - 0.9

15 – 20
20 – 25

1.25
1.25

0.4 - 0.45
0.45 - 0.5

0.9 - 1
1 - 1.1

25 – 30
30 - 40

1.25- 1.4
1.4

0.5 - 0.56
0.56 - 0.63

1.1 - 1.24
1.25 - 1.4

40 – 50
50 – 60

> 1.4

> 0.63

> 1.4

٦٠<

6 -- 12

‫א‬

٢٠٠>

12 -- 14
3 -- 5
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WEJ ٦٥F‫א‬

- ٦٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬








‫א‬ELF‫א‬

‫א‬
L

63
50
40 31.5
0.63 0.63 0.56 0.56

25
0.5

20
0.5

16 12.5
0.45 0.45

10
0.4

8
0.4

0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.11

0.1

0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.05
0.5

6.3
5
0.36 0.36

1.4
0.36
0.32
0.25
0.63

1.25
0.32
0.28
0.22
0.63

1.1
1
0.9 0.8 0.71 0.63 0.56
0.32 0.28
0.25 0.22 0.2 0.18 0.16 0.14
0.22 0.2 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12
0.56 0.56 0.5 0.5 0.45 0.45 0.4

0.18
1.4
0.36
0.32
0.22

0.16
1.4
0.32
0.28
0.22

0.14
1.25
0.32
0.25
0.2

0.12
1.25
0.28
0.22
0.2

0.11 0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.05
1.12 1.12
1
1
0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8
0.28
0.2 0.18 0.16 0.14
0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12

0.5

0.45 0.45

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.45

0.4

0.36 0.36

0.36 0.36 0.32 0.32 0.28 0.28 0.25

0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.11 0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.05
1.4 1.4 1.25 1.25 1.12 1.12
1
1
0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8
0.32 0.32 0.28 0.28 0.25 0.25
0.32 0.28 0.25 0.22

0.2

0.32 0.22
0.5

0.18 0.16 0.14

0.2

0.2

0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12

0.45 0.45

0.4

0.4

0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.11

0.36 0.36 0.32 0.32 0.28 0.28 0.25
0.1

0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.05

1.4 1.4 1.25 1.25 1.2 1.12
1
1
0.36 0.32 0.32 0.28
0.4 0.36 0.32 0.28 0.25 0.22 0.2 0.18
0.25 0.22 0.22 0.2 0.2 0.18 0.18 0.16

0.9

0.9

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٧J ٥F‫א‬
- ٦٦ -

0.8

0.8



22.4
12.5 10
86.3
31.5
40
50
31.5
25 20
14
50
63
71
80 63
50 –
28
25
140–
12
80 63
140125
20 16
12.510
12.510
20
25
31.5



‫א‬

st 60






‫א‬



٢٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬E٧J ٥

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬   F     E٨  ٥F ‫א‬ K ‫א‬ ‫א‬

KE‫א‬
 


 KUpright drillWE٧٥F‫א‬

- ٦٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Column‫א‬

 K‫א‬K

 Work table‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،

‫א‬    E٨  ٥F ‫א‬ K ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬WJ ٨J ٥

- ٦٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬






 KWE-٨٥F‫א‬
- ٦٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬‫א‬E٨٥
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
in [N]
F = (f . D / 2) . ks
 W

 Ed‫א‬F‫א‬٢LD

 ELF‫א‬

ks.1.1z ‫א‬h‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1.25 ks‫א‬‫א‬

f

k

 s

 K٤٧E١{٤F‫א‬‫א‬

  K‫א‬‫א‬σKh = (f / 2) sin σ‫א‬h‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬
Pc = (f . D2 / 8) ks . (n / 97400)
in [kW]
 η‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
in [kW]
Pmotor = Pc / η
Cutting time‫א‬‫א‬E٩J ٥
 W‫א‬
tc = L / n . f
 WE٩J ٥F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ L
L = lx + lb + lwp + la
 ELF‫א‬ f
 ELF‫א‬‫א‬ n
lx = (D / 2 . tan σ / 2) ‫א‬lx


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٩٥F‫א‬

- ٧٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 W
K‫א‬ (١

K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢
‫؟‬‫א‬ (٣
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٤
K‫א‬ (٥
‫؟‬‫א‬ (٦
K‫א‬‫א‬ (٧
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٨
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(٩
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٠
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١١
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٢
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٣
K‫( א‬١٤
K‫א‬ (١٥
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٦
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٧

٤٢٠١٢‫א‬ (١٨
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢L
L١٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬،º١١٦Zσ‫א‬‫א‬،L٠{٢٢
K٠{٩Zη‫א‬‫א‬

- ٧١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 L١٥٠٠Z‫א‬‫א‬J 
 L٠{٤Z‫א‬J 
 ٥Z‫א‬J 
 ‫א‬J 

 ١٢١

‫א‬





W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬١٩

 K٣٥Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

- ٧٢ -

١٦Z‫א‬J

٥Z‫א‬J
º١٢٠Zσ‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 Turning ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 E١-٦
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬?‫א‬?
KSymmetrical work pieces ‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬ W ‫א‬    ،‫א‬   ‫א‬    
K‫א‬‫א‬E١٦F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E

‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

EFacingF

ETurningF

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١J ٦

- ٧٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 Types of turning processes‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢–٦
‫א‬ K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KE٢٦F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E٢J ٦F

Types of lathe machines ‫א‬‫א‬E٣٦
 W ‫א‬‫א‬

 K،‫א‬،‫א‬،W‫א‬

 K‫א‬W‫א‬

 K،،W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٧٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Center lathe‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬     Facing lathe ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫• א‬
    ‫א‬ ‫א‬     K‫א‬   ‫א‬

 K

‫א‬‫א‬ Copying lathe‫א‬‫• א‬
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E
 

E‫א‬‫א‬FCapstan lathe E‫א‬FTurret lathe‫א‬‫• א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

    ،   F Special lathes   •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE
 K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬Vertical lathe‫א‬‫• א‬

K،‫א‬،EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٧٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 K‫א‬‫א‬E٣٦F‫א‬

 J 

 J 

- ٧٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬






 ‫א‬J 


 J 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣٦F‫א‬

- ٧٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 components of the lathe‫א‬E٤J ٦
‫א‬‫א‬E٤٦F‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٤٦F‫א‬

‫א‬    ‫א‬   K‫א‬ ‫א‬   Bed  ‫ א‬J
K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  head stock ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫ א‬J
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Tail stockE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Spindle‫א‬‫א‬ J

K‫א‬‫א‬Lead screwE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WFeed shaft ‫א‬ J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
- ٧٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Carriage‫ א‬J
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    Bed slide ways E‫א‬ F ‫א‬  J
  K‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Cross slide ‫א‬‫ א‬J
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    Upper slide  ‫א‬ ‫ א‬J
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K،‫א‬K‫א‬ tool box‫א‬ J
K‫א‬‫א‬

- ٧٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬‫א‬E٥J ٦
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥٦F‫א‬K‫א‬

 KE٦٦F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٥٦F‫א‬


 WE٦٦F‫א‬
- ٨٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





Fixtures‫א‬E٦J ٦

‫א‬  ‫א‬      ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 WK‫א‬‫א‬

 Chuck‫ א‬J

‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬     K ١٠٠ >  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 Chuck and center‫א‬‫ א‬J

    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ K ١٠٠ < ‫א‬  

 K‫א‬

 The face plate‫ א‬J

 ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 K‫א‬

 Two centers J

‫א‬    K   ،‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Lathe carier or Dog

 The clamp chuck or collet‫א‬‫ א‬J

 K١٢>‫א‬

Steady or follower rest‫ א‬J

‫א‬‫א‬E ١٢ <F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 W

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧٦F‫א‬
- ٨١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





  J 

 

 J ‫א‬


 

 

 EF

 ‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬ 


 EF

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٧٦F‫א‬

- ٨٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





‫א‬‫א‬E٧٦

H‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬ = ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  

 K

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 tc = L / n . s
minutes
 K‫א‬
 tc

 WL K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
L = lb + lwp + la

L
L

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨٦F‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٨٦F‫א‬

- ٨٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨J ٦
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬    ،‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،

،    ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
 K،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ -

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬

     ،‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ،F ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   KE 

 W ،‫א‬ -

 E‫א‬،F‫א‬‫• א‬
 KEF‫א‬ •

 ECNCF‫א‬‫• א‬

‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
E

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ٨٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ F ‫א‬‫א‬      ،‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬       ‫א‬

 KE‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ -

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ -

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ -

 K‫א‬‫א‬ -

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬E٩-٦
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٩٦

EMild steelF st 50 ‫א‬

 K١٠‫א‬‫א‬E٩٦F‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٩٦F‫א‬

- ٨٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 W‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬

 K٨٥٤٠‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K١٠٠>‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KEHHF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ J
WE١٠٦F‫א‬‫א‬ J

 E١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 E٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E٣F‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 E٤F

‫א‬

 E٥F

 K‫א‬WE١٠٦F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬E٢FE١F

 KE٤FE٣F

 KE٥F

 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬J

 KL٢٠ZV‫א‬،L٢Zf‫א‬،٢{٥Zd‫א‬E١F‫א‬

 n

- ٨٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 n =1000.V / 3.14 . D
n = 1000 . 20 / 3K14 . ٤٠=١٥٩{٣ [R /min]

 EnF،L٢٠ZV
 ????L٢٠ZV

 

KE١F‫א‬E٢F‫א‬

L٢Zf 
L٢Zf

١Zd E٣F‫א‬

٩{٥ Zd E٤F‫א‬

 ???L٢٨ZV L٠{٠٦٣Z f  ٠{٥ Zd E٥F‫א‬

 Pmax‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬

Fc = b. h. Ks
Fc = d. f. Ks
Ks= Ks.1.1 / hz
Ks= 199 / 20.26 = 5276 [N.mm2]
Fc = 9.5 . 2 . 199 / 20.26 = 13287.2 [ N]
Pmax = Fc . V / 60 . 102

Pmax = (13287.2)/ 6120 = 2.171 [kW]
 ٠{٨η‫א‬‫א‬
Pmotor = Pmax / η

 WPmotor‫א‬‫א‬
= 2.171 / 0.8 = 2.71 [kW]

  tc = L / n . f  

 ‫א‬‫א‬_

 ‫א‬

 ٢٠‫א‬٣٠Z‫א‬،٣Z‫א‬‫א‬
L = lb + lwp + la
= 3 + 30+ 0 = 33 mm
n = 1000 . 20 / 3.14 . 30 = 212 [r / min]
tc = 33 / 212 . 2 = 33 / 424 = 0.07 [ min]

- ٨٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬J

 ، ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Taper turning‫א‬‫א‬E٢٩٦

 W،‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫אא‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E١١٦F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬WE١١٦F‫א‬

α =D–d/2L

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬   ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ٨٨ -

(‫أ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 K‫א‬E١٢٦F‫א‬


 K‫א‬WE١٢٦F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ج‬

º١٠Z‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K٧٥٠–٥٠٠

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬E١٣٦F‫א‬

 K‫א‬WE١٣٦F‫א‬

- ٨٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ح‬

  ‫א‬    K     ‫א‬‫א‬   

 K‫א‬E١٤٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬


K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WEJ ١٤٦F‫א‬
٢٣٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬º٦‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WEJ ١٤٦F‫א‬
AC = 235 . tan 6º = 235 . 0.0523 = 12.3 mm
‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٠F ٢٠W١‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬E١
 ١١{٧٥Z٢٠L٢٣٥Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٥{٨٨Z٢L١١{٧٥Z‫א‬
- ٩٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 Screw turning‫א‬‫א‬E٣٩٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥٦F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١٥٦F‫א‬

‫א‬ F E٦F ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬     E٧F ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬FE٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬

K‫א‬E‫א‬FE٣F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

،E٨F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E٨F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E Z2 F‫א‬E Z1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 E٢F‫א‬‫א‬LE١F‫א‬‫א‬
 E١F‫א‬‫א‬LE ٢ F‫א‬‫א‬Z
 ٢

L١Z٢L١

 ٦Z‫א‬‫א‬٣Z‫א‬

 ٢L١Z٦L٣Z٢L١

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

      ‫א‬   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   

 K‫א‬

- ٩١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٦  ٦F‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٦  ٦F‫א‬

- ٩٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 W

K‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬٢

K‫א‬‫( א‬٣
K‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬٤

W‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬٥

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬J 
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

(‫أ‬

K‫א‬‫א‬J

 W‫א‬‫א‬

(‫ب‬

K‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 W‫א‬‫ج( א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬J

 K‫א‬J

K‫א‬‫א‬ (٦
‫א؟‬‫א‬‫( א‬٧
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٨
‫؟‬‫א‬ (٩
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٠
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬١١
‫؟‬‫א‬ (١٢
- ٩٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٣

W‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬١٤

 K١٠٠>‫א‬J 

 W‫א‬E

 K١٠٠>‫א‬J 

K١٠٠<‫א‬J

 W‫א‬E

K١٢>‫א‬J K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J K١٠٠<‫א‬J

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬E

 KJ  ١٠٠>‫א‬J 

١٢>‫א‬J

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٥

 ‫א؟‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٦

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٧

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٨

‫؟‬‫א‬ (١٩
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٠
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢١
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٢
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٣
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٤
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٥
W‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٦

- ٩٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٧

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٨
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٩


 Kº٥‫א‬٢٥٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٠

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣١

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٢
 ٦٠Z‫א‬J 

 L٠{٤Z‫א‬J 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

- ٩٥ -

 ٤Z‫א‬J

L٢٥Z‫א‬J
٢٠‫א‬J

 ٠{٨Zη‫א‬‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





  Milling ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 E١J ٧
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬F

   ‫א‬ EPeripheral milling F‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E١٧F‫א‬KEFace millingF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 K‫א‬WE١٧F‫א‬

- ٩٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





Milling applications ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٧
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٧F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٧F‫א‬

 Milling machines‫א‬E٣٧
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  W    
 KE٣٧F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

- ٩٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 KWE٣٧F‫א‬

E٤٧F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬ K
 K‫א‬‫א‬










- ٩٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬






 WE٤٧F‫א‬
- ٩٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 Milling cutters ‫א‬E٤J ٧
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 K،،،J
 K،،‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٥٧F‫א‬

- ١٠٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 K‫א‬WE٥٧F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬E٥J ٧
  ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

ft = fz . z. n
- ١٠١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 W

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

n

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

z

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 KE‫א‬‫א‬F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

f

 z

 K‫א‬

 ft

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬E١ ٧F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬WE١٧F‫א‬
- ١٠٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬‫א‬E٦-٧
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
L = lb + lwp + la[mm]

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦٧F‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٦٧F‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬E٧٧
K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ W ‫א‬       
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

      K‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ 

  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٠٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬‫א‬E١٧٧


Conventional milling 

‫א‬‫א‬
K       ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 


 Climb milling

‫א‬

 K‫א‬  ‫א‬  
    ‫א‬ 

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

 K

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Ftotal = Fc . zie
zie = z. φs / 360
Cos φs = 1 – 2d / D

 ‫א‬

 W

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ie

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 s

 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬

K‫א‬

z

z
φ

d

D

 K‫א‬‫א‬ E٧٧F‫א‬

- ١٠٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬WE٧٧F‫א‬
Cos φs = ((D / 2 – d) / (D / 2) = 1 – 2d / D
zie / z = φs / 360
zie = (z . φs ) / 360
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Fc = b . hm . ks
ks = ks.1.1 / hm
Hm = (114.6 / φs) . fz . (d / D)
 KEF‫א‬‫א‬  hmW
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٧٧
      ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 W‫א‬u‫א‬‫א‬
 u = 0.05 d
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬d
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬d

 E‫א‬F
 E‫א‬‫א‬F
 D= 1.33 . b
 d =1.66 . b
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨٧F‫א‬
- ١٠٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٨٧F‫א‬

 ‫א‬E١٢٧٧
‫א‬‫א‬     ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
 K

   ‫א‬ hm ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  
 KE٩٧F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٩٧F‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
hm = (57.3 / φs) . fz . sin χ ( cos φ1 – cos φ2)
φs = φ2 – φ1
cos φ1 = 2 B1 / D
cos φ2 = 2 B2 / D
zie = z . φs / 360º
- ١٠٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 W

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

zie

 K‫א‬‫א‬

χ

 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬

z

D

d

 ‫א‬‫א‬E١J ٨F
‫א‬‫א‬E 50 Kp/mmF ST 50‫א‬
 KE١٠٧F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬٣

 H.s.s.‫א‬‫א‬
 ٥٠Z‫א‬

 ٨Zz‫א‬

γZº١٢

 W

 ٨٠ZD‫א‬

χ = 90º


 E١J ٨F‫א‬WE١٠J ٧F‫א‬

- ١٠٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 W‫א‬

 ،d‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 KL٠{١ZEL‫א‬Ffz
 KL٢٥ZE‫א‬FV

 ٠{٢٦Zz
 ١٩٩ZKs.1.1
[kW] Pc = Ftotal . V / 102 . 60
Ftotal = Fc . zie
zie = z . φs / 360º
Cos φs = 1 – 2 d / D
= 1 – (2 . 3 / 80) 

= 1 – (6 / 80) 

= 80 – (6 / 80) 

= 74 / 80 

= 0.925

φs = 22º 20´ = 22.33º

 W‫א‬‫א‬


zie = (8 . 22.33) / 360 = 0.497
Fc = b . hm . ks
hm = (114.6 / 22.33) . 0.1. (3 / 80) = 0.0193 mm
ks = ks.1.1 / hz = 199 / 0.01930.26 = 5600 N . mm2
Fc = 50 . 0.0193 . 5600 =540.4 N
Ftotal = 540.4 . 0.497 = 268.6 N
 Pc = 268.6 . 25 / 6120 = 1.1 kW

- ١٠٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 Spur gear E٨٧
 K ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

     ‫א‬  K  ‫א‬   ‫א‬   

 K(dividing head )‫א‬K‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬E١١٧F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١٠٧F‫א‬

، ٤٠E٥F‫א‬‫א‬E٤F‫א‬W‫א‬

  ‫א‬ E١٣F ‫א‬   K ‫א‬  E٢F ‫א‬  ‫א‬ E٣F ‫א‬

‫א‬ E٧F ‫א‬  ،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ K ‫א‬   ‫א‬

 ١٧ ١٦١٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨ ٦F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE٤٩٣٧٤٣٤١٣٩٣٧FE٣٣٣١٢٩٢٧٢٣٢١FE٢٠١٩١٨
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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





‫א‬‫א‬ ،E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ ٤٠

E١٠F‫א‬E١١F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E١٢F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬١٨

  ١٨L٤٢Z١٨L٤٠Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W

 W‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K ١٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W١

‫א‬،‫א‬ ٤٠‫א‬‫א‬ ١٨‫א‬
K١٨١٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W٢

١٢‫א‬E ١٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F١٢L٤
K٣L١Z ١٢L٤Z٢٧L٩K‫א‬٩٢٧‫א‬،

 W٣

K‫א‬‫א‬ ٥٩L٤٠K ٥٩
KDifferential Dividing head ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

E Z1 , Z2, Z3, Z , Z4F‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





K‫א‬‫א‬E١٢٧F‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬WE١١٧F‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬E١

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤

 W‫א‬‫א‬E

 ‫א‬J ‫א‬J ‫א‬J 
‫א‬‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬J 

‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬‫א‬J 

 W‫א‬‫א‬E

 ‫א‬J 
 J 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬J 

 W‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬J 

 K‫א‬‫א‬J 

 ‫؟‬‫א‬E٥

 ‫؟‬‫א‬E٦

 EF

 W‫א‬E٧

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 EF

 EF

 EF

 EF

 K‫א‬‫א‬J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩

- ١١٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١
 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E١٢

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٧

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٨

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٩

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٠

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢١

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٢

٢

٤‫א‬ L٦٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٢٣
‫א‬K٧٥١٢،‫א‬‫א‬

 K١٠٥٤٥

‫א‬٠{٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬E٢٤

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٢٥

 K‫א‬K٢٤E٢٦

 ‫؟‬‫؟‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٧
- ١١٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 GRINDING‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 E١-٨
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،E٠{٠٣J ٠{٠٠٢F‫א‬‫א‬

E‫א‬، \ ٠{١٢ J  ٠{٠٢FE‫א‬‫א‬F
 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE١٨F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬WE١٨F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢-٨
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W        ،    ‫ א‬J
 KEµm١J ٠{٢٥F‫א‬Eµm٤J ١F،Eµm٨J ٤F

 K‫א‬‫א‬، J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF J
- ١١٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٢ ٨F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣ ٨F‫א‬

 KEF‫א‬‫א‬E٤ ٨F‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢ ٨F‫א‬

- ١١٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬






 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣٨F‫א‬

 ‫א‬WE٤٨F‫א‬

- ١١٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 Grinding machines ‫א‬E٣٨
 KE٥ ٨F‫א‬

 KWE٥٨F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬J

 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬J

‫א‬

‫א‬

E‫א‬F‫א‬

 KJ ‫א‬
- ١١٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 KJ 

‫א‬

 KEF‫א‬J ‫א‬
 K‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ 
 wheel guard‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٨٨F،E٧٨F،E٦٨F‫א‬

 K‫א‬WE٦٨F‫א‬

- ١١٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬






 KWE٧٨F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٨٨F‫א‬

- ١١٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 Grinding Wheels‫א‬E٤J ٨

  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،  ‫א‬ 

 KVoids‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 Wheel symbol‫א‬E١٤٨
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 A 46
k
5
v
 KEC AF‫א‬EAF‫א‬‫• א‬

،١٨٠J ٨٠،٦٠J ٣٠،٢٤J ٨F‫א‬E٤٦F‫• א‬
 KE٣F‫א‬KE‫א‬٦٠٠J ٢٠٠

Z ، U - Y، E - T،‫א‬ A - D F‫א‬E kF‫• א‬
 KE‫א‬

 KE‫א‬١٥J ٩،٨J ١F‫א‬E٥F‫• א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EvF‫א‬‫• א‬

 W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

Vertified





 

‫א‬

 
- ١٢٠ -

Resinoid

Rubber

V
B

R

Shellac

E

Magnesia

Mg

Sillicate

S

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 Wheel shapes‫א‬E٢٤٨

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٩٨F‫א‬

 K‫א‬WE٩٨F‫א‬
 Wheel selection‫א‬‫א‬E٥٨
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ١٢١ -




‫א‪‬‬

‫‪ ١٢١‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫א‪‬א‪ ‬‬
‫‪‬א‪‬‬

‫‪E٦J ٨‬א‪‬א‪ ‬‬
‫א‪E١٨F‬א‪‬א‪ K‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﻴﺔ ﻷﺣﺠﺎر اﻟﺘﺠﻠﻴﺦ‬

‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﺘﺠﻠﻴﺦ‬
‫ﺗﺠﻠﻴﺦ ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺠﻠﻴﺦ أﺳﻄﺢ‬
‫ﺗﺠﻠﻴﺦ داﺧﻠﻲ‬

‫ﻣﻌﺎدن‬
‫ﺧﻔﻴﻔﺔ‬
‫م‪/‬ث‬
‫‪35‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪25‬‬

‫آﺮﺑﻴﺪ‬
‫م‪/‬ث‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪8‬‬

‫اﻟﺰهﺮ اﻟﺼﻠﺐ‬
‫م‪/‬ث م‪/‬ث‬
‫‪30‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪20‬‬

‫ﺳﺮﻋﺎت اﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺎدة اﻟﺸﻐﻠﺔ واﻟﻤﺎدة‬
‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬

‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﺘﺠﻠﻴﺦ‬

‫ﺗﺠﻠﻴﺦ أدوات‬

‫ﺗﺠﻠﻴﺦ ﻳﺪوي‬

‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺎدة‬
‫ﻣﺎدة‬
‫اﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬
‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺸﻐﻠﺔ‬
‫م‪/‬ث‬
‫ ‪15‬‬‫ﺻﻠﺐ‬
‫‪25 Vitrified‬‬
‫ﻋﺪة‬
‫ ‪15‬‬‫‪25 Vitrified H.s.s‬‬
‫‪up to‬‬
‫آﺮﺑﻴﺪ ‪45 Organic‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎدن‬
‫ﺧﻔﻴﻔﺔ ‪15 Vitrified‬‬
‫زهﺮ و‬
‫ﺑﺮوﻧﺰ ‪25 Vitrified‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﺐ ‪30 Vitrified‬‬

‫‪- ١٢٢ -‬‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





/‫ ﻋﺮض اﻟﺤﺠﺮ‬x ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﻣﻠﻢ‬
‫دورة‬
‫ﺗﺠﻠﻴﺦ داﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫اﺳﺘﻘﺮ اب ﺗﺸﻄﻴﺐ‬
0.2 - 0.5 0. 5 0.7
0.2 - 0.2 0.4
0.3

‫ﺗﺠﻠﻴﺦ ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ‬
‫اﺳﺘﻘﺮاب ﺗﺸﻄﻴﺐ‬
0.5 - 0.6 0.7
0.84
0.3 - 0.25 0.5
0.4

‫ﻣﺎدة اﻟﺸﻐﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺻﻠﺐ‬
‫زهﺮ‬

 K‫א‬WE١٨F‫א‬

 ‫א‬E٧J ٨
‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
L = lb + lwp + la [mm]K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠٨F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٠٨F‫א‬

- ١٢٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 Safety rules in grinding‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨J ٨
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

J

 K‫א‬‫א‬

J

 W‫א‬

 K‫א‬E\F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

(‫أ‬

(‫ب‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬E

 KE‫א‬F‫א‬E

 K‫א‬E

 K‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬،E
 K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K

 K‫א‬‫א‬E

 K‫א‬‫א‬E

 W‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

(‫أ‬

(‫ب‬

J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ E

- ١٢٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F
 K

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،E
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬K‫א‬
?      K‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ 

 K?‫א‬

- ١٢٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 

K‫א‬

.a

K‫א‬

.b

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬

.c

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

.d

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬

.e

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬

.f

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

.g

‫؟‬‫א‬

.h

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

.i

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

.j

K‫א‬‫א‬

.k

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

.l

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

.m

K‫א‬‫א‬

.n

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

.o

- ١٢٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 W
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬،،،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬KE NC–Numerical control F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KCNC - Computer Numerical Control

،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K

- ١٢٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬،

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

K‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬ J

،‫א‬،‫א‬J 

‫א‬ J

K‫א‬J 

K‫א‬‫א‬J 


‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬

 ‫א‬ J

‫א‬ J

‫א‬J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 W

،‫א‬f،‫א‬S،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬NF J
 E‫א‬‫א‬T

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬M03FM‫א‬ J
،‫א‬‫א‬M05،‫א‬‫א‬M07،‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬M10 ،‫א‬M60

- ١٢٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





G01F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬G  J

‫א‬G97،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬G02،
EE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 N10 G96 S200 F0.2 T01



 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ N10

 ‫א‬ G96

 L٢٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ S200

 KL٠{٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F0.2

 K١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ T01

‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬K‫א‬

E٤F‫א‬KE٣F‫א‬‫א‬E٢F‫א‬E١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٢٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣F‫א‬KClosed loop system
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٤F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٤F‫א‬

- ١٣٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬






 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٣F‫א‬

 KWE٤F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 WE٤F‫א‬

- ١٣١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬K‫א‬E١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

K??‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

K،، J

 

 K‫א‬E٣

 Cutting motion‫א‬

 Wwork piece‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬tool‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬






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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 Feed motion‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 Setting the cutting depth motion‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥

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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 K‫א‬‫א‬E٦


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٨


K،‫א‬‫א‬E٩


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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EϕF‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬WE٣١F‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١
 ‫א‬



 °٥<‫א‬

EF

L١٥<

‫א‬



 W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬



 

L١٥–٥

°٥>‫א‬°١٥Z‫א‬

- ١٣٦ -



 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א؟‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٣

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬،L٨٠‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
‫א‬K‫א‬

 
- ١٣٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٧
 EF
EF

E‫א‬F

E‫א‬FK
EF

E‫א‬F
EF

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(‫ث‬
(‫ج‬
(‫ح‬
(‫خ‬
(‫د‬
(‫ذ‬
(‫ر‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬E١٨
 

 ‫א‬

(‫ج‬

 ‫א‬

(‫ح‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(‫خ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(‫د‬



 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 º٨٠٠<

 

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

º٢٥٠J ١٥٠



‫א‬‫א‬
º ١٥٠>

 WE١٩

 K‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ١٣٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٣٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬E١

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬W‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬E٣

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

E٢FEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE٢F

 KEL‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٤٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ •
K‫א‬

Finishing •

Roughing‫א‬ •

‫א‬‫א‬ •
K

‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦

 N‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 N=1000 V / πd

 [m/min]‫א‬VW

 rev/min ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬N

 [mm] K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬d

 ‫א‬E٧

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٤١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬‫א‬E٨

 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ •
 K

‫א‬ •

‫א‬‫א‬ •
KMild steel‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E٩

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬K
 K

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

- ١٤٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬E١٢
F

 EF



K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 E

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 EF ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 EF

- ١٤٣ -

K‫א‬‫א‬E

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬J 

‫א‬J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬

- ١٤٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫؟‬γ‫א‬‫א‬E٥
 K‫א‬J

 ‫؟‬λ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫؟‬αs‫א‬‫א‬α ‫א‬‫א‬E٧

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫؟‬β‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨

 J

 ‫؟‬χ‫א‬‫א‬E٩

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠



- ١٤٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١

،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬?‫א‬?‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬E١٤
 ISO 2 DIN 4972 L 25 q k 10

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ISO 2 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬DIN 4972

 ‫א‬L 

 ٢٥‫א‬25 q

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 10

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J J 

J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،
- ١٤٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 EF

 EF

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬E١٧

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 EF

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E

 EF

‫א‬‫א‬E

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٨

 ‫א‬‫א‬E

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬E

 ‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 E١٩

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(‫ج‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(‫ح‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬١٢٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٤٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ?‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(‫خ‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٠

‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬J 

 K‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢١
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٢٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٤

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٥

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
- ١٤٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬E١

‫א‬‫א‬Fs‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Fz‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KFSN‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،Φ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬E٢

 W‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EFixturesF‫א‬J

 K‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬E٣

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٤٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬E٤

 W‫א‬Kinziele
Fc = b . h . ks
z
E‫א‬FKs= ks.1.1 / h = ( 3 – 5 σs
 ‫א‬‫א‬

h

 W

K‫א‬‫א‬

b

 K‫א‬

z

 ١Z‫א‬‫א‬١Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Ks.1.1

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫؟‬‫א‬E٥

 K‫א‬‫א‬٪٦٧Etangential componentF‫א‬‫א‬Ft
 K‫א‬‫א‬٪٢٧Eradial componentF‫א‬‫א‬Fr

 K‫א‬‫א‬٪٦Eaxial componentF‫א‬‫א‬Fa
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦

 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٨

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ١٥٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫؟‬‫؟‬‫א‬E١١

 Pc = Ft . V / 102 . 60 [kw]
 [ N]‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Ft

Pc‫א‬

 W

 [m / min]‫א‬

V

 K‫א‬‫א‬١٠٢‫א‬٦٠‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EFη‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 W
[kw]
Pmotor = Pc / η



 K‫א‬٠{٩٠{٧η

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

 W‫א‬E١٢

E‫א‬F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 EF

 EF

 EF

(‫ب‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬L٤٥st 50‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٣

 WK٢L٢٠٠Ks.1.1‫א‬‫א‬K٢٢٢{٤
K‫א‬E

 ‫א‬

(‫ث‬

 ٠{٨Zη‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

F = b . h . k s = A . Ks
A = b. h , b = d = 2 mm
2.4 = 2 . h
h = 2.4 / 2 = 1.2 mm
Ks = ks.1.1 / hn , n = 0.26
Ks = 200 / 1.20.26
= 190.7 kp/ mm2
F = 2.4mm2 . 190.7 kp / mm2 = 457.7 kp
P = F . V / 6120 = 457.7 . 45 / 6120 = 3.4 k
Pmotor = P / η = 3.4 / 0.8 = 4.2 kW
- ١٥١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬E١

‫א‬،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬F‫א‬،E‫א‬F
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

،‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬E٢
 ‫א‬ J

K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫؟‬‫א‬E٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٤

 J J 

J 

‫א‬J

K‫א‬ (٥

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

E٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬FE١F‫א‬E٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE٢F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬WE١٥F‫א‬
- ١٥٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





‫؟‬‫א‬ (٦

 K،‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬ (٧
 ‫א‬K١

‫א‬K١

K٢

 ‫א‬K٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬K٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬

K٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬K٤

 ‫א‬K٤

 ‫א‬K٥

‫א‬K٥

 ‫א‬K٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬K٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٣٥F‫א‬

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٨
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 J J  ‫א‬J  J 

- ١٥٣ -

K‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬٩
 J

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠

 K‫א‬‫א‬J
 KJ

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١
  J

‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬ J

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(١٢

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(١٣

 KIT 6٠{٠٠١‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
K‫א‬
 J 
 J 

‫א‬J 

 J 

 J 

(١٤

 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬J

‫א‬‫א‬J

‫א‬‫א‬J

K‫א‬

(١٥

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٥٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(١٦

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬



‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(١٧

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٤٢٠١٢‫א‬

(١٨

٠{٢٢‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢L
L١٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬،º١١٦Zσ‫א‬‫א‬،L
K٠{٩Zη‫א‬‫א‬

F = (f x D / 2) . ks
in [kp]
= ( 0.22 . 12 / 2) . Ks
ks = 1.25 (ks turning)
Ks turning = ks.1.1 / hz
h = (f / 2) sin σ
h = (0.22 / 2) . sin 116
h = 0.11 . 0.8988 = 0.1
ksturning = 1750 / 0.10.17
= 123.6 [kp]
ks Drilling = 1.25 . 123.6 = 154.5 [kp / mm2]
F = (0.22 . 6) 1545 = 2039.33 [kp]
Pc = (f . D2 / 8) ks . (n / 97400)
in [kW]
= (0.22 . 144 / 8) 154.5 ( 1000 / 97400)
= 3.96 x154.5 x 0.01 = 6.3 kW
in [kW]
Pmotor = Pc / η
= 6.3 / 0.9 = 7
kW
- ١٥٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

L١٥٠٠Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

 ١٢١

‫א‬





W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 L٠{٤Z‫א‬J 

 ٥Z‫א‬J 

‫א‬J 

(١٩

K٣٥Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 

١٦Z‫א‬J

٥Z‫א‬J
º١٢٠Zσ‫א‬‫א‬J

tc = L / n x f
L = lx + lb + lwp + la
lx = {(D / 2) . tan σ / 2}
= {(16 / 2) . tan 120 /2) = (8 .1.732) = 13.85 mm
L = 13.85 + 5 + 35 + 5 = 58.85 mm
tc = 58.85 / 1500 x 0.4 = 58.85 / 600 = 0.1 min

- ١٥٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١

E٣F‫א‬‫א‬E٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬

‫א‬E٥FKE٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬




J 

J 

‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬٢

‫א‬J  J
 J

K‫א‬‫( א‬٣

،‫א‬،‫א‬،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬F‫א‬،E
 KE،،

J  ‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬‫א‬J 

- ١٥٧ -

K‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬٤
 ‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬J

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





‫א‬‫א‬ (٥

 W‫א‬‫א‬E

 ‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

J

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬J 

(‫ت‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

(‫ث‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

(‫ج‬

‫א‬J

 

‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

J 

‫א‬J ‫א‬J 

J 

‫א‬J 

KK‫א‬ (٦
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬J

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א؟‬‫א‬‫( א‬٧

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ١٥٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٨

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫؟‬‫א‬ (٩

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(١٠

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
K‫אא‬‫א‬‫א‬

(٢٠

‫א‬

(٢١



‫؟‬‫א‬

(٢٢
(٢٣

(١٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬‫א‬J 

- ١٥٩ -

(١٣

J

(١١

 ‫א‬‫א‬



‫א‬J

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





W‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٠٠>‫א‬J 

(١٤

 ‫א‬E

 ١٠٠>‫א‬J 

J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 



١٠٠<‫א‬

 ‫א‬E
١٠٠<‫א‬J

  ١٢>‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬E

 KJ  ١٠٠>‫א‬J 

١٢>‫א‬J

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 ‫א؟‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٧
K٩

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(١٩

‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬H
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

- ١٦٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (20
 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
 ‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫א‬J ‫א‬

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 tc = L / n x f
minutes
 ‫א‬ f

‫א‬tc

 L K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L

‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZL
 K

L = lb + lwp + la

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬

(٢١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(٢٢

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬

E،‫א‬،‫א‬،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W،‫א‬ -

 E‫א‬،F‫א‬‫• א‬
- ١٦١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 KEF‫א‬ •

 ECNCF‫א‬‫• א‬

‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
E

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ -

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE

 K‫א‬‫א‬ -

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ -

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬

 K‫א‬ -

 K‫א‬‫א‬ -

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬ -

 E‫א‬،F‫א‬‫• א‬
 KEF‫א‬ •

 ECNCF‫א‬‫• א‬

‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
E

- ١٦٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(٢٤


‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬


(٢٥

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ -

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(٢٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬ -

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ -

- ١٦٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(٢٧

Tan α = D – d / 2 L
= 37 – 30 / 2 x 40 = 7 / 80 = 0.0875
α
= 5º
 º٥‫א‬٢٥٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣١
 AC = 250 . sin 5º = 250 .0.0871 = 21.775 mm

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٣
 ٦٠Z‫א‬J 

٤Z‫א‬J

 L٠{٤Z‫א‬J  L٢٥Z‫א‬J 
- ١٦٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ٠{٨Zη‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ٢٠‫א‬J
F = b . h . ks = d .f. Ks
b = d = 2 mm
, h = f = 0.4 mm
Ks = ks.1.1 / hn
, n = 0.25 , kx.1.1 = 1160 N / mm2
Ks = 1160 / 0.40.25 = 1458.6 N / mm2
F = 2mm . 0.4mm . 1458.6 N / mm2 = 1166.9 N
P = F . V / 6120 = 1166.9 . 25 / 6120 = 4.76 kW
Pmotor = P / η = 4.76 / 0.8 = 5.95 kW

- ١٦٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E١

‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬F

‫א‬‫א‬EPrepherial milling F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E١{٧F‫א‬KEFace millingF‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢

  -

‫א‬ 

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣

 

J 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬J  J 

J

 J  ‫א‬‫א‬J

- ١٦٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤

 W‫א‬‫א‬E

 ‫א‬J  ‫א‬J 

J  ‫א‬‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬J

 W‫א‬‫א‬E

 ‫א‬J

 

 ‫א‬J 

‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬‫א‬J 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬J

 W‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬J

J 

 ‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬J 

 ‫؟‬‫א‬E٥

 ‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬J

 ‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬E٦

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫א‬

- ١٦٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ،،،J

 ،،‫א‬‫א‬J

 EF

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 EF

 EF

 W‫א‬E٧

 EF

 EF

 K‫א‬‫א‬J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨
ft = f z . z . n

 W

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

n

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

z

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 E‫א‬‫א‬FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

f

 z

ft

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠
 K‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٦٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 K‫א‬‫א‬E١٢

‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
[mm] L = lb + lwp + la

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٣
‫א‬‫א‬J 

 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤
 ‫ א‬‫ א‬-

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K

- ١٦٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦
zie = z. φs / 360
Cos φs = 1 – 2d / D
 W

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬zie 
 ‫א‬z 
 ‫א‬‫א‬φs
 ‫א‬d

‫א‬D
 

Hm = (114.6 / φs) . fz . (d / D)

 W

 ‫א‬‫א‬hm
 ‫א‬‫א‬φs
 ‫א‬d

 ‫א‬D

 ‫א‬fz

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٨

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٩
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٧٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٠

 W‫א‬u‫א‬‫א‬
u = 0.05 . d
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬d
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬d
 E‫א‬F

d= 1.33 . b

E‫א‬‫א‬F
D=1.66 . b

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢١
φs = φ2 – φ1

cos φ1 = 2 B1 / D
cos φ2 = 2 B2 / D
zie = z . φs / 360º
 W

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬zie
 K‫א‬ z
 ‫א‬D

 ‫א‬d

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٢

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
hm = (57.3 / φs) . fz . sin χ ( cos φ1 – cos φ2)
φs = φ2 – φ1
cos φ1 = 2 B1 / D
- ١٧١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





cos φ2 = 2 B2 / D
zie = z. φs / 360º
 W

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬zie
 K‫א‬ z
 ‫א‬‫א‬χ

 ‫א‬D

 ‫א‬d

٤‫א‬٢L٦٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٣
K٧٥١٢،‫א‬‫א‬
 K١٠٥٤٥‫א‬

٠{٧٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬ ،d‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 KL٠{١ZEL‫א‬Fsz

 ٠{٢٦Zz
 ٢L١٩٩٠ZKs.1.1
Pc = Ftotal . V / 102 . 60 [kW]
Ftotal = Fc . zie
zie = z. φs / 360º
Cos φs = 1 – 2 d / D
= 1 – 2 x 4 / 75
= 1 – 8 / 75
= 75 – 8 / 75
= 67 / 75
= 0.89
φs = 27º 40´ = 27.66º

 KL٢٥ZE‫א‬FV

- ١٧٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





zie = (12 . 27.66) / 360 = 0.922
Fc = b . hm . ks
hm = (114.6 / 27.66) . 0.1. (4 / 75) = 0.022 mm
ks = ks.1.1 / hz = 1990 / 0.0220.26 = 536.2 kp . mm2
Fc = 45 . 0.022 . 536.2 = 530.9 kp
Ftotal = 530.9 . 0.922 = 489.5 kp
Pc = 489.5 . 25 / 6120 = 1.9

kW
 ‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬

fz . z . nZft‫א‬

n = 1000 . V / 3.14 . D

= 1000 . 25 / 3.14 . 75 = 106.2 r p m
mm /min
ft = 0.1 . 12 . 106.2 = 127.44
 ‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬
 ٠{٩٥٥Z١٢٧{٤٤L١٢٣Z١٢٧{٤٤LE٨H٨H١٠٥FZ


 K‫א‬E٢٤

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٢٥

،٤٠E٥F‫א‬‫א‬E٤F‫א‬W‫א‬

‫א‬E١٣F‫א‬K‫א‬E٢F‫א‬‫א‬E٣F‫א‬
٦F‫א‬E٧F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

J ١٦J ١٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨
- ١٧٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





J ٤٧J ٤٣J ٤١J ٣٩J ٣٧FE٣٣J ٣١J ٢٩J ٢٧J ٢٣J ٢١FE٢٠J ١٩J ١٨J ١٧

،E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬KE٤٩

KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬٤٠‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E١٢F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠F‫א‬E١١F
 K‫א‬‫א‬



 K‫א‬K٢٤E٢٦
 ٢E٣L٢FZ٢٤L٤٠

 K١٥‫א‬١١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫؟‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٧

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٧٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬E١

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬E٢

،E٠{٠٣J ٠{٠٠٢F‫א‬‫א‬

،\٠{١٢J ٠{٠٢FE‫א‬‫א‬F

‫א‬K‫א‬E‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬


‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤

 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬J

 ‫א‬J
 ‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
- ١٧٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 K‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥
 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬ -

‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

 K‫א‬ -

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬      ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫؟‬‫א‬E٧

،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨
46
k
5
v

C AF‫א‬EAF‫א‬‫• א‬
 KE

J ٨٠،٦٠J ٣٠،٢٤J ٨F‫א‬E٤٦F‫• א‬
 KE‫א‬٦٠٠J ٢٠٠،١٨٠

- ١٧٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





،U - Y،E - T،‫א‬A - D F‫א‬EkF‫• א‬
 KE‫א‬Z

‫א‬١٥J ٩،٨J ١F‫א‬E٥F‫• א‬
 KE

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EvF‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩
 K‫א‬‫א‬ •

 K‫א‬‫א‬ •
 ‫א‬ •

 ‫א‬‫א‬ •

‫א‬‫א‬ •

K‫א‬‫א‬E١٠

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١

‫א‬

 K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٢

‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
[mm] L = lb + lwp + la
- ١٧٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





K‫א‬‫א‬E١٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ -

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤

 K‫א‬E\F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .a
 K‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ .b

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣
 K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤

 K

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦

- ١٧٨ -

 ‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬

Abrasive

 

Alignment
Arbor
Arm bracket
Automatic
Backlash
Basic hole system
Basic shaft system
Bearing
Bed
Belt
Flat ……
V ……
Blind hole
Block
V ……
Bluntness
Borax
Boring
…… bar
Counter ……
……. Tool
Burring
Carbide

 GLOSSARY




‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬



‫א‬

‫א‬

_ ‫א‬













‫א‬ ، ‫א‬




‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٧٩ -

 ‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬
Cemented ……



Silicon ……

 

‫א‬

…… tipped tool



carriage

 

Cement

،

Centre

 ،

…… mark

‫א‬

…… punch

‫א‬

centering

 

…… tool

 

chain

 

chamfer

 

Change gears

 

Chart

 

chatter

 ‫א‬

Chip

 ‫א‬

…… breaker

 ‫א‬‫א‬

clamping

 

………... bolts

 

Clasp nut

 

Clay

 

Clearance angle

 ‫א‬‫א‬

Closers

 

clutch

 

Concentricity

 

Coolant

 

- ١٨٠ -

 ‫א‬

cooling

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 



Corundum

 

 

Counter borer

‫א‬

Counter boring



Cutting

 

……. Angle

 ‫א‬‫א‬

……. Edge

 ‫א‬‫א‬

Dry …….

E F

…….. force

 ‫א‬

……… tool

‫א‬،‫א‬

Wet ……

EF

Cylindrical grinder

‫א‬

Dial gauge



Dividing head

 

Dovetailed groove

 

Down milling

‫א‬

Draw –in- bolt

 

dressing

 

Drill

،

Bench ……

 

Centre ……

 

Gang ……



Hand ……

 

Radial …….

 

Twist ……

 

Upright

 
 

- ١٨١ -

 ‫א‬

drilling

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 



……… spindle

 

 ‫א‬

Spot …….

 

…… machine

،

Drive

‫א‬

eccentric

  

……. lathe



……… turning

‫א‬

Electrolytic copper

‫א‬

End face

 

End milling

‫א‬

……. cutter



Engagement

 

Erection

 

Face plate

 

Facing

 ‫א‬

Feather key

 

Feed

 

…….. gears

 ‫א‬

…… box

‫א‬

Felspar

 ‫א‬

Fine-pitch thread

 

Finishing

 

………. tool

 

Fit

 ‫א‬

Class of ……

 ‫א‬‫א‬
- ١٨٢ -

 ‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 
Clearance ……



Grade of ……

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

Interference ……

 ‫א‬‫א‬

Transition ……

 ‫א‬

System of ……

 ‫א‬

Flank

 ‫א‬

Floating reamer

 

Floating sleeve

 

Flute

 

flux



forming

 

gear

 

Bevel …….



Worm …….

 

<<Go >> gouge



grease

 

grinding

 

Cylindrical ……

‫א‬

External …….

 

Internal ……..

 ‫א‬

……… machine

،

Surface ……..

 

……. Wheel

 ‫א‬

Guiding way

 

Hardness

 

Headstock

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ١٨٣ -

 ‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 
High speed steel



Hob

‫א‬



Honing

 

Horizontal milling machine

 

Indexing

 

…….. crank

 ‫א‬

……. pin

 

…….. plate

 

……. Fixture

 

ISA

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

ISO

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Jig boring machine

‫א‬

Knurling

EF

Lead screw

 ‫א‬

Leading cutting edge

‫א‬‫א‬

Lever

 ‫א‬

Control …….

 ‫א‬

Hand …….

 ‫א‬

Locking …….

 ‫א‬

Limit gauge

‫א‬

Lip angle

 ‫א‬‫א‬

Longitudinal

 ‫א‬

Lubricant

 

Lubrication

 

Machine

 

…….. tool

 
- ١٨٤ -

 ‫א‬

Magnesite

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 



Maintenance

 

Major diameter

 ‫א‬‫א‬

Margin

 

Marking

E F

Mesh

 

Meshing

 

Metal cutting

 ‫א‬

Milling

 

……. Cutter

 

Minor diameter

 ‫א‬‫א‬

Muffle furnace

 

neck

 

Nominal size

 ‫א‬

Nose

 

…….. angle
<<NOT

GO>>gauge(also<<NO GO>>

 

gauge)

Paraffin
Pilot

 ‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬
 

Pitch

 

……. diameter

 ‫א‬

Plain tool steel



Planning

 

…….. machine



Plug gauge

‫א‬

pneumatic

 

- ١٨٥ -

 ‫א‬

Point angle

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 



Power train

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

Radial drill

 ‫א‬

Rake angle

 ‫א‬‫א‬

Reaming

 

Resin

 ‫א‬

Rest

 

Return stroke

‫א‬‫א‬

Rigid

E‫א‬F

rough

 ‫א‬

Roughing

 ‫א‬

Scraper



Screw

 

Scriber

E  F

Self – centering

‫א‬‫א‬

Setting – up

 ‫א‬

Shaft

 

Shank

 

Cylindrical …….

E F‫א‬

Tapered …….



shaping

 

…….. machine



sharpening

 

Shell end mill



shellac

 ،

Side angle

 ‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٨٦ -

 ‫א‬

Side angle

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Sintering

 

Size

 

Nominal …….

‫א‬‫א‬

Basic ……

‫א‬‫א‬

Slotting

 

Snap gauge



spacer

 

Spanner

 ‫א‬

Spindle

 ‫א‬

Spirit

‫א‬

Split nut



Stepped pulley

 

Stop

 

Straight turning

E F‫א‬

Switch



Swiveling arm

 ‫א‬

Table

 

Tailstock

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Tap

 

tapping

 ‫א‬

Template

 

Testing

 ‫א‬

Thread

 

Metric ……

 

Whitworth ……

EF

Threading

 
- ١٨٧ -

 ‫א‬

…… die

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 



Three – jaw chuck

 



Through hole

 

Tolerance

 

……. Zone

‫א‬

Disposition

‫א‬

Grade of ……

 ‫א‬

Tool

،

…… holder

 ‫א‬

…….. - life

‫א‬‫א‬

……. Post

E F‫א‬

Trailing cutting edge

‫א‬‫א‬

Truing

‫א‬

T – slot

T 

Turning

 ‫א‬

…… tool

 ‫א‬

Turpentine

 ‫א‬

Twist drill

 

V – block

 

Vertical milling machine

 

Vice

 

Wedge

 ‫א‬

…… angle

 ‫א‬‫א‬

Worm

 

…… wheel



- ١٨٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KJ ،١٩٩٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬ (١
 ‫–א‬‫א‬KK‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬E٢

 K،‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬،1981،‫א‬‫א‬E٣

 K،‫א‬،،١٩٨٥،‫א‬E٤

–J _،١٩٧٧،?‫א‬E٥
 ‫א‬،–،–‫א‬

 ،،،١٩٧٧،،‫א‬‫א‬E٦

،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،١٩٧٨،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧

 K‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬،،١٩٧٧،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨

 K‫א‬،‫א‬

- ١٨٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
1) Tool and manufacturing engineers handbook” volume I , Machining, Thomas
J. Drozda, Charles Wick, 1983, 4th edition, Society of manufacturing
Engineers, USA.
2) Machining and metalworking handbook, Ronald A. Walsh, 1998, ,2nd edition,
McGraw – Hill, USA
3) Machining fundamentals, John R. Walker, 1989, forth edition, the Goodhreat
– Willcox Company, USA
4) Introduction to Manufacturing Processes, John A. Schey, 1987, 2nd edition,
McGraw – Hill, USA
5) Basic machining Reference Handbook, Arthur R. Meyers, 2001, 2nd Ed., Industrial
press Inc.

- ١٩٠ -

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ‫א‬

 

 ١

 ١

 ٢

 ٣

 ٤

 ٣
 ٣

 ٤

 ٧

 ٩


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬١J ١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣J ١



‫א‬‫א‬٢J ١

‫א‬٤J ١

 ١٥

 ‫א‬٥J ١

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٦J ١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ١٠

 ١١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٧J ١

‫א‬‫א‬٨J ١



 ١٨

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٨

 ١٨

 ١J ٢

 ‫א‬٢J ٢

 ٢٠

 ‫א‬٣J ٢

 ٢٥

 ٢٠

 ‫א‬٤J ٢

 

 ‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ٢٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٧

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٣

 ٢٦

 ٢٩

 ٣٠

 ٣١

 ٣٨

 ٣٩

 ٣٩

 ٤٣






 ‫א‬‫א‬١J ٣

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٣

‫א‬‫א‬٤J ٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٥J ٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬٦J ٣

 ١–٧J ٣

‫א‬‫א‬٧J ٣



 ٤٥

‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٤٦

‫א‬٢J ٤

 ٤٥

 ٤٨

 ٥٠

 ٤٨

 ٥١

 ١J ٤

 ‫א‬٣J ٤
 ‫א‬٤J ٤

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٥J ٤

 

 ٥٢

 ٥٣

 ٥٤

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬١–٢J ٥

 ٥٢

 ٥٤
 ٥٥

 ٥٦
 ٥٩











‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١–٥

‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬٢J ٥

 ‫א‬٣J ٥

 ‫א‬

‫א‬





 ٦١

 ٦٤

 ٦٣

 ٦٧

 ٧٠

 ٧٠

 ٧١

 

 ١٢١


 ‫א‬٤J ٥

 ‫א‬٥J ٥

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٦J ٥


‫א‬٧J ٥

 ‫א‬‫א‬٩J ٥

‫א‬‫א‬٨J ٥

 

 ٧٣

٧٤

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٦

 ٧٣

 ٧٤

 ٨٠

 ٧٨

 ٨١
 ٨٣

 ٨٤
 ٨٥

 ٨٥

 ٨٨

 ٩١
 ٩٣








‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ١J ٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٦

‫א‬٤J ٦
‫א‬‫א‬٥J ٦

‫א‬٦J ٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬٧J ٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٨J ٦

‫א‬‫א‬٩J ٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٩J ٦

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١J ٩J ٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٩J ٦

 

‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ٩٦

 ٩٧

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٧

 ٩٦
 ٩٧








 ١J ٧

 ‫א‬٣J ٧

 ‫א‬

 ١٢١

‫א‬





 ١٠٠

 ١٠٣

‫א‬‫א‬٦J ٧

 ١٠١

  ١٠٣

 ‫א‬٤J ٧

‫א‬‫א‬٥J ٧

‫א‬٧J ٧

 ١٠٤

 ١٠٦

 ‫א‬١J ٢J ٧J ٧

 ١١٢

 ١٠٥

 ١٠٩

 ١١٤

 ١١٤

 ١١٤

 ١١٧

 ١٢٠

 ١٢٠

 ١٢١

 ١٢١

 ١٢٢

 ١٢٣

 ١٢٤

 ١٢٦
 ١٢٧



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٧J ٧

٨J ٧

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٨

 ‫א‬‫א‬١–٧J ٧


‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ١J ٨

 ‫א‬٣J ٨

‫א‬٢J ٤J ٨

‫א‬‫א‬٦J ٨





 ‫א‬‫א‬٥J ٨

 ‫א‬٧J ٨

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٨J ٨

 CNC‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٢٨


‫א‬١J ٤J ٨



‫א‬٤J ٨

 ١٢٧
 ١٢٨

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬





 ١٢٩

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٣٢

 ١٣٢

 ١٣٩

 ١٤٨

 ١٤٣
 ١٥١
 ١٥٦
 ١٦٥

 

 ١٢١











‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٧٨

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٧٤

 ١٨٨

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬






















 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
GOTEVOT appreciates the financial support provided by BAE SYSTEMS

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