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Pentair Valves and Controls

SRV
Training
Manual

Pentair / Anderson Greenwood Crosby

TRAINING MANUAL

Safety Valves serve the unique function of providing the last line of defence against the
dangerous build-up of excess pressure in vessels and systems thus safeguarding life and
property.
They are self-contained and self-operating devices, which respond to system conditions
and prevent catastrophic failure when other instruments and control systems fail to
adequately control process limits. Although simple in design and rugged in appearance
Safety Valves are precision instruments and should be selected, handled, installed and
maintained with care to ensure they fulfil their intended function.
When a SV is called upon to operate it must reliably & consistently do the following:
1.

It must open at a predetermined set point typically the maximum allowable working
pressure of the system (Set pressure).

2.

Achieve a rated relieving capacity at a specified pressure above the opening point
(Overpressure).

3.

After a given drop in inlet pressure below the opening point, it should close and reseat
tightly (Blowdown).
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Definitions
Adjusting Ring/Blowdown Ring: A ring assembled to the nozzle or guide (or a ring for each)
of a direct spring operated safety valve, used to control the opening characteristics
and/or the reseat pressure.
Back Pressure: The static pressure existing at the outlet of a pressure relief device due to
pressure in the discharge system.
Backflow Preventer: A part or a feature of a pilot operated safety valve used to prevent the
main valve from opening and flowing backwards when the pressure at the valve
outlet exceeds the pressure at the valve inlet.
Balanced Bellows DSOSV: A safety valve which incorporates a means of minimizing the
effects of back pressure on the valves operating characteristics. With a direct
spring safety valve, this can be accomplished by a metal bellows, with the average
diameter of the external convolutions of the bellows being the same as the seat
sealing diameter, isolating the back pressure from the spring housing.
Balanced Piston DSOSV: A safety valve balancing effect can also be achieved with a
spindle seal having the same sealing diameter as the disc/seat, keeping the back
pressure out of the spring housing.
Bellows: A flexible, metallic pressure-containing component of a balanced bellows direct
spring safety valve, used to prevent changes in set pressure when the valve is
subjected to a superimposed back pressure, or to prevent corrosion between the
disc holder and guide or the set pressure spring.
Blowdown: The difference between the actual opening pressure of a safety valve and the
actual reseating pressure, normally expressed as a percentage of set pressure.
Body: A pressure-retaining or containing member of a pressure relief device that supports
the parts of the valve assembly and has provision(s) for connecting to the primary
and/or secondary pressure source.
Bonnet: A component of a direct spring valve or of a pilot on a pilot operated safety valve
that supports the spring. It may or may not be pressure containing, according to
design.
Built-Up Back Pressure: Pressure existing at the outlet of a pressure relief device caused
by the flow through that particular device into a discharge system. There is therefore
no Built-Up Back Pressure when that particular device is closed.
Burst Pressure: The value of inlet static pressure at which a rupture disc device functions.
Bursting Disc: see Rupture Disc.
Cap: A component used to restrict access and/or protect the set pressure adjustment
screw. It may or may not be a pressure-containing part.
Chatter: Abnormal, rapid reciprocating motion of the movable parts of a safety valve, in
which the disc, piston assembly, or diaphragm-supported seat assembly contact the
stationary seat with significant and usually damaging impact.
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Closing Pressure: The value of decreasing inlet static pressure at which the moveable
safety valve disc/seat, piston assembly, or diaphragm-supported seat assembly reestablishes contact with the stationary nozzle at which time lift becomes zero.
Cold Differential Set Pressure: The inlet static pressure at which a safety valve is adjusted
to open on a test stand. This test pressure includes correction factors for
anticipated service conditions of superimposed back pressure and or temperature.
Constant Back Pressure: Superimposed back pressure which is constant with time.
Conventional DSOSV: A direct spring-loaded safety valve having its spring housing vented
to the discharge side of the valve, whose non-balanced, operating characteristics
(opening pressure, closing pressure, stability, and relieving capacity) are affected by
changes of the back pressure on the valve.
Direct Spring Operated SV (DSOSV): A pressure relief valve actuated by inlet static
pressure, opposing the downward spring force on a Disc/Seat.
Disc/Seat: The pressure-containing, moveable element of a safety valve which effects
closure.
Flowing Pilot: A Pilot which discharges the fluid throughout the relieving cycle of the POSV.
Flutter: Abnormal, rapid, reciprocating motion of the moveable parts of a safety valve in
which they do not contact the stationary nozzle but in which critical internal parts can
sustain significant damage.
Full Bore SV: A safety valve in which the nozzle bore area is equal to the flow area at the
inlet to the valve and there are no protrusions in the bore.
Full Lift SV: A safety valve in which the disc/seat lifts sufficiently to allow the nozzles actual
discharge area to be the nozzle bore area.
Huddling chamber: The annular pressure chamber located downstream of the valve
nozzle for purposes of generating an opening characteristic.
Inlet Size: The nominal pipe size of a safety valve inlet, unless otherwise designated.
Internal Spring SV: A direct spring-loaded safety valve whose spring and all or part of the
operating mechanism is exposed to the system pressure when the valve is in the
closed position.
Leak Test Pressure: The specified inlet static pressure at which a quantitative seat
leakage test is performed in accordance with a standard procedure.
Lift: The actual travel of the safety valve disc, piston assembly, or seat assembly away
from the closed position.
Lifting device/Lift lever: A device for manually opening a safety valve by the application of
an external force to lessen the spring-loading which holds the safety valve closed.
This allows the safety valve to open below set pressure.
Low Lift SV: A safety valve in which the disc/seat does not lift sufficiently to expose the
entire nozzle bore; therefore, the safety valve capacity is determined by how much
the spindle/seat has lifted. The safety valve flow area is usually determined by a
curtain area, the flow area annulus formed by the spindle skirts diameter and the
nozzle bores circumference at the point of flow.
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Modulating Action: A gradual opening and closing characteristic of some safety valves,
particularly some pilot operated types, in which the main valve opens in proportion
to the relief demand at that time. This proportionality of is not necessarily linear.
Non-Flowing Pilot: A Pilot in which the fluid flows only to enable a change in the position of
the main valve it controls.
Nozzle: A pressure-containing element which constitutes the inlet flow passage and
includes the fixed portion of the disc/seat closure. The capacity of a full-lift safety
valve is determined by the precision diameter of the nozzle bore.
Opening Pressure: The value of increasing inlet static pressure of a safety valve at which
there is a measurable lift, or at which the discharge becomes continuous, as
determined by sight, feel, or sound.
Outlet Size: The nominal pipe size of the outlet of a safety valve, unless otherwise
designated.
Overpressure: A pressure increase over the set pressure of a safety valve, normally
expressed as a percentage of set pressure. The Overpressure can be equal or
lower than the allowable accumulation of the pressure system it protects which is
given by the applicable code.
Pilot: An auxiliary valve assembly utilized on POSVs to determine the opening pressure,
the closing pressure, and the opening and closing characteristics of the main valve.
Pilot Operated Device: A device in which the disc/seat is held closed by system pressure
and the holding pressure is controlled by a pilot, actuated by system pressure.
Pilot Operated Safety Valve (POSV): A self-actuated safety valve comprising a main valve
and a pilot. The operations of the main valve are controlled by the pilot which
responds to the pressure of the fluid.
Piston: Utilized in the main valve assembly of most POSV with its movement and position
controlling the main valve opening, flow, and valve closure.
Pop Action: An opening and closing characteristic of a safety valve in which the valve
snaps open into high lift and closes with equal abruptness.
Popping Pressure: The value of increasing inlet static pressure at which the disc/seat
moves in the opening direction at a faster rate as compared with corresponding
movement at a higher or lower pressure.
Power Actuated / Assisted SV: A safety valve actuated/assisted by an externally-powered
control device. The safety valve may be either a direct spring type or pilot operated.
Pressure Containing Member (of a pressure relief device): A component which is in actual
contact with the process medium in the protected equipment.
Pressure Relief Device: A device designed to prevent pressure or vacuum from exceeding
a predetermined value in pressure equipment by the transfer of fluid during
emergency or abnormal conditions.
Pressure Relief Valve: A pressure relief device designed to actuate on an inlet static
pressure and to reclose after normal conditions have been restored. In this manual,
we have used the terms Safety Valve as preferred in the latest European
standards.
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Pressure Retaining Member (of a pressure relief device): A part which is stressed due to
its function in holding one or more pressure-containing members in position.
Primary Pressure: The pressure at the inlet of a pressure relief device.
Relief Valve: A pressure relief valve characterized by gradual opening and/or closing,
generally proportional to the increase in pressure. It is normally used for
incompressible fluids. In this manual, and as stipulated in the latest European
standards, we have used the terms Safety Valves indifferently.
Relieving Conditions: The inlet pressure and temperature on a pressure relief device
during an overpressure condition. The relieving pressure is equal to the safety valve
set pressure or rupture disc burst pressure plus the overpressure. (The temperature
of the flowing fluid at relieving conditions may be higher or lower than the normal
operating temperature.)
Relieving Pressure: Set pressure plus overpressure.
Resealing Pressure: The value of decreasing inlet static pressure at which no further
leakage is detected after closing. The method of detection may be a specified water
seal on the outlet or other means appropriate for this application.
Safety Relief Valve: A pressure relief valve characterized by rapid opening and/or closing
or by gradual opening and/or closing, generally proportional to the increase or
decrease in pressure. It can be used for compressible or incompressible fluids or a
mixture of the two. In this manual, and as stipulated in the latest European
standards, we have used the terms Safety Valve indifferently.
Safety Valve: Following the latest European standards, in this manual we have used these
terms to designate generally a valve which automatically, without the assistance of
any energy other than that of the fluid concerned, discharges a quantity of fluid so
as to prevent a predetermined safe pressure being exceeded, and which is
designed to reclose and prevent further flow of fluid after normal pressure conditions
of service have been restored. For others, particularly in reference to ASME, this is
a pressure relief valve characterized by rapid opening and closing and normally
used to relieve compressible fluids.
Seat Diameter: The smallest diameter of contact between the fixed (nozzle) and moving
portions of the pressure-containing elements of a safety valve.
Seat:

The pressure-containing contact between the fixed and moving portions of the
pressure-containing elements of a valve. It may be of metallic, plastic, or
elastomeric material.

Secondary Pressure: The pressure existing in the passage between the actual discharge
area and the valve outlet in a safety, safety relief, or relief valve.
Set Pressure: The value of increasing inlet static pressure at which a pressure relief
device displays one of the operating characteristics as defined under opening
pressure, popping pressure, start-to-leak pressure, burst pressure, or breaking
pressure. Particularly for a safety valve, it is the gauge pressure measured at the
valve inlet at which the pressure forces tending to open the valve for the specific
service conditions are in equilibrium with the forces retaining the valve disc on its
seat.
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Simmer/Warn: The audible or visible escape of fluid between the safety valve disc/seat
and nozzle at an inlet static pressure below the popping pressure and at no
measurable capacity. It applies to safety valves on compressible fluid service.
Spindle/Stem: A part whose axial orientation is parallel to the travel of the disc/seat. It
may be used in one or more of the following functions:
- assist in alignment
- guide disc/seat travel
- transfer of internal or external forces to the discs/seats
Spring Washer: a load-transferring component in a safety valve that supports the spring.
Spring: The element in a direct spring safety valve or pilot that provides the force to keep
the disc/seat on the nozzle.
Start-to-Leak Pressure: The value of increasing inlet static pressure at which the first
bubble passes between the disc/seat and nozzle into the outlet when a safety valve
is tested with air, with a water seal on the outlet.
Static Blowdown: The difference between the set pressure and the closing pressure of a
safety valve when it is not overpressured to the allowed, flow-rating pressure.
Superimposed Back Pressure: The static pressure existing at the outlet of a pressure relief
device at the time the device is required to operate. It is the result of pressure in the
discharge system from other sources and may be constant or variable.
Vacuum Breaker (a negative pressure safety valve): A safety valve designed to admit fluid
to prevent an excessive internal vacuum within the protected equipment.

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Where these valves are installed?


Safety Valves can be found all over the world in areas where pressure is created or
stored. These can be on production platforms at sea, on boilers, on sterilisers, in refineries,
on compressors, in pharmaceutical plants, on ships, on rockets, in the food industries, and
even at home.
The safety valves purpose is to relieve the pressure contained in the pipes, vessels or
boiler of a pressurised system once it has increased over a predetermined point, usually
the design pressure of the equipment.
If pressure were allowed to continue to build with no escape path (through the valve) this
would result in a rupture of the walls of the equipment, resulting most probably in a loss of
life, property or both.

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TRAINING MANUAL

When Things Go Wrong!


The pictures below show the remains of a boiler and its boiler house after an explosion
which killed 13 people. The cause was due to lack of maintenance/servicing.
Once the user has taken delivery of the safety valves it is imperative for him to put in place
some form of preventive maintenance including schedule and inspection planning. The
valve manufacturer can assist in this if requested.

Poor or lack of Maintenance


can have a devastating effect
on lives and property

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TRAINING MANUAL

PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE TYPES


Note: the distinction between Relief Valves, Safety Valves and Safety Relief Valves is still widely used
and supported by many codes and standards, mainly from the USA. However, the recent European
codes and standards consider simply Safety Valves as a generic term for all these valves.

RELIEF VALVES
Relief valves are self-operating, spring-loaded, pressure relieving devices
actuated by the static pressure upstream of the valve, which lifts in
proportion to the increase in pressure over the opening pressure. Relief
valves are usually pressure tight on the downstream side of the valve.

Application
Relief valves are used primarily on liquid, incompressible services.

Limitations
Relief valves should not be used generally:
 In steam, air, gas or vapour service.
 In variable backpressure service.
 As pressure control or bypass valves.

SAFETY VALVES
Safety valves are self-operating, spring-loaded, pressure relieving devices
actuated by the static pressure upstream of the valve and characterised by
rapid opening or pop action.

Application
Safety valves are generally used on steam, air or any compressible fluid. By
extension, many consider a Safety Valve as being only a valve designed for
steam services, and therefore unsuitable for corrosive applications, back
pressure services, etc.

Limitations
Safety valves should not be used on liquid services.

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TRAINING MANUAL

SAFETY RELIEF VALVES


Safety relief valves are self-operating, spring loaded, pressure relieving devices actuated
by the static pressure upstream of the valve.
This valve is characterised by rapid opening or pop action, or by opening in proportion to
the increase in pressure over the opening pressure, depending on the application and may
therefore be used either for liquid or a compressible medium.
There are several types of safety relief valves.

Application
Because Safety Relief Valves are both pop action (on compressible fluids) or proportional
(on incompressible fluids), these valves are widely used on all sort of applications:
 In general refinery service for gas, vapour, steam, air or liquids.
 In corrosive refinery services.
 When the discharge from the valve must be piped to a remote point.
 When the escape of the process fluid around the open valve is not desirable.

Limitations
Safety relief valves should not be used:
 On steam boiler drums or super heaters.
 As pressure control or bypass valves.
Note: in all what follows we will use the term Safety Valves to cover any type, in accordance to the
terminology recently adopted in the European codes and standards.

CONVENTIONAL SAFETY VALVES


Description
Conventional safety valves are constructed in such a manner that the back
pressure on the downstream side of the valve will affect the action of the
valve.
A variation in the backpressure will cause erratic action of the Valve.

Application
Conventional safety valves are normally used in any services where the
superimposed back pressure is constant, and/or the built up back pressure
does not exceed 10% of the set pressure.

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Limitation
Conventional safety valves should not be used:
 On steam boiler drums or super heaters.
 In cases of super-imposed variable backpressure.
 In cases where the built-up backpressure exceeds 10% of the set pressure
 As pressure control or bypass valves.
Advantages
Wide range of materials available
Wide range of fluid compatibilities
Wide range of service temperatures
Rugged design
Compatible with fouling and dirty
service

Disadvantages
Prone to leakage (if metal seated)
Long simmer or long blowdown
Risk of chattering on liquids, unless
special trim
Very sensitive to inlet pressure
losses
Limitation in pressure/sizes
Highly affected by back pressure (set
pressure, capacity, stability)
Not easily testable in the field

BALANCED SAFETY VALVES


Description
Balanced safety valves may be used in any services mentioned where
the backpressure is either constant or variable. The balanced bellows
type of safety valve is especially effective in corrosive or dirty services
because it seals the corrosive or dirty process fluid from contact with
the guiding surfaces of the valve, thus preventing sticking as a result
of corrosion, or ingress of dirt at this contact point.

Limitation
Balanced type safety valves should not be used:
 On steam boiler drums or super heaters.
 As pressure control or bypass valves.
Because balanced bellows type valves must have their bonnets
vented to the atmosphere, the need for piping the vent to a safe
location must be determined.
The balanced bellows valve, with or without a supplementary balancing piston, will only
discharge process medium from the bonnet vent in the case of failure of the bellows.
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The supplementary balancing piston is fitted as a backup device, if the bellows fail in
service this device will ensure the valve relieves at the correct set pressure.
Without the balancing piston fitted the variable backpressure would have an adverse effect
on the set point of the PRV. This may result in the valve not relieving its full capacity or not
achieving full lift within 10% overpressure.
Advantages
Guiding surfaces protected
Set point unaffected by back pressure
Capacity reduced only at high levels
of back pressure
Wide range of materials available
Wide range of fluid compatibilities
Wide range of service temperatures
Rugged design
Compatible with fouling and dirty
service

Disadvantages
Prone to leakage (if metal seated)
Long simmer or long blowdown
Risk of chattering on liquids, unless
special trim
Very sensitive to inlet pressure
losses
Limitation in pressure/sizes
Limited bellows life
High maintenance costs
Not easily testable in the field

PILOT OPERATED SAFETY VALVES


Description
A pilot operated safety valve is a valve in which the major relieving device is combined with
and is controlled by a self-actuated pilot valve.
Pilot operated safety valves consist of two basic units: the
pilot valve or pilot assembly/controller, and the main valve.
The operation of the pilot operated safety valve (POSV) is
discussed later under valve operation.

Application
Pilot operated valves are used primarily in the following
services:
 Where large relief areas at high set pressure is
required
Many pilot operated safety valves can be set to the full
rating of the inlet flange
 Where the differential between normal operating
pressure and set pressure of the valve is small
 On large low-pressure storage tanks to prevent icing
and sticking.
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Where short or adjustable blowdown is required.


Where backpressure is very high and balanced design is required.
A pilot operated valve with the pilot vented to atmosphere is fully balanced.

Limitation
These valves are not generally used:
 In process with very high temperature (in the case of pilot operated safety valves with
soft goods)
 In highly viscous liquid service. Pilot operated valves have relatively small orifices,
which can become plugged by viscous liquids.
 Where chemical compatibility of the process fluid with the diaphragms or seals of the
valve is questionable or where corrosion build up can impede the actuation of the pilot.
Advantages
Good and repeatable seat tightness,
before and after cycle
Smaller and lighter valves, larger
orifice sizes
Pop or modulating action available
Easily testable in the field
Not affected by back pressure
Operation not affected by inlet
pressure losses with remote sense
In-line maintenance (for some
designs)
High flexibility of
designs/configurations to suit
applications

Disadvantages
Limited on dirty or fouling service,
unless with special configuration
Requires special configuration on
polymerising fluids
O-ring and soft seals limiting
chemical and temperature
compatibility
Liquid service limitation, requiring
modulating pilot

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NON RECLOSING PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICES


Description
A non-reclosing pressure relief device is a pressure relief device designed to remain open
after operation. A manual resetting means may be provided on certain valve
manufacturers/types. (Cameron, Retsco, Falcon etc.)
While the bursting discs are by far the most common non-reclosing pressure safety
devices, pin valves can also be found on applications where the large margin between
operating and opening pressure (found on rupture discs) is not acceptable.
A rupture or bursting disc is a non-reclosing pressure
relief device actuated by inlet static pressure and
designed to function by the bursting of a pressurecontaining device.
Provided that the appropriate regulations permit, a single
rupture disc can be used on its own for system
protection. Rupture discs can be used as the primary
relief or as an
additional
secondary relief.

They can also be used in pairs or in combination with


a safety valve for additional safety, operational and
installation cost benefits and system integrity.

Advantages
Instantaneous opening
Zero leakage
Very large sizes easily available
Wide range of materials easily
available

Disadvantages
Non-reclosing (vent until inlet and
outlet pressures equalise)
Needs high margin between
operating and opening pressures
Can fail by fatigue due to pulsations
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Virtually no maintenance
Full pipe bore (almost)
Low pressure drop
Low cost

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of pressure
Burst pressure highly sensitive to
temperature
No possibility to check the burst
pressure in the field
Requires depressurising equipment
for replacement after bursting
Tolerance usually +/-5%

RESILIANT VALVE SEATS

Description
Some safety valves are manufactured with resilient O-ring or other types of soft seals to
supplement or replace the typical metal to metal seating surfaces. Usually the valves are
similar in all respects to the basic valves previously described, except the disc is designed
to accommodate some type of seal ring to give a tightness exceeding the usual commercial
tightness of conventional metal seats.

Application
Resilient valve seats are frequently used when a greater degree of seat tightness is
required than is likely with metal to metal seats.
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Where the service fluid is corrosive or hard to hold with metal seats. Slight leakage of a
corrosive gas, vapour or liquid could deteriorate or foul the moving parts of a valve.
When small, hard foreign particles are carried in the flowing fluids, they usually scratch
or mark metal seats when the valve discharges. This results in probable leakage when
the valve closes. The resilient seal can absorb impact of the particles, shield the mating
metal seating surface and reduce the probable incidence of leakage to a certain extent.
To prevent loss of expensive fluids and to minimise the escape of explosive, toxic, or
irritant fluids into the area.
Where operating pressures may be too close to the set pressure. As the operating
pressure approaches nearer to the set pressure, the net differential forces on the disc
are reduced. Resilient seats provide a better degree of tightness than metal ones under
this condition.
When a safety valve is subject to a minor pressure relief situation the disc may only lift
enough to cause a slightly audible escape of fluid or visible drip (if liquid). This may
relieve the system pressure, but the valve does not significantly pop or lift open. Under
this condition, with metal seats, the disc may not reseat properly and the valve may
continue to leak below the system normal operating pressure. A resilient seat provides
tight shut off when the system pressure falls after a minor relief
Vibrations and pulsating pressures tend to reduce the effect of the spring load on the
disc, causing a rubbing movement of the disc on to the nozzle seat. This results in seat
leakage. Where safety valves are subject to this condition, a greater degree of tightness
can be maintained with resilient seats than with metal ones.

Limitation
A large variety of elastomers and plastics are available for seals in valves. At present there
is no single material suitably resilient to all pressures, temperatures and chemicals.
Therefore each resilient seat application should be selected after considering the specific
fluid and service conditions. Where certain materials may be excellent with respect to
chemical resistance, they may not be suitable for the intended service temperatures, and
vice versa.
Explosive decompression can occur on some gases at some very high pressures. This can
blister and split O-rings when the pressure drops suddenly.
Past plant experience and pressure limitations is probably the best guide in choosing an
elastomer.

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THE HISTORY OF LEGISLATION, CODES OF PRACTISE AND


STANDARDS FOR PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES
Because of their critical safety function, the rules to design, tests and install Safety Valves
are very strict. Public Safety Laws in many countries require special inspection and
verification of compliance with codes before allowing operation of the installed equipment.
The principal design basis for boilers and pressure vessels is the safe containment of
design pressure. Protection against overpressure is therefore a very important aspect of
pressure vessel design.
The oldest and most recognised of these codes is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code. Rules for overpressure protection vary with the type of vessel to be protected. As the
applications of interest to the Petroleum and Chemical industries are covered in ASME
Code Sections I and VIII primarily, we shall review the requirements of these sections only.
The origins of the safety valve date from the start of the steam age. In 1681, Frenchman
Dennis Papin invented the lever type valve for use on his digester, a steam pressure
vessel. In 1718 Jean Disaguliers adapted Papins valve for use as a Safety Valve on steam
boilers. Further development saw the first spring loaded safety valve built by Timothy
Hackworth in 1830.
As boilers were being developed and their working pressures were slowly increasing, sadly
explosions were almost a daily occurrence and many thousands of people have been killed
or injured worldwide, as design standards were still to be developed.
Because of the number of boiler explosions and the number of fatalities involved, in June
1817, in the British House of Commons, a select committee looking into the explosions on
steam ships reported:
Boilers - should have two safety valves, they shall be inspected and
penalties be inflicted on unauthorised persons interfering with the Safety
Valves.
Many explosions were caused by inadequate boiler design or by people rendering the
safety valves inoperative.
Due to further explosions, 1882 saw the advent of the Boiler Explosion Act in which a boiler
was defined as:
Any closed vessel used for generating steam or for heating water, or for
heating other liquids or into which steam is admitted for heating, steaming,
boiling or other similar purposes.
In Great Britain, voluntary bodies such as the Steam Users Association supplied reports to
the Government from 1854. In the period 1881 1907 there were a total of 1871 boiler
explosions investigated by the Board of Trade. These explosions accounted for 732
fatalities and 1563 non-fatal injuries.
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In the United States the safety records were just as bad. In the period 1906 1911 there
were 1700 boiler explosions in the New England area alone, accounting for 1300 fatalities.
1901 saw the Factories and Workshop Act implementing legislation for steam boilers.
Among the improvements were:
A steam gauge and water gauge are to be fitted to the boiler and the boiler
and associate devices are to be inspected every 14 months
The US American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) was asked to formulate a
design code and the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code was developed between 1911 and
1914 as a set of safety rules to address the serious problem of boiler explosions in the
United States. Average steam pressure in those days had reached about 300 psi (20 bar).
The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee was formed and hence ASME code, Section I
came into being and became a mandatory requirement for all states which recognised the
need for legislation.
This code included rules for the overpressure protection of boilers, based on the best
industry practise of the time. The principles of todays code rules for overpressure
protection is little changed from the first code.
With the expansion of the process industries the need for a code that would be applicable
to un-fired vessels (roughly, every vessel which is not a boiler) was identified which gave
rise to the Section VIII of the ASME code. Today, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code is composed of 12 sections:
 Section I = Power Boilers
 Section II = Materials
 Section III = Nuclear Facility Components
 Section IV = Heating Boilers
 Section V = Non-destructive Examinations
 Section VI = Care and Operations of Heating Boilers
 Section VII = Care of Power Boilers
 Section VIII = Pressure Vessels (un-fired)
 Section IX = Welding and Brazing
 Section X = Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels
 Section XI = Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Facility Components
 Section XII = Transport Tanks
With the growth of the petroleum and petrochemical industries, the American Petroleum
Institute (API) sought uniformity of pressure relieving device dimensional and physical
characteristics. The API published the now internationally acknowledged following
documents:
 RP 520 = Sizing, Selection and Installation of Pressure Relieving Devices in Refineries
(Part 1: Sizing and Selection; Part 2: Installation)
 RP 521 = Guide for Pressure-Relieving and Depressurising Systems
 Std 526 = Flanged Steel Pressure Relief Valves
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Std 527 = Seat Tightness of Pressure Relief Valves


RP 576 = Inspection of Pressure Relieving Devices
Std 2000 = Venting Low Pressure Storage Tanks

Flanged Steel Pressure Relief Valves meeting the requirement of API Standard 526 have
standardised pressure/temperature limits, similar centre to face dimensions, similar orifice
areas and standardised material requirements for body and spring. Flange facings and
dimensions are in accordance with ANSI B16.5, while the valves are designed and
manufactured to follow the requirements of the code ASME Section VIII.
API Standard 527 is the industry accepted standard for seat leakage rates of Safety Valves
meeting the requirement of API 526.
In Great Britain, the need for a British Standard to cover Safety Valves was realised and
work started in 1933. In 1937 BS 759 was published, this has been revised over the years
into the BS 6759 parts I,II and Ill.
With the growth of the European Union, the European council started a long process of
establishing Directives that would become law in every country of the EU. The main
purpose of these directives is to ensure free circulation of the goods concerned within the
EU while ensuring an acceptable level of safety in the use of these goods.
Of particular interest for Safety Valves, 2 directives have been released and are now laws
in force all across the EU:
 97/23/EC = Pressure Equipment Directive, or PED
 94/9/EC = Equipment & Protective Systems for Use in Potentially Explosive
Atmospheres, or ATEX 100a
 99/92/EC = Worker Protection, or ATEX 137
However, because these directives have a very large scope, they cannot be very specific
into the details of the goods they address. To give guidelines on how to address the
requirements of the directives, the CEN (European Commity for Standardisation) was
empowered by the European Council to draw European Standards.
Particularly for Safety Valves, after almost 20 years of efforts, CEN released in 2004 the
set of standards EN 4126 parts 1 through 7, Safety Devices for Protection Against
Excessive Pressure:








EN 4126 part 1 = Safety Valves (spring loaded)


EN 4126 part 2 = Bursting Discs Safety Devices
EN 4126 part 3 = Safety Valves and Bursting Discs in Combination
EN 4126 part 4 = Pilot Operated Safety Valves
EN 4126 part 5 = Controlled Safety Pressure Relief Systems (CSPRS)
EN 4126 part 6 = Application, Installation of Bursting Discs
EN 4126 part 7 = Common Data (steam tables, etc)

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This standard now replaces any equivalent standard that existed before in each country of
the European Union.

Acronyms, Abbreviations
API RP
API Std
API
ASME
BS
CEN
EN
ISO
NB

Recommended Practice
Standard
American Petroleum Institute
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
British Standards
Commit Europen de Normalisation (European Committe for Standardisation)
European Normalisation (European Standard)
International Standard Organisation
National Board of Pressure Vessel Inspectors

ASME Section 1(1998)


Safety Valves on ASME Section I certified Boilers must achieve their full rated flow
discharge capacity at a maximum pressure of 3% above the set pressure (Overpressure of
3%).
The blowdown (difference between set and reseating pressure) must be not less than 2%
but usually between 4 - 6% below the set pressure of the valve, dependant on the actual
set pressure of the valve.
Set Pressure (psig)

Maximum Blowdown

Less than 67

4 psig

67 to 250

6% of set pressure

Over 250 to 375

15 psig

Over 375

4% of set pressure

In order to achieve these characteristics, the control chamber of ASME Section I valves are
typically sophisticated and consist of two adjustable control rings. Performance is
characterised by a rapid pop open where significant lift is achieved at set pressure,
followed by a proportionally higher lift should pressure continue to rise. Lift is maintained
until pressure decays to the point where the spring force overcomes the fluid pressure in
the control chamber, and the valve re-seats.
The ASME Code requires that each valve be operationally tested and adjusted on steam.

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In cases where operating conditions exceed the capability of production testing, final
adjustments may be made in the field.
The set pressure or opening point, tolerance limits are as follows:
Specified Pressure (psig)

Permissible Variation

15 to 70

2 psig

Over 70 to 300

3% of set pressure

Over 300 to 1000

10 psig

Over 375

1% of set pressure

Summary of ASME I Safety Valves Requirements


Code Stamped V = Fired vessel
Designed to meet 3% overpressure
Usually of open bonnet design (temperature)
Fitted with a lifting lever / device
Blowdown controlled by 2 adjustable rings
Minimum blowdown 2 psig or 2% of set pressure whichever is greater, typically 4%

ASME Section VIII


This code applies only from set pressures of 15 psig (1.03 barg) and above.
The operating characteristics for ASME Code Section VIII valves are less strict than those
imposed in Section I. The valves certified under this Section VIII are stamped UV (unfired
vessels).
Set pressure, or opening point tolerance limits are as follows:
Set Pressure (psig)

Permissible variation

15 to 70

2 psig (0.14 barg)

Above 70

3% of set pressure

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Valves must achieve full flow discharge capacity by 10% overpressure (above the set
pressure). Blowdown is unspecified, however adjustable designs must be certified with a
blowdown of no more than 10% of set pressure.

Exceptions to the above rule include: Multiple device & Fire Case
When multiple devices are used to protect a vessel or system from an overpressure event
they must achieve their full rated flow discharge capacity at a maximum pressure of 16% or
4 psi whichever is greater above the set pressure.
In this case one valve must be set at less than or at the Maximum Allowable Working
Pressure (MAWP) and supplementary valves can be set up to 105% of the MAWP.
Where an additional hazard can be created by exposure of a pressure vessel to fire or
other unexpected sources of external heat, supplemental pressure relieving devices shall
be installed to protect against excessive pressure. Such supplemental pressure relieving
devices shall be capable of preventing the pressure from rising more than 21% above the
MAWP.
In this case the supplementary valve(s) can be set up to 110% of the MAWP.

Liquid Service
Prior to 1985, pressure relief valves for liquid service did not require certification testing,nd
capacities were often calculated based on allowable overpressure of 25%. Since 1985
however, the Code was modified to require certification for liquid service relieving
capacities at 10% overpressure. Therefore, it is important to determine the date of
manufacture of liquid relief valves in order to apply the basis for capacity calculation.
In some cases, valves may be improperly rated for the service condition policy currently in
effect and a larger valve may be required. In other applications, a smaller high performance
valve rated at 10% overpressure may be specified.
Many manufacturers provide special trim options for liquid service valves because the
properties of incompressible fluids can cause chattering when gas designs are applied.
These high performance liquid service designs ensure smooth, stable operation and full
relieving capacity on liquid service.

Summary ASME VIII


Code Stamped UV = Un-Fired vessel.
Usually of closed bonnet design
Blowdown controlled usually by one adjustable ring or huddling chamber
Blowdown industry standard 7 10%
Minimum Blowdown 2 psig or 2% of the Set Pressure whichever is greater

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Overpressure:
Qty of Safety Valves

Case

Set Pressure

Overpressure

Protection with one


safety valve

Fire

< or = to MAWP

21% max

< or = to MAWP

10% max

Fire

1 valve: < or = to MAWP


others up to 110%

first 21%
others down to 10%

all others

1st valve: < or = to MAWP


others up to 105%

first 16%
others down to 10%

all others
st

Protection with
multiple safety
valves

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ALLOW ABLE OPERATING, W ORKING, RELIEF, SET, AND BLOW DOW N PRESSURES.

MAXIMUM ALLOW ABLE

MAXIMUM RELIEVING

121

ACCUMULATED PRESSURE
(FIRE EXPOSURE ONLY)

PRESSURE FOR FIRE SIZING

120

MAXIMUM ALLOW ABLE


ACCUMULATED PRESSURE

MAXIMUM RELIEVING PRESSURE

116

FOR MULTIPLE VALVE INSTALLATION


(OTHER THAN FIRE EXPOSURE)

FOR PROCESS SIZING

115

MAXIMUM ALLOW ABLE


ACCUMULATED PRESSURE
FOR SINGLE VALVE
(OTHER THAN FIRE EXPOSURE)

MAXIMUM ALLOW ABLE


W ORKING PRESSURE
OR DESIGN PRESSURE
(HYDRO TEST AT 150)

PERCENTAGE OF MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WORKING PRESSURE (GAUGE)

MULTIPLE VALVES
MARGIN OF SAFETY
DUE TO ORIFICE
SELECTION

SINGLE VALVES

(VARIES)
MAXIMUM ALLOW ABLE SET
PRESSURE FOR

110

SUPPLEMENTAL VALVES
(FIRE EXPOSURE)

OVERPRESSURE(MAXIMUM)

MAXIMUM ALLOW ABLE


SET PRESSURE FOR

105

SUPPLEMENTAL VALVES
(PROCESS)

OVERPRESSURE (TYPICAL)

MAXIMUM ALLOW ABLE SET PRESSURE

100

FOR SINGLE VALVE (AVERAGE)


SIMMER
(TYPICAL)
START TO OPEN

BLOW DOW N (TYPICAL)

95

SEAT CLAMPING FORCE

RESEAT PRESSURE FOR


SINGLE VALVE (AVERAGE)

USUAL MAXIMUM NORMAL


OPERATING PRESSURE

90

STANDARD LEAK
TEST PRESSURE

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European PED 93/27/EC


This code is mandatory for any pressure equipment that is installed in the European Union
and which has a Maximum Allowable Pressure above 0.5 barg (excluding).
It does not apply to nuclear equipment, marine vessels and transportation pipelines outside
plants and facilities.
The PED does not specify any tolerance on the set pressure of Safety Valves.
In the case where an equipment is protected with multiple valves, at least one should be
set at no more than the design pressure, or MAP (Maximum Allowable Pressure), of the
equipment. This enables to use valves certified with overpressure lower than 10% (i.e 5%).
Safety Valves must achieve full flow discharge capacity in such a way that the pressure in
the equipment never exceeds 110% of its MAP in any situation (max accumulation of
10%), except for fire case.
For fire case, the maximum accumulation must be determined at the design stage of the
protected equipment.

Summary PED
Code Stamped CE = all applicable European Directives are complied with
The Safety Valves must be such that:
Qty of Safety Valves

Case

Set Pressure

Accumulation above
MAP of Equipment

Protection with one


safety valve

Fire

< or = to MAP

10% or higher if
proved safe

all others

< or = to MAP

10% max

Fire

1st valve: < or = to MAP


others up to 105% (in theory)

10% or higher if
proved safe

all others

1st valve: < or = to MAP


others up to 105% (in theory)

10% max

Protection with
multiple safety
valves

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European ATEX 94/9/EC (100a) & 99/92/EC (137)


Both directives became mandatory in the EU on 1st July 2003. They address the risks of
explosive atmospheres.
For these directives, an explosive atmosphere is a mixture of a flammable material (gas,
dust, fine mist of liquid) with air, at atmospheric pressure.
The ATEX 137 helps the end-user to determine zones of risks in his plant from zone 2
(explosive atmosphere unlikely) to zone 0 (explosive atmosphere constantly or very
frequent). For the particular case of mining, the zones are defined from 22 to 20.
The ATEX 100a covers the certification of products to be used in explosive atmosphere.
The certification on a product will give him a group and a category:
Group I = for use in mines; Group II = for all other use
Category 1 = product for very high risks, with a very high level of integrity
Category 2 = product for high risks
Category 3 = product for low risks
Therefore, a product with a category 2 can be used in a zone 1.
Most applications in refineries or chemical plants are in zone 1, and will require products of
the Group II in Category 1.
Unlike the previous legislation, the ATEX directive covers all sort of product that may
initiate a hot spot, a spark, etc, not only the electrical products. Safety valves are included
in the scope of the ATEX, like all other valves.
Certified products will show, in addition to the CE mark, the symbol
group and category of the product.

x, followed by the

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How does a valve operate?


The basic spring loaded safety valve has been developed
to meet the need for a simple, reliable system to provide
overpressure protection. Opposite is an Anderson
Greenwood Crosby style JOS spring loaded safety valve.
The valve consists of a valve inlet or nozzle, mounted on
the pressurised system, a disc held against this nozzle to
prevent flow under normal system operating conditions, a
spring to hold the disc closed, and a body / bonnet to
contain the operating elements. The spring load is
adjustable to vary the pressure at which the valve will
open.

This simple sketch shows the disc held in the closed


position by the spring.
When system pressure reaches the desired opening
pressure, the force of the pressure acting on the
area under the disc is equal to that acting down by
the spring: the disc lifts and allows the fluid to flow
out through the open valve. When the pressure in
the system returns to a safe level (a lower pressure),
the force of the pressure against the disc is too low
to overcome the spring force, so the valve re-closes.

When a Safety Valve begins to lift, as it is becomes more compressed, the spring force
increases. Thus the system pressure must increase if the lift is to continue. For this reason
safety valves are allowed an overpressure above the set pressure to reach their full lift.
This allowable overpressure is generally 10% (refer to codes section).
However, this margin is relatively small and some means must be provided to assist in the
lift effort. Most safety valves, therefore, have a secondary control chamber or huddling
chamber to enhance the lift.

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As the pressure of the system


approaches the set pressure of the valve,
the forces acting upwards on the
underside of the disc begin to equal the
force acting downward from the spring.
At this point the disc is in equilibrium and
the valve begins to leak. This point is
called the simmer point and is inherent in
all spring-loaded safety valves on
compressible fluid service. The simmer
point is generally 2% below the valve set
pressure.

As the compressible fluid escapes


between the valve seats it expands into
the lower pressure chamber of the
secondary pressure zone.
The nozzle ring deflects this fluid upwards
onto a larger area of the disc or disc
holder, giving a sudden increase in
upward force causing the disc to rapidly
lift off its seat: the valve pops open to
approximately 70% of its full lift. This part
of the lift is known as the Expansive Lift.

The valve is now flowing a percentage of its rated capacity and the fluid is acting upon
certain areas of the valve internal parts.
For dual ring control valves, one of these areas is that of the inner contour of the guide
ring. Fluid is deflected off this area upwards against the area of the disc or disc holder and
with the increase in system pressure,
enables reactive forces to lift the disc
further off its seat.
Combined with the reactive forces on the
disc or disc holder given by the reversal in
direction of the process fluid, the guide ring
enables the disc to achieve full stable lift
within the allowable overpressure limit.

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This part of the lift is known as the Reactive Lift.


The valve is now flowing/relieving full capacity flow
and protecting the system whose pressure will
now start to decay.
As the process pressure drops, so will the value of
reactive forces keeping the valve open. The disc
will start to move downwards towards the nozzle.
As the valve closes, the areas in contact with the
process medium are reduced resulting in a
reduction in reactive forces, which allows the
spring force to reseat the valve. When the disc holder lower face becomes level with the
lower face of the guide ring no more fluid can come into contact with the guide ring contour
therefore one reactive force is removed.
The nozzle ring will deflect fluid upwards keeping the valve open until the pressure has
dropped to the point where the downward force of the spring is greater than the upward
force and the valve re-seats.
The point at which the valve will close/reseat is called the Blowdown and is normally given
as a percentage of set pressure.
Example: a valve with a 7% blowdown
Set Pressure 10. barg
Reseat Pressure 9.3 barg
Difference between Set & Reseat Pressure = blowdown of 7 %
As we have seen, blowdown is controlled by these adjustable rings or the shape of the disc
holder.
It is very critical that valve ring settings are set as per manufacturers catalogue if the valve
is to perform within the codes and achieve its rated flow.

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The Pilot Operated Safety Valve has several advantages. As the system pressure
increases, the force holding the disc in the closed position increases.
This allows the system operating pressure to be increased to values within 5% of set
pressure or less, without danger of increased seat leakage in the main valve.
Pilots are generally designed with a separate control for set pressure and blowdown.
Valves can be set to open fully at the set pressure and close with a very short blowdown.
Modulating pilot valve designs control the main valve such that minor overpressure
conditions are controlled without fully opening the main valve. This limits fluid loss and
system shock. Another advantage of pilot operated safety valves is the reduced cost of
larger valve sizes. The large spring and associated envelope is replaced by a small pilot,
thus reducing the mass and cost of the valve. Pilot Operated Safety Valves are supplied
with filters to protect against foreign matter and are generally recommended for relatively
clean service.
If Pilot Operated Safety Valves are to be installed on dirty or fouling service, they must be
configured with special accessories to ensure a reliable operation.

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CONTROL RING SETTINGS


The CONTROL RINGS are the nozzle and guide rings through which controllable valve
actions (accurate opening, full lift and proper blowdown) are obtained in meeting varying
conditions. Correct valve operation will depend upon correct control ring settings.
Incorrect nozzle ring adjustment may cause valves to:
1. Have too long or too short a blowdown: If the nozzle ring is set higher than the
recommended setting the valve may fail to reseat while the system is operating.
2. Have too long a simmer. Dual ring control valves may fail to achieve full lift at allowable
overpressure limit if the nozzle ring is set lower than that recommended, a situation
which could lead to a catastrophic event.
Incorrect guide ring adjustment may cause valves to:
1. Have too long or too short blowdown. If the guide ring is set too high the valve may not
achieve full stable lift at allowable overpressure limit, again this could be extremely
dangerous.
To ensure correct control ring settings each valve manufacturer issues nozzle ring and
guide ring settings for its range of Safety Valves. These settings are taken from datum
points. Generally this datum is the face which the nozzle ring touches when it is in its
highest position.

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Blowdown Adjustment
Nozzle Ring
Turning the nozzle ring to the right raises it. This increases the force on the underside of
the disc / disc holder opposing the closing force of the spring thus lengthening the
blowdown.
Turning the nozzle ring to the left lowers it. This decreases the force on the underside of
the disc / disc holder. The spring closing force overcomes the upward force more quickly
allowing the valve to reseat quicker thus shortening the blowdown.
Guide Ring
Turning the guide ring to the right raises it. This reduces the reactive forces allowing the
spring closing force to overcome the upward force more quickly allowing the valve to reseat
quicker thus shortening the blowdown.
Turning the guide ring to the left lowers it. This increases the reactive forces opposing the
closing forces of the spring therefore lengthening the blowdown.

Guide

Guide
Ring

Disc
Holder
+
Datum
-

Disc

Nozzle
Ring

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Recommended Final Ring Settings For JOS-E / JBS-E Safety Relief Valves.
Service

Orifice Size

Nozzle Ring Setting

Styles JOS-E and JBS-E

Vapour & Gases

D through J

-5

K through N

-10

P though T

-15

D through G

-5

H through K

-10

L through N

-20

P through T

-30

Liquids

Styles JLT-JOS-E and JLT-JBS-E

Liquids & Gases

D, E and F

-3

G, H and J

-5

K and L

-10

M and N

-15

P and Q

revolution

R and T

1 revolution

Recommended Final Ring Settings for Crosby Style JO , JB & JMB


Valve
Style

Service

Orifice

Vapours &
Gases
JO
Liquids
Vapours &
Gases
JB
Liquids

Solid Disc

Two-Piece Disc

Nozzle Ring

Guide Ring

Nozzle Ring

Guide Ring

DJ

-13 notches

Level

-7 notches

Level

KS

-34

Level

-7

Level

DG

-5

-35

-5

-28

HN

-8

-45

-8

-28

DG

N/A

N/A

-15

N/A

HN

N/A

N/A

-25

N/A

DG

N/A

N/A

-5

N/A

HN

N/A

N/A

-8

N/A

JO-STM

Steam

All

JMB

All

N/A

+30 Notches up
from lowest
locked position

N/A

N/A

JMBU

All

N/A

Set at lowest
locked position

N/A

N/A

Final Ring Settings To Be Stamped On Valve Bonnet

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The Effects of Back Pressure and Temperature on the Test Pressure


The popping pressure adjustments of most Safety Valves are customarily made on test
stands under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature conditions.
Conventional Valves without balancing bellows set on a test stand with atmospheric
pressure at the outlet and intended for use under elevated constant back pressure
conditions shall be corrected for the back pressure in the adjustment of the set pressure by
an amount equal to said back pressure.
When a safety valve is set on air or water at room temperature and then used at a higher
service temperature, the test pressure is generally corrected to exceed the set pressure
using the original equipment manufacturers correction tables. Valves with open bonnets
are not corrected for a higher service temperature.
In both cases the corrected pressure for the test stand is known as the Cold Set Pressure
or Cold Differential Test Pressure.

Effects of Back Pressure


Example 1
Conventional Valve with a desired relieving pressure of 100 psig.
Process conditions relieving to atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature condition.
Desired Relieving Pressure (set pressure)
Atmospheric conditions at valve outlet
Cold Set Pressure =

100 psig
No correction
100 psig

Example 2
Conventional Valve with a desired relieving pressure of 100 psig.
Process conditions: 20 psig constant superimposed back pressure and ambient
temperature conditions.
Desired Relieving Pressure (set pressure)
Superimposed constant back pressure
Cold Set Pressure =

100 psig
20 psig
80 psig

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Example 3
Valve with a desired relieving pressure of 100 psig.
Process conditions 10 to 20 psig variable superimposed back pressure and ambient
temperature conditions.
Desired Relieving Pressure (set pressure)
100 psig
Superimposed variable back pressure
10 to 20 psig
Cold Set Pressure
100 psig
A bellows valve is required due to the variable superimposed back pressure. Therefore the
cold set pressure remains the same.

Example 4
Valve with a desired relieving pressure of 100 psig. Process conditions 8 psig Built up back
pressure and ambient temperature conditions.
Desired Relieving Pressure (set pressure)
Built up back pressure
Cold Set Pressure

100 psig
8 psig
100 psig

In this case the built up back pressure is lower than 10% of the desired set pressure, and
can then be ignored. A Conventional Safety Valve is suitable. The built up back pressure
will act and may the valve capacity only when the valve is open and flowing.
However if built up back pressure exceeds 10% of the valves set pressure a bellows style
valve must be selected.

Effects of Temperature
When a valve is tested at room temperature on a shop test stand, the cold set pressure
may have to be corrected for the higher service temperature that may exist in actual
service.
The Crosby temperature correction table is outlined below.

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OPERATING TEMPERATURE
0 TO 150F
151 TO 600F
601 TO 800F
801 TO 1000F

-18 TO 65C
66 TO 315C
316 TO 426C
427 TO 537C

TRAINING MANUAL

% TEMPERATURE
COMPENSATION
NONE
1%
2%
3%

Example 5
Valve with a desired relieving pressure of 100 psig. Process conditions: relieving to
atmospheric pressure with a process operating temperature of 200F.
A conventional valve can be used.
Desired Relieving Pressure (set pressure)
Atmospheric conditions at valve outlet
Pressure used for spring selection (spring set)
Process operating temperature
Temperature correction (% of spring set)
Cold Set Pressure

100 psig
No correction
100 psig
200F
1%
101 psig

Effects of Pressure and Temperature


If back pressure and temperature are to be taken into account, always start with back
pressure first.

Example 6
Conventional Valve with a desired relieving pressure of 100 psig.
Process conditions: 20 psig constant superimposed back pressure with operating
temperature of 200F.
Desired Relieving Pressure (set pressure)
Superimposed constant back pressure
Pressure used for spring selection (spring set)
Process operating temperature
Temperature correction (% of spring set)
Cold Set Pressure

100 psig
20 psig
80 psig
200F
1%
80.8 psig

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Example 7
Bellows style valve with a desired relieving pressure of 100 psig.
Process conditions: 10 to 20 psig superimposed variable back pressure with a process
operating temperature of 200F.
Desired Relieving Pressure (set pressure)
Superimposed variable back pressure

100 psig
10 to 20 psig
(Ignore due to fitment of bellows)
Pressure used for spring selection (spring set)
100 psig
Process operating temperature
200F
Temperature correction (% of spring set)
1%
Cold Set Pressure
101 psig

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SPRING SELECTION
Generally the specified Set Pressure of the valve is used to select a spring.
If corrections have been made for backpressure, the cold set pressure exclusive of
corrections for temperature is used (spring set pressure).
Temperature has no bearing on the spring selection.

SPRINGS Mechanical Requirements


ASME Section VIII Division 1, 1992 Edition Pressure Relief Devices.
Ug-136 Minimum Requirements Of Pressure Relief Valves
1.
The design shall incorporate guiding arrangements necessary to ensure consistent
operation and tightness.
2.

The spring shall be designed so that the full lift spring compression shall be no
greater than 80% of the nominal solid deflection (NSD).

The permanent set of the spring (defined as the difference between the free height and
height measured ten minutes after the spring has been compressed solid three additional
times after pre-setting at room temperature) shall not exceed 0.5% of the free height.

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Guide to Valve Maintenance Disassembly, Inspection and Assembly


Note: Where original equipment manufacturers Maintenance, Installation and Adjustment Instructions are
available these are to be utilised in preference to this generic guide.

Disassembly
a)

Remove the cap and cap gasket. If the valve has a lifting lever device remove the
lifting lever equipment.

b)

Remove the control ring set screws and set screw gaskets. Record the position of
the control rings, This information will be needed again when reassembling the
valve.

c)

Loosen the adjusting bolt locknut before releasing the spring load, make a note of
the depth of the adjusting bolt in the bonnet and count the number of turns required
to remove the spring load. This information will help when reassembling the valve to
its approximate original setting.

d)

Release the entire spring load by rotating the adjusting bolt in a counter clockwise
direction.

e)

Remove the nuts or bolts holding the bonnet to the body of the valve.

f)

Lift the bonnet straight up to clear the spindle and valve spring. Exercise care when
lifting the bonnet as the spring and spindle will then be free to fall aside.

g)

The spring and spring washers can now be lifted off the spindle. The spring and
spring washers are fitted together and must be kept together as a subassembly.
Spring washers are not always interchangeable between ends of spring.

h)

Remove the spindle, guide, disc holder and disc insert.


For balanced bellows valves special care must be taken not to damage the bellows
subassembly.
If parts are difficult to remove, due to the presence of corrosive of foreign materials,
soaking in a suitable solvent may be required.

i)

Remove the spindle from the disc holder if attached.

j)

Lift the guide off the disc holder.


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k)

Remove the disc insert from the disc holder if attached. Different manufacturers
utilise different methods of insert retention. An understanding of how the insert is
retained is important before removal.

l)

Remove the nozzle ring from the nozzle.

m)

If necessary remove the nozzle from the valve body. Unless the valve seat on
nozzle has been mechanically damaged or shows signs of corrosive attack, it
not be necessary to remove the nozzle. In most cases the nozzle can
reconditioned without removal from the valve body.
To remove the nozzle, turn the valve body over taking care not to damage
bonnet studs. Turn the nozzle counter clockwise by using the wrench flats on
nozzle flange or a nozzle wrench designed to clamp onto the nozzle flange.

the
will
be
the
the

Cleaning
External parts such as the valve body, bonnet and cap should be cleaned by immersion in
a bath such as hot Oakite solution or equivalent. These external parts may be cleaned by
wire brushing, provided the brushes do not damage or contaminate the base metals. Only
clean stainless steel brushes should be used on stainless steel components.
The internal components such as the guide, disc holder, disc insert, nozzle, guide ring and
spindle should be cleaned by immersion in a commercial high alkaline detergent.
Guiding surfaces may be polished using a fine emery cloth. The bellows and other metal
parts may be cleaned using acetone or alcohol, then rinsed with clean tap water and dried.

Inspection
Check all valve parts for wear and corrosion. The valve seats on both the nozzle and disc
insert must be examined to determine if they have been damaged. Most often, lapping the
valve seats is all that is necessary to restore them to their original condition.
If the inspection shows that the valve seats are badly damaged, re-machining will be
necessary or it may be advisable to replace these parts. If re-machining is to take place
then original equipment manufacturers dimensions must be consulted for critical machining
dimensions. Re-machining these parts outside the manufacturer tolerance may result in
improper performance of the valve which may result in injury to personnel or loss of life.
The valve spring should be inspected for evidence of cracking, pitting or deformation.
The bellows in a bellows style valve should be inspected for evidence of cracking, pitting or
deformation that might develop into a leak.

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The bearing surfaces on the guide and disc holder should be checked for residual product
build up and any evidence of scoring.
Inspection of valve components is important to ensure proper valve performance.
Damaged valve parts must be repaired or replaced.

Reconditioning of Valve Seats


Unless the seats have been badly damaged by dirt or scale, lapping the seating surfaces
should restore them to their original condition. It is important that seating surfaces be
properly refurbished by lapping with proper equipment and compounds.

Lapping Blocks
Lapping Blocks are made of a special grade of annealed cast iron.
There is a block for each orifice size. Each block has two perfectly flat working sides and it
is essential that they retain this high degree of flatness to produce a truly flat seating
surface on either the disc insert or the nozzle.
Before a lapping block is used, it should be checked for flatness and reconditioned after
use on a lapping plate.

Lapping Compounds
Experience has proven that medium course, medium fine, and polish lapping compounds
will properly condition any damaged pressure relief valve seat except where the damage
requires re-machining. The following lapping compounds or their commercial equivalents
are suggested. Where micro finishing is desired, a diamond lapping compound is
recommended. Extreme care should be exercised to keep the lapping compound free from
foreign material.
Grit Compound N

Description

320

Medium Course

400

Medium

600

Fine

900

Polish

Diamond Micron Size 3

Micro finishing

Different grades of lapping compounds should never be used on any one block or
reconditioner, for the coarser compound gets into the pores of the iron and scratches the
surfaces, preventing a good lapped surface from being obtained. It is therefore
recommended that a complete set of reconditioners and blocks be procured for each grade
of lapping compound used.

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Lapping Procedure
Different individuals have different methods of lapping valve seats, but certain essential
steps must be taken to get satisfactory results. The following procedure is suggested for
lapping nozzles.

Never lap the disc insert against the nozzle.


Lap each part separately against a cast iron lapping block. These blocks hold the lapping
compound in their surface pores and must be recharged frequently.
Lap the block against the seat. Never rotate the block continuously, but use an oscillating
motion. Extreme care should be taken throughout to make certain that the seats are kept
perfectly fiat.
If considerable lapping is required spread a thin coat of medium coarse lapping compound
on the block. After lapping with the medium coarse compound lap again with a medium
grade compound. Unless much lapping is called for the first step can be omitted. Next, lap
again using a fine grade compound.
When all nicks and marks have disappeared remove the entire compound from the block
and seat. Apply polish compound to another block and lap the seat. As the lapping nears
completion only the compound left in the pores of the block should be present. This should
give a very smooth finish. If scratches appear the cause is probably dirty lapping
compound. These scratches should be removed by using compound free from foreign
material.
Disc inserts should be lapped in the same way as nozzles. The disc insert must be
removed from the disc holder before lapping.
When applicable, Pressure Relief Valve seats may be lapped to a micro finish using
special compounds. Prior to super finishing the valve seats should be lapped flat and to a
fine surface finish in accordance with the standard practice as specified above.
A three-micron size diamond-lapping compound should be used as described in the
following procedure.
Clean the lapping block using a suitable solvent prior to applying the diamond compound.
Apply dots of three micron size diamond lapping compound on the lapping-block
approximately to 1 apart, circumferentially on the face of the lapping block, and if
necessary apply a drop of lapping thinner to each dot of compound.
Lap the valve seat, keeping the lapping block against the seat and applying slight
downward pressure. During the operation the lapping compound may begin to get stiff and
movement of the lapping block more difficult. Remove lap from lapped surface and add a
few drops of lapping thinner to the lapping block, replace on surface being lapped and
continue to rotate exerting no downward pressure.
CAUTION: The lapping compound cuts very quickly and therefore the lapping block must
be checked periodically to be sure the block remains flat and that a groove is not worn in
the lapping block due to the lapping operation. While lapping, the lapping block should
glide smoothly over the surface being lapped, indications of roughness in lapping is
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indicative of contaminated compound, the lapping block and seating surface should be
thoroughly cleaned with a suitable solvent and the lapping operation repeated.
Continue this for approximately one minute then remove the lapping block and clean
lapped surface and the block with a suitable solvent and wipe with a clean dry soft lint free
cloth. If the surface is still in an unsatisfactory condition, change lapping block and repeat
the above process until a satisfactory surface is obtained.

Assembly
All components should be clean. Before assembling the following parts, lubricate with pure
nickel Never Seez grease or equivalent.
Nozzle and body threads
Nozzle and body sealing surface
All studs and nut threads
Spindle and threads
Set screw threads
Spring washer bevels
Adjusting bolt and bonnet threads
Bonnet pipe plug
Cap threads
Dog shaft bearing threads
Lubricate the spindle point thrust bearing and disc insert bearing with pure nickel Never
Seez. Special attention should be given to the guiding surfaces, bearing surfaces and
gasket surfaces to ensure that they are clean, undamaged and ready for assembly.
a) Screw the nozzle into the valve body and tighten with a nozzle wrench.
b) Screw the nozzle ring onto the nozzle, making certain that it is below the top surface of
the nozzle seat.
c) If applicable assemble the disc insert into the disc, holder.
d) Either assemble the disc holder and guide by sliding the guide over the disc holder and
whilst holding the disc holder, install the guide into the body.
Or
Wipe the nozzle seat with a clean cloth and then place the guide and guide ring in the
valve body. The guide should fit snugly in the body without binding. On guides with vent
holes, the holes should face the outlet. Wipe all dust compound etc, from the disc seat
and place the disc and spindle assembly in the guide.

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e) Place the spring and washers onto the spindle and if applicable assemble the spindle
to the disc holder. Some low pressure valves are provided with a small piece of pipe,
which fits over the spindle and between the two spring washers. This is a lift stop and
protects the spring from excessive deflection. It is carefully fitted for the particular
pressure range of the given spring in the valve and should not be used interchangeably
with springs of other pressure ranges.
f)

Lower the bonnet into place, using care to prevent any damage to the seats or spindle.
The bonnet is automatically centralised on the guide flange but must be tightened
down evenly to prevent unnecessary strain and possible misalignment.

g) Screw the adjusting bolt and locknut into the top of the bonnet to apply force on the
spring. Screwing the adjusting bolt down to the predetermined measurement can
approximate the original set pressure.
h) If applicable, set the nozzle ring to minus 2 notches and the guide ring level. This is a
test stand setting only and will assist when calibrating the valve giving a good
indication of lift on the test stand.
i)

Tighten the setscrews on the control rings. The setscrew pin should fit into a notch on
the ring so as not to cause binding.

j)

The valve is now ready for testing.

After testing the following measures should be taken:


Ensure the adjusting bolt locknut is locked.
Return the control rings to either the original recorded position or to the original
equipment manufacturer recommended setting.
Install the cap or lifting device.
Tag & Seal the cap to the bonnet & the Nozzle ring set screw to the body. This is your
guarantee of workmanship and if anyone tries to alter the ring setting or adjust the
pressure setting, they would have to break the sealing wire, which would invalidate any
warranty you have given.
The valve inlet and outlet flanges should now be protected against ingress of dirt or debris
and to avoid the flange faces getting chipped or damaged.

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Causes of Improper Valve Performance


Pressure relief valve performance in the systems may be severely affected by incorrect or
faulty installation.
The most common causes of improper valve performance are listed below.

Chattering
Chattering is a very rapid reciprocating motion of the valve disc. The disc comes into
contact with the nozzle and severe damage can occur to the lapped seats. Further damage
to the valve internals may be found, such as:
 Bellows may fracture due to work hardening of the material
 Guiding surfaces are damaged due to galling
 Springs may become stressed
As well as the valve, the effects of chattering may damage the system itself. Severe
vibration and shock loads can cause fractured welds and damage to other equipment in the
system.
As the valve is not discharging its full capacity when chattering, over pressurisation of the
system may occur perhaps exceeding the allowable limits.
The most common causes of chattering are:

Pressure drop through the inlet pipe exceeding 3% of the Set Pressure
Due to the inlet pressure being static when the valve is in the closed position, pressure in
the nozzle will be equal to that of the system.
When inlet pressure reaches Set Pressure the valve will open. As the valve opens
however, a pressure drop may occur though the inlet pipe, if this pressure drop exceeds
3% of the valve Set Pressure then the valve will be prevented from achieving full lift and
will close. Pressure will build up again due to the fact that the valve has not discharged the
full capacity and the cycle will repeat itself, very rapidly and perhaps for a very long period
of time.
This pressure drop may be caused by the inlet pipe:
i) Having a smaller diameter than the valve inlet
ii) Being restricted
iii) Having turbulent flow
iv) Being too long with no compensation (i.e having a larger diameter to compensate for
the length)
v) Being tortuous (numerous bends or process laterals)

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It is recommended that valves be installed in accordance with API Recommended Practice


520 Part 2. A restricted valve inlet starves the valve when it opens resulting in a pressure
drop on the inlet side of the valve. The resultant pressure drop if of significant magnitude
will result in damage to the valve. Discharge pipes that develop high back pressures due to
undersizing, complicated turns will introduce chatter and must be corrected.

Built up variable backpressure exceeding acceptable limits


The back pressure on a balanced bellows valve is limited to 50% of its set pressure.
This applies to both superimposed and built up variable backpressure.
Built up variable backpressure on a conventional valve is limited to 10% of its Set
Pressure.
Built up variable backpressure has no effect upon the Set Pressure of a valve as it is
caused by the valve discharging into the outlet system.
It does however have an effect upon the forces involved in enabling the valve to achieve
full lift and full capacity flow. Built up backpressure tends to close the valve if its value is
greater than stated above.
Excessive built-up backpressure may be caused by the outlet pipe:
i) Having smaller diameter than the valve outlet.
ii) Being restricted (tortuous, multiple bends, valves)
iii) Manifolds being of insufficient area.

Excessive valve capacity


The selected orifice area is too large for the required flow and the valve is starved of
process medium resulting in the disc slamming back down onto the nozzle.
Excess valve capacity occurs when the selected orifice area is too large for the required
flow and the valve is starved of fluid. This situation may be cured by the use of smaller
valves. The valve must be correctly sized for the system or vessel it is protecting which is
of utmost importance when valves are moved from one vessel or system to another.

Pipe Strains
Discharge pipe work should be supported independently from the pressure relief valve and
should be free from misalignment.
Piping strains should be kept away from the valve under all conditions of process
operation.
Piping strains cause misalignment of valve internal parts, resulting in possible seat leakage
and seizure.
Undue stress on valve bodies can cause cracks to appear in the castings.
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Causes of Seat Leakage


The following is a list of the most common causes of seat leakage:
1) Damaged valve seating surfaces.
2) Operating pressure to close to set pressure.
3) Pipe strains.
4) Incorrect installation.
5) Incorrect maintenance.
6) Incorrect calibration.
7) Misapplication of materials.
8) Vibration.
9) Damaged springs.
10) Rough handling.

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Safety Valves Troubles


The troubles encountered with Safety Valves often vitally affect the life, operation and
performance of the valve and should be corrected as soon as possible. Some of the
common troubles and the recommended corrective measures are discussed in the
following paragraphs.

Leakage
Seat leakage is by far the commonest cause of improper valve performance when a safety
valve is leaking at the normal operating pressure it is important that the leakage be
corrected as early as possible. Failure to correct this condition may otherwise damage or
foul the working parts of the valve, thereby increasing maintenance costs. The following
are possible causes of leakage.
1. Damaged seats: Usually arising through foreign material in the flowing process medium
striking against the seating surfaces. Foreign material is sometimes trapped between the
seats holding them apart. If this occurs, opening the valve by pressure (or by lifting lever
when provided) may blow out the trapped material, stopping leakage. However, if leakage
continues, the seats are probably scored and must be reconditioned.
2. Distortion from piping strains: Any abnormal strains, such as may be experienced by
expansion loads or excessive weight of piping, tend to distort the valve body. This may
cause misalignment of the valve parts and promote leakage. Only relieving the strains can
stop such leaks.
3. Operating pressure too close to set pressure: A carefully conditioned valve, under most
conditions, will stay tight at a pressure ten per cent approximately (never less than 5 PSIG)
under the set pressure. Consequently this should be the minimum differential to avoid
leakage troubles. The greater the margin the greater is the assurance of tight seats.
4. Incorrect maintenance, re-assembly or re-testing: All valve parts should be thoroughly
cleaned and the seats properly reconditioned in accordance with original manufacturers
instructions. In re-assembling, careful handling of the parts, in particular the disc and
nozzle, should be exercised to assure proper alignment and tight valves. Uneven tightening
of bonnet bolts should be carefully avoided. If the valves are re-tested, it is important that
original equipment manufacturers instructions are followed.
Some common problems:
Incorrectly adjusted lifting gear a space of 1/16 inch minimum should always be provided
between the lifting cam and the spindle nut. Failure to provide this may result in
inadvertent contact between these parts resulting in opening the valve slightly.
Improper control ring adjustments when the rings are out of adjustment, the valve may
leak because the opening and closing action is not sharp. Leaks from this cause can
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usually be stopped, if the correction is made at once.


Incorrect calibration of pressure gauges is a frequent cause of improper valve setting
causing valve seats to leak. To ensure accuracy, gauges should be calibrated frequently
on a regularly calibrated dead weight tester.
5. Rough Handling: Unless the Safety Valves (SV) are properly handled, stored and
protected their performance may be affected injuriously. Roughness in handling may
damage flanges or cause misalignment of the valve parts. A SV is a sensitive instrument
and can be easily upset by rough handling. E.g. being carried by the lifting lever / handle
(as this separates the sealing faces), being dragged, dropped or transported while laid on
its side.
6. Incorrect Installation: It is recommended that Safety Valves are installed in accordance
with manufacturers instructions and API Recommended Practice 520 Part II Installation
of pressure relieving devices. This topic is covered in a separate section.
7. Damaged springs: Damaged or weak springs are a common cause of seat leakage in
safety valves a separate topic on springs is covered elsewhere in this instruction.
8. Vibration and pulsating pressure: The vibration and pulsating pressure tend to reduce
the effect of the spring load on the disc. The reduced spring load effect causes the disc to
rub against the seat, resulting in leakage.
9. Misapplication of Materials: Only genuine original equipment manufacturers parts
should be used when replacing damaged parts of a safety valve. Use of replacement parts
not manufactured by the original equipment manufacturer as well as being a cause of seat
leakage may result in injury to personnel or loss of life.
10. Incorrect Calibration: This can include the Valve being incorrectly calibrated by the
technician while on the test bench or incorrect calibration of the test gauge whilst being
checked by the instrumentation technician.

CORROSION
Nearly all types of corrosion are present in refinery service, and corrosion is the basic
cause of most difficulties encountered.
Corrosion is often apparent: pitted or broken valve parts, deposits of corrosive residue that
interfere with the operation of the moving parts, or a general deterioration of the material of
the relieving device. In addition to internal parts exposed studs are vulnerable to
environmental corrosion attacks. Corrosion can usually be slowed or stopped by the
selection of more suitable materials or by use of special coatings. Better workmanship in
the shops maintenance and repair section can ensure greater valve tightness thus
reducing any corrosive or erosive action.
In many instances, valves of different construction can avoid, reduce, or even completely
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contain the effects of the corrosion. The use of an 0-Ring seat seal in a Pressure Relief
Valve will sometimes stop leakage past the seating surface and eliminate corrosion in the
valves working parts. If it is impossible to eliminate leakage entirely or if corrosive back
pressure is exerted, the use of a bellows seal can be used to protect the moving parts of
the valve from the corrosive fluid.

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A Step By Step Guide to Overhauling Calibrating and Testing SVs


Note = Personal Protective Equipment To Be Used Where Applicable.
1. Upon receipt of the valve from service, record the nameplate details.
2. Blow out test stand to remove any loose particles from the system. Clean the valve inlet
and place on a test stand. Clamp the valve securely.
3. Select a pressure gauge where the cold set pressure (C.S.P) of the valve falls in the
middle third of the gauge.
4. A pre-pop test can now be carried out; the information gained from this test can be
used to determine the frequency of inspection of the valve.
5. Apply pressure slowly to the valve, if the valve gives an indication of lift before 110% of
its C.S.P then record the lift pressure. If valve fails to lift at a pressure of 110% of its
C.S.P, then no more pressure should be applied. Record the fact that the valve failed to
lift.
6. If the valve lifts before 110% of its C.S.P and there is no audible or visual leakage, a
seat leakage test may now be carried out in accordance with A.P.I 527 standard.
7. Remove pressure from valve inlet.
8. If a bellows valve is being tested, a bellows test should now be carried out to check
their integrity. Apply a pressure of 15 psig through the valve outlet test flange and
attach a bubble pot to the bonnet vent hole. Any leakage through the bellows will be
observed and a new bellows must be fitted.
9. Remove valve from test-stand, strip, clean and inspect valve consulting the
manufacturers maintenance instructions.
10. Test the spring in accordance with A.S.M.E Section VIII, Division 1, UG 136, if
adequate test equipment is available. Record spring dimensions.
11. Consult manufacturers maintenance instructions for information as to machining and
lapping of nozzles and discs, their tolerances, dimensions and recommended practices.
12. Renew any worn or damaged parts with original manufacturers spares.
13. Re-assemble valve consulting manufacturers maintenance instruction, lubricate only
as instructed.
14. Set nozzle ring to -2 notches and guide ring (if any) level. This will assist when
calibrating the valve giving a good indication of lift on the test stand.
15. Secure valve to test stand ensuring valve inlet and test stand are clean.
16. Calibrate valve to the C.S.P, ensure adjusting bolt lock-nut is tight after each
adjustment.
17. Carry out seat leakage test in accordance with API 527 Standard, then remove
pressure from valve inlet.
18. Adjust nozzle ring and guide ring (if any) to the manufacturers recommended setting.
19. Body test valve to check integrity of gaskets and sealing faces. This is done in
accordance with ASME Section VIII, Division 1, UG136. Conventional valves are
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20.
21.
22.
23.

TRAINING MANUAL

tested by applying pressure through the outlet test flange. Bellows valves are tested
by applying equal pressure through the outlet test flange and bonnet vent hole at the
same time.
Inspection carried out by applying leak detector solution to all gaskets and sealing
faces. There must be no visible sign of leakage.
Test pressure to be a minimum of 30 Psig.
If a bellows valve is being tested then a bellows test is repeated.
All external adjusting points must now be sealed.
Cover the valve inlet and outlet flanges to protect the sealing faces and to prevent
contamination of the valve.
Handle valve with care as it is a very sensitive instrument.

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SHELL / BODY PNEUMATIC TEST

CONVENTIONAL STYLE VALVES

Apply leak detector


Solution to all
Arrowhead areas

Apply min.
30 psig
Back Pressure

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SHELL / BODY PNEUMATIC TEST

BELLOWS STYLE VALVES

Apply leak detector


Solution to all
Arrowhead areas

Apply min.
30 psig
Back Pressure

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BELLOWS TEST

Leakage across
bellows will be
detected by
indication of
bubbles
Bellows forms a
seal between body
& bonnet

Apply min.
15 psig
Back Pressure

A CONTINUOUS STREAM OF BUBBLES DETECTED AT THE


BUBBLE POT WOULD INDICATE A BELLOWS FAILURE.
COUNTABLE BUBBLES WOULD INDICATE A PROBLEM
WITH THE BELLOWS GASKET.

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API ORIFICE SIZES


API ORIFICE

INCH

MM

DIAMETER

FULL LIFT

0.110

71

0.375

0.094

0.196

126

0.500

0.125

0.307

198

0.625

0.156

0.503

325

0.800

0.200

0.785

506

1.000

0.250

1.287

830

1.280

0.320

1.838

1186

1.528

0.382

2.853

1841

1.900

0.476

3.600

2323

2.140

0.535

4.340

2800

2.352

0.588

6.380

4116

2.850

0.712

11.050

7129

3.750

0.938

16.000

10323

4.513

1.128

26.000

16774

5.750

1.438

Orifice 2 = ? ? by itself = multiply answer by 3.14 = orifice size in inch


Example: 0.375 2 = 0.1875 0.1875 = 0.03515 3.14 = 0.110 in = D Orifice
To calculate the size of an orifice in square inches:
Take the measured diameter

0.375

Divide this by two

0.375 2 = 0.1875

Multiply the answer by itself

0.1875 0.1875 = 0.0351

Multiply the answer by

3.14 0.0351 3.14 = 0.11021


0.110 in / D orifice

56