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WATER, ELECTROLYTE AND Ph

BALANCE
BODY FLUID
Water present in different form in our body is called body
fluid.
60% of body weight is occupied by body fluid.
Body fluid of body can be divided into two compartments
namely
a. INTRA CELLULAR FLUID
b. EXTRA CELLULAR FLUID
a. INTRA CELLULAR FLUID: Fluid within the cellular compartment is called
intracellular fluid.
Two third of total body fluid is intracellular fluid.
b. EXTRA CELLULAR FLUID: Fluid outside the cellular compartment is called extra
cellular fluid.
One third of total body fluid is extra cellular fluid.
Extra cellular fluid can be again grouped as
I. Intravascular fluid eg. Blood
II. Extravascular fluid
- Interstitial fluid
- Transcellular fluid.
TRANSCELLULAR FLUID:- Transcellular fluid is the portion
of extravascular fluid separated from other extracellular fluid
by epithelial membrane lining.Examples of transcellular
fluids are
-

cerebro spinal fluid

intra ocular fluid

synovial fluid

fluid in pleural, pericardial and peritoneal cavities

fluid in GIT & Respiratory tract

ELECTROLYTES PRESENT IN BODY FLUID:Electroltyes present in body fluids are sodium, potassium,
calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonates and
phosphates.
Sodium and chloride are major electrolytes in extracellular
fluid & Potassium and phosphates are major electrolytes in
intracellular fluid.

FUNCTIONS OF BODY WATER


Forms the essential component of all cells of body and
ECF.
It serves as a transport medium by which nutrients pass
into cells and excretory product comes out.
Most of the cellular reaction takes place in body in fluid
medium.
Fluid acts as a valuable solvent for electrolytes, enzymes,
hormones, vitamins etc.
Body fluid plays vital role in maintaining the shape and
size of the tissues.

MECHANISM OF WATER BALANCE


Water balance is maintained by following two mechanisms in our
body
I. Thirst mechanism:- Here slight fall in blood volume causes
stimulation of neural cells of hypothalamus which inturn
stimulates the thirst centre of hypothalamus .Then there is
desire to drink occurs . After drinking the fluid volume is
again maintained to normal.
II. Increased osmotic pressure:- Decreased body fluid causes
the increased osmotic pressure causes the stimulation of
osmotic receptors of hypothalamus which stimulates

posterior pituitary to secrete antidiuretic hormone.ADH


causes thereabsorption of water by kidneys and thus
increases the body fluid.

MECHANISM OF ELECTROLYTE BALANCE


Mainly kidney plays important role in electrolyte balance
Kidney maintain electrolyte balance by following mechanism
Low sodium and high potassium in blood

Kidney is stimulated to secrete rennin

Rennin stimulates the secretion of angiotensin I from


angiotensinogen

Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by angiotensin


converting enzyme.

Angiotensin II stimulates adrenal cortex to produce


mineralocorticoids.

Stimulation of mineralocorticoid causes sodium


reabsorption and excretion of potassium.

Thus the electrolyte balance is maintained in our


body.
ORGANS ASSOCIATED WITH FLUID AND
ELECTROLYTE BALANCE ARE: Kidney

Liver
Intestine
Skin and
Pancreas

pH BALANCE(Acid Base balance)


Acid base balance is the normal ratio between the acid
and base ion required to maintain pH of electrolyte and
fluid.
Condition of increased pH due to decreased hydrogen ion
concentration in blood is called alkalosis.
Condition of decreased pH due to increased hydrogen ion
concentration in blood is called acidosis.

Acid base balance is maintained by three systems namely


I. Buffer system
II. Respiratory system and
III. Urinary system
I.
Buffer system: Buffer is a solution that resist change in pH with
addition of weak acid or weak base.
Buffer immediately combines with some of the
hydrogen ions and brings pH to normal level when pH is
decreased and it also can release hydrogen ion brings
pH to normal level when pH is increased. Thus it
maintain the pH of blood.
Major buffer systems in in our body are
- Bicarbonate buffer system
- Phosphate buffer system
- Haemoglobin buffer system
- Ammonia buffer system
II. Respiratory system
Lungs maintain pH by removing carbondioxide from
blood as per required.
III. Urinary system
Kidneys maintain acid base balance by tubular
secretion of hydrogen ion in urine when pH of blood is

low and kidney conserves more and more hydrogen


when pH of blood is increased.
Thank You.