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You are on page 1of 72

Lecture No. 4

Dr. Warakorn Mairaing

Associate Professor

Civil Engineering Department

Kasetsart University, Bangkok

Tel: 02-57902-579-2265

02

579-2265

Email: mairaing@yahoo.com

DRAINED AND

AND UNDRAINED

UNDRAINED STRENGTH

STRENGTH

DRAINED

Two extreme conditions are normally considered for design and

analysis.

during loading or after fully dissipation of u 2 typical eases are;

1) Sand or gravel layers of high k u dissipate fast

2) Clayey soil with slow rate of loading small increase of u and

longer time of dissipation

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

u fully developed and remained

u partially is dissipated

Partialy drained

Ex.

1) Saturated clay with high rate of loading

2) Silt and fine sand with seismic or repeated load Accumulation

of pore pressure Boiling

Mohr Coulombs Effective Strength Equation

= c + ( u s u ) tan

us = Constant

u = varied during loading

usually applied for u = 0 or known u

Undrainred or Total strength concept

for u is fully deveoped or unknow u (high)

Stress-path method is normally used to explain drained and

Undrained soil strength.

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

Actual Behaviors

Behaviors

Actual

1. Confined Compression / Consolidation

ne

li

Ko

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

ne

li

2. Triaxial Compression

Ex. At the edge of embankment

Ko

vo

HO

ne

li

P

ES

li

ne

P

TS

AB = Triaxial Undrained Loading (ESP)

AC = Triaxial Undrained Loading (TSP)

BC = Dissipation of Excess pore pressure

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

STRENGTH TEST

TEST BY

BY TRIAXIAL

TRIAXIAL

STRENGTH

COMPRESSION

COMPRESSION

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

STRENGTH

STRENGTH TEST

TEST BY

BY TRIAXIAL

TRIAXIAL COMPRESSION

COMPRESSION

Advantages

1. Closely simulate the aetual field stress condition.

2. Fully control the drainage condition in the sample.

3. Get more design informations. (Design Parameters)

-c,

- u

- v

- E , Ko

4. Automatic control and monitoring capability.

Disadvantages

1. Require qualified technician

2. Costly

SOIL SAMPLE

UU-Test

UU-Test

1. Natural Soil (Saturated)

UCS 3 = 0 Cu

= 0 Concept T3 > 0

Cu

2. Compacted Soil

(Unsaturated)

T3 > 0 Cu, u, u

CU-Test

CU-Test

1. Natural Soil (Saturated)

c , , u

2. Compacted Soil with

pore pressure

(u)

CD-Test

CD-Test

1. Gronular Soil

2. Slow rate of loading

c , , = 0

E , v

c ,

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

1. True Triaxial Test

When

1 > 2 > 3

condition in the field

2. Conventional Triaxial Test

c = 3

c = 3

3

Simulate - earthquake

- repeated load (pavement)

- machine foundation

- Oil drilling platform

L

1 2%

Lo

Special Strain Gage

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

For

- Tunneling work

- Retaining wall

Field

Lab

Installation /

Saturation

c

v

v0

c

a

c

v0

H 0 = K 0 v 0

Consolidation

Bring back to in

situ condition

H 0 + H

1

Shearing

Application

of load

UU-Test

Unconsolidated

Undrained Test

Consolidated Tests

Consolidation

Phase

CU-Test

CD-Test

Held Constant

Held Constant

Held Constant

Held Constant

Gradually Increased

From 3

Equal to 3 *

Very gradually

increased from 3

Drainage Lines

Closed

Drainage

Lines Open **

Pore pressure measured for

effective stress tests.

Drainage lines

open.

** In back pressured tests, pressure is supplied to pore lines, but drainage is permitted

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

STRENGTH CHARACTERISTIC, (C-O DIAGRAM)

35

, (degree)

30

25

20

15

10

5

Design

10

12

14

16

C, (t/m ^2)

UU TEST

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

STRENGTH CHARACTERISTIC, (C-O DIAGRAM)

35

, (degree)

30

25

20

Design

15

10

5

10

12

14

16

C, (t/m ^2)

CU TEST

DRAINED STRENGTH

STRENGTH

DRAINED

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

10

Drained Strength

u

2

1. k u

2.

u

Undrained Strength Excess pore pressure (u) 0

1.

u

2. (Silt)

u repeated load Boiling

= c + ( u s u ) tan

Constant

Varied

(strength)

Stress path

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

11

Path 1 Compression loading

3 = const.,

1 = increase

Path 2 Extension loading

1 = const.

3 = increase ,

3 = decrease ,

1 = const.

3 = const. ,

1 = decrease

Case 1

Case 2

qs

v

vo

Ho

Case 3

CD-TEST

CD-TEST

Sh

e

TS a r i

P, ng

ES

P

K f line

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

12

CU-TEST

CU-TEST

TS

P

ESP

UU Test

Test

UU

q

u

Da

TS

P

ES P

ur +Bc

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

13

Triaxial Tests.

Tests.

Triaxial

Initial

Consolidation?

No

Yes

Cell

Pressure?

Isotropic

Consokidation?

No

Yes

Unconfined

Compression

UU

No

CA

Yes

CI

Drained

Shearing?

Drained

Shearing?

1

No

CAU

Yes

CAD

Shearing in

No

CIU

Shearing in

Yes

CID

Shearing in

Shearing in

Extension

Compression

Extension

Compression

Extension

Compression

Extension

Compression

CAUE

CAUC

CADE

CADC

CIUE

CIUC

CIDE

CIDC

1UU

UUUnconsolidated

UnconsolidatedUndrained

Undrained

1

2CU

CUConsolidated

ConsolidatedUndrained

Undrainedwith

withpore

porepressure

pressuremeasurement

measurement

2

3CD

CDConsolidated

ConsolidatedDrained.

Drained.

3

DRAINED SHEAR

SHEAR STRENGTH

STRENGTH

DRAINED

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

14

DRAINED SHEAR

SHEAR STRENGTH

STRENGTH

DRAINED

I.

FIELD CONDITION

- Granular materials , dry or partially saturated.

- Cohesive materials , slow rate of loading

- Slow rate of loading, drainage permitted, excess pore pressure (u) = 0

Case Study Triaxial Test on Remolded Weald Clay by Henkel (1956)

LL. = 43%

PL. = 18%

PI. = 25%

Activity

Specific gravity (G)

= 40%

= 0.6

= 2.74

Sample No.

Confining pressure (psi)

1

10

2

30

7 Samples

- Consolidated To

- Then rebound to test at

Sample No.

Confining p. (psi)

OCR.

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

1

5

24

2

8

15

3

100

=

3

15

8

120 psi

4

25

4.8

5

45

2.7

6

60

2.0

7

70

1.7

15

Kf

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

16

CD-Test

CD-Test

P

ES P

TS

At failure

1

After consolidation

3

3

3

At failure

CD-TEST

Kf -

line

NC

TS

P

ES

P

OC

450c

P

f1

At failure

After consolidation

0 q0

At failure

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

17

Kf

O.C.

1 2

p=

( 1 + 3 ) (lb / in.2 )

O.C.

OCR>2

5

p=

6 7

( 1 + 3 ) (lb / in.2 )

pm = 120 lb / in.2

K f (OC.)

K f ( NC.)

Max

Failure envelope of a clay with preconsolidation pressure = c

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

18

p0 w0 (OC.)

q0 w0

P m = 120 psi

q f w f (OC.)

p0 w0 (OC.)

p f w f (OC.)

P m = 120 psi

pm = 120 lb / in.2

Unique Characteristic of

q f p f w f Relationship

Relationship

For each soil , when CD-Test was test then the following results can be summarized

Consolidation pressure.

Curve : Wo log (po) is straight line

2. After drained shearing of soil samples, the final water contents (Wf) at failure are

linearly proportioned to gf and p f (in log. Scale)

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

Wf log(gf)

Wf log(pf)

19

pressure. The wo - will show the lower value than wo of N.C. due to OC. Clay has inelastic

property of soil.

w o log(p o ),

w f log(q f ),

C.

C.

(O

(O

wf

Pm

qf

P0

w f log(pf )

P m = 120 psi

p f wf

p0 w0 (OC.)

P m = 120 psi

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

pm = 120 lb / in.2

20

Hvorslevs parameters.

e

MOHR s (NC.)

ce

MOHRs (OC.)

NC

pf =

- Combine effect of NC. And OC. to

w f and f

1f

+3f )

2

(lb / in. )

2

f = f (w f ) + f ( f )

f = ce + f tan

W fi

17 o

LOW

E

DESIG R BOUND

N

Relationship between sin and plasticity index for normally consolidated soils (From Kenney, 1959).

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

21

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

22

Ultimate

10%

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

23

(a) Sand

(b) Clay

Capillary rise

-u

Kf -

line

aapp

Effect of capillary tensions on effective stress and strength. (a) Sand. (b) Clay.

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

24

UNDRAINED SHEAR

SHEAR STRENGTH

STRENGTH

UNDRAINED

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

25

Undrained Shear

Shear Strength

Strength

Undrained

Sort strength is highly depended on the drainage condition in soil mass. During

undrained condition when excess pore pressure is fully developed and no time to dissipate,

the strength is called undrained strength

Normally, the undrained strength is lower than drained strength due to the present

of pore pressure. The behavior of undrained strength can also explain by the theory of

effective stress and represented by Stress path

1. Theoritical or laboratory

Fully undrained conditions can be simulated.

2. Practical or field

Partially drained condition is usually occurred.

Loading

Unloading

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

drained strength is lowest.

26

N.C.

N.C.

O.C.

O.C.

a

c = 120 psi

30 psi

Rebound

c = 10 psi

a

c

c

a

OCR =

120

10

c = 10 psi

TS

P

ESP

450

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

27

ES

P

TS

A=

u

2q

Af =

u f

2q f

Example 28.2

OCR =

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

120

= 12

10

28

Bangkok Clay

Weald Clay

qf

pf

17

45

q

u f = ?

(45,17)

60

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

Af =0.94

TS

P

ESP

29

CD

CU

CD Test

Kf

ESP

qf = 17.5 psi

CD

u

CU

from

find

P

TS

wf qf

wf = 20.6%

wo = 23%

CU Test

Wo = 23%

CU

qf = 8.5 psi

wf = 23%

CD

30

Po

Kf

q,q

E

=

ES

(L P

)

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

Failure Level

AD = TSP for CU Unloading.

TS

P

(L

)

P

ES

U

C

P

ES

=

)

P

(U

TS D

C

TSP

CU(U)

CD

TS

P

(CU )

P, P

30

Po wo

NC

OC

q f wf

(OC )

Pm = 120 psi

pm = 120 lb / in.2

Example 28.5

Find. qf and wf for both drained and undrained shear with 1 , increasing while 3 remains constant.

Solution. Follow same steps as in Example 28.3. The diagrams are given in Fig. E28.5 and the answers

appear in the table in Example 28.6

3

2

OC

TS

P

C

D

C

U

Kf (

10

15

3

2

1

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

31

NC

OC

wo, = wf = 21.1%

OCR = 12

Pm = 120 psi

NC

q f = 12 psi q 16 psi

f

OC

P0

p f = 28 psi

p f = 4 psi

pm = 120 lb / in.2

Relative

Relative Magnitude

Magnitude of

of Drained

Drained and

and Undrained

Undrained Strength

Strength

Normally

Consolidated

Clay

Heavily

Overconsoldated

Clay

(1 increasing with 3 constant)

CD > CU

CU CD

(1 constant with 3 decreasing)

CU CD

CU >> CD

TS

TS

P

(L

)

Note. These comparisons apply for specimens with the same initial effective stress.

P

)

(U

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

32

P

TS

TS

P

Shear

Shear Strength

Strength

CU

CU

CD

CD

Relative

Relative of

of Drained

Drained and

and Undrained

Undrained Stress

Stress Strain

Strain Curve.

Curve.

Kf

if

= 0.3

E 1.15 E

P

IN

E S RA

ND

(U

E 1 3 E

ED

Actual

3

E

2(1 + )

TS

P

E=

Partially drained.

(Actual field Condition)

P

Kf

K0

NO v 0

1 K0

1 + K0

Stage Loading

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

33

Drained

Drained

Undrained

Undrained Modulus

Modulus

If

E = Drained Youngs Modulus

While is

E = f (E )

Ex =

For Total Stress - Vertical loading

Ev =

x = v, y = z = 0

1

v

E

Ev =

1

x u ( y + z )

E

( 1 )

x = v , y = z = h =

1

( v 2 n )

E

( 2 )

For Isotropic mineral skeleton and axial loading from

Eq. 26.5

A=

Then

1

1 + 2(C s / Cc )

C s =Cc

A=

1

3

1

3

v = v A v = v v =

h = 0 A v =

2

v

3

v

3

( 3 )

( 4 )

Gv =

1 2

2

2 v

(1 + )

v + v =

E3

3

3 E

( 5 )

E=

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

3

E

2(1 + )

( 6 )

34

Stress path before failure

Elastic strain

Plastic strain

Consolidation

CU

CD

2. Stress-path (ESP) closer to Kf - line cause larger final strain due to plastic + yielding behaviors.

TS

P

1

TS

P

Su

c1

c2

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

35

= c + tan (K f )

Partially Sat.

UU-Test

3

4

Saturated.

Fully Sat.

1

4

3

3

Fully Sat.

Slope = S1

Partially Sat.

A

Slope = S1

S2

Slope = 0

-S2

Air void

Water void

- Strength

- Deformation

- Consolidation

- % Saturation

Undrained - Drained

Loading.

Application

1. Compacted embankment

2. Earth dam

3. Landfill

Initial Void.

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

36

Undrained Shear

Shear Strength

Strength

Undrained

1. Undrained Shear Strength of Saturated Sand

Undrained loading on saturated sand during fast or repeated loading conditions

Generally

1. Loose sand similar to N.C. or Soft Clay

2. Dense sand similar to O.C. or Stiff Clay

Exception

For loose sand after peak, soil can maintain it failure condition and pore pressure

start to decrease due to dilatency effect.

For dense sand during searing, soil mass tend to expound and develop negative

pore pressure.

If u < -1.0 ATM. (-14.4 psi), then pore water will cavilate

Solution

Back pressure of about 1 ATM (or more) is applied in soil sample and confining

pressure.

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

37

=0

Unsaturated due to

cavitation

P

ES

P

ES

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

38

ub

= c b

= ( c + c ) ( b + b )

Beak

pressure 2

ATM.

The Collapsing soil structure results the rearrangement of soil particles after peak

strength. Then, the excess pore pressure continue to increase and cause the ultimate K-line

larger than peak K-line

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

39

Kf

ate

im

ult

uf

Kf -

@p

eak

TSD

More Meta

Meta Structure

Structure

More

Unstable Structure

Stable Structure

Ultimate

Peak

Peak

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

40

Fatigue strength

<

static strength

( Single loading)

Due to

1. Accumulation of pore pressure

2. Rearrangement of soil particles.

3. Reduction of cementing bonds.

Generally we want to find the Fatigue Limit which is (the number of load

application (cycle) until) the failure strength below peak single strength occurred.

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

1 cycle

41

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

42

Static Strength

Limite

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

43

Generally

1. Typical isotropic T.A. Test

2. Ansisotropic T.A. Test

Both tests will show the different stress paths, but the same failure line (same kf-line)

v0

H0

s=

v0 H 0

CAK

H0

H0

1 k0

1 + k0

30

CIU

s =c

10

LAB

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

44

Ultimate strength

k f ( peak )

peak

ESP

Pps

remolded strength Soil is completely disturbed (or destroy the original structure.)

disturbed strength partially disturbed to some certain degree.

Sensitivity =

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

Undisturbed strength

Remolded strength

45

a

Undisturbed

Kf

Kc

Remdded

con

C

so

AU

H'

s

wr

ps

Isotropic Cur

gs

Field

Transported

ur = ps

VO

C

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

CIV

HO

Saturated

Consolidated

C

Shearing

46

7. Stress History

- Overconsolidated

OC

- Normally Consolidated

NC

qf

qfm

NC

1

OC

Po / Pm

SHANSEP Theory

Theory by

by Ladd

Ladd and

and Foott

Foott (1974)

(1974)

SHANSEP

Stress History And Normalized Soil Engineering Properties

The undrained shear strength (Su) is proportioned to Po as

Su

m

= S o (OCR )

Po

When

So =

Su

Po

( 1 )

So 0.25

OCR = Overconsolidation Ratio

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

47

Laboratory Procedures

2. Consolidate in triaxial to Po > Pm

3. Release consolidation pressure to test at different OCR.

4. Obtain Su (or qf) at various Po

Application

1. Use for stability analysis for large {embankment excavation}

2. Use for field test quality control.

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

48

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

49

Method

Comment

In-situ measurements

1. Vane test

limited as to strength of soil with which it

can be used

Measurements upon undisturbed samples

1. Unconfined compression

strength because disturbance decreases

effective stress

because of compensating errors.

disturbance leads to smaller water content

upon reconsolidation

STRESS STRAIN

STRAIN RELATIONSHOP

RELATIONSHOP FOR

FOR CU

CU

STRESS

Applications

1. Immediate Settlement of Loaded Area

2. Movement of Tunnel in soil

3. Excavation heaving and lateral movement

Parameters

- Youngs Modulus, E (Elastic modulus)

- Shear modulus, G

- Poissons Raton, or

From Eq. 12.4

G=

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

E

2(1 + )

( 1 )

50

G=

E

3

( 2 )

velocity. Ex. Shear column, seismic survey etc.

Hardin and Black (1968) estimated G for sand and clay.

G = 1230

(2.973 e )2

c

1+ e

( 3 )

G and c in psi

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

51

Type of Soil

V (G)

Clay, Saturated

Clay, Unsaturatd

Sandy Clay

Silt

Sand, Gravelly Sand

Rock

Loess

Ice

Concrete

0.4 0.5

0.1 0.3

0.2 0.3

0.3 0.35

0.3 0.4

0.1 0.4

0.1 0.3

0.36

0.15

v

x

= 0.5

x0

H

v

y

= 0.5

y0

H

Youngs Modulus

Modulus flow

flow stress

stress strain

strain Carve

Carve

Youngs

Dense sand

or OC. Clay

Et

Es

Peak

Ei

%E

Es = Secant Modulus

Et = Tangential Modulus

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

52

Test for

for small

small strain

strain modulus

modulus

Test

1. Repeated load test

a

E

Initial Stress Level

%c

h

L

Strain gate

L

L

E=

Duncans Stress

Stress Strain

Strain Model

Model (FEM)

(FEM)

Duncans

Due to non-linearity of soil stress-strain curve, Duncan and Kulhawy (1969)

proposed hyperbolic model for stress-strain

Asymptote

a

a(utl ) =

1

b

Nonlinear Stress-Strain

E = vasied

%Ea

Et = f (Ei , R f , K , n...)

a

a

b

1

Trainsformed curve

( 4 )

Rf = Failure ratio

K = Axial modulus member

N = Modulus exponent

1

Ea

%Ea

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

53

Strain Contours

Contours in

in Stress

Stress -- path

path

Strain

During series of CU - triaxial Test, if strain levels C% axial strain; are plotted along

in stress paths. The readial lines of the same strain can be drawn as strain contours.

Applications

1. Prediction of undrained settlement. (Elastic sett)

2. Estimation of consolidation settlement after dissipation

Using

Ev

v.s.

Consolidation pressure

wo

v.s.

Po

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

54

1. Direct method.

- Predict stress path due to insitu and construction loadings.

- Obtain the underturbed representative soil samples.

- Run triaxial test follow the predicted stress path.

- Direct measure the vertical strain in the sample

Ev = Ev (undrained) + Ev (Consolidation)

S = Ev

When

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

H

L

(5 )

L = sample hight.

55

2. Indirect Method

(CU )

tests

- Establish the strain contours

- Establish the relationship between Po v.s. eo (or wo )

- Construct stress path follow actual loading.

- Ev (undrained) is obtained from strain contour.

- Ev (consolidation)

1

E(vol )

3

Po v.s. eo (or wo )

Ev = Ev (undrained) + Ev (consolidation)

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

56

a max

( 1 3 )

c

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

57

Factors stress

stress strain

strain behaviors

behaviors (E)

(E)

Factors

1. Consolidation pressure

Po , Po

strain curves is unique for each clay. Figure 30.4

O.C. Clay E is depended on OCR and stress level (F.S.) Figure 30.6

2. Loading Rate and Loading cycle

- Faster loading rate higher

3. Time and Aging Effects

- Thixtropic Effects Soil stronger with time for remolded and high liquidity index.

- Consolidation Time longer time secondary consolidation stronger soil.

- Strain Rate Effect Dynamic stronger than Static E (dynamic) 1.5 to 2.0 E

(Static)

3

2

2

2

Compression loading.

Excavation

Perfect sample

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

58

4. Loading patterns

Stress strain (E) behaviors of soil are highly depended on loading Patten (or

stress paths)

Ex.

Test 1.

(Spread footing, embankment )

Test 2.

Unloading from Ko

(Excavation pit, deep foundation )

Test 3.

(Soil sampling and compression Test)

vo

HO

a

c

Sampling

Lab Test

CAU

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

59

Peak @ 0.3%

Peak @ 0.7%

1

Ko - Condition

3

Peak @ 14% E

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

60

Application of

of Advanced

Advanced soil

soil Mechanics

Mechanics

Application

1.

Soil Investigation

2.

Pile Foundation

3.

Excavation

4.

Land Reclamation

5.

Slope Stability

6.

7.

Tunneling

8.

Geotechnical Monitoring

9.

10.

11.

Soil Investigation

Investigation (Site

(Site Characterization)

Characterization)

Soil

()

Geology

Surveying

Soil Investigation

Soil mechanics.

Structural Eng.

Environment Eng.

Highway Eng.

Water Resources Eng.

etc.

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

Computer

Database

GIS

61

Advanced

Advanced Soil

Soil Mechanics

Mechanics

2. Soil Physical Properties and Classification

3. Soil and Clay Mineralogy

4. Site Investigation Soil Boring, Sampling. Etc.

5. Laboratory Test Physical, Strength, Compressibility

6. Database, zoning, GIS Statistic, Computer Graphic, Soil profile Model.

Pile

Pile Foundation

Foundation (Deep

(Deep foundation)

foundation)

Problems concerned

1. Pile Capacity

- Strength

- Stress - Strain

2. Consolidation Settlement

- Stress - Strain (Elastic)

- Consolidation

- Stress - distribution

3. Method of Installation

- Driver pore pressure, soil displacement

- Bored

- Pre bored

4. Pile group / Mat foundation

- Group efficiency Stress overlapping

- Relative stiffness

- Differential Settlement

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

62

5. Caisson / Shaft

- End bearing

- Seepage

- Horizontal pressure , Friction

6. Bored pile / Barrette Wall (Slurry)

- Bentonite properties

- Trench Stability

- Seepage.

7. Tunneling

Problem

1. Strength

2. Insitu Stress, Stress Release

3. Seepage

4. Rock bolting Soil nailing, living

5. Blasting, Tunneling machine

a

vo

vo

%c

8. Geotechnical monitoring

Problem

1. Pore pressure

2. Stress, load

3. Movements

4. Temperature

5. Permeability

9. Excavation

Problem

Problem

2. Seepage

3. Lateral earth pressure lateral movement.

4. Pressure relief - heaving

1. Settlement

2. Soil Strength - Stability

3. Compaction - Soil improvement

Problem

1. Soil Strength

2. Pore pressure drainage - infiltration

3. Erosion

12. Embankment and Dams

Problem

1. Soil strength

2. Compaction

3. Seepage - drainage

4. Settlement

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

63

Problem

1.

Problem

1.

Problem

1.

Design Pile

Pile Foundation

Foundation

Design

Pile Types

1. Short pile (3-12 m)

Timber, R/C

2. Long P/C pile

Section

Length

15

62.5 cm.

26 m. Maximum

3. Bored Pile

- Dry Process

d = 35

200 cm.

- Wet Process

- Micro pile (grouting technique)

4. Steel Pile

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

64

n

Q f = P ( i Ci Li )

i =1

Q p = Ap v N q

Where

P

adhesion factor

ci

cohesion

Li

Ap =

v =

2. Dynamic method

- for construction monitoring and cross checking only

Pu = ( i q fi Li P ) + Ap qc

n

i =1

Where

n

adhesion factor

qfi =

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

Li

qc

65

Pa = q f P L

When

qf

800 kg/m2

(0-7) m.

L1

- Feld Rule

- Friction Area Ratio

- Broms Theory

Pile Foundation

1. Short pile

2. Precast P/C Pile

3. Bored pile

Site Informationrop

1. Space 4.Soil Profile

2. Noise 5.Soil Prop

3. Vibration

1. Function Requirement

2. Load

1. Pile Capacity

2. Settlement

3. Lateral Stability

Select other pile type

Feasibility Analysis

1. Construction Problems

2. Cost

(2) Drawings

(3) Specification

Monitor During

Construction and Operation

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

66

Retaining Wall

Structural Information

1. Function of R.M

2. Back filll Soil

3. Surchange load

Foundation Information

1. Soil Profile

2. Soil Properties

3. Tidal and Ground Water Level

Selection of R.W.Type

1. Gravity

2. Cantilever R/C

3. Battress

R/C

4. Cantilever S/P

5. Anchored S/P

6. Relieving Platform Platform

7. Cellular Structures

Pressure

1. Lateral Earth Pressure

2. Water Pressure

3. External Forces

Check

1. Base Sliding

2. Overturning

3. Bearing Stress

4. Bearing moment

5. Shearing Stress

6. Anchor Force

Structural Desige

ConsolidationAnalysis

Site Information

1. Soil Profile

2. Soil Properties

3. Ground Water Levle

1. Footing Arrangement

2. Loading

3. Function

Components of Settiemention

1. Primary Consolidation

2. Elastic Deformation

3. Secondary Consolidation

Determine

P0

P

Elastic by

Poulos

Terzaghi

Poulos

No Application

or FEM Analysis

e0

S=

Cc

P + P

H log 0

1+ e0

P0

Pj

ti =

Cv H 2

Ti

Settlement Monitoring

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

67

Foundation Information

1. Soil Profile

2. Soil Properties

3. Ground Water Level

Embankment Information

1. Cross-Section

2. Material Properties

3. Condition of Analysis

1. Circular

2. Wedge

3. Compination

4. Irregular

1. Simple Method of Slices

2. Bishop's Method

3. Friction Circle(graphic)

4. FEM

Modified Section

or Corrective Method

Pore Presure Data

F.S.>Flow F.S.

Design

Criteria

Monitoring

Subject : DESIGN FLOW CHART

COMPARISION

-Time

-Construction Sequence

-Construction Method

-Cost

TRIAL SECTION

AND OUTLED PRELODEING BUND

DETAIL DESIGN

DESIGN ADJUSTMENT

CONSTRUCTION

MONITORING

AS

PREDICTED

CONTINUE

UNTIL COMPLETION

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

68

Subject : FLOW CHART OF THE DESIGN OF SLUDGE LAGOON

INVESTIGATION

- Soil Investigation

- Topographic Survey

- Other Information Collrction

SOIL MODELS

SOIL PROPERTY EVALUATION

PROBLEMS INDENTIFICATION

- Settlement Ratr

- Total Settlement

- Stability Bearing

DESIGN CRITERIA

- Load Strength Density

- Rate of Construction

- Construction Sequence

- Allowable Settlement

- Waiting Period

(PREDICTION)

ANALYSIS W IMPROVEMENT

(PREDICTION)

Geotechnical

Geotechnical Engineering

Engineering involvement

involvement

Related Geotechnical Engineering Topics

Surface

Erosion

Surface Soil

Improvement

Grouting and

Deep

Improvement

Excavation

Compaction

Seepage and

Drainage

Lateral

Movement

Lateral

Pressures

Stability

Settlement

Bearing

Capacities

Engineering Structures

1.1 Dam Embankment

1.2 Dam Foundation

1.3 Dam Abutments

1.4 Appurtenant Structures

2. CANALS AND PIPELINES

2.1 Conveyance Structures

2.2 intake Structure

2.3 Storage or Surge Tanks

2.4 Receiving Structure

3. DEEP EXCAVATON

3.1 Free Slope

3.2 Cantilever Sheet piling

3.3 Braced Excavation

3.4 Anchored Retaining Wall

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

69

Geotechnical

Geotechnical Engineering

Engineering involvement

involvement (

())

Related Geotechnical Engineering Topics

Surface Soil

Improvement

Surface

Erosion

Surface Soil

Improvement

Surface

Erosion

Grouting and

Deep

Improvement

Excavation

Compaction

Seepage and

Drainage

Lateral

Movement

Lateral

Pressures

Stability

Settlement

Bearing

Capacities

Engineering Structures

4.1 Shallow footing

4.2 Pile Foundation

4.3 Caison or Deep massive footing

4.4 Micro pile or Root pile

5. Embankments, highway and runway

5.1 Highway, Railway

5.2 Runway, Taxiway and Apron

5.3 Land Reclamation (Coastal)

6. Tunneling

6.1 Rock Tunneling

6.2 Underground Opening

6.3 Soil Tunneling

6.4 Cut and Cover

Geotechnical

Geotechnical Engineering

Engineering involvement

involvement (

())

Related Geotechnical Engineering Topics

Grouting and

Deep

Improvement

Excavation

Compaction

Seepage and

Drainage

Lateral

Movement

Lateral

Pressures

Stability

Settlement

Bearing

Capacities

Engineering Structures

7.1 Natural Slope

7.2 Cut Slope

7.3 Fill Slope

8. Offshore or Near shore Structures

8.1 Oil Drilling Platform

8.2 Jetty and quay wall

8.3 Dry Dock

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

70

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

71

Consolidation

Pile

Capacity

Bearing

Capacity

Stability

Lateral

Earth

Pressure

Seepage

&

Drainage

(Siphon)

Primary Problem

Secondary Problem

Field

Vane

Shear

50 .

30 .

15 .

20 .

15 .

20 .

15 .

20 .

15 .

(Siphon)

30 .

30 .

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

Basic Properties

(Seive Analysis,

atterbergs

Limit, Wn, etc.)

Unconfined

Comp. Test

Triaxial

on Test

Consolidation

on Test

Lateral

Load

Test

72

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