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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Lecture No. 4
Dr. Warakorn Mairaing
Associate Professor
Civil Engineering Department
Kasetsart University, Bangkok
Tel: 02-57902-579-2265
02
579-2265
Email: mairaing@yahoo.com

DRAINED AND
AND UNDRAINED
UNDRAINED STRENGTH
STRENGTH
DRAINED

Soil Strength depend highly on pore pressure during loading


Two extreme conditions are normally considered for design and
analysis.

1. Drained Strength ; when excess pore pressure (u) 0


during loading or after fully dissipation of u 2 typical eases are;
1) Sand or gravel layers of high k u dissipate fast
2) Clayey soil with slow rate of loading small increase of u and
longer time of dissipation

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

2. Undrained Strength ; when u remained during loading


u fully developed and remained

Fully undrained condition

u partially is dissipated

Partialy drained

Ex.
1) Saturated clay with high rate of loading
2) Silt and fine sand with seismic or repeated load Accumulation
of pore pressure Boiling
Mohr Coulombs Effective Strength Equation

= c + ( u s u ) tan
us = Constant
u = varied during loading

Drained or Effective strength concept


usually applied for u = 0 or known u
Undrainred or Total strength concept
for u is fully deveoped or unknow u (high)
Stress-path method is normally used to explain drained and
Undrained soil strength.

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Actual Behaviors
Behaviors
Actual
1. Confined Compression / Consolidation

ne
li
Ko

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ne
li

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

2. Triaxial Compression
Ex. At the edge of embankment

Ko

vo

HO

ne
li

P
ES

li

ne

P
TS

At Pt. A. For Normally Consolidated Clay at Ko-Condition


AB = Triaxial Undrained Loading (ESP)
AC = Triaxial Undrained Loading (TSP)
BC = Dissipation of Excess pore pressure

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

STRENGTH TEST
TEST BY
BY TRIAXIAL
TRIAXIAL
STRENGTH
COMPRESSION
COMPRESSION

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

STRENGTH
STRENGTH TEST
TEST BY
BY TRIAXIAL
TRIAXIAL COMPRESSION
COMPRESSION
Advantages
1. Closely simulate the aetual field stress condition.
2. Fully control the drainage condition in the sample.
3. Get more design informations. (Design Parameters)
-c,
- u
- v
- E , Ko
4. Automatic control and monitoring capability.

Disadvantages
1. Require qualified technician
2. Costly
SOIL SAMPLE

UU-Test
UU-Test
1. Natural Soil (Saturated)
UCS 3 = 0 Cu
= 0 Concept T3 > 0
Cu
2. Compacted Soil
(Unsaturated)
T3 > 0 Cu, u, u

CU-Test
CU-Test
1. Natural Soil (Saturated)
c , , u
2. Compacted Soil with
pore pressure
(u)

CD-Test
CD-Test
1. Gronular Soil
2. Slow rate of loading

c , , = 0
E , v

c ,

Very difficult to obtain

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Types of Triaxial Test


1. True Triaxial Test

When

1 > 2 > 3

- Usually occur in plane-strain


condition in the field

- Laboratory Test is quite complicated

need special equipment


2. Conventional Triaxial Test

c = 3
c = 3
3

3. Repeated or Cyclic loading Triaxial Test

Simulate - earthquake
- repeated load (pavement)
- machine foundation
- Oil drilling platform

4. Low strain Triaxial Test


L
1 2%
Lo
Special Strain Gage

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For

- Tunneling work
- Retaining wall

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Field

Lab

Installation /
Saturation

c
v

v0

c
a
c

v0

H 0 = K 0 v 0

Consolidation

Bring back to in
situ condition

H 0 + H

1
Shearing

Application
of load

Simulation of triaxial Test

UU-Test
Unconsolidated
Undrained Test

Consolidated Tests
Consolidation
Phase

CU-Test

CD-Test

Held Constant

Held Constant

Held Constant

Held Constant

Gradually Increased
From 3

Equal to 3 *

Gradually increased from 3

Very gradually
increased from 3

Drainage Lines
Closed

Drainage
Lines Open **

No water permitted to escape.


Pore pressure measured for
effective stress tests.

Drainage lines
open.

* Unless anisotropic consolidation is to be effected


** In back pressured tests, pressure is supplied to pore lines, but drainage is permitted

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

HUAI PA THAO DAM


STRENGTH CHARACTERISTIC, (C-O DIAGRAM)
35

, (degree)

30

25
20

15

10
5

Design

10

12

14

16

C, (t/m ^2)
UU TEST

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

HUAI PA THAO DAM


STRENGTH CHARACTERISTIC, (C-O DIAGRAM)
35

, (degree)

30

25
20

Design

15

10
5

10

12

14

16

C, (t/m ^2)
CU TEST

DRAINED STRENGTH
STRENGTH
DRAINED

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Drained and Undrained Strength

Drained Strength

Excess pore pressure (u) 0

u
2
1. k u
2.
u
Undrained Strength Excess pore pressure (u) 0

1.
u
2. (Silt)
u repeated load Boiling

Mohr-Coulombs Effective Strength Equation

= c + ( u s u ) tan
Constant

Varied

drained undrained strength u


(strength)

Stress path

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

CONDITIONS OF STRESS CHANGE COMPARING TO TRIAXIAL TESTS


Path 1 Compression loading
3 = const.,
1 = increase
Path 2 Extension loading
1 = const.
3 = increase ,

Path 3 Compression unloading


3 = decrease ,
1 = const.

Path 4 Extension unloading


3 = const. ,
1 = decrease
Case 1

Case 2

qs

v
vo
Ho

Case 3

Stress paths for triaxial tests.

CD-TEST
CD-TEST

Sh
e
TS a r i
P, ng
ES
P

K f line

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

CU-TEST
CU-TEST

TS
P

ESP

UU Test
Test
UU

q
u
Da

TS
P

ES P

ur +Bc

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Triaxial Tests.
Tests.
Triaxial

Initial
Consolidation?

No

Yes

Cell
Pressure?

Isotropic
Consokidation?

No

Yes

Unconfined
Compression

UU

No
CA

Yes
CI

Drained
Shearing?

Drained
Shearing?

1
No
CAU

Yes
CAD

Shearing in

No
CIU

Shearing in

Yes
CID

Shearing in

Shearing in

Extension

Compression

Extension

Compression

Extension

Compression

Extension

Compression

CAUE

CAUC

CADE

CADC

CIUE

CIUC

CIDE

CIDC

1UU
UUUnconsolidated
UnconsolidatedUndrained
Undrained
1
2CU
CUConsolidated
ConsolidatedUndrained
Undrainedwith
withpore
porepressure
pressuremeasurement
measurement
2
3CD
CDConsolidated
ConsolidatedDrained.
Drained.
3

DRAINED SHEAR
SHEAR STRENGTH
STRENGTH
DRAINED

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

DRAINED SHEAR
SHEAR STRENGTH
STRENGTH
DRAINED

I.

FIELD CONDITION
- Granular materials , dry or partially saturated.
- Cohesive materials , slow rate of loading

II. LABORATORY CONDITION


- Slow rate of loading, drainage permitted, excess pore pressure (u) = 0

CD-Test or Slow Test


Case Study Triaxial Test on Remolded Weald Clay by Henkel (1956)
LL. = 43%
PL. = 18%
PI. = 25%

Percent clay (<0.002)


Activity
Specific gravity (G)

= 40%
= 0.6
= 2.74

Case I. Normally Consolidated Clay (NC) , 3 Samples


Sample No.
Confining pressure (psi)

1
10

2
30

Case II. Over Consolidated Clay (OC) ,

7 Samples

- Consolidated To
- Then rebound to test at
Sample No.
Confining p. (psi)
OCR.

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

1
5
24

2
8
15

3
100

=
3
15
8

120 psi
4
25
4.8

5
45
2.7

6
60
2.0

7
70
1.7

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Test results on normally consolidated Weald clay.

Kf

Normalized test results.

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

CD-Test
CD-Test

P
ES P
TS

At failure
1

After consolidation
3

3
3

At failure

Test results on normally consolidated Weald clay.

CD-TEST

Kf -

line

NC

TS
P
ES
P

OC

450c
P

f1
At failure
After consolidation

0 q0

At failure

Test results on normally consolidated Weald clay.

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Kf

O.C.

1 2
p=

( 1 + 3 ) (lb / in.2 )

O.C.

OCR>2

5
p=

6 7

( 1 + 3 ) (lb / in.2 )

Results of CD tests on overconsolidated Weald clay.

pm = 120 lb / in.2

K f (OC.)

K f ( NC.)
Max
Failure envelope of a clay with preconsolidation pressure = c

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

p0 w0 (OC.)

q0 w0

P m = 120 psi

q f w f (OC.)

p0 w0 (OC.)

p f w f (OC.)

Stress-volume relations for overconsolidated Weald

P m = 120 psi

pm = 120 lb / in.2

Summary of CD-Test Resuts of Weald Clay

Unique Characteristic of

q f p f w f Relationship
Relationship

For Normally Consolidated Clay (NC)


For each soil , when CD-Test was test then the following results can be summarized

1. The water content after consolidation is linearly proportioned to log p0.


Consolidation pressure.
Curve : Wo log (po) is straight line
2. After drained shearing of soil samples, the final water contents (Wf) at failure are
linearly proportioned to gf and p f (in log. Scale)

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Wf log(gf)

are straight lines

Wf log(pf)

Parallel to each others

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

For Overconsolidated Clay (O.C)

3. After preconsolidation pressures, the samples were rebound to a curtain confining


pressure. The wo - will show the lower value than wo of N.C. due to OC. Clay has inelastic
property of soil.

4. The unique but not linear relationships between

w o log(p o ),

w f log(q f ),

were obtained for each soil at each

C.

C.

(O

(O

wf

Pm

qf

P0

w f log(pf )

P m = 120 psi
p f wf

p0 w0 (OC.)

P m = 120 psi

Stress-volume relations for overconsolidated Weald

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pm = 120 lb / in.2

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Hvorslevs parameters.

Hvorslevs failure lines

e
MOHR s (NC.)

ce

MOHRs (OC.)

NC

pf =

Hvorslevs Strength Parameter (1937)


- Combine effect of NC. And OC. to

w f and f

1f

+3f )
2

(lb / in. )
2

f = f (w f ) + f ( f )
f = ce + f tan

W fi

17 o
LOW
E
DESIG R BOUND
N

Soft Bangkok Clay

Relationship between sin and plasticity index for normally consolidated soils (From Kenney, 1959).

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Ultimate

10%

Relationship between peak and ultimate conditions.

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Apparent Cohesion due to capillary

(a) Sand

(b) Clay
Capillary rise

-u

Kf -

line

aapp

Effect of capillary tensions on effective stress and strength. (a) Sand. (b) Clay.

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Effect of variable ground water conditions.

UNDRAINED SHEAR
SHEAR STRENGTH
STRENGTH
UNDRAINED

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Undrained Shear
Shear Strength
Strength
Undrained

Sort strength is highly depended on the drainage condition in soil mass. During
undrained condition when excess pore pressure is fully developed and no time to dissipate,
the strength is called undrained strength
Normally, the undrained strength is lower than drained strength due to the present
of pore pressure. The behavior of undrained strength can also explain by the theory of
effective stress and represented by Stress path
1. Theoritical or laboratory
Fully undrained conditions can be simulated.
2. Practical or field
Partially drained condition is usually occurred.

We should consider the worst case for the design.


Loading
Unloading

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

drained strength higher then undrained strength is used.


drained strength is lowest.

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

N.C.
N.C.

O.C.
O.C.

a
c = 120 psi

30 psi

Rebound
c = 10 psi

a
c
c

a
OCR =

120
10

c = 10 psi

TS
P

ESP
450

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

ES
P

TS

A=

u
2q

Af =

u f
2q f

Example 28.2
OCR =

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120
= 12
10

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Bangkok Clay

Weald Clay

qf

pf

17

45

q
u f = ?
(45,17)

60

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Af =0.94

TS
P

ESP

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

CD

CU

CD Test

Kf

ESP

qf = 17.5 psi

CD

u
CU

from
find

P
TS

wf qf
wf = 20.6%
wo = 23%
CU Test

Wo = 23%

CU

qf = 8.5 psi
wf = 23%

CD

30

Po

Kf

AB = ESP for Undrained T.A.

q,q
E
=
ES
(L P
)

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AE = TSP = ESP for CD Loading


Failure Level

AF = TSP = ESP for CD Unloading


AD = TSP for CU Unloading.

TS
P
(L
)

P
ES

U
C
P
ES
=
)
P
(U
TS D
C

TSP
CU(U)

AC = TSP for CU Loading

CD

TS
P

(CU )

Loading and Unloading.

P, P

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Po wo

NC

OC

q f wf

(OC )

Pm = 120 psi

OC-Clay Consolidate pm = 120 psi

Stress-volume relations for over-consolidated Weald clay

pm = 120 lb / in.2

Example 28.5

Given. Overconsolidated Weald clay with

pm = 120 psi and po = 30 psi

Find. qf and wf for both drained and undrained shear with 1 , increasing while 3 remains constant.
Solution. Follow same steps as in Example 28.3. The diagrams are given in Fig. E28.5 and the answers
appear in the table in Example 28.6

3
2
OC

TS
P

C
D

C
U

Kf (

10

15

3
2
1

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

If Po = 10 psi Construct ESP, TSP, Find u, Af

NC
OC

wo, = wf = 21.1%
OCR = 12

Pm = 120 psi
NC

q f = 12 psi q 16 psi
f

OC

P0

p f = 28 psi

Stress-volume relations for overconsolidated Weald clay

p f = 4 psi

pm = 120 lb / in.2

Relative
Relative Magnitude
Magnitude of
of Drained
Drained and
and Undrained
Undrained Strength
Strength
Normally
Consolidated
Clay

Heavily
Overconsoldated
Clay

Triaxial compression loading


(1 increasing with 3 constant)

CD > CU

CU CD

Triaxial Compression unloading


(1 constant with 3 decreasing)

CU CD

CU >> CD

TS

TS
P

(L
)

Note. These comparisons apply for specimens with the same initial effective stress.

P
)
(U

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

P
TS

TS
P

Shear
Shear Strength
Strength
CU
CU
CD
CD

Relative
Relative of
of Drained
Drained and
and Undrained
Undrained Stress
Stress Strain
Strain Curve.
Curve.
Kf

Drained Undrained Modulus

if

= 0.3
E 1.15 E

P
IN
E S RA
ND
(U

E 1 3 E

ED

Actual

3
E
2(1 + )

TS
P

E=

Partially drained.
(Actual field Condition)
P

Kf

K0

NO v 0
1 K0
1 + K0

Stage Loading

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Drained
Drained
Undrained
Undrained Modulus
Modulus

If

E = Undrained Youngs Modulus


E = Drained Youngs Modulus

While is

E = f (E )

Ex =

From Eq. 12.5 (a) for Triaxial Loading


For Total Stress - Vertical loading

Ev =

x = v, y = z = 0

1
v
E

For Effective Stress - vertical loading

Ev =

1
x u ( y + z )
E

( 1 )

x = v , y = z = h =

1
( v 2 n )
E

( 2 )

When u = Poissons ratio of mineral skeleton.


For Isotropic mineral skeleton and axial loading from
Eq. 26.5

A=

Then

1
1 + 2(C s / Cc )

C s =Cc

A=

1
3

1
3

v = v A v = v v =
h = 0 A v =

2
v
3

v
3

( 3 )
( 4 )

From Eq. (2)


Gv =

1 2
2
2 v

(1 + )
v + v =
E3
3
3 E

( 5 )

Or (1) = (5) Then


E=

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3
E
2(1 + )

( 6 )

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Final Strains are depended on stress-path


Stress path before failure

Elastic strain

Plastic strain

Consolidation

CU

CD

Stress path close to failure

Plastic + Yielding strain

1. Larger p during loading cause smaller final strain (Ea)


2. Stress-path (ESP) closer to Kf - line cause larger final strain due to plastic + yielding behaviors.

TS
P

1
TS
P

Su

UU Fully Saturated Soil

c1
c2

Unconsolidated undrained tests on partially

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

= c + tan (K f )

Partially Sat.
UU-Test
3

4
Saturated.

Fully Sat.
1

4
3
3

Unconsolidated undrained tests on partially

Fully Sat.

Slope = S1

Partially Sat.
A

Slope = S1

S2
Slope = 0
-S2
Air void
Water void

Effect of Partially saturated soil

- Strength
- Deformation
- Consolidation
- % Saturation
Undrained - Drained
Loading.
Application
1. Compacted embankment
2. Earth dam
3. Landfill

Initial Void.

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Undrained Shear
Shear Strength
Strength
Undrained
1. Undrained Shear Strength of Saturated Sand
Undrained loading on saturated sand during fast or repeated loading conditions

Generally
1. Loose sand similar to N.C. or Soft Clay
2. Dense sand similar to O.C. or Stiff Clay

Exception
For loose sand after peak, soil can maintain it failure condition and pore pressure
start to decrease due to dilatency effect.

2. Cavitation of Pore Water


For dense sand during searing, soil mass tend to expound and develop negative
pore pressure.
If u < -1.0 ATM. (-14.4 psi), then pore water will cavilate

Solution
Back pressure of about 1 ATM (or more) is applied in soil sample and confining
pressure.

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Medium Dense Sand --> No Cavitation

=0

Dense Sand -->Cavitation @ Low Confining Pressure

Unsaturated due to
cavitation

P
ES

P
ES

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

ub

= c b

= ( c + c ) ( b + b )

Beak
pressure 2
ATM.

3. Sensitive Clay and Very Loose Sands.

The Collapsing soil structure results the rearrangement of soil particles after peak
strength. Then, the excess pore pressure continue to increase and cause the ultimate K-line
larger than peak K-line

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Kf

ate
im
ult

uf

Kf -

@p

eak

TSD

More Meta
Meta Structure
Structure
More
Unstable Structure

Stable Structure

Ultimate

Peak

Peak

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

4. Strength after repeated load or seismic load

Fatigue strength

<

(cycle / repeated loading)

static strength
( Single loading)

Due to
1. Accumulation of pore pressure
2. Rearrangement of soil particles.
3. Reduction of cementing bonds.

Generally we want to find the Fatigue Limit which is (the number of load
application (cycle) until) the failure strength below peak single strength occurred.

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1 cycle

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Static Strength

Limite

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

5. Anisotropic Consolidation before Shearing.


Generally
1. Typical isotropic T.A. Test
2. Ansisotropic T.A. Test
Both tests will show the different stress paths, but the same failure line (same kf-line)

v0
H0

s=

v0 H 0

CAK

H0
H0

1 k0
1 + k0

30

CIU

s =c
10

LAB

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Ultimate strength

k f ( peak )

peak

ESP

Pps

6. Remolding and Disturbance.

Undisturbed strength soil in natural forming structure


remolded strength Soil is completely disturbed (or destroy the original structure.)
disturbed strength partially disturbed to some certain degree.

Sensitivity =

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Undisturbed strength
Remolded strength

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

a
Undisturbed

Kf

Kc

Remdded
con

C
so

AU

H'
s
wr

ps

Isotropic Cur

gs

Field

Transported

ur = ps

VO
C

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CIV

HO

Saturated

Consolidated

C
Shearing

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

7. Stress History
- Overconsolidated

OC

- Normally Consolidated

NC

qf
qfm

NC
1
OC

Po / Pm

Normalized undrained strength by SHANSEP

SHANSEP Theory
Theory by
by Ladd
Ladd and
and Foott
Foott (1974)
(1974)
SHANSEP
Stress History And Normalized Soil Engineering Properties

When clayey soil is naturally sedimented or artificially sedimented in laboratory.


The undrained shear strength (Su) is proportioned to Po as

Su
m
= S o (OCR )
Po
When

So =

Su
Po

( 1 )

@ Normally Consolidation State (OCR = 1)

For Bangkok Clay

So 0.25

m = Constant 0.8 0.05


OCR = Overconsolidation Ratio

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Laboratory Procedures

1. Obtain soil sample (Undisturbed or slightly disturbed)


2. Consolidate in triaxial to Po > Pm
3. Release consolidation pressure to test at different OCR.
4. Obtain Su (or qf) at various Po

and OCR, Then solve for m and So

Application
1. Use for stability analysis for large {embankment excavation}
2. Use for field test quality control.

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Table : Common Methods for Measuring undrained Strength

Method

Comment

In-situ measurements
1. Vane test

Usually considered to give best result, but is


limited as to strength of soil with which it
can be used

2. Soft to Medium Penetration test (SPT)

Gives crude correlation to strength

3. Static Conre Pure Test (CPT)


Measurements upon undisturbed samples
1. Unconfined compression

Best general purpose test; underestimates


strength because disturbance decreases
effective stress

2. UU test at in situ confining pressure

Most representative of laboratory tests,


because of compensating errors.

3. CU test at in situ confining pressure

Overestimates strength, because


disturbance leads to smaller water content
upon reconsolidation

STRESS STRAIN
STRAIN RELATIONSHOP
RELATIONSHOP FOR
FOR CU
CU
STRESS
Applications
1. Immediate Settlement of Loaded Area
2. Movement of Tunnel in soil
3. Excavation heaving and lateral movement
Parameters
- Youngs Modulus, E (Elastic modulus)
- Shear modulus, G
- Poissons Raton, or
From Eq. 12.4

G=

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

E
2(1 + )

( 1 )

50

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

For saturated soil in undrained condition 0.5, then

G=

E
3

( 2 )

Shear modulus G can be measured quite accurate by shear wave propagation


velocity. Ex. Shear column, seismic survey etc.
Hardin and Black (1968) estimated G for sand and clay.

G = 1230

(2.973 e )2
c
1+ e

( 3 )

G and c in psi

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Table : Poissons Ratio

Type of Soil

V (G)

Clay, Saturated
Clay, Unsaturatd
Sandy Clay
Silt
Sand, Gravelly Sand
Rock
Loess
Ice
Concrete

0.4 0.5
0.1 0.3
0.2 0.3
0.3 0.35
0.3 0.4
0.1 0.4
0.1 0.3
0.36
0.15

: Bowles, J.E. (1968)

v
x
= 0.5
x0
H
v
y
= 0.5
y0
H

Youngs Modulus
Modulus flow
flow stress
stress strain
strain Carve
Carve
Youngs

Dense sand
or OC. Clay

Et
Es

Peak

Ei

Loose sand or N.C. Clay

%E

Ei = Initial Tangential Modulus


Es = Secant Modulus
Et = Tangential Modulus

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Test for
for small
small strain
strain modulus
modulus
Test
1. Repeated load test

a
E
Initial Stress Level
%c

2. Using lorv strain strain - gage

h
L

Strain gate

Resistant Strain gage

L
L

E=

Duncans Stress
Stress Strain
Strain Model
Model (FEM)
(FEM)
Duncans
Due to non-linearity of soil stress-strain curve, Duncan and Kulhawy (1969)
proposed hyperbolic model for stress-strain

Asymptote
a

a(utl ) =

1
b

Nonlinear Stress-Strain
E = vasied

%Ea

Et = f (Ei , R f , K , n...)

Trainsformed to Duncan's Model

a
a
b
1

Trainsformed curve

( 4 )
Rf = Failure ratio
K = Axial modulus member
N = Modulus exponent

1
Ea

%Ea

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53

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Strain Contours
Contours in
in Stress
Stress -- path
path
Strain

During series of CU - triaxial Test, if strain levels C% axial strain; are plotted along
in stress paths. The readial lines of the same strain can be drawn as strain contours.

Applications
1. Prediction of undrained settlement. (Elastic sett)
2. Estimation of consolidation settlement after dissipation
Using

Ev

v.s.

Consolidation pressure

wo

v.s.

Po

3. Estimation of Failure vertical strain during loading

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

54

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Methods for prediction of settlement from Triaxial Test.


1. Direct method.
- Predict stress path due to insitu and construction loadings.
- Obtain the underturbed representative soil samples.
- Run triaxial test follow the predicted stress path.
- Direct measure the vertical strain in the sample

Ev = Ev (undrained) + Ev (Consolidation)

S = Ev
When

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

H
L

(5 )

H = soil layer thickness


L = sample hight.

55

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

2. Indirect Method

- Test a series of triaxial

(CU )

tests

Ex. @ c = 50, 100, 150 kN/m3 as in Fig


- Establish the strain contours
- Establish the relationship between Po v.s. eo (or wo )
- Construct stress path follow actual loading.
- Ev (undrained) is obtained from strain contour.
- Ev (consolidation)

Evol calculate from

1
E(vol )
3

Po v.s. eo (or wo )

Ev = Ev (undrained) + Ev (consolidation)

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56

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

a max

Normalized Deviator Stress

( 1 3 )
c

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57

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Factors stress
stress strain
strain behaviors
behaviors (E)
(E)
Factors
1. Consolidation pressure

Po , Po

N.C. Clay E is proportional to Po or c Then the plot of normalized stress


strain curves is unique for each clay. Figure 30.4
O.C. Clay E is depended on OCR and stress level (F.S.) Figure 30.6
2. Loading Rate and Loading cycle
- Faster loading rate higher

(on table 30.3)

- Second or subsequent loading cyclesE 1.5 E (first loading)


3. Time and Aging Effects
- Thixtropic Effects Soil stronger with time for remolded and high liquidity index.
- Consolidation Time longer time secondary consolidation stronger soil.
- Strain Rate Effect Dynamic stronger than Static E (dynamic) 1.5 to 2.0 E
(Static)

Note : without considering of excess pore pressure.

3
2

2
2

Compression loading.
Excavation
Perfect sample

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

4. Loading patterns

Stress strain (E) behaviors of soil are highly depended on loading Patten (or
stress paths)

Ex.
Test 1.

Compression loading from Ko


(Spread footing, embankment )

Test 2.

Unloading from Ko
(Excavation pit, deep foundation )

Test 3.

unloading from sampling and compression loading in laboratory


(Soil sampling and compression Test)

vo
HO

a
c
Sampling

Lab Test
CAU

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203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Peak @ 0.3%
Peak @ 0.7%
1

Ko - Condition

3
Peak @ 14% E

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60

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Application of
of Advanced
Advanced soil
soil Mechanics
Mechanics
Application

1.

Soil Investigation

2.

Pile Foundation

3.

Excavation

4.

Land Reclamation

5.

Slope Stability

6.

Embankment and Dam

7.

Tunneling

8.

Geotechnical Monitoring

9.

Seepage and Filter

10.

Soil Dynamic and Earthquake

11.

Soil Engineering Database

Soil Investigation
Investigation (Site
(Site Characterization)
Characterization)
Soil


()

Geology

Surveying
Soil Investigation

Soil mechanics.

Structural Eng.
Environment Eng.
Highway Eng.
Water Resources Eng.
etc.

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

Computer
Database
GIS

61

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Advanced
Advanced Soil
Soil Mechanics
Mechanics

1. Soil Formation, Weathering Processes, Sedimentation, Deposition


2. Soil Physical Properties and Classification
3. Soil and Clay Mineralogy
4. Site Investigation Soil Boring, Sampling. Etc.
5. Laboratory Test Physical, Strength, Compressibility
6. Database, zoning, GIS Statistic, Computer Graphic, Soil profile Model.

Pile
Pile Foundation
Foundation (Deep
(Deep foundation)
foundation)
Problems concerned
1. Pile Capacity
- Strength
- Stress - Strain
2. Consolidation Settlement
- Stress - Strain (Elastic)
- Consolidation
- Stress - distribution
3. Method of Installation
- Driver pore pressure, soil displacement
- Bored
- Pre bored
4. Pile group / Mat foundation
- Group efficiency Stress overlapping
- Relative stiffness
- Differential Settlement

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

62

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

5. Caisson / Shaft
- End bearing
- Seepage
- Horizontal pressure , Friction
6. Bored pile / Barrette Wall (Slurry)
- Bentonite properties
- Trench Stability
- Seepage.
7. Tunneling
Problem
1. Strength
2. Insitu Stress, Stress Release
3. Seepage
4. Rock bolting Soil nailing, living
5. Blasting, Tunneling machine

a
vo

vo

%c

8. Geotechnical monitoring
Problem
1. Pore pressure
2. Stress, load
3. Movements
4. Temperature
5. Permeability
9. Excavation
Problem

10. Land Reclamation


Problem

1. Soil Strength - Stability


2. Seepage
3. Lateral earth pressure lateral movement.
4. Pressure relief - heaving
1. Settlement
2. Soil Strength - Stability
3. Compaction - Soil improvement

11. Slope Stability (Natural Manmade)


Problem
1. Soil Strength
2. Pore pressure drainage - infiltration
3. Erosion
12. Embankment and Dams
Problem
1. Soil strength
2. Compaction
3. Seepage - drainage
4. Settlement

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63

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

13. Seepage and Filter

Problem

1.

14. Soil Dynamic and Earthquake


Problem

1.

15. Soil Engineering Database


Problem

1.

Design Pile
Pile Foundation
Foundation
Design
Pile Types
1. Short pile (3-12 m)
Timber, R/C
2. Long P/C pile
Section
Length

15

62.5 cm.

26 m. Maximum

3. Bored Pile
- Dry Process

d = 35

200 cm.

- Wet Process
- Micro pile (grouting technique)
4. Steel Pile

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

64

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Pile Capacity Calculation

1. Static method from soil strength


n

Q f = P ( i Ci Li )
i =1

Q p = Ap v N q
Where
P

Skin friction parameter length

adhesion factor

ci

cohesion

Li

thickness of soil layer

Ap =

section area of pile

v =

effective overburden pressure

2. Dynamic method
- for construction monitoring and cross checking only

3. Static method from Dutch Cone

Pu = ( i q fi Li P ) + Ap qc
n

i =1

Where
n

no. of soil layer

adhesion factor

qfi =

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

local friction from Dutch Cone

Li

thickness of soil layer

point bearing factor

qc

point cone resistance within 4D

65

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

4. Design by B.M.A. Code

Pa = q f P L
When
qf

skin friction equal to

800 kg/m2

(0-7) m.

800 + 200L1 (> 7) m.


L1

pile length for longer than 7 m.

Pile Group Reduction


- Feld Rule
- Friction Area Ratio

Lateral Loaded pile


- Broms Theory

Pile Foundation

Evaluction of Pile Types


1. Short pile
2. Precast P/C Pile
3. Bored pile

Site Informationrop
1. Space 4.Soil Profile
2. Noise 5.Soil Prop
3. Vibration

Supper Structure Data


1. Function Requirement
2. Load

Performance Analysis of Piler


1. Pile Capacity
2. Settlement
3. Lateral Stability
Select other pile type
Feasibility Analysis
1. Construction Problems
2. Cost

(1) Detailed Design


(2) Drawings
(3) Specification

Monitor During
Construction and Operation

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

66

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Retaining Wall

Structural Information
1. Function of R.M
2. Back filll Soil
3. Surchange load

Foundation Information
1. Soil Profile
2. Soil Properties
3. Tidal and Ground Water Level

Selection of R.W.Type
1. Gravity
2. Cantilever R/C
3. Battress
R/C
4. Cantilever S/P
5. Anchored S/P
6. Relieving Platform Platform
7. Cellular Structures

Calcualtion of Relating Force and


Pressure
1. Lateral Earth Pressure
2. Water Pressure
3. External Forces

Select Other Type

Check
1. Base Sliding
2. Overturning
3. Bearing Stress
4. Bearing moment
5. Shearing Stress
6. Anchor Force

Structural Desige

ConsolidationAnalysis

Site Information
1. Soil Profile
2. Soil Properties
3. Ground Water Levle

Supper Structure Data


1. Footing Arrangement
2. Loading
3. Function

Components of Settiemention
1. Primary Consolidation
2. Elastic Deformation
3. Secondary Consolidation

Determine

P0
P

Elastic by
Poulos

Terzaghi
Poulos

No Application
or FEM Analysis

e0

S=

Cc
P + P
H log 0
1+ e0
P0

Effect form ajacent Footing,

Pj

Cc from Lab Test

ti =

Cv H 2
Ti

Settlement Monitoring

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

67

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Foundation Information
1. Soil Profile
2. Soil Properties
3. Ground Water Level

Embankment Information
1. Cross-Section
2. Material Properties
3. Condition of Analysis

Selection of Failure Mode


1. Circular
2. Wedge
3. Compination
4. Irregular

Methods for Analysis


1. Simple Method of Slices
2. Bishop's Method
3. Friction Circle(graphic)
4. FEM
Modified Section
or Corrective Method
Pore Presure Data

Calculate min F.S.


F.S.>Flow F.S.

Design
Criteria

Movement and Pore Pressure


Monitoring

Project : FIFTH BWS. IMPROVEMENT PROJECT


Subject : DESIGN FLOW CHART

COMPARISION
-Time
-Construction Sequence
-Construction Method
-Cost

TRIAL SECTION
AND OUTLED PRELODEING BUND

DETAIL DESIGN
DESIGN ADJUSTMENT
CONSTRUCTION

MONITORING
AS
PREDICTED

DIFFER FROM PREDICTION

CONTINUE
UNTIL COMPLETION

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

68

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Project : FIFTH BWS. IMPROVEMENT PROJECT


Subject : FLOW CHART OF THE DESIGN OF SLUDGE LAGOON

INVESTIGATION
- Soil Investigation
- Topographic Survey
- Other Information Collrction

SOIL MODELS
SOIL PROPERTY EVALUATION

PROBLEMS INDENTIFICATION
- Settlement Ratr
- Total Settlement
- Stability Bearing

DESIGN CRITERIA
- Load Strength Density
- Rate of Construction
- Construction Sequence
- Allowable Settlement
- Waiting Period

ANALYSIS W/O IMPROVEMENT


(PREDICTION)

ANALYSIS W IMPROVEMENT
(PREDICTION)

Geotechnical
Geotechnical Engineering
Engineering involvement
involvement
Related Geotechnical Engineering Topics
Surface
Erosion

Surface Soil
Improvement

Grouting and
Deep
Improvement

Excavation

Compaction

Seepage and
Drainage

Lateral
Movement

Lateral
Pressures

Stability

Settlement

Bearing
Capacities

Engineering Structures

1. EARTH AND ROCK FILLED DAMS


1.1 Dam Embankment
1.2 Dam Foundation
1.3 Dam Abutments
1.4 Appurtenant Structures
2. CANALS AND PIPELINES
2.1 Conveyance Structures
2.2 intake Structure
2.3 Storage or Surge Tanks
2.4 Receiving Structure
3. DEEP EXCAVATON
3.1 Free Slope
3.2 Cantilever Sheet piling
3.3 Braced Excavation
3.4 Anchored Retaining Wall

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

69

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Geotechnical
Geotechnical Engineering
Engineering involvement
involvement (
())
Related Geotechnical Engineering Topics
Surface Soil
Improvement

Surface
Erosion

Surface Soil
Improvement

Surface
Erosion

Grouting and
Deep
Improvement

Excavation

Compaction

Seepage and
Drainage

Lateral
Movement

Lateral
Pressures

Stability

Settlement

Bearing
Capacities

Engineering Structures

4. Building and Bridge Foundations


4.1 Shallow footing
4.2 Pile Foundation
4.3 Caison or Deep massive footing
4.4 Micro pile or Root pile
5. Embankments, highway and runway
5.1 Highway, Railway
5.2 Runway, Taxiway and Apron
5.3 Land Reclamation (Coastal)
6. Tunneling
6.1 Rock Tunneling
6.2 Underground Opening
6.3 Soil Tunneling
6.4 Cut and Cover

Geotechnical
Geotechnical Engineering
Engineering involvement
involvement (
())
Related Geotechnical Engineering Topics
Grouting and
Deep
Improvement

Excavation

Compaction

Seepage and
Drainage

Lateral
Movement

Lateral
Pressures

Stability

Settlement

Bearing
Capacities

Engineering Structures

7. Soil and Rock Slopes


7.1 Natural Slope
7.2 Cut Slope
7.3 Fill Slope
8. Offshore or Near shore Structures
8.1 Oil Drilling Platform
8.2 Jetty and quay wall
8.3 Dry Dock

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

70

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

71

203552 Advanced Soil Mechanics

Consolidation

Pile
Capacity

Bearing
Capacity

Stability

Lateral
Earth
Pressure

Seepage
&
Drainage

(Siphon)

Primary Problem
Secondary Problem

Field
Vane
Shear

50 .

30 .

15 .

20 .

15 .

20 .

15 .

20 .

15 .

(Siphon)

30 .

30 .

Dr.Warakorn Mairaing

Basic Properties
(Seive Analysis,
atterbergs
Limit, Wn, etc.)

Unconfined
Comp. Test

Triaxial
on Test

Consolidation
on Test

Lateral
Load
Test

72