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You are on page 1of 21

January 16, 2011

Timber Design

Submitted by;

Dela Cerna, Rena Jimenez

CE-5TH Year-2nd Semester

Submitted to;

Engr. Rhonnie Estores

1|Page

Page |2

Dead Load

Gypsum

Board

(12mm

thickness)

________0.096kPa

Gypsum

Board

(20mm

thickness)

________0.16kPa

Sub-flooring

(19mm)

__________________0.14kPa

Ceramic Tile (20mm Rest Room)

On 25mm mortar bed _________________

1.10kPa

Mechanical

Load

______________________0.1kPa

Plumbing

____________________________

0.1kPa

Live Load

Basic

Floor

Area

______________________1.9kPa

Library

______________________________2.9kPa

Storage

_____________________________1.9kPa

Balcony

(Exterior)

_____________________2.9kPa

Ceiling (0ver 60 m2 in tributary area)

______ 0.60kPa

2|Page

Page |3

If we try to look at the roof ceiling

plan, we can observe that the longest

span can be found in Ceiling Joist 3D (CJ3D). From here, we can already say that

among the Ceiling Joist schedule CJ-3D

will govern in maximum dimension since

the dead load and live load carrying by

these members are constant.

Because of this reason, I the

designer decided not to show all the

computation of ceiling joist design.

NOTE:

The designer have computed all

floor joist schedule but because of the

repeatable solution, I decided not to show

all the solution, instead only those

members with the most critical loading

and span.

I Wood Data

Species ____________________Yakal

____________________50 % Stress

Grade

Bending and Tension

Parallel to grain ____________15.5MPa

Modulus of Elasticity _________3110MPa

Compression Parallel to grain __9.55Mpa

Compression

Perpendicular to grain ________3.92MPa

Shear parallel to grain ________1.55MPa

Relative Density _____________0.76 Kg/m3

Span ______________________2.70m

Allowable Deflection _________L/360

W total = DL+LL

= 0.378 + 3

= 3.378kPa

II.A Uniformly Distributed Load

W total = 3.378kPa(S)

= 3.378kPa (0.40)

= 1.351KN/m

III Design by Bending

M

= Wtotal(L)2/8

= 1.351KN/m (12)/8

3|Page

Page |4

= 0.169kN-m

= 168875N-mm

Assume

dimension

for

(B=50mm)

fb= 6M/bd^2

15.5 = (6*168875)/(50*d^2)

d

= 36.158mm

Use d

= 75mm

Le

breadth

floor joist

Breadth = 50mm

Depth = 75mm

Relative Density = 0.76kg/m3

= 7600N/m3

Wwood

= ybd

= 7600(.05*.075)

= 28.5N/m

Add this dead weight to the weight

carried by the floor joist

III.B Check the adequacy of the floor

joist

III.C Uniformly Distributed Load

Wtotal = 1.351KN/m

= 1.351KN/m+ .0285

= 1.380KN/m

III.D Compute the slenderness factor

and flexural stress

Lu

= 1000mm

= 1.92(1000)

= 1920mm

Cs

= ((Le*d)/(b^2))1/2

= ((1920*75)/ (50^2))1/2

= 7.589 < 10

Ck

= 0.811((E/fb)) 1/2

= 0.811((3110/15.5)) 1/2

= 11.488

10>Cs<Ck

fb = 15.5MPa

III.E Check the actual bending stress

and compare to the allowable

fb = 15.5MPa

Fb = 6M/bd2

M= Wtotal(Lu2)/8

= 1.380 (12)/8

= 172500N-mm

Fb = (172500*6)/(50*752)

= 3.68MPa

The 50x75mm floor joist is safe in

bending stress

IV Design by Shear

IV.A Compute the maximum shear

Since the floor joist is simply supported

the maximum shear will occur at the

support.

Vmax = Wtotal(L)/2

4|Page

Page |5

= 1.351 (1)/2

= 0.676KN

IV.B Compute the design Depth

Assume

dimension

for

breadth

(B=50mm)

Fv

= 1.55MPa

1.55 = 3Vmax/(2bd)

= 3(0.676*1000)/(2*50*d)

d

= 13.084mm

Use d = 75mm

IV.C Compute the dead load of the

floor joist

Breadth

= 50mm

Depth

= 75mm

Relative Density = 0.76kg/m3

= 7600N/m3

Wwood = ybd

= 7600(.05*.075)

= 28.5N/m

Add this dead weight to the weight

carried by the floor joist

IV.D Check the adequacy of the floor

joist

IV.E Uniformly Distributed Load

Wtotal = 1.351KN/m

= 1.351+ .0285

= 1.380KN/m

and compare to the allowable shear

stress

Vmax = Wtotal(Lu)/2

= 1.380(1)/2

= 0.690KN

fv

= 1.55MPa

Fv

= 3Vmax/(2bd)

= 3(0.690*1000)/(2*50*75)

= 0.276MPa<1.55MPa

The 50x100mm floor joist is safe for

shear

V Design by Deflection

Wtotal = DL+LL

= 0.378 + 3

= 3.378kPa

V.A Uniformly Distributed Load

Wtotal = 3.378(S)

= 3.378(0.40)

= 1.351KN/m

Allowable Deflection _____________ L/360

Modulus

of

Elasticity

_____________

3110MPa

V.B Compute the design depth by

assuming

bredth

= 100mm

I

= bd3/12

5|Page

Page |6

Lu/360

= (5WtLu4)/(384EI)

d

= 78.768mm

use d

= 100mm

V.C Compute the dead load of the

floor joist

Breadth

= 05mm

Depth

= 100mm

Relative Density = 0.76kg/m3

= 7600N/m^3

Wwood = ybd

= 7600(.05*.100)

= 38N/m

Add this dead weight to the weight

carried by the floor joist

IV.D Uniformly Distributed Load

Wtotal

= 1.351KN/m

= 1.351KN/m+ 0.038

= 1.389KN/m

IV.E Check the actual deflection and

compare it to the allowable

I

actual

allowable = L/360

= 1000/360

= 2.778mm>1.387 Safe

The 50x100mm ceiling joist is safe in

deflection

V Compute the required depth of

notch at support

fv

= 3Vmax(d)/(2bdd)

1.55 = 3(0.690*1000)(100)/(2*50*d2)

D

= 36.544

Use d

= 30mm

VI Observation and Conclusion

In the preceding computation we have

found the following dimensions of ceiling

joist according to their area of analysis.

For bending we have computed a safe

ceiling joist dimension of 50x75mm,

50x75mm for shear and finally a safe

value of 50x100mm for deflection. We

can then observe that the safest value to

be applied in our ceiling joist 3 is

50x100mm with a notch depth of 30mm

= bd3/12

= (5WtLu4)/(384EI)

=1.387mm

6|Page

Page |7

I Wood Data

Species ____________________Yakal

___________________________50 % Stress

Grade

Bending and Tension

Parallel to grain ____________15.5MPa

Modulus of Elasticity _________3110MPa

Compression Parallel to grain __9.55Mpa

Compression

Perpendicular to grain ________3.92MPa

Shear parallel to grain ________1.55MPa

Relative Density _____________0.76kg/ m3

Span ______________________2.70m

Allowable Deflection _________L/360

II Compute the Total Load

Wtotal = DL+LL

= 0.378 + 3

= 3.378kPa

II.A Uniformly Distributed Load

Wtotal = 3.378kPa(S)

= 3.378kPa (0.40)

= 1.351KN/m

III Design by Bending

M

= Wtotal(L)^2/8

= 1.351KN/m (1.1252)/8

= 0.214kN-m

= 214000N-mm

Assume

dimension

for

(B=50mm)

fb= 6M/bd^2

15.5 = (6*214000)/ 50*d2)

d

= 40.703mm

Use d = 75mm

breadth

floor joist

Breadth

= 50mm

Depth

= 75mm

Relative Density = 0.76kg/ m3

= 7600N/ m3

Wwood = ybd

= 7600(.05*.075)

= 28.5N/m

Add this dead weight to the weight

carried by the floor joist

III.B Check the adequacy of the floor

joist

III.C Uniformly Distributed Load

Wtotal = 1.351KN/m

= 1.351KN/m+ .0285

= 1.380KN/m

III.D Compute the slenderness factor

and flexural stress

Lu

= 1125mm

7|Page

Page |8

Le

= 1.92(1125)

= 2160mm

Cs

= ((Le*d)/(b^2)) 1/2

= ((2160*75)/(50^2)) 1/2

= 8.05 < 10

Ck

= 0.811((E/fb)) 1/2

= 0.811((3110/15.5)) 1/2

= 11.488

10>Cs<Ck

fb

= 15.5MPa

III.E Check the actual bending stress

and compare to the allowable

Fb

= 15.5MPa

Fb

= 6M/bd^2

Vmax

M= Wtotal(Lu^2)/8

= 1.380(1.1252)/8

= 218000N-mm

Fb = (218000*6)/(50*752)

= 4.651MPa

The 50x75mm floor joist is safe in

bending stress

= Wtotal(L)/2

= 1.351 (1.125)/2

= 0.76KN

IV.B Compute the design Depth

Assume

dimension

for

breadth

(B=50mm)

Fv

= 1.55MPa

1.55 = 3Vmax/(2bd)

1.55 = 3(0.76*1000)/(2*50*d)

D

= 14.701mm

Use d

= 75mm

IV.C Compute the dead load of the

floor joist

Breadth = 50mm

Depth

= 75mm

Relative Density = 0.76kg/m3

= 7600N/m3

Wwood = ybd

= 7600(.05*.075)

= 28.5N/m

Add this dead weight to the weight

carried by the floor joist

IV Design by Shear

IV.A Compute the maximum shear

Since the floor joist is simply supported

the maximum shear will occur at the

support.

joist

IV.E Uniformly Distributed Load

Wtotal = 1.351KN/m

= 1.351+ .0285

= 1.380KN/m

8|Page

Page |9

compare to the allowable shear stress

Vmax = Wtotal(Lu)/2

= 1.380(1)/2

= 0.690KN

fv

= 1.55MPa

Fv

= 3Vmax/(2bd)

= 3(0.690*1000)/(2*50*75)

= 0.276MPa<1.55MPa

The 50x100mm floor joist is safe

from shear failure

V Design by Deflection

Wtotal = DL+LL

= 0.378 + 3

= 3.378kPa

V.A Uniformly Distributed Load

Wtotal = 3.378(S)

= 3.378(0.40)

= 1.351KN/m

Allowable Deflection _____________ L/360

Modulus

of

Elasticity

_____________

3110MPa

V.B Compute the design depth by

assuming

bredth = 100mm

I

= bd3/12

Lu/360

= (5WtLu4)/(384EI)

d

= 88.614mm

use d

= 100mm

V.C Compute the dead load of the

floor joist

Breadth = 05mm

Depth = 100mm

Relative Density = 0.76kg/m3

= 7600N/m^3

Wwood = ybd

= 7600(.05*.100)

= 38N/m

Add this dead weight to the weight

carried by the floor joist

Check the adequacy of the floor joist

V.D Uniformly Distributed Load

Wtotal = 1.351KN/m

= 1.351KN/m+ 0.038

= 1.389KN/m

V.E Check the actual deflection and

compare it to the allowable

I

= bd3/12

= (5WtLu4)/(384EI)

actual=2.236mm

allowable= L/360

= 1125/360

= 3.125mm>1.387mm Safe

9|Page

P a g e | 10

from deflection failure

VI Compute the required depth of

notch at support

fv

= 3Vmax(d)/(2bdd)

1.55 = 3(0.690*1000)(100)/(2*50*d2)

D

= 36.544mm

Use d

= 30mm

VII Observation and Conclusion

In the preceding computation we have

found the following dimensions of ceiling

joist according to their area of analysis.

For bending we have computed a safe

ceiling joist dimension of 50x75mm,

50x75mm for shear and finally a safe

value of 50x100mm for deflection. We

can then observe that the safest value to

be applied in our ceiling joist 3B is

50x100mm with a notch depth of 30mm

Design of Ceiling joist 3C

I Wood Data

Species ____________________Yakal

___________________________50 %

Grade

Bending and Tension

Stress

Modulus of Elasticity _________3110MPa

Compression Parallel to grain __9.55Mpa

Compression

Perpendicular to grain ________3.92MPa

Shear parallel to grain ________1.55MPa

Relative Density _____________0.76kg/m3

Span ______________________1.875m

Allowable Deflection _________L/360

II Compute the Total Load

Wtotal = DL+LL

= 0.378 + 3

= 3.378kPa

II.A Uniformly Distributed Load

Wtotal = 3.378kPa(S)

= 3.378kPa (0.40)

= 1.351KN/m

III Design by Bending

M

= Wtotal(L) 2/8

= 1.351KN/m (1.8752)/8

= 0.594kN-m

= 594000N-mm

Assume

dimension

for

breadth

(B=50mm)

fb= 6M/bd^2

15.5 = (6*594000)/ 50*d2)

D

= 67.814mm

Use d

= 100mm

10 | P a g e

P a g e | 11

floor joist

Breadth = 50mm

Depth = 100mm

Relative Density = 0.76kg/m3

= 7600N/m3

Wwood = ybd

= 7600(.05*0.1)

= 38N/m

Add this dead weight to the weight

carried by the floor joist

III.B Check the adequacy of the floor

joist

III.C Uniformly Distributed Load

Wtotal = 1.351KN/m

= 1.351KN/m+ .038KN

= 1.389KN/m

III.D Compute the slenderness factor

and flexural stress

Lu

= 1875mm

Le

= 1.92(1875)

= 3600mm

Cs = ((

Le*d)/(b^2)) 1/2

= ((3600*75)/(50^2)) 1/2

= 10.392 > 10

Ck = 0.811((E/fb)) 1/2

= 0.811((3110/15.5)) 1/2

= 11.488 > Cs

10<Cs<Ck

Fb

= Fb((1-(1/3)(Cs/Ck)^4)

=15.5((1-(1/3)(10.392/11.488)^4)

=

12.040MPa_________________

allowable

III.E Check the actual bending stress

and compare to the allowable

Fb

= 12.040MPa

Fb

= 6M/bd^2

= Wtotal(Lu2)/8

= 1.389(1.8752)/8

= 0.610KN-m

= 610000N-mm

Fb

= (610000*6)/(50*752)

= 7.325MPa < 12.040MPa Safe

The 50x100mm floor joist is safe in

bending stress

M

IV Design by Shear

IV.A Compute the maximum shear

Since the floor joist is simply supported

the maximum shear will occur at the

support.

Vmax = Wtotal(L)/2

= 1.351 (1.875)/2

= 1.266KN

IV.B Compute the design Depth

Assume

dimension

for

breadth

(B=50mm)

11 | P a g e

P a g e | 12

Fv

= 1.55MPa

1.55 = 3Vmax/(2bd)

1.55 = 3(1.266*1000)/(2*50*d)

D

= 24.503mm

Use d = 75mm

IV.C Compute the dead load of the

floor joist

Breadth = 50mm

Depth = 75mm

Relative Density = 0.76kg/m3

= 7600N/m3

Wwood = ybd

= 7600(.05*.075)

= 28.5N/m

Add this dead weight to the weight

carried by the floor joist

IV.D Check the adequacy of the floor

joist

IV.E Uniformly Distributed Load

Wtotal = 1.351KN/m

= 1.351+ .0285

= 1.380KN/m

IV.F Check the actual Shear stress

and compare to the allowable shear

stress

Vmax = Wtotal(Lu)/2

= 1.380(1.875)/2

= 1.294KN

fv

= 1.55MPa

Fv

= 3Vmax/(2bd)

= 3(1.294*1000)/(2*50*75)

= 0.518MPa<1.55MPa

The 50x100mm floor joist is safe

from shear failure

V Design by Deflection

Wtotal = DL+LL

= 0.378 + 3

= 3.378kPa

V.A Uniformly Distributed Load

Wtotal = 3.378(S)

= 3.378(0.40)

= 1.351KN/m

Allowable Deflection _____________ L/360

Modulus

of

Elasticity

_____________

3110MPa

V.B Compute the design depth by

assuming

bredth = 100mm

I

= bd^3/12

Lu/360

= (5WtLu4)/(384EI)

d

= 147.690mm

Use d

= 150mm

V.C Compute the dead load of the

floor joist

Breadth = 50mm

Depth = 150mm

12 | P a g e

P a g e | 13

= 7600N/m3

Wwood = ybd

= 7600(.05*.150)

= 57N/m

Add this dead weight to the weight

carried by the floor joist

notch at support

fv

= 3Vmax(d)/(2bdd)

1.55 = 3(1.294*1000)(150)/(2*50*d2)

D

= 61.293mm

Use d

= 50mm

VII Observation

V.C Uniformly Distributed Load

Wtotal = 1.351KN/m

= 1.351KN/m+ 0.057

= 1.408KN/m

compare it to the allowable

I

= bd3/12

= (5WtLu4)/(384EI)

actual=5.181mm

allowable= L/360

= 1875/360

= 5.208mm>5.181mm Safe

The 50x150mm ceiling joist is safe in

deflection

found the following dimensions of ceiling

joist according to their area of analysis.

For bending we have computed a safe

ceiling joist dimension of 50x75mm,

50x75mm for shear and finally a safe

value of 50x100mm for deflection. We

can then observe that the safest value to

be applied in our ceiling joist 3C is

50x150mm with a notch depth of 50mm

I Wood Data

Species

Bending and Tension Parallel to

grain MPa

Compression Parallel to Grain Mpa

Compression Perpendicular to

Grain Mpa

Grade

=

=

15.5

9.55

3.92

13 | P a g e

P a g e | 14

Allowable Deflection mm

Span (mm)

Spacing (mm)

DL (kPa)

LL (kPa)

=

=

=

=

=

Load

Wtotal (KN/m)

Wtotal (KN/m)

1.3512

Mmax (N-mm)

Assummed Breadth (mm)

Depth (mm)

Use Depth (mm)

=

=

=

=

1055625

the Joist

III.C Uniformly Distributed

Le (mm)

Cs

Ck

fb (Mpa)

fb (Mpa)

Use fb (MPa)

=

=

4800

8.2623

64

11.487

76

14.117

43

10.322

01

15.5

BeNDING Stress

73.81319053

Mmax (N-mm)

fb

fb

actual

=

=

10912

50

13.640

63

15.5

Safe

The 75x100mm Ceiling joist is safe from

bending stress failure

of the wood

Wwood (KN/m3)

1.3968

Factor

Wtotal (kPa)

Allowable

0.0456

IV Design by Shear

IV.A Compute the Maximum

shear

Vmax (N)

1689

14 | P a g e

P a g e | 15

depth

Assumed Breadth (mm)

Fv (MPa)

=

=

depth (mm)

Use depth (mm)

=

=

the joist

Wwood (N/m)

IV.D Check the Adequacy of the

joist

IV.E Uniformly Distributed Load

Wtotal (N/m)

Vmax (N)

Fv

Fv

actual

(Mpa)

Allowable

(Mpa)

=

=

=

50

1.55

32.690

32

75

Wtotal (kPa)

3.378

Wtotal (KN/m)

Allowable Deflection

E (MPa)

=

=

=

1.3512

6.944444444

3110

Depth (mm)

Use Depth (mm)

=

=

156.3029831

175

of the Joist

Wwood (N/m)

1379.7 V.D Uniformly Distributed

Load

Wtotal (KN/m)

actual (mm)

allowable(mm)

=

=

The 50x75mm ceiling joist is safe from shear failure

VI Compute the required d of

notch

=

133

1.4842

deflection

0.68985

Use dimension

V Design by Deflection

Assumed breadth (mm)

Vmax (N)

=

=

5.4349

8

6.9444

44

Safe

1855.2

5

15 | P a g e

P a g e | 16

d' (mm)

Use d' (mm)

=

=

56.053

15

115

framing plan, we can observe that the

longest span can be found in second floor

The 50x100mm ceiling joist is safe from

Joist 2F with a span of 2500mm (FJ-2D).

deflection failure

However our schedule of loading varies

depending upon the type of area inside

VII Observation

the dwellings. From here, we cannot say

immediately what schedule of joist will

govern. From this reason we will then try

In the preceding computation we have found the

to compute FJ-2B, FJ-2D, and FJ-2F.

following

analysis.

NOTE:

For bending we have computed a safe ceiling joist

The designer have computed all

dimension

floor joist schedule but because of the

of 75x100mm, 50x75mm for shear and finally a safe

repeatable solution, I decided not to show

value of

all the solution, instead only those

100x175mm for deflection. We can then observe that the

members with the most critical loading

safest

and span.

value to be applied in our ceiling joist 3 is 100x175mm

with a

notch depth of 115mm.

Design of Floor Joist 2B

I Wood Data

Species

Bending and Tension Parallel to

grain MPa

Compression Parallel to Grain Mpa

Compression Perpendicular to

Grain Mpa

Grade

=

=

15.5

9.55

3.92

16 | P a g e

P a g e | 17

Allowable Deflection mm

Span (mm)

Spacing (mm)

DL (kPa)

LL (kPa)

=

=

=

=

=

Load

Wtotal (KN/m)

1.9689

Le (mm)

2160

Cs

8.049844719

Ck

fb (Mpa)

fb (Mpa)

Use fb (MPa)

=

=

=

=

11.48775592

14.25428224

10.32200584

15.5

Stress

Mmax (N-mm)

311486.1328

actual

6.6450375

Allowable

15.5

Safe

1091.475

50

Factor

Wtotal (kPa)

II.A Uniformly Distributed Load

Wtotal (KN/m)

III Design by Bending

Mmax (N-mm)

Assummed Breadth (mm)

Depth (mm)

Use Depth (mm)

fb

=

=

=

=

of the wood

Wwood (KN/m3)

III.B Check the Adequacy of

the Joist

III.C Uniformly Distributed

306977.3438

fb

48.75037221

safe from

bending stress failure

IV Design by Shear

IV.A Compute the Maximum

shear

Vmax (N)

IV.B Compute the design depth

Assumed Breadth (mm)

17 | P a g e

P a g e | 18

Fv (MPa)

depth (mm)

Use depth (mm)

=

=

the joist

Wwood (N/m)

IV.D Check the Adequacy of the

joist

IV.E Uniformly Distributed Load

Wtotal (N/m)

Fv

Fv

actual

(Mpa)

=

=

(Mpa)

Use dimension

=

=

Allowable

safefailure

from shear

V Design by Deflection

Assumed breadth (mm)

Wtotal (kPa)

V.A Uniformly Distributed Load

=

=

=

1.9404

3.125

3110

Depth (mm)

Use Depth (mm)

=

=

87.34068008

100

of the Joist

Wwood (N/m)

57

Wtotal (KN/m)

1.9974

actual (mm)

2.143253339

allowable(mm)

3.125

Vmax (N)

21.12532258

Wtotal (KN/m)

Allowable Deflection

E (MPa)

=

=

1107.50625

V.E Check the actual deflection

Safe

VI Compute the required d of

notch

Vmax (N)

d' (mm)

Use d' (mm)

=

=

=

1123.5375

38.07526502

60

safe from

deflection failure

VII Observation

18 | P a g e

P a g e | 19

following

Spacing (mm)

DL (kPa)

LL (kPa)

analysis.

II Compute the Total Load

For bending, we have computed a safe floor joist

Wtotal (kPa)

dimension

of 50x75mm, 50x75mm for shear and finally a safe value

of

II.A Uniformly Distributed Load

75x100mm for deflection. We can then observe that the

Wtotal (KN/m)

safest

value to be applied in our floor joist 2B is 75x100mm

with a

III Design by Bending

notch depth of 60mm.

Mmax (N-mm)

Assummed Breadth (mm)

Depth (mm)

Design of Floor Joist 2D

Use Depth (mm)

I Wood Data

Species

Bending and Tension Parallel to grain

MPa

Compression Parallel to Grain Mpa

Compression Perpendicular to Grain

Mpa

Shear Parallel to Grain Mpa

Allowable Deflection mm

Span (mm)

=

=

=

=

=

300

2.568

4

6.568

1.9704

=

=

=

=

311723.4375

50

49.1257849

75

0.0285

III.A

Compute the dead looad of

Yakal 50%

Stress

the wood

Wwood (KN/m3)

=

=

=

=

=

19 | P a g e

P a g e | 20

Error! Not a valid link.

If we try to look at the ground floor

framing plan, we can observe that the

longest span can be found in ground floor

Joist 1C with a span of 2500mm (GJ-1C).

However our schedule of loading varies

depending upon the type of area inside

the dwellings. From here, we cannot say

immediately what schedule of joist will

govern. From this reason we will then try

to compute GJ-1B, GJ-1C.

NOTE:

The designer have computed all

floor joist schedule but because of the

repeatable solution, I decided not to show

all the solution, instead only those

members with the most critical loading

and span.

Error! Not a valid link.

notch

Vmax (N)

d' (mm)

Use d' (mm)

=

=

6029.25

170.80336

74

75

safe from

deflection failure

VII Observation

following

dimensions of Ground joist according to their area of

analysis.

For bending, we have computed a safe Ground joist

dimension

of 50x100mm, 50x100mm for shear and finally a

safe value of

50x100mm for deflection. We can then observe that

the safest

value to be applied in our Ground joist 1B is

50x100mm with a

20 | P a g e

P a g e | 21

21 | P a g e

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