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Consultation : Provides a hint , judgment , opinion or advice in the application , the

selection , the use of a technology or methodology that is obtained through the exchange of
ideas to get the best possible conclusion
- Shortness of breath : a complaint yangmenunjukan no disturbance or disease
The signs of shortness of breath can be:
Increasing the number of respiratory rate ( adults > 20x/menit ; child > 30x/menit ; infants >
40x/menit )
Bluish on around the lips , fingertips
An additional breath sounds such as snoring , hoarseness , grunt-grunt ,
The disease causes shortness of breath
a. Allergies : Asthma bronkiale
b . Cardiology : heart failure , heart abnormalities .
c . Pulmonology : abnormalities in the lungs ( pneumonia )
d . Diseases in : gastritis ( inflammation of the stomach ) and esophagitis ( inflammation of
the esophagus / food pipe )
Aid measures :
If the victim is conscious :
Secure the position of the victim
Activate the emergency system ( call for help : people around , ambulance )
Ask about drugs and diseases suffered by the victim
Give medications ( if the victim has a particular disease , eg heart disease ) and
accompany the victim until paramedics arrived and to prevent deterioration when the victim
suddenly unconscious
If the victim is unconscious :
Check the victim 's response ( by calling or inducing pain emphasis on the victim's nails )
Activate the emergency system ( call for help : people around , ambulance )
Check if the victim is breathing normally or not ; ( see breathing )
Check the victim's pulse
Respiration dul

Depending on the location , tooth decay can be divided into :

a. Decay surface slippery / uneven.
Type of decay is the most preventable and reversible , the slowest growth .
A caries begins as a white spot where the bacteria dissolves the calcium out of the email .
This type of decay is usually started at the age of 20-30 years .
b . Decay holes and indentations .
Usually starts in the teen years , the permanent teeth and growing fast .
Formed on the back teeth , which is in the narrow grooves on the surface of the teeth to
chew and the part dealing with the cheek teeth . This area is difficult to clean because the
curve is narrower than the hairs on the toothbrush .
c . Root decay .
Starting from a bone-like tissue , which wraps the root surface ( cementum ) .
It usually occurs in late middle age .
This decay often occur because patients have difficulty in cleaning the tooth root area and
because of the sugar-rich foods .
Root decay is the most difficult type of decay is preventable .
d . Decay in the email .
Decay occurs in the outermost layer of the teeth and hard , grow slowly .
After penetrating into the second layer ( dentine , softer ) , the decay will spread more
quickly and get into the pulp ( the innermost layer of the tooth that contains nerves and blood
vessels ) .
It takes 2-3 years to penetrate the email , but the journey from the dentin to the pulp only
takes 1 year . Because it is derived from the root decay in the dentin of teeth can damage
various structures within a short time .

dFafaktor that causes shortness of breath

1 . Psychological factors : a particular emotional state ( while sobbing or laughing out loud ) .
shortness of breath due to emotional factors occurs through the mechanism of
hyperventilation .
2 . Factor increase in respiratory work
a. Increased ventilation ( physical exercise )
b . The physical properties changed ( increased chest wall elastic prisoners , as in obesity .

3 . Abnormal respiratory muscle

a. Muscle disease ( muscle weakness , muscle paralysis .
b . Reduced muscle mechanical function ( inspiratory and expiratory ) Module

In accordance with the severity of complaints , shortness of breath can dibagimenjadi

5 levels :
Shortness of breath Level I
There is no obstacle in performing daily activities hari.Tetapi shortness of breath occurs
when patients do aktifitasyang heavier than usual .
Shortness of breath level II
Shortness of breath occurs when patients do yangberat activity than usual . But it does not
happen when melakukanaktifitas usual . Such as climbing stairs and running .
Shortness of breath level III
Shortness of breath occurs when the patient has been doing kegiatansehari - day , but the
patient can still do tanpabantuan others .
Shortness of breath level IV
Patients already sesaki breath at a time melakukanh kegiatansehari - day such as bathing ,
dressing , etc. . Sehinggamemerlukan help others to do kegiatansehari - day . Shortness of
breath is not visible at the time penderitaistirahat.e )
Shortness of breath level V
Patients should restrict themselves in performing activities of daily danaktivitas ever done
this rutin.Keterbatasan cause more people beradadi bed . In order to meet all their needs ,
patients are very dependent on others .

Various Kinds of Shortness of breath (dyspnea )

Dyspnea ( Shortness of Breath ) acute

Dyspnea ( Shortness of Breath ) with initial acute sudden a common cause of visits to the
emergency room . Causes include acute dyspnea respiratory disease ( lungs and breathing )
, heart disease or chest trauma .

Dyspnea ( Shortness of Breath ) chronic

Dyspnea ( Shortness of Breath ) chronic ( chronic ) can be caused by asthma , Chronic

Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( COPD ) , emphysema , lung inflammation , tumors ,
abnormalities of the vocal cords

Cause dyspneaberbagai sorts , and can cause dibagiberdasarkan derived from

lung , heart , and heart gabunganparu , as well as other causes beyond the lung and
pulmonary jantung.Penyebab from the disease could be obstruksisaluran breath , spasm of
the respiratory muscles , damage danmedulla punch which is a central regulator of the
respiratory system , tekananpada thoracic cavity , the presence of effusion pleura , the
increase tekananintrapleural , the presence of respiratory muscle paralysis ,
pecahnyaalveolus , emphysema , and cancer pernapasan.Penyebab channels originating
from the heart , for example because there kelainanjantung : kardial asthma . Then causes
other than heart parudan factor that is congested due to allergies of certain materials , such
rangsanganpsikologis fear , emotion , and so on , claustrophobic environment
akibatsuasana less oxygen ( O2 ) , due to bacterial infection
and fungi , because of the trauma , increased stomach acid , aspirations , and as a result
caused by smoking .
Causes of Shortness of Breath
Oxygen is the main energy source , it is absolutely necessary in abundance so that every
cell can perform metabolism . Some causes difficulty breathing include:
Shortness of breath due to factors Descendants . Who is from sono his lungs and
respiratory organs weak . Plus overwork and anxiety, the body parts will start functioning
abnormally . The good news is , this does not automatically make the body suffer , because
it will naturally protect themselves . However, the defense system of extra work , sometimes
even allergies and asthma arising as a reaction of the immune system that is working too
hard .
Shortness of breath due to environmental factors . Cold and humid air can cause shortness
of breath . Similarly, the pollen of flowers ( pollen ) and other particles . Working in a dusty
environment or smoke can trigger prolonged shortness of breath . Pollution of the nasal
passages caused by a cigarette which is also directly reduce oxygen supply .
Shortness of breath due to excessive production of mucus will clog the airways . Foods
that cause excess mucus production is a product of milk , flour , white rice , and sweets .
Shortness of breath due to lack of fluid intake . Shortness of breath due to lack of fluid
intake so that the mucus in the lungs and respiratory tract thickens . This condition is also a
pleasant situation for microbes to breed .
Problems with the arrangement of the bones or strained muscles in the upper back will
inhibit nerve sensors and bio-energy to and from the lungs .
Shortness of breath due to emotional instability . People who are anxious , depressed , fear
, low self-esteem often hold their breath for cendertung . Or inhale it too often and so shallow

gasps . For a long time , this habit affects the adrenal glands and hormone production ,
which is directly related to the body's defense system . Less education may also cause
shortness of breath . Knowledge of how breathing is good and right in the long run will be
beneficial both to the person's physical and emotional .

When meeting patients experiencing shortness of breath , halpertama that we must do is

loosen segalammacam thing pressed against him so that the patient is more comfortable
dapatbernapas .

Oxygen delivery destination :

a. To maintain tissue oxygen
b . To decrease the lungs work
c . To decrease the cardiac work
Giving Oxygen not only provide a therapeutic effect but also can cause loss effects , among
others :
a. fire
Oxygen is not oxygen but oxygen may facilitate the occurrence of fire , because the patients
with the administration of O2 therapy should avoid : smoking , electrical tools in the area of
open source O2 , avoiding the use of electricity
b . depression Ventilation
Giving O2 is not on the monitor with the right concentration and flow in patients with CO2
retention can reduce ventilation
c . poisoned O2
O2 therapy can occur when given with a high concentration in a relatively long time . As a
result, the process of diffusion in the lung would be disrupted .
The main indication O2 administration
a. Clients with low arterial O2 content of blood gas analysis results
b . Clients with increased breath work , in which the body responds to the state of hypoxemia
by increasing the rate and depth of breathing as well as the additional work of respiratory
c . Clients with increased myocardial work , where the heart is trying to overcome the
interference of O2 through increased heart rate pumping .