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Mapua Institute of Technology

School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry

Chemical Engineering Laboratory I
Experiment No. 10

SETTLING VELOCITY (Sedimentation Apparatus)
Ruiz, Jao Jancena, Tañeda, John Paulb , Tuazon, Mary Rose C.

c

Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering - 2012103101, b Bachelor of Science in Chemical
Engineering - 2012100208, c Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering and Chemistry - 2010101849
a

Mapua Institute of Technology School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Physical Chemistry II Experiment No. and the fluid can be either a liquid or a gas. crystals from their mother liquor and dust or product particles from air streams. determine the effect of initial concentration of the suspensions on sedimentation rate. 2 Sedimentation uses gravitational forces to separate particulate ARTICLE INFO Keywords: Fluid streams Gravitational forces Sedimentation Date submitted: March 12. This experiment means to analyze a settling velocity curves of different suspensions from a single batch test. particles are falling from rest under the force of gravity. The particles are usually solid. Sedimentation equipment for separation of solid particles from liquids by gravitational sedimentation is designed to provide sufficient time for the sedimentation to occur and to permit the overflow and the sediment to be removed without disturbing the separation. In this experiment an understanding on the sedimentation process was explored. 2015 material from fluid streams. In sedimentation. Sedimentation is very often used in the food industry for separating dirt and debris from incoming raw material. determine the effect of initial suspension height of the suspensions on sedimentation rate and lastly determine the effect of adding coagulation in the sedimentation rate. Solids will settle in a liquid whose density is less than their own. but they can be small liquid droplets. ABSTRACT .

to settle. Below this is a zone of more or less constant Settling is the process by which particulates settle to composition. The simplicity of to suspensions of the method makes it popular for estimating water dust and pollen particles to cellular suspensions to solutions of quality (Franson. A be the due to gravity. This is due to their motion through the fluid in liter of liquid and has calibrated markings to measure response to the forces acting on them: these forces the volume of solids accumulated in the bottom of the can conical container after settling for one hour. At the bottom of the that experience a force. wastewater treatment. biological science. either due to gravity or due to cylinder is a zone of sediment. the vessel base (Zegler and Kutler. and particle . 2010). with the larger centrifugal motion will tend to move in a uniform particles lower down. forming a slurry at composition will replace it (Goldman and Jackson. Introduction Settleable solids are the particulates that settle out of Sedimentation is tendency a still fluid. Stokes' Law will apply produce significant sedimentation (Omelia. Particles velocity of all sizes of particles. mechanics (Zegler and Kutler. At the top is a zone of clear (Robinson. and come to rest against a Imhoff cone of transparent glass or plastic holds one barrier. single molecules such as proteins and peptides. the zone of constant composition near the top gravity settling. If the size range of the particles manner in the direction exerted by that force.I. liquid. this means that the particles will tend will not occur and an extended zone of variable to fall to the bottom of the vessel. The particles In a cylinder in which a uniform suspension is allowed are usually solid. 1998). but they can be small liquid droplets. 1986). ranging from large rocks in flowing water in wastewater or storm water runoff. For is wide. 2009). 2006). centrifugal acceleration or electromagnetism (Omelia. space propellant reignition. 1975). Even Solids will settle in a liquid whose density is less than small molecules supply a sufficiently strong force to their own. At low concentration. standardized Imhoff cone procedure is commonly Sedimentation may pertain to objects of various used to measure suspended solids sizes. various quite well-defined zones appear as and the fluid can be either a liquid or a gas the settling proceeds. constant because of the uniform settling the bottom of a liquid and form a sediment. The standard which they are entrained. 1998). 2010).. Settleable solids can be quantified for for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in a suspension using an Imhoff cone. Settling is an important operation in many applications. particulate material from fluid streams. such as mining. but in many practical instances the concentrations are Sedimentation uses gravitational forces to separate too high (Kulkami et al.

Procedure: The following suspensions were prepared: Suspension A (10% chalk): 150 grams of powdered chalk was mixed with 1350 mL of distilled water. to provide sufficient time for slow-speed scraper-conveyors and pumps to remove the settled solids (Goldman and Jackson. section to keep the velocities down and fitted with 2009). especially of very designed the small particles. digital balance. . 1986). Figure 1 showing the sedimentation apparatus. pail. Combined forces are also used in some low enough to avoid disturbing the sediment. funnel. distilled water and stirrer. Various powder classifiers such as the rotary mechanical shaped vessels are used. Probably separation. It is sometimes convenient to combine more than one Sedimentation equipment for separation of solid force to effect a mechanical separation. so the flow velocities have to be separator. with a sufficient cross- classifier and in ring dryers (Boeriu and Simanjuntak. Continuous flow through the equipment is the most common application of this is the cyclone generally desired. In particles from liquids by gravitational sedimentation is consequence of the low velocities. 1L plastic graduated cylinder. powdered chalk.Figure 1 showing the continuous sedimentation setup. Suspension C (5% chalk): 35 grams of powdered chalk was mixed with 675 mL of distilled water. Methodology Materials and Equipment: The following equipment and materials needed are the sedimentation apparatus. stop watch. it is well the sediment to be removed without disturbing the worthwhile to also employ centrifugal forces. Suspension B (5% chalk): 70 grams of powdered chalk was mixed with 1350 mL of distilled water. obtained when gravity is the only sedimentation to occur and to permit the overflow and external force acting on the system. II.

8 33.0 13 42.0 10 49.45 8.7 29.35 8.4 37.6 28. Interface Heights of Suspensions per Minute Time Interface Height (cm) (minute Suspensi Suspensi Suspensi s) on A on B on C 0 71.5 8.1 54.2 18.1 30.1 32.3 12 44.6 29.6 33.Suspension D (5% chalk): 35 grams of powdered chalk was mixed with 675 mL of distilled water and 5 grams of alum as coagulant.8 9.3 8.8 7 57.6 7.1 6 60.9 29.5 6.66 6.7 32.2 33.85 13.2 12.3 19.6 17.0 13.8 36.3 30.85 16.2 15.3 15.1 19.15 17 38.6 10.7 25.6 11.7 20.0 18.7 19.2 14.7 7.9 34.9 12.2 6.4 6.0 31.4 15.65 11 47.8 6.0 17.9 9.1 15.3 9.45 7.5 21.7 5 62.5 15.3 21.9 59.12 6.05 .45 14.9 6.8 35.1 6.5 35.7 6.0 24.2 17.4 9 52.0 2 68.4 31.2 19.1 30.9 7.0 32.4 15.15 6.0 33.05 6.7 9.6 14.4 18.8 31.3 14.2 32.0 48.5 30.4 17.3 6.4 33.0 15.4 30.7 34.95 13.2 3 67.6 10. III.8 30.3 8.35 6.7 30.4 34.97 6.53 7.28 6.5 14.65 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 36.8 14.8 19 37.4 36. the height of the interface between the clear supernatant liquid and the slurry was determined.75 15.09 6.41 6.4 32.6 30.0 29.9 15.8 29.1 7.1 11.39 7.9 20. For every 1 minute.4 38.3 22.4 4 65.8 13.7 14.0 14.77 6.8 7.0 8 55.0 30.6 13.8 33.4 16.55 6.5 32.2 9.8 43.6 6.0 18 37.5 30.1 14.7 13.25 16.35 16 38.0 10.1 6.3 7.59 6.9 30.3 31.8 14 40.35 6.25 6.2 30.15 7. The suspensions into the glass cylinders of the sedimentation apparatus noting the initial height of each suspension was poured separately.5 69.35 14.1 8.1 16.1 35.75 13.0 16.22 6.2 34.55 15 39.0 1 70.85 6.7 31.3 24.8 17.2 34.5 65.48 6.5 19.25 7.7 16.9 14. It was done continuously until at least five similar values of height were obtained. Results and Discussion Table 1.55 13.9 32.6 15.2 31.1 14.7 18.35 16.0 7.6 31.19 6.2 8.

4 25.0 27.1 27.0 25.3 12.8 27.4 26.8 26.2 13.2 28.3 27.7 24.8 25.6 28.3 28.4 29.3 25.9 25.95 12.5 27.2 27.2 25.4 27.9 26.7 26.3 12.7 27.4 12.3 27.75 12.6 28.6 12.3 28.85 12.2 12.0 28.7 25.5 12.5 25.0 27.45 12.8 24.25 12.6 27.0 6.6 25.9 24.1 13.65 12.3 13.3 25.2 12.65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 29.3 26.9 27.9 24.4 27.8 24.2 25.1 26.0 24.7 25.0 25.05 13.1 25.7 28.7 25.25 13.1 29.3 29.1 28.8 24.6 .1 27.2 12.9 28.8 28.15 13.2 26.4 28.3 25.6 26.8 27.0 26.4 13.35 12.8 24.05 6.3 26.0 28.0 27.3 26.7 24.9 12.25 12.5 28.8 12.0 26.35 13.9 25.0 25.7 26.0 6.1 25.6 27.0 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 26.7 24.1 26.8 25.6 25.2 6.6 26.5 25.0 12.4 25.2 12.2 29.65 12.5 26.0 6.9 24.0 6.2 26.01 6.9 28.55 12.8 26.8 25.35 12.

5 24.0 24.2 24. sedimentation is a separation process.6 24. Stated from the methodology.0 24. At the beginning of the sedimentation process. Aside from time as a factor in sedimentation.0 24. Again from Graph 1. the decrease in the interface height gradually decreases until such time that it is constant. the solids will settle in time.5 24. there is also the amount of solids present in each 80 suspension. Interface Height vs.4 24. the decrease in interface height is high. but as time increases.0 24.3 24. Settling Time for Each Suspension separated from the supernatant liquid. it can be 70 observed that Suspension A has a longer plot.1 24. By gravity settling. 50A Suspension Suspension B This implies that Suspension A has the longest Interface Height (cm) 40 settling time as compared to the two other 30 suspensions. meaning that all the solids are completely Graph 1. . From Graph 1.155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 process of a suspension wherein the slurry 24.4 24. it can be observed that all of the suspensions have the same trend regarding the interface height with respect to time.1 24. This is because Suspension A has 20 the highest amount of solids present among the Suspension 10C 0 0 three suspensions while Suspension C has the 50 100 150 200 Settling Time (min) lowest amount. giving a supernatant clear liquid. 60 followed by Suspension B and Suspension C. three suspension were made each with different amounts of chalk and of distilled water.6 24.4 24.3 24.1 24.0 containing high concentration of solids are settled by means of gravity.3 24.3 24.1 24.4 24.5 24. meaning that more solids present in the suspension needs more time for all of them to fully settle while having less solids present take less time to perform the sedimentation As it was stated.

Also the longer settling time as compared to Suspension effect of the initial concentration of the C." J. Ngo.The amount of water in the suspension also The sedimentation rate is fast at the first few affects the sedimentation process. It should be well-mixed so that suspensions. It is possible that there are V. L. Katharine & The sedimentation rate is determined by the plot Bursztynsky. Conclusion pp. 2009. height on sedimentation rate is determined. L. the suspension should be mixed with a mixer to difference gets smaller and smaller that exact incorporate the solids in the liquid to get more reading can be very difficult to acquire. Univeristy of Minnesota. Steven J. Suspension B had a sedimentation rate starts to decrease.. Simanjuntak. 16-25. P. R. (1993) Transport Processes and Unit Operations. Another source would be on used to minimize the spillage of the suspension.. Taras A. IV. J. Also the suspension with the the solids are evenly distributed throughout the highest initial suspension height has the slowest suspension. A.. the reading may also not be on recommended that a larger funnel should be the exact minute. T. D. Hydromech. Institute of Technology. Comparing minutes of the sedimentation. through gravity settling. Hydrol. C. "Consideration on The Sedimentation Process in a Settling Basin. the apparatus itself. (2005) Chemical Sedimentation is the process of separating a Engineering Laboratory Manual Part 1.ISBN 0- . the Suspensions B and C. C. Goldman. This is because Suspension C has less suspension. sedimentation rate. Another would be on the reading of settling time. It is also References slight impurities from the apparatus because it has not been cleaned for a long time and this may affect the process. The settling velocity of different mixtures with different concentrations and Geankoplis. Boeriu. the interface height. as well as the initial suspension amount of water then Suspension B.. Gutierrez. supernatant liquid and dense slurry. Erosion & Sediment of the interface height versus the settling time.. suspension height is determined and analyzed. One would be on the mixing of the slowest settling time among the three the suspension. Control Handbook. The Numerous sources of errors can be found from suspension with highest initial concentration has this experiment. McGraw-Hill (1986). As time progresses For this experiment. it is recommended that the throughout the sedimentation process. In accurate addition to that. Jackson. after an hour.. J. Roelvink.Mapua mixture into two distinct phases namely.

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