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6 Answers to end-of-chapter questions

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10 D

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Structured questions
11 a

V late anaphase
W prophase
X metaphase
Y late anaphase/early telophase
Z interphase

All 5 stages correct [3]


34 stages [2]
12 stages [1]

cell wall
nuclear membrane
chromosome
cytoplasm

Well drawn representation [1]


Well labelled [1]
Drawing showing prophase in mitosis

Biology for CAPE

Original material Cambridge University Press 2011

cell wall
cytoplasm
chromosome

Well drawn representation [1]


Well labelled [1]
Drawing showing metaphase in mitosis
c

ii

12 a

II
Cell plate can be seen in the middle
4 nuclei are forming
IV
Cell plate formation in middle of cell so there are
2 cells still undergoing cell division.

I anaphase I: separation of homologous chromosomes /


chromosomes have moved to the poles / no cell plate in the
middle of the cell as yet
II anaphase II: cell plate seen / 2 cells; sister chromatids
separating to form 4 nuclei
III metaphase I: alignment of chromosomes at the
equator; some chromosomes are facing one pole, others
face the opposite pole; no cell plate dividing mother cell as
yet
IV metaphase II: cell plate in middle to indicate 2 cells
formed already; alignment of chromosomes at the
equator

Identify both cells [2]


Reason [1]

34 stages correct [2]


12 stages correct [1]
Any 3 reasons [3]
[max 5]

Cut off 5 mm of the ends of 2 garlic roots


Put tips into watch glass containing 10 drops of acetic orcein and 1drop of 1mol
dm3 HCl
Warm the glass by moving through flame
Use a dissecting needle to lift each root tip onto a slide
Cut off 2 mm at the end of tip (discard rest)
Logical sequence [3]
Put 2 drops of acetic orcein onto each root tip
34 points [2]
Place coverslip over the top
12 points [1]

Biology for CAPE

Original material Cambridge University Press 2011

Student

Total number of cells in each stage of mitosis


interphase prophase metaphase anaphase
14
13
8
8
17
10
9
10
15
12
7
9
15
8
9
9
13
11
9
9
74
54
42
45
14.8
10.8
8.4
9.0

Aneela
Faeryal
Alex
Damian
Leon
class total
class
average
% number of
cells

29.6

21.6

16.8

telophase
7
4
7
9
8
35
7.0

18

14

3 points correct [1]


Max [4]

% of cells

ii

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
inter.

pro.

met.

ana.

telo.

stage of mitosis

Bar graph showing the percentage of cells in allium root tip at


various stages of mitosis
Axes labelled correctly [2]
Bars drawn accurately [1]
Title (descriptive) [1]
[max 4]
c Difficulty in deciding which of the cells were ending telophase
and now entering interphase.
d

Cells spend different lengths of time in each stage of


mitosis
Cells spend the longest time in interphase
The order of time spent in each stage from longest to
shortest is
interphase prophase anaphase metaphase
telophase

[1]

Any 1 point [1]

e
Phase
prophase
metaphase
anaphase
telophase

Biology for CAPE

Number of
chromosomes
16
16
32
32

Number of
chromatids
32
32
32
32

4 points correct [1]


[max 2]

Original material Cambridge University Press 2011

Essay questions
13 a

The process of meiosis


Produces genetically different cells
With haploid number of chromosomes
2 divisions
Meiosis I leads to separation of homologous chromosomes / reduction
division
Meiosis II leads to separation of sister chromatids
Prophase I
The chromosomes shorten and thicken by coiling / nuclear envelope
disintegrates / nucleolus disappears / formation of spindle fibres / centrioles
begin to move towards the poles
Homologous chromosomes pair up; each pair is called a bivalent
During the coiling and shortening process, non-sister chromatids frequently
break
Broken ends rejoin more or less immediately
A join between different chromatids is a chiasma, and joining event is
known as a crossing over
This leads to an exchange of equal and corresponding parts of non-sister
chromatids / source of variation
Metaphase 1
The spindle fibres attach to the centromere of pair of homologous
chromosomes
Homologous chromosomes align themselves at equator
Anaphase 1
Spindle fibres pull the homologous chromosomes apart, to opposite
poles
The individual chromatids in a chromosome remain attached to each
other by their centromeres
Telophase 1
Two nuclei formed containing a single set of chromosomes that
are made of two chromatids / one set of homologous
chromosomes
Nuclear membrane reforms
Cytokinesis two cells formed with a single set of
chromosomes
Centrioles divide and new spindles start to form
Meiosis II
Starts immediately / separation of sister chromatids
In metaphase II, the spindles are at right angles to those in
metaphase I, aligned at equator
In anaphase II, sister chromatids separate
In telophase II, nuclear membrane reforms / spindle
disintegrates / nucleolus reforms / spindle fibres
disintegrate / decondensation
Correct diagrams [2]
Cytokinesis 4 genetically different cells with
Correction description of meiosis I [3]
haploid number of chromosomes
Correct description of meiosis [2]
[Max 7]
Information can be obtained from diagrams
[Should have appropriate diagrams they are requested in the
question.]

Biology for CAPE

Original material Cambridge University Press 2011

Produces gametes which contain haploid number of chromosomes


This is important because in sexual reproduction fertilisation of
gametes occurs
This allows for restoring chromosome number / maintenance of a
constant chromosome number / meiosis allows the chromosome
number to remain constant in each generation
If there were no reduction division in meiosis, fertilisation would
lead to doubling of the chromosome number in each generation
As a result, there would be no physical room for the chromosomes
There would be conflict with too many chromosomes
There would also be problems with sterility and mating with
individuals with a different chromosome number
A major point of meiosis and sex is to introduce genetic
variation by independent assortment and crossing over in
meiosis; random fusion of genetically different gametes
Which allows species to adapt to their environment and
1 well-described point [1]
so to evolve
[max 6]
in the pollen sacs / anther
in the ovule / ovary

[1]
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Chromosomes align at equator


Attach to spindle fibre at centromere
Spindle fibres shorten
Centromeres split
Chromatids separate and are pulled towards the pole
[with the aid of diagrams none supplied?]
b Apical meristem: root and shoot apex
Lateral meristem: in the cambium usually associated with
older parts of the plant (e.g. cork cambium and vascular
cambium)
Intercalary meristem: found between regions of permanent
tissue (e.g. nodes of many monocotyledons such as bases of
grass leaves)
It may occur where damage has occurred during the formation
of callus tissue
It also occurs in the pollen and embryo sacs
14 a

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Formation of genetically identical cells / clone


Asexual reproduction production of offspring from a single
parent using mitosis. This can be advantageous in an unchanging
environment
Growth the number of cells within an organism increases by
mitosis. This is the basis of growth in multicellular organisms
Cell replacement replacement of cells and tissues
Regeneration some animals are able to regenerate whole parts of
the body (e.g. legs in crustaceans and arms in starfish)
Genetic stability mitosis produces two nuclei which have
the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell

2 points equals [1]


[max 2]

1 point [1]
[max 4]

May disrupt the formation of spindles


If spindles fibres were not formed, chromatids would not separate
Cells would not receive the newly copied DNA

Biology for CAPE

Original material Cambridge University Press 2011

15

Cell division would be interrupted


Therefore 2 identical cells / clones would not be formed
No tumour / undifferentiated mass of cells formed

A pair of chromosomes containing the same linear gene


sequences, each derived from one parent
Homologous chromosomes may have different alleles / have
different sequence of bases / nucleotides as each has come from
different parent.

ii

1 point [1]
[max 4]

[2]
[1]

In early prophase I, replication occurred in interphase hence sister


chromatids are identical and are now condensing
In metaphase I, homologous chromosomes have lined up in late prophase and
crossing over of equal and corresponding parts of non-sister chromatids has
occurred
Hence in metaphase I, sister chromatids are no longer identical.

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Variations of genomes / genotypes between members of


species or groups of a species living in different habitat

[2]

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Chiasma formation
Allows for mixing of genes on same chromosome
This is a join between different chromatids / non-sister chromatids
Leads to crossing over / joining of non-sister chromatids
Leads to exchange between bivalents which involves the breakage and
rejoining of equal and corresponding parts of non-sister chromatids of
bivalents
Leading to new combinations of alleles / mixing of maternal and
paternal alleles / linkage groups broken
Homologous chromosomes would be genetically different from each
other / different from parent cell

Any point [1]


[max 3]

Independent assortment
Allows for different combinations of chromosomes
In metaphase I, bivalents line up at equator
There are 2n possible orientation positions at the equator
(n = haploid number)
Leads to many different possible gametes

Any point [1]


[max 4]

Information can be obtained from annotated diagrams

Biology for CAPE

Original material Cambridge University Press 2011