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Lecture-1

Prepared under
QIP-CD Cell Project

Internal Combustion Engines

Ujjwal K Saha, Ph.D.

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati


1

Engine
Energy Conversion Device
(One Form to the Other)

Heat Engine
Convert Thermal Energy in fuel into
Mechanical Energy for motion
2

Classifying Engines
Classification is based on:
The location of the combustion
Internal / External
The type of combustion
Intermittent / Continuous
The type of internal motion
Reciprocating
Rotational
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Internal Combustion Engines


Combustion occurs Inside the engine
Internal combustion directly touches
the parts that must be moved in order
to produce mechanical energy
Examples: Lawnmower engines,
Motorcycle engines, automotive
engines

External Combustion Engines


Combustion occurs indirectly
on the parts that must be
moved
Thermal energy heats another
fluid (water), turns it into steam,
and the steam pushes on a
piston or part
Example: Steam locomotives,
Boilers

External Combustion

Intermittent Combustion Engines


Combustion within the engine
STARTS and STOPS many times
during operation

Continuous Combustion Engine


Combustion process that continues
constantly without stopping
It remains burning continuously
Examples:
Turbine engines
Rocket engines
Jet engines

I C Engines
An internal combustion engine is
defined as a device in which the
chemical energy of the fuel is
released inside the engine and
used directly for mechanical work,
as opposed to an external
combustion engine in which a
separate combustor is used to burn
the fuel.
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History
The internal combustion
engine was first conceived
and developed in the late
1800s
The man who is considered
the inventor of the modern
IC engine is pictured to the
right ...Nikolaus Otto (18321891).
Otto developed a fourstroke engine in 1876, most
often referred to as a Spark
Ignition, since a spark is
needed to ignite the fuel air
mixture.

Nikolaus Otto patented


the
4-stroke
engine
when he was only 34!

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Another
important
cycle is the Diesel
cycle developed by
Rudolph Diesel in
1897. This cycle is
also known as a
compression ignition
engine.
Almost all travel and
transportation
is
powered by the IC
engine:
trains,
automobiles,
airplanes are just a
few.
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Reciprocating Engines
Motion produced from within the
fuel (combustion) moves parts
up an down
Piston or internal parts are
moved back and forth
Examples: lawn mowers, cars,
trucks, etc...
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Rotary Engines
Has continuous rotation of the parts
that are moving
The combustion is pushing an internal
part around in a circular path
Examples:
Wankel engines
Turbine engines
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Forms of Kinetic Energy


Reciprocation
motion that is defined on a linear path
up-and-down; back-and-forth

Rotation
Motion that is defined on a circular
path
spinning; turning
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Kinetic Energy within Intermittent


Combustion Engines

Piston Movement
intermittent
Reciprocating
Not useful enough

Crank shaft
Connected to piston
turns linear motion into rotation motion
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Thermodynamic Principles
All internal combustion
Open cycle, heated engine
Gasoline (Otto) engine
Spark ignition
Compresses air-fuel mixture
Diesel engine
Compressed ignition
Compresses air only
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Parts of an
I C Engine

Name as many
parts as you can

Your name:_________________
CROSS SECTION OF OVERHEAD VALVE FOUR CYCLE SI ENGINE
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Structural Components
Cylinder Block
Part of engine
frame that
contains
cylinders in
which piston
moves
Supports
liners & head
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Structural Components
Cylinder Head/Assembly
Serves to admit, confine, and release
fuel/air
Cover to cylinder block
Supports valve train
Crankcase
Engine frame section that houses the
crankshaft
Oil sump
Reservoir for collecting and holding
lube oil

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Moving Components
Three Groups according to
motion
Reciprocating only (pistons and
valves)
Reciprocation & rotary
(connecting rods)
Rotary only (crankshafts and
camshafts)
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Moving Components

Piston
Acted on by combustion
gases
Lightweight but
strong/durable
Piston Rings
Transfer heat from piston to
cylinder
Seal cylinder & distribute
lube oil
Piston Pin
Pivot point connecting piston
to connecting rod
Connecting Rod
Connects piston & crankshaft
reciprocating
rotating
motion

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Moving Components
Crankshaft
Combines work done by each piston
Drives camshafts, generator, pumps, etc.

Flywheel
Absorbs and releases kinetic energy of
piston strokes, and smoothens rotation of
crankshaft

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Moving Components
Valves
Intake: open to admit air
to cylinder (with fuel in
Otto cycle)
Exhaust: open to allow
gases to be rejected

Camshaft & Cams


Used to time the addition
of intake and exhaust
valves
Operates valves via
pushrods & rocker arms
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Parts of an
I C Engine

Cylinder head
Air cleaner

Choke
Throttle
Intake manifold
Exhaust manifold

Piston rings
Piston
Wrist pin
Cylinder block
Connecting rod
Oil gallery to piston
Oil gallery to head
Crankcase

Breather cap
Rocker arm
Valve spring
Valve guide
Pushrod
Sparkplug
Combustion chamber
Tappet
Dipstick
Cam
Camshaft
Water jacket
Wet liner
Connecting rod bearing

Crankpin
Crankshaft

Main bearing
Oil pan or sump

CROSS SECTION OF OVERHEAD


VALVE FOUR CYCLE SI ENGINE
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Definitions
Stroke - the number of times the piston
travels the length of the cylinder
Cycle - composed of 4 parts
Intake - working substance is introduced
Compression - working substance is
compressed by upward movement of the
piston
Power - ignition => forcing the piston down
Exhaust - removal of exhaust gases

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Definitions contd.
Top Dead Center when the piston is at its
highest point in the
cylinder. The volume of
the working fluid is a
minimum.
Bottom Dead Center when the piston is at its
lowest point in the
cylinder. The volume of
the working fluid is a
maximum.
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Some Engine Terms


Bore- diameter of the cylinder
Engine Displacement- the volume of air that
is displaced by all the pistons during one
upward stroke.
Compression Ratio- the comparison of the
cylinder volume when the piston is at BDC
and the volume when the piston is at TDC.
Engine stroke
A stroke is a single traverse of the cylinder
by the piston (from TDC to BDC)
1 revolution of crankshaft = 2 strokes of
piston
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Engine Power
IC engines can deliver power in the range
from 0.01 kW to 20 x 103 kW, depending on
their displacement
Number of Cylinders may vary from 1 to 20
with different geometric configurations.

4 and 2 Stroke Engines

A 4 stroke engine requires 2 full revolutions of


the crankshaft to complete the cycle.

While the 2 stroke only requires 1 revolution of


the shaft complete the same cycle.
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Operation
Increased pressure of
combustion gases acts on piston,
and is converted to rotary motion
Can be 2 or 4 stroke engines
2-stroke: 1 power stroke per 1
crankshaft rev
4-stroke: 1 power stroke per 2
crankshaft rev

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Four Stroke SI Engine


Induction Stroke: fill cylinder with
fuel and air
Compression Stroke: squeeze
mixture
Power Stroke: burn and extract
work
Exhaust Stroke: empty cylinder of
exhaust
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Induction Stroke

Engine pulls piston out of cylinder


Low pressure inside cylinder
Atmospheric pressure pushes fuel
and air mixture into cylinder
Engine does work on the gases
during this stroke

Compression Stroke
Engine pushes piston into cylinder
Mixture is compressed to high
pressure and temperature
Engine does work on the gases
during this stroke
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Power Stroke
Mixture burns to form hot gases
Gases push piston out of
cylinder
Gases expand to lower pressure
and temperature
Gases do work on engine during
this stroke

Exhaust Stroke
Engine pushes piston into cylinder
High pressure inside cylinder
Pressure pushes burned gases out
of cylinder
Engine does work on the gases
during this stroke
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Ignition System
Car stores energy in an
electromagnet
Energy is released as a high
voltage pulse
Electric spark ignites fuel and air
mixture
Two basic types of ignition
Battery
Magneto
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Four-Stroke Diesel Engine

Intake stroke
Intake valve open, exhaust valve shut
Piston travels from TDC to BDC
Air drawn in

Compression stroke
Intake and exhaust valves shut
Piston travels from BDC to TDC
Temperature and pressure of air increase
Power stroke
Intake and exhaust valves shut
Fuel injected into cylinder and ignites
Piston forced from TDC to BDC
Exhaust stroke
Intake valve shut, exhaust valve open
Piston moves from BDC to TDC
Combustion gases expelled
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Summary

37

FUEL

Ignition

I
R
Fuel/Air
Mixture

S
u
m
m
a
r
y

Intake
Stroke

Compression
Stroke

Combustion
Products

Power
Stroke

Exhaust
Stroke

Four Stroke Spark Ignition Engine


A

Fuel Injector

I
R

Air

Intake
Stroke

Compression
Stroke

Combustion
Products

Power
Stroke

Exhaust
Stroke

Four Stroke Compression Ignition Engine


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References
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DL (1985), Automotive Engines, Tata McGraw Hill.
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Wiley & Sons.
4. Ganesan V, (2003), Internal Combustion Engines, Tata McGraw Hill.
5. Gill PW, Smith JH, and Ziurys EJ, (1959), Fundamentals of I. C. Engines, Oxford
and IBH Pub Ltd.
6. Heisler H, (1999), Vehicle and Engine Technology, Arnold Publishers.
7. Heywood JB, (1989), Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw Hill.
8. Heywood JB, and Sher E, (1999), The Two-Stroke Cycle Engine, Taylor & Francis.
9. Joel R, (1996), Basic Engineering Thermodynamics, Addison-Wesley.
10. Mathur ML, and Sharma RP, (1994), A Course in Internal Combustion Engines,
Dhanpat Rai & Sons, New Delhi.
11. Pulkrabek WW, (1997), Engineering Fundamentals of the I. C. Engine, Prentice Hall.
12. Rogers GFC, and Mayhew YR,
YR (1992), Engineering Thermodynamics, Addison
1.

Wisley.

13. Srinivasan S, (2001), Automotive Engines, Tata McGraw Hill.


14. Stone R, (1992), Internal Combustion Engines, The Macmillan Press Limited, London.
15. Taylor CF, (1985), The Internal-Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice, Vol. 1 & 2,
The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
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