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UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Herbal Hand and Body Antibacterial Lotion

Report Assignment I

GROUP 20

GROUP PERSONNEL :
Dita Amelia Putri

(1206201965)

Hari Purnama

(1206202015)

Kameliya Hani Millati

(1206202034)

Nurcahyo Adyota Prabhaswara

(1206261200)

Ratri Kirana Prabaningtyas

(1206202154)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
DEPOK
FEBRUARY 2015

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

High humidity cause Indonesia to ideal habitat for bacteria, those are
pharmaceutical product to kill bacteria in market such as ointment, antibiotic and
lotion. But each product have disadvantages likely can be used to all layer of skin,
be antibiotic resistence and expensive price. Skin is the outer part of the body which
has function protect body form microbes, But skin is a rich environment for
bacteria. Two most common type of skin bacteria which infect skin, i.e.
Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenesor.
Body lotion is one of the cosmetic products in the form of emulsion.
Emulsion most common type of delivery system used in body lotion. The usual
method for choosing an emulsifiers is known as the Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance
(HLB) system. Some physical quality parameter of body lotion are Organoleptis,
Viscosity, Density, pH, Dispersive Power, and Adhesive Power.
Two most common methods used for collecting data are interview and
questionnaire. Costumer need classified to product performance, Material
Properties, Product Perception, and Retailing. The puprose of specifying the
product is to quantify the needs referred from the survey and convert the needs into
units that can be measured. some steps to plan the product specifications, including:
list of metrics, benchmarking, and marginal and ideal value. As explained in
specification, there are some needs with the same metrics unit, needs that related
to other needs so that the units could represent both and There are not any
antibacterial hand and body lotion products that is made purely on herbal ingredient.

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LIST OF CONTENT

COVER ............................................................................................................ i
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................. ii
LIST OF CONTENT ...................................................................................... iii
LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................ iv
LIST OF TABLES .......................................................................................... v
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION .................................................................. 1
1.1. Background .............................................................................................. 1
1.2. Product Formulation ................................................................................ 2
1.3. Problem Identification .............................................................................. 2
1.4. Problem Limitation .................................................................................. 2
CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW ...................................................... 3
2.1. Skin .......................................................................................................... 3
2.3.1. Skin Structure ............................................................................... 3
2.3.2. How Skin Maintain Moisture ....................................................... 3
2.3.3. Bacteria on Skin ........................................................................... 4
2.2. Emulsion .................................................................................................. 5
2.2.1. Definition and Basic Concept ...................................................... 5
2.2.2. Emulsifier ..................................................................................... 5
2.2.3. Type of Emulsion ......................................................................... 6
2.2.4. Destabilization of Emulsion ......................................................... 6
2.3. Body Lotion ............................................................................................. 7
2.3.1. Definition ..................................................................................... 7
2.3.2. How Body Lotion Works to Maintain Moisture .......................... 7
2.3.3. Body Lotion Parameter ................................................................ 8
2.3.4. Body Lotion Basic Process .......................................................... 9
2.3.5. Skin Lotion Active Ingredient ...................................................... 10
2.3.6. Herbal Remedy as Antiseptic for Skin ......................................... 10
CHAPTER 3. CUSTOMER NEEDS ............................................................. 12
3.1. Survey ...................................................................................................... 12
3.1.1. Survey Method ............................................................................. 12
3.1.2. Survey Method Result .................................................................. 12
3.2. Costumer Needs ....................................................................................... 19
3.2.1. Determining Method .................................................................... 19
3.2.2. Grouping and Ranking ................................................................. 19
CHAPTER 4. PRODUCT SPECIFICATION .............................................. 24
4.1. List of Metrics .......................................................................................... 24
4.2. Bencmarking ............................................................................................ 26
4.3. Marginal and Ideal Value ......................................................................... 35
CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSION ....................................................................... 41
REFERENCES ................................................................................................ 42
APPENDICE ................................................................................................... 45

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 3.1.
Figure 3.2.
Figure 3.3.
Figure 3.4.
Figure 3.5.
Figure 3.6.
Figure 3.7.
Figure 3.8.
Figure 3.9.
Figure 3.10.
Figure 3.11.
Figure 3.12.
Figure 3.13.

Pie Diagram of Respondents Age Distribution ........................... 13


Pie Diagram of Respondents Sex Distribution ........................... 14
Pie Diagram of Respondents Occupation Distribution ............... 14
Bar Chart of Respondents Hobbies ............................................. 15
Pie Diagram of Respondents Skin Condition ............................. 15
Pie Diagram Of Respondents Itch Problem ................................ 16
Bar Chart of Respondents Cause of Itch ..................................... 16
Bar Chart of Respondents Purpose of Using Hand and Body
Lotion ........................................................................................... 17
Pie Diagram of Respondents Spending On A 100 ml Hand and
Body Lotion ................................................................................. 17
Expected Features on A Hand ond Body Lotion ......................... 18
Packaging of Hand And Body Lotion .......................................... 18
Flow Diagram of Determining Needs and Specifications .......... 20
Mind Map Diagram for Customers Needs With Ranks .............. 23

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1.
Table 3.1.
Table 3.2.
Table 3.3.
Table 3.4.
Table 3.5.
Table 4.1.

Emulsifier Function and HLB-Values ........................................... 6


Comparison Between Interview and Questionnaire ...................... 12
Classification of Age ..................................................................... 12
Needs of Respondents ................................................................... 19
Group of Needs .............................................................................. 21
Rank of Needs and Their Reasons ................................................. 21
List of Metrics for Herbal Antibacterial Hand and Body Lotion
Product ........................................................................................... 24
Table 4.2. Benchmarking Result Based on Needs .......................................... 28
Table 4.3. List of Product Specification ......................................................... 37

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background
Indonesia is one of the country with high rainfall level. The high rain level
cause Indonesia has high humidty. Based on BMKGs data, the relative humidity
in Indonesia reaches 60-90%. In the rainy season an average humidity of 80 % and
in the dry season is 70 %. A high relative humidity in the environment is caused by
an increase of moisture.
US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) states a relative humidity of 3050% is generally recommended for homes. It means that microbe growth quickly
when humidity can be reach over 50%. Some microbes particularly bacteria, live
in human body, exactly in body and hand skin. Bacteria has been calculated about
1012 bacteria on the skin.. Most of them living on the skin are harmless. Those are
two most common bacteria on skin such as Staphylococcus aureus and
Streptococcus pyogenesor. Sometimes potentially pathogenic Staphylococcus
aureus is found on the hands in individuals who are nasal carriers.
Activity of bacteria give some effect to skin. Staphylococcus aures cause
Epidermal infections. This can be seen in roughness characterized by dryness and
itchiness. The effects disturb human activity even productivity. So, it is to be needed
treatment that can kill bacteria, which give negative effect to skin.
Nowdays, Some of product have performance that kill bacteria. Most of
product contain

active agent likely p-choro-m xylenol. They available with

different shape such as antibiotic pil, ointment. Those shape may have different
formula, but still the main use is the same. On other hands, there are some
disadvantage of each product. Ointment can be dangerous, if it to be used to all of
layer skin and has unpleasant smell. Antibiotic pil caused allergy reaction and
antibiotic resistance.
Anti Bacterial lotion is one of the cosmetic, which has performance to kill
bacteria . It can be used as a moisturizer skin . On other hand, Most of product
cointain chemical such as alcohol. The prices of product in the market are not
affordable by the most of people in ndonesia.
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Therefore, A herbal anti bacterial lotion is needed to be able to accommodate


the needs of people that want to buy this product with affordable price. This new
product will have herbal ingredients that are different from b other products on
the market. But still main use as anti bacterial. With this advantages of product
will be able to compete with other products and can even be the number one anti
bacterial lotion.
1.2. Problem Formulation
The concept of designing this a herbal anti bacterial lotion to cover the
weaknesses of product in the market before. The formulation is how to create the
product, that can against bacterial with the herbal, safest and most effective
ingredients available, and Affordable price.
1.3. Problem Identification
Below are the list of the problem identification from the existing product:

Some of Existing product such as ointment has sticky and unpleasent smell;

Some of Existing product such as sticky can be use to all layer of body;

Some of Existing body lotion without anti bacterial agent;

Some of Exising Anti Bacterial lotions ingredients contain chemical; and

A Herbal Anti Bacterials prices is exepnsive.

1.4. Problem Limitation


Below are some statements about the problems to be the boundary in order to
narrow the scope of the problem from our product:

The herbal han and body antibacterial lotion has the safest and most effective
ingredients;

The herbal han and body antibacterial lotions price is affordable;

Target market are people who spent time in outdoor and people who pften suffer
from itchy; and

The herbal han and body antibacterial lotion contains herbal material as the
active ingredient.

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CHAPTER 2
BASIC THEORY

2.1. Skin
2.1.1. Skin Structure
Skin is the largest organ of the body, covering 1.6 m2 of surface area and
accounting for approximately 16% of an adults body weight. In direct contact with
the outside environment, the skin helps to maintain four essential body functions:
1. Retention of moisture and prevention of permeation or loss other molecules, 2.
Regulation of body temperature, 3. Protection of the body from micorbes and
harmful external influences, and 4. Sensation (Transdermal and Topical Drug
Delivery, 2003).
There are three layers of the skin: 1. Epidermis. The epidermis is the outer
layer of the skin. This layer contains no blood vessel and hence nutrients and waste
products must diffuse across the dermo-epidermal layer in order to maintain tissue
integrity. The outermost layer of epidermis called atratum corneum, the skin barrier
which acts as the first line of defense against the external environment; 2. Dermis.
The dermis is the layer below the epidermis. This layer contains nerve endings,
sweat glands, oil glands, hair follicles, and blood vessels. This layer is made mostly
collagen, elastin, and fibrilin which make the skin flexible and strong; 3. Fat Layer.
The fat layer is the layer below the dermis. This layer contains fat cells. This layer
helps insulate the body from heat and cold, provide protective padding, and servesas
an energy storage area (MacNeal, Robert J., 2014).
2.1.2. How Skin Maintain Moisture
It has been discusses previously that the upper layer of ther skin (epidermis)
is a protective layer which is designed to protect the delicate living cells of the
deeper layers of skin. Kertinocytes, the main type of cells in the epidermis, migrate
up from the dermis and undergo many changes to become a flat, keratin rich
corneocyte before being shed. During this progression through the layers of the
epidermis, lipids are released into the spaces between cells and the skins own
natural moisturizing factor (NMF) is generated.

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NMF is made of a mix of low molecular weight soluble hygroscopic


substances including lactic acid, pyrollidone-carboxicilic acid and amino acids.
NMF helps the stratum corneum retain water. These lipids form a barrier to water
loss and help retain the skins NMF. Disruption of this lipid matrix and subquent
loss of hydration can lead to dry skin. Dry skin is noted when the moisture content
is less than 10% and there is loss of continuity of the stratum corneum. If this
happens, the skin can easily irritated and itchy. Worse, the deeper layers of the skin
are exposed to harsh damaging substances including detergents, gardening
chemical, bacteria, virus, etc. Therefore, the epidermis needs to stay moisturized to
protect the deepper layers of the skin (Dobos, Kelly, 2014).
2.1.3. Bacteria on Skin
Skin flora or skin microbiota are the microorganisms which reside on the
skin. Skin is a rich environment for microbes. Some bacterias living on the skin are
harmless, such as Corynebacterim spp., Brevibacterium spp., and Acinetobacter.
There are two most common type of skin bacteria which infect skin, i.e.
Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenesor called staph and strep. There
are three main ecological areas on skin: 1. Moist. The moist places on the body are
dominated by Corynebacteria and Staphylococci; 2. Dry. The dry places on the
body are dominated by b-Proteobacteria andFlacobacteriales; 3. Sebaceous. The
sebaceous areas had greaterspecies richness than moist and dry areas (Chiller,
Katarina, et al, 2001).
Bacteria, initially in low numbers, colonize different layers of the skin
architecture (ie, epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous and adipose tissues, and muscle
fascia). As bacteria increase in number where the integumentary barrier is
disrupted, invasion by these colonizing bacteria ensues and a soft tissue infection
develops. Involvement of pores in the epidermis may lead to folliculitis, furuncles
or carbuncles. Infection of the superficial layers of skin is labelled erysipelas,
whereas deeper involvement of the dermis and/or subcutaneous tissues is labelled
cellulitis. (Vincent and Coleman, 2008).
There are several means by which bacteria penetrate the skin barrier. The
most common route is through a break in the barrier. Lacerations, bite wounds,
scratches, instrumentation (eg, needles), pre-existing skin conditions, wounds (eg,
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chicken pox or ulcer), burns and surgery are the common mechanisms of
compromising the skin barrier. These mechanisms permit the entry of normal skin
flora and indigenous flora from the instrument of penetration. Other routes of
penetration include contiguous spread from an adjacent infection (eg,
osteomyelitis), entry of water into skin pores (eg, hot-tub folliculitis) and, rarely,
hematogenous seeding (ie, emboli). (Vincent and Coleman, 2008).
2.2. Emulsion
2.2.1. Definition and Basic Concept
Emulsion is the most common type of delivery system used in cosmetics.
The best known cosmetic products based on emulsions are creams and lotions. If
two liquids such as water and alcohol are mixed together, a solution is formed. The
droplets of both liquids mix and mingle with each other so that there is no boundary
between one liquid and the other one. The two liquids are miscible. However, oil
and water do not mix. They stay as two separate layers with clear boundary between
them, because the attraction forces between the droplets are very different
preventing from mingling together. The forces between water particles are very
strong, whereas oil particles are only weakly held together. Thus, the oil particles
cannot stay between water particles.
An emulsion is a dispersion of one liquid in a second, immiscible oil. In an
emulsion, however, oil and water can be forced to mix. Instead of forming two
separate layers with a clear boundary between them, small droplets of one liquid
(dispersed phase) are spread throughout the other liquid (continuous phase). Hence,
an emulsion can be defined as a mixture consisting of an immiscible dispersed in
another liquid in the form of tiny droplets. Emulsions made by simply agitating
water and oil, however, will separate within a short time. Therefore, emulsifiers are
needed (MakingCosmetics Inc, 2014).
2.2.2. Emulsifier
Emulsifiers are compounds able to stabilize the dispersed droplets in the
continuous phase. Emulsifiers are molecules consisting of a water loving
(hydrophilic) part and water-hating but oil loving (lipophilic) part. With their
lipophilic part emulsifiers wrap around and incorporate oil drops thereby preventing

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them from reunite again to form a separate oily phase. In this way, the oil particles
are shielded from each other resulting in a stable emulsion.
The usual method for choosing an emulsifiers is known as the HydrophilicLipophilic Balance (HLB) system which uses a scale of 0 to 20 based on their
affinity for oil and water. Emulsifiers with low HLB-values are more lipophilic,
while higher HLB-values of 3-8 give w/o-emulsions, whereas those with values o
above 9 are more water-soluble and result in o/w emulsions (MakingCosmetics Inc,
2014).
Table 2.1. Emulsifiers Function and HLB-Values

HLB-Values

Emulsifiers Function

1-3

Antifoaming Properties

3-8

w/o-Emulsification

7-9

Wetting Properties

9-18

o/w-Emulsification

15-20

Solubilizing Properties

(Source : www.makingcosmetics.com)

2.2.3. Type of Emulsion


The most typical emulsions is one in which an oil is dispersed in water.
Understandably, this is called an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. If water droplets are
dispersed in oil the resulting emulsion is called water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion.
Generally, o/w-emulsions are typically chosen for applications requiring a
relatively small amount of fatty materials as hand, shaving or moisturizing creams.
On the other hand, w/o emulsions are preferred when a large amount of oil is
desired. This system has a more greasy feel and leave a longer-lasting residue.
Typical products are emollient creams and sunscreens. In addition to the simple
two-phase emulsion it is possible to make also multiple emulsions as w/o/wemulsions (w/o-emulsion in water) (MakingCosmetics Inc, 2014).
2.2.4. Destabilization of Emulsion
Although emulsifiers help stabilize the oil and water phase, emulsions are
still inherently unstable and eventually will separate. The speed at which this occurs
depends on the composition of the emulsion. There are three ways how an emulsion
can destabilize : 1. Creaming or sedimentation: fatty cream appears due to the
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assembly of the large drops (example: unhomogenized milk); 2. Flocculation: small


flocci are formed. Flocculation is not a serious destabilization since it can be
reversed also by agitation; 3. Coalescence: the oil and water phase are completely
separated due to merging droplets to form large drops. Coalescence is irreversible
(MakingCosmetics Inc, 2014).
2.3. Body Lotion
2.3.1. Definiton
Body lotion is one of the cosmetic products in the form of emulsion,a
dispersion (droplets) of one liquid in another immiscible liquid. The phases that is
present in the form of droplets is the dispersed or internal phase. Generally, body
lotion is an emulsion type O/W which is emulsions type O/W with 10-15% oil
phase, 5-10% humectants and 75-85% water phase (Schmitt, 1996). Generally,
body lotion consists of emulsifier, humectant, emollient, active ingredient and water
(Keither, 1956).
2.3.2. How Body Lotion Works To Maintain Moisture
Traditionally, moisturization was believed to inhibit TransEpidermal Water
Loss (TEWL) by occlusion. Water originates in the deeper epidermal layers and
moves upward to hydrate cells in the stratum corneum, eventually being lost to
evaporation. Scientifically. Basically, there are 3 steps process of moisturizing
treatment; i.e.: 1. Repairing the skin barrier; 2. Increasing water content; 3.
Reducing TEWL; and 4. Restoring the lipid barriers abbility to attract, hold, and
redistribute water. Basically, there are 3 types of moisturizing substances based on
theoretically mechanism acion (Lynde, C. W., 2014); i.e.:
a. Occlusive
Occlusive is a substance that physically block TEWL in the startum corneum.
Petrolatum in a minimum concentration of 5% is the most effective occlusive
followed by lanolin, mineral oil, and silicones such as dimethicone. Petrolatum is
widely used as a classic moisturizer. Side effects of occlusive indicated by messy,
cosmetically unaceptable, folliculitis, comedogenic (mineral oil) contact dermatitis,
and lanolin (Lynde, C. W., 2014).

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b. Humectant
Humectant is a substance that attract water when applied to the skin and
theoretically improve hydration of the stratum corneum. Example of humectant
includes glycerin, sortbitol, urea, alpha hydroxy acids (i.e., lactic acid) and other
sugars. Side effects of humectant indicated by irritation (urea, lactic acid) (Lynde,
C. W., 2014).
c. Emolient
Emollient is a substance that smooths skin by filling spaces between skin flakes
with droplets of oil and are not usually occlusive applied heavily. When combined
with an emulsifier, they may help hold oil and water in the stratum corneum.
Vitamin E is a common additive, which appears to have no effect, except as an
emollient. Examples of emollients include mineral oil, lanolin, fatty acids,
cholesterol, squalene, and structural lipids. The disadvantage of emolient is it is not
always effective to moisturize skin (Lynde, C. W., 2014).
2.3.3. Body Lotion Parameter
Body lotion is caracterized by easy to flow, speed to be absorped, and
stickiness when rub into skin.Here some physical quality parameter of body lotion:
a. Organoleptis
Organoleptic is an early recognition process using five senses such as color,
odor, taste, and form.
b. Viscosity
Viscosty is one of bulk properties, defined as a liquids resistance to flow. The
stronger intermolecular force of attraction within a liquid, the larger viscosity. Body
lotion viscosity is influenced by severalfactors such as emulsion size, concentration,
and temperature. A goodbody lotion has viscosity approximately 12 cP.
c. Density
Density is one of physcial property of matter, defined as how tightly matter is
crammed together. Denser object has less empty space in them, less holey. Usually,
body lotion has density approximately 0.9 to 1.0 kg/L.
d. pH
pH is a meassure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Solutions
with a pH less than 7 are acidic solutions and solutioswith a pH more than 7 are
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basic or alkaline solutions. A good body lotion has physiological pH of acid


mantel skin, 4,5 6,5 which is weak acid. If the pH of body lotion too acidic, it
can cause skin irritation. Otherwise, if the pH of body lotion too alkaline, it can
cause skin itchy and scaly (Latifah, Fatma and Tranggono, Retno I.S., 2007).
e. Dispersive Power
Dispersive power is the ability of a substance to spread on a surface without
large pressure given. The dispersive power of body lotion can be caracterized by
the area which is resulted from the load addition (Voigt, 1984).
f. Adhesive Power
Adhesive power is the ability of a substance to attach to a surface in a long time.
The better of the body lotion adhesion, the more effective of the body lotion
performance because the longer of the contact time between body lotion and skin
(Voigt, 1984).
2.3.4. Body Lotion Basic Process
The thickness and consistency are the key factors to make body lotion. The
manufacturing process determines the viscosity of the body lotion. Manufacturing
body lotion can be completed in two cycles: 1. Oil cycle. In this cycle, emmolients
and lubricants are dispersed in oil with blending and thickening agents; and 2. Water
cycle. In this cycle, perfume, coloring agent, and preservative agent are dispersed
in water. Here are some basic processes in the manufacturing body lotion:
a. Mixing
Mixing is necessary to blend a water phase and oil phase into an emulsion, but
consider the potential effect of the degree of mixing on the product viscosity. The
minimum mixing energy must be used to evenly mix the two phases and other
additives. A high amount of mixing energy can decrease the particle size of the
dispersed phase and hence affecting the emulsion viscosity (Ashbery, Jason, et al).
b. Heating And Cooling
Heating is generally less of a problem in cosmetic processing because the
product or phase is usually fluid at elevated temperatures (viscosity being inversely
proportional to temperature for emulsions commonly encountered in the cosmetic
industry). The rate of heating is not usually considered an important parameter,
assuming that the desired end point is not overshot. Cooling is more commonly a
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problem with cosmetic emulsion because it generally increases product viscosity


greatly (Ashbery, Jason, et al).
c. Shearing
Many lotions are shear-thinning. In a typical operation, a finished lotion is
cooled to room temperature in a compounding vessel, and then pumped through a
filter to a storage tank where it is held for filling. The viscosity of lotion will have
been reduced by this step. Then the product may be pumped to the filling line. The
product usually has a chance to build a network of bonds. A portion of these bonds,
if broken, are sometimes permanently destroyed (Ashbery, Jason, et al).
d. Homogenizing
Homogenization, or the reduction of particles to a small and uniform size and
their even distribution in a medium, is related to shearing in that frequently used to
create the particle breakdown. If while the emulsion is hot and both phases still
liquid, homogenization will tend to reduce the disperse phase to a minimum size
distribution which will impart certain properties (such as increased stability) to the
final product when it is cooled down and packaged. If the product is homogenized
after some cooling has taken place and viscosity has already started to build,
however, the viscosity of the finished product may be permanently reduced
(Ashbery, Jason, et al).
2.3.5. Skin Lotion Active Ingredient
Calamine is either a mixture of zinc oxide (ZnO) with about 0.5% ferric
oxide (Fe2O3) or a zinc carbonate compound. It is the main ingredient in calamine
lotion and is used as an anti-pruritic (anti-itching agent) to treat conditions such as
sunburn, rashes, poison ivy, poison oak, chickenpox, and insect bites and stings.
Calamine works by cooling and soothing irritated skin. The following side-effects
have been associated with people having this medicine hypersensitivity or irritant
reactions.
2.3.6. Herbal Remedy as Antiseptic for Skin
Here are some herbal that usually use as antiseptic for skin remedy,i.e.;
a. Betel Leaf
The active substances in betel leaf are phenol and its derivatives. The phenolic
derivatives contained in betel leaf have a five-fold greater antibacterial potency than
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phenol itself. (Rahim, 2007) Hydroxychavicol, a major phenolic compound present


in the aqueous extract of the Piper betle leaf, is known for its antioxidant and
anticancer properties. (Chang, 2002) The betel leaf has been demonstrated to be
effective against Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Vibrio
eltor, Salmonella typhosa, Shigella shigae, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and others.
b. Aloe Vera
Generally, Aloe vera has the same functions as astringent, anti-oxidant, antiinflammation, antibacterial and anti-perspirants. Specifically in usefulness as a
cosmetic preparation, Aloe vera contains saponin which is efficacious as an
antiseptic, anthraquinone and quinone is efficacious as antibiotics, enzyme
cellulase, amylase, protein and biogenic simulator as an active ingredient that helps
the metabolism and stimulate the regeneration of skin cells, and the most important
is the lignin is efficacious as a moisturizer (Marwati dan Hermani, 2006).
c. Olive Oil
Olive oil has a very high content of polyphenols that can serve as a powerful
anti-oxidant that has anti-inflammatory benefits, ward off free radicals in the skin
and prevents premature aging. Olive oil also contains lauric acid and its derivative,
monolaurin, which kill bacteria. Additionally, olive oil can also seep into the skin
well and acts as a humectant, thus preventing dry skin.
d. Chamomile
Chamomile is frequently added to skin cosmetics to serve as a moisturizer and
for its anti-inflammatory effects. Major chemical compounds present within
chamomile include volatile oils (including bisabolol, bisabolol oxides A and B, and
matricin) as well as flavonoids (particularly a compound called apinegin) and other
therapeutic substances. The pollen found in chamomile preparations may cause
allergic reactions and also chamomile may interfere with blood thinners
(anticoagulants).

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CHAPTER 3
CUSTOMER NEEDS

3.1. Survey
3.1.1. Survey Method
The process of collecting data may vary. Two most common methods used
for collecting data are interview and questionnaire. Both methods have their own
advantages and disadvantages. Below is a table giving comparison between those
methods:
Table 3.1. Comparison Between Interview and Questionnaire

Interview
Deep and vary

Information

Questionnaire
As deep as questions

Direct communication Indirect communication

Method

Time Approximation 20 minutes

7 minutes

(Source: Authors Personal Data)

In the process of collecting costumers needs data, we decided to combine


both methods. We interviewed a few sample and we used questionnaire as
supplementary data. The aim of combining the two methods is that we are able to
get variety of answers through the interview in order to address costumers needs
that we havent thought of and we are also able to get variety of data as
questionnaire can be spread more easily than doing interviews.
3.1.2. Survey Method Result
3.1.2.1. Respondent Information Analysis
a. Based on Age
The classification is based on age. We categorize the age based on Health
Department of Republic of Indonesia. Below is the category:
Table 3.2. Classification of Age

No.

Category

Intervals

1.

Infancy

0 - 5 year

2.

Childhood

3.

Early Adolescence 12 - 1 6 year

4.

Late Adolescence

5 - 11 year

12

17 - 25 year
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Table 3.2. Classification of Age (Contd)

No.

Category

Intervals

5.

Early adulthood

26- 35 year

6.

Late adulthood

36- 45 year

7.

Elderly Early Period

46- 55 year

8.

Elderly Period End

56 - 65 year

9.

Future Elderly

65 - older

(Source : Health Department of Republic of Indonesia, 2009)

However, we only target people from late adolescence group until elderly period end
group as our interview and questionnaire respondents. The data on figure 3.3 is our
respondent based on age:
36- 45 year
2%

46- 55 year
4%

56 - 65 year
5%

26- 35 year
9%

17 - 25 year
26- 35 year
36- 45 year
17 - 25 year
80%

46- 55 year
56 - 65 year

Figure 3.1. Pie Diagram of Respondents Age Distribution


(Source: Reproduced from questionares and interviews, 2015)

From the data on figure 3.1, we can see that the highest number of our respondent is
from the 17 25 year group (80%), the second being from the 26 35 year group (9%),
the third being from the 56-65 year group (5%), the fourth being from the 46-55 year
group (4%), and the last being the 36-45 year group (2%). The reason why we only chose
those groups for our respondents target is because we think that our product is not
suitable for the age before 17 and after 65.
b. Based on Sex
Nowadays, hand and body lotion is not only consumed by female. Therefore, we also
search for males to become our respondent. The data on figure 3.2 is the distribution of
our respondent based on sex:

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Male
20%
Male
Female
Female
80%

Figure 3.2. Pie Diagram of Respondents Sex Distribution


(Source: Reproduced from questionares and interviews, 2015)

From the data on figure 3.2, we can conclude that our respondents are mainly female
(80%) while the rest are male (20%). The reason why female dominates in our survey is
because female is more likely to buy hand and body lotion than male.
c. Based on Occupation
People who work on different environment will have different needs regarding their
skin. The data on table 3.5 is the respondents category based on occupation:
House Businessman Retired State Housewife
Assistant
1%
1% Employee
7%
1%
3%

Housewife
Employee

Employee
27%
Student
60%

Student
Businessman
Retired
State Employee
House Assistant

Figure 3.3. Pie Diagram of Respondents Occupation Distribution


(Source: Reproduced from questionares and interviews, 2015)

From the data on figure 3.3, we find that most of our respondents are student (60%),
followed by employee (27%), housewife (7%), state employee (3%), and finally a tie
between house assistant, businessman, and retiree (both at 1% each).
d. Based on Hobby
Hobby is the type of activity that people are looking to do on their spare time. We
asked our respondents about their hobby. Each respondent gives different amount of
hobby. The data on figure 3.4 is the bar chart of hobbies that our respondents like to do:

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Others

16

Nonphysical Activities (Reading,

88

Playing Music

13

Dancing

12

Sports

30

Exploring Nature (Caving, Hiking, etc.)

17

Traveling

61

Swimming

32

Gardening

Figure 3.4. Bar Chart of Respondents Hobbies


(Source: Reproduced from questionares and interviews, 2015)

From the data on figure 3.4, we found that our respondents mostly love doing
nonphysical activities (88 answers), followed by traveling (61 answers), and swimming
(32 answers). We asked our respondents hobbies because we would like to know if there
is any correlation between their hobbies and their skin conditions or their needs of using
hand and body lotion.
e. Base on Skin Condition
This classification is based on our respondents skin condition. This classification
gives us idea on the type of skin that they have. The data on figure 3.5 is the data gathered
from our survey:

Oily
20%

Dry
33%

Dry
Normal

Sensitive
14%

Sensitive
Oily
Normal
33%

Figure 3.5. Pie Diagram of Respondents Skin Condition


(Source: Reproduced from questionares and interviews, 2015)

From the data on figure 3.5, it can be seen that our respondents skin condition is
distributed almost evenly, the highest being a tie between normal and dry (33%), followed

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by oily (20%), and finally sensitive (14%). From here, we can conclude that no matter
what their occupation or hobby is, they may have different skin type.
f. Based on Skin Problem
We ask our respondent if they have ever had itch problem. The result is represented
on figure 3.6 below:
No
7%
Yes
No

Yes
93%

Figure 3.6. Pie Diagram Of Respondents Itch Problem


(Source: Reproduced from questionares and interviews, 2015)

We then ask further the cause of their itch problems. The data on figure 3.9 is the list
of the responds:
Bugs

14
17

Fungus
Virus

29
27
7
43

Dirty Environment

62
48

Cold Temperature

28
27

Allergy

53

Figure 3.7. Bar Chart of Respondents Cause of Itch


(Source: Reproduced from questionares and interviews, 2015)

We asked our respondents this question in order to know if they have ever had itch
problems caused by chemical products. But most of the respondents say that the cause of
their itch is dirty environment, allergy, and sweat.
3.1.2.2. Interview Result Analysis
a. Based on Hand and Body Lotion Usage Purpose
This classification is based on the purpose of using hand and body lotion. We would
like to know their basic purpose of using hand and body lotion. Respondents may state
more than one reason. The dataon figure 3.8 is their responds:

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UV Protection
Reduce Itch

9
14

Brighten

51

Moisturize

114

Figure 3.8. Bar Chart of Respondents Purpose of Using Hand and Body Lotion
(Source: Reproduced from questionares and interviews, 2015)

From the data on figure 3.8, we can see that people mostly buy hand and body lotion
to moisturize their skin, brighten skin, reduce itch, and UV protection respectively. This
data will be our consideration in making hand and body lotion.
b. Based on Hand and Body Lotion Price
This group categorizes peoples expenditure on hand and body lotion. We ask them
to say the price of their body lotion, equivalent to 100 ml. The data on figure 3.9 is the
table of the result:
> IDR 100.000
8%

IDR 50.000 IDR 100.000


10%

< IDR 5.000


1%

IDR 5.000 IDR 10.000


11%
< IDR 5.000
IDR 5.000 - IDR 10.000
IDR 10.000 - IDR 50.000

IDR 10.000 IDR 50.000


70%

IDR 50.000 - IDR 100.000


> IDR 100.000

Figure 3.9. Pie Diagram of Respondents Spending On A 100 Ml Hand And Body Lotion
(Source: Reproduced from questionares and interviews, 2015)

From the data on figure 3.9, people tend to choose the middle price of hand and body
lotion. That means that people are willing to spend more money on hand and body lotion
as long as it fulfills their needs.
c. Based on Expected Features
This group categorizes features that respondents expect to be in a hand and body
lotion products. The data on figure 3.10 shows the responds:

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126
103
79 72 83

88
44

52

116
95
66

78
60

70
39
1 1 2 1 1 3

1 1 1 1 1

Figure 3.10. Expected Features on A Hand ond Body Lotion Product


(Source: Reproduced from questionares and interviews, 2015)

From the data on figure 3.10, their top five features on a hand and body lotion are
moisturizing, non-sticky, contains SPF, does not cause allergy, and easy to carry.
However, all of the features have relatively high demand, aside from anti-aging, nontoxic, non-paraben, does not stimulate hair growth, and cool sensation. All of those
features will be our consideration in making our product.
d. Based on Lotion Packaging
This group categorizes the type of packaging of hand and body lotion that our
respondents use. The data on figure 3.11 is the table representing their answers:
Cylinder Others
8%
5%

Sachet
1%

Sachet

Bottle without
Pump
Bottle
with Pump
32%

Bottle
without
Pump
54%

Bottle with Pump


Cylinder
Others

Figure 3.11. Packaging of Hand And Body Lotion That Our Respondents Us
(Source: Reproduced from questionares and interviews, 2015)

From the data on figure 3.11, we can see that people mostly use hand and body lotion
of which packaging is bottle without pump, followed by bottle with pump, cylinder,
others, and sachet. This will be our consideration in making hand and body lotions
packaging later.

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3.2. Costumer Needs


3.2.1. Determining Method
To determine our costumers needs, we have to interpret the data from the survey
that we have conducted and categorize those data. Afterwards, we rank the needs so that
it becomes specifications. Finally, we do benchmark based on the needs. Below is the
framework of determining needs:

Gathering Data

Interpret Data

Needs

Give rank to
needs

Select priority
needs

Specifications

Figure 3.12. Flow Diagram of Determining Needs and Specifications


(Source: Author personal data)

3.2.2. Grouping and Ranking


The respondents gave us a lot of different answers, so we have to differentiate all
of them. From all of those answers, we interpret them as needs. The following table is the
list of needs that we extracted from our respondents answer:
Table 3.3. Needs of Respondents

Need
Number
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7

Statement
Moisturize
Not Sticky
Contains SPF
Does not cause
allergy
Soothes itch
Easy to carry
Nice aroma

Need Description

Frequency

Hand and body lotion can moisturize


the skin
Hand and body lotion is non-sticky
Hand and body lotion contains SPF
Hand and body lotion is hypoallergenic
Hand and body lotion can reduce
pruritus (itching)
Hand and body lotion has compact
packaging
Hand and body lotion has great scent
options

126
116
103
95
44
88
83

(Source: Reproduced from questionares and interviews, 2015)

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Table 3.3. Needs of Respondents (Contd)

Need
Number
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

Statement
Whiten skin
Quickly absorbed
by skin
Longlasting
aroma
Good consistency
Non pungent
smell
Made from
organic materials
Interesting
packaging
Waterproof
Wide storage
temperature range
Cheap price
Non-paraben
Does not
stimulate hair
growth
Unisex scent
Beneficial to
health
Can be used for
sensitive skin
Can be reduce
hair growth
Useful
information on
packaging
Cool sensation
Does not burn the
skin

Need Description

Frequency

Hand and body lotion has whitening


agents
Hand and body lotion can be easily
absorbed by skin
Hand and body lotion has long lasting
perfume
Hand and body lotion has great
consistency
Hand and body lotion has mild scent
Hand and body lotion is made from
organic materials
Hand and body lotion has an attractive
packaging
Hand and body lotion is waterproof
Hand and body has wide storage
temperature range
Hand and body lotion has cheaper price
Hand and body lotion is non-paraben
Hand and body lotion is non-stimulant
to hair growth
Hand and body lotion has unisex scent
Hand and body lotion is beneficial to
one's health
Hand and body lotion is suitable for all
skin type
Hand and body lotion can reduce hair
growth

79
78
72
70
66
60
52
39
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
1

Hand and body lotion's packaging


provide useful information

Hand and body has cooling sensation

Hand and body does not burn the skin

(Source: Reproduced from questionares and interviews, 2015)

We dont select, add, or eliminate answers from respondents. We do it in order to


know the actual needs of our respondents. After we collect all of the answers, we need to

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spread them into groups in order to ease our data interpretation process. The groups to
which we divide the needs into are:
Table 3.4. Group of Needs

No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Grouping
Product Performance
Material Properties
Product Perception
Retailing
Regulation

(Source: Reproduced from questionares and interviews, 2015)

We took a look at the needs that weve gathered, and we see their similarities. After
that, we see if they have something in common and group them. The next step is giving
ranks in every needs. We rank based on the needs and our own judgment. The data on
table 3.5 is the groups ranking with reasons of each ranking:
Table 3.5. Rank of Needs and Their Reasons
Need
Number
1
2
6, 18
11
12
15
16
20
24
5

Grouping

Ranking

Product Performance
Hand and body lotion can
5
moisturize the skin
Hand and body lotion can reduce
3
pruritus (itching)
Hand and body lotion protects the
4
skin against UV light
Hand and body lotion can be
5
easily absorbed by skin
Hand and body lotion is made
2
from organic materials
Hand and body lotion is
3
waterproof
Hand and body lotion is non2
stimulant to hair growth
Hand and body lotion can reduce
1
hair growth
Hand and body has cooling
3
sensation
Hand and body lotion has
4
whitening agents

10,19,25

Hand and body lotion is nonirritant

22

Hand and body lotion is nonparaben

Reason

Main function of a body lotion


Body lotion is rarely used as a
medication to treat itching
Because we live in tropical
climate
Time-efficiency
Because most cosmetics made
of chemical substances
So it does not dissolve when
exposed to water
The stimulation effect is not
significant
The stimulation effect is not
significant
Because we live in tropical
climate
Because we live in tropical
climate
Because if irritation occurs it
means the body lotion contains
harmful substances
Paraben can induce cancer

(Source: Reproduced from questionares and interviews, 2015)

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Table 3.5. Rank of Needs and Their Reasons (Contd)

Need
Number

13
14

7
8
9
17

3
4
21
23

Grouping

Ranking

Material Properties
Hand and body lotion is non4
sticky
Hand and body lotion has great
4
consistency
Product Perception
Hand and body lotion has long
4
lasting perfume
Hand and body lotion has great
3
scent options
Hand and body lotion has mild
3
scent
Hand and body lotion has
2
unisex scent
Retailing
Hand and body lotion has
5
compact packaging
Hand and body lotion has an
3
attractive packaging
Hand and body lotion has
4
cheaper price
Hand and body lotion's
packaging provide useful
4
information
Regulation
Hand and body lotion has
4
whitening agents

10,19,25

Hand and body lotion is nonirritant

22

Hand and body lotion is nonparaben

Reason

Because it is convenient to use


Because it is convenient to use

Because it can help reduce the


smell of body odour
Because each person have
different taste of smell
Because it is convenient to use
Because different gender have
different taste of smell

Easy to carry while travelling


Because it gave better impression
of product quality
So that the price is affordable for
all ages
Gave caution to people who might
have allergies

Because we live in tropical


climate
Because if irritation occurs it
means the body lotion contains
harmful substances
Paraben can induce cancer

(Source: Reproduced from questionares and interviews, 2015)

The customers needs above also can be arranged into a mind map diagram to ease
us what needs that should be kept in our mind. The figure 3.13 below represents the needs
which has been arranged by its priority.

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Stickiness

Viscosity

Specific gravity

Product

Material

Product

Retailing

Properties

Perception

Packaging type

Price

Packaging content

Attractive packaging

Herbal Hand and Body


Antibacterial Lotion

Aroma duration

Scent option

Mild scent

Unisex scent

Product
Performance
5

Moisturizing agent

Sun screen agent

Cooling agent

Non irritant

Antimicrobial agent

Preservative

pH range

Water solubility

Hair growth stimulant

Absorbency time

Chemical content

Hair growth depressant

Whitening agent
Figure 3.13. Mind Map Diagram for Customers Needs with Ranks
(Source: Reproduced from questionares and interviews, 2015)
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CHAPTER 4
PRODUCT SPESIFICATION

After we conduct the survey, recapitulate and group the results, we finally form
a list of consumers needs based on their responses. The next thing we do is that we
specify the product. The puprose of specifying the product is to quantify the needs
referred from the survey and convert the needs into units that can be measured, so
that we could assign some quality control over our finished product later on. Below
are some steps to plan the product specifications, including: list of metrics,
benchmarking, and marginal and ideal value.
4.1. List of Metrics
The needs that have been graded are now specified by scientific quantities that
can represent the quality of the needs. The metric units on each needs might be
different. The list of metrics for herbal anti-bacterial hand and body lotion product
is provided in table 4.1.
From the table 4.1, we could see that some of the needs cannot be measured in
exact number. In order to form the right unit for those kinds of needs, we define the
metrics based on subjectivity, represented by the star symbol (*) with more star
means the more it aims to the specification. In the case of needs that requires
confirmation to assess the metrics, we happened to define the needs by y/n unit.
From table above we can also see that there are some needs with the same metrics
unit. It happened because there are needs that related to other needs so that the units
could represent both.
Table 4.1. List of Metrics for Herbal Antibacterial Hand and Body Lotion Product

Need
Number
1
2
6, 18

Costumer Needs

Rank

Specification

Product Performance
Hand and body lotion can
Concentration of
5
moisturize the skin
moisturizing agent
Hand and body lotion can
Concentration of
3
reduce pruritus (itching)
antimicrobial agent
Hand and body lotion
Concentration of
protects the skin against UV
4
sunscreen agent
light

Metric
Unit
w/w
w/w
w/w

(Source: Reproduced from questionares and interviews, 2015)


24

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Table 4.1. List of Metrics for Herbal Antibacterial Hand and Body Lotion Product (Contd)

Need
Number

11

12

15

16
20
24
5
10,19,25
10,19,25
22

14
14

7
8
9
17

Costumer Needs

Rank

Specification

Product Performance
Hand and body lotion
can be easily absorbed
5
Absorbency time
by skin
Hand and body lotion is
Concentration of organic
made from organic
2
contents
materials
HLB (Hydrophile
Hand and body lotion is
3
Lipophile Balance )
waterproof
Value
Hand and body lotion is
Concentration of hair
non-stimulant to hair
2
growth stimulant
growth
Hand and body lotion
Concentration of hair
1
can reduce hair growth
growth depressant
Hand and body has
Concentration of cooling
3
cooling sensation
agent
Hand and body lotion
Concentration of
4
has whitening agents
whitening agent
Hand and body lotion is
Concentration of irritant
5
non-irritant
and allergent substances
Hand and body lotion is
5
pH range
non-irritant
Hand and body lotion is
Concentration of
3
non-paraben
preservatives
Material Properties
Hand and body lotion
4
Viscosity
has great consistency
Hand and body lotion
4
Specific gravity
has great consistency
Product Perception
Hand and body lotion
4
Aroma duration
has long lasting perfume
Hand and body lotion
3
Scent
has great scent options
Hand and body lotion
3
Scent
has mild scent
Hand and body lotion
2
Scent
has unisex scent

Metric
Unit

Seconds

w/w

Unitless

w/w
w/w
w/w
w/w
w/w
Unitless
w/w

Subjective
Unitless

Subjective
Subjective
Subjective
Subjective

(Source: Reproduced from questionares and interviews, 2015)

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Table 4.1. List of Metrics for Herbal Antibacterial Hand and Body Lotion Product (Contd)

Need
Number

Costumer Needs

Rank

Specification

Metric
Unit

Retailing
3
4
21
23

5
10,19,25
10,19,25
22

Hand and body lotion


has compact packaging
Hand and body lotion
has an attractive
packaging
Hand and body lotion
has cheaper price
Hand and body lotion's
packaging provide
useful information

Packaging type

Subjective

Packaging type

Subjective

Price

Packaging content

IDR/100
mL

Regulation
Type of harmful
4
whitening agents
Allowed limit of irritant
Hand and body lotion is
5
and allergent substances
non-irritant
concentration
Hand and body lotion is
5
Allowed pH range
non-irritant
Allowed limit of
Hand and body lotion is
3
preservatives
non-paraben
concentration
Hand and body lotion
has whitening agents

Subjective

Regulation
Regulation
Regulation
Regulation

(Source: Reproduced from questionares and interviews, 2015)

From table 4.1, we could see that some of the needs cannot be measured in
exact number. In order to form the right unit for those kinds of needs, we define the
metrics based on subjectivity, represented by the star symbol (*) with more star
means the more it aims to the specification. In the case of needs that requires
confirmation to assess the metrics, we happened to define the needs by y/n unit.
From table above we can also see that there are some needs with the same metrics
unit. It happened because there are needs that related to other needs so that the units
could represent both.
4.2. Benchmarking
After we specify the metric units of each needs, the next step is to do
benchmarking. Benchmarking is done by comparing the quality of other competing
products based on our list of needs and metrics. The necessity to conduct
benchmarking is vital, it is useful to do so because we can establish a quality basis
to later determine the superiority of our product than any other existing products
that are similar in the market.
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The development of cosmetics industry, especially in hand and body lotion


industry, has been fully expanded along the year. There are many variations of the
lotions product in terms of function. In this product design activity, we aim to
produce an anti-bacterial hand and body lotion that are fully made from herbal
materials to subtitute the essential chemicals in the ingridients. By that means, the
product we benchmark are specified into ordinary lotion, antiseptic lotion, or antibacterial lotion. Here are the product that we benchmark:
a. Gwendolyn Anti-bacterial Hand Lotion
Gwendolyn Anti-Bacterial Hand Lotion is an alcohol-free anti-bacterial hand
lotion that kill germs and moisturize the skin. It contains antioxidants such as
Vitamin E, C and jojoba oil in the blue beads that will help you firm and protect
your skin.
b. Caladine Lotion
Caladine Lotion helps medicate itching caused by prickly heat, hot weather,
and insect bites. It functions as anti-allergic, antiseptic and also provide some
cooling sensation to your skin.
c. Citra Lasting White UV Body Lotion
Citra Lasting White UV Body Lotion is perfected with two natural ingridients:
the combination of bengkoang extract that famous for its ability to whiten the skin,
and milk extract that can moisturize your skin.
d. Pure Works Anti-bacterial Lotion
Pure Works Anti-bacterial Lotion provides intensive skin conditioning while
providing enhanced long lasting protection against the germs that make you sick.
This lotion contains benzethonium chloride, a powerful antimicrobial agent that is
well known for both its safety and efficacy. The extra advantages of this formulation
include its incredible skin-softening and skin-healing properties and it is alcoholfree.
The results from this benchmarking activity that based on needs we compile
from the survey is a table of data that compare the material and product ability of
each product. We can analyse each formulation to define the benefit and
disadvantages of each product. The table of benchmark is provided in table 4.2
below:
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Table 4.2. Benchmarking Result Based on Needs

Competitor
Need
Number

Grouping

Hand and
body lotion
can
moisturize
the skin

Hand and
body lotion
can reduce
pruritus
(itching)

6, 18

Hand and
body lotion
protects the
skin against
UV light

Concentration
of sunscreen
agent

11

Hand and
body lotion
can be
easily
absorbed by
skin

Absorbency
time

Rank

Specification

Concentration
of moisturizing
agent

Concentration
of
antimicrobial
agent

Metric
Unit

w/w

Gwendolyn Antibacterial Hand


Lotion
Product Performance
1 Humectant (1
Glycerin), 2,7
Emollient (0,7
Dimethicone, 2
Jojoba oil)

Caladine Lotion

Citra Body Lotion

Pure Works
Antibacterial
Lotion

5 Humectant (5
Glycerin)

4,5 Emollient (0,5


Dimethicone and 4,
Mineral oil)

2,5 Emollient
(0,5
Dimethicone, 2
Petrolatum)

15 Antimicrobial
agent (5 Calamine,
10 Zinc Oxide), 2
Antihistamine (2
Dipenhydramine
HCl)

0,1
Antimicrobial
agent (0,1
Benzethonium
chloride)

200 seconds

w/w

0,6 Antimicrobial
agent (0,3
Phenoxyethanol,
0,3 Triclosan)

w/w

0,5 Antioxidant
(Tocopheryl
acetate,
Hydroxypropyl
methylcellulose)

10 UV Absorber (10
Zinc oxide)

6,5 Reflector (6,5


Titanium dioxide),
2 UV-A Absorber
(2 Butyl
Methoxydibenzoyl
methane)

Seconds

192 seconds

105 seconds

320 seconds

(Source: Author personal data, 2015)

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Table 4.2. Benchmarking Result Based on Needs (Contd)

Competitor
Need
Number

Grouping

Rank

Specification

Metric
Unit

Gwendolyn Antibacterial Hand


Lotion

Caladine Lotion

Citra Body Lotion

Pure Works
Antibacterial
Lotion

Milk Extract,
Pachyrrhizus
Erosus Root
Extract

Product Performance

12

Hand and
body lotion
is made
from
organic
materials

15

Hand and
body lotion
is
waterproof

16

20

Hand and
body lotion
is nonstimulant to
hair growth
Hand and
body lotion
can reduce
hair growth

Concentration
of organic
materials

w/w

2 Jojoba oil

5 Calamine,
Camphor qs.

HLB
(Hydrophile
Lipophile
Balance )
Value*

Unitless

5,26

(Emulsifier not
listed in ingridients)

7,77

5,01

Concentration
of hair growth
stimulant

w/w

2 Jojoba oil

Concentration
of hair growth
depressant

w/w

(Source: Author personal data, 2015)

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Table 4.2. Benchmarking Result Based on Needs (Contd)

Competitor
Need
Number

24

Grouping

Hand and
body has
cooling
sensation

Rank

Specification

Concentration
of cooling
agent

Metric
Unit

w/w

Gwendolyn Antibacterial Hand


Lotion
Product Performance
-

Caladine Lotion

Citra Body Lotion

Pure Works
Antibacterial
Lotion

5 Calamine,
Camphor qs.

Material Properties
13

14

14

Hand and
body lotion
is non-sticky
Hand and
body lotion
has great
consistency
Hand and
body lotion
has great
consistency

Concentration
of chelating
agents
Concentration
of thickener
(rheology
modifier)
Specific gravity

0,1 Chelating agent


(0,1 Disodium
EDTA)
2,4 Thickener (2
Stearic acid, 0,2
Cetyl alcohol, 0,2
Carbomer)

w/w

w/w

0,2 Thickener
(Acrylates/ C10C30 Alkyl Acrylate
Crosspolymer)

Unitless

1,06

1,01

0,97

1,01

360

480

400

0,9 Thickener
(0,9 Cetearyl
alcohol)

Product Perception

Hand and
body lotion
has long
lasting
perfume

Aroma
duration

Seconds

600

(Source: Author personal data, 2015)

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Table 4.2. Benchmarking Result Based on Needs (Contd)

Competitor
Need
Number

17

Grouping

Hand and
body lotion
has great
scent options
Hand and
body lotion
has mild
scent
Hand and
body lotion
has unisex
scent

Rank

Specification

Scent
options

Metric
Unit

Gwendolyn Antibacterial Hand


Lotion
Product Perception

Caladine Lotion

Citra Body Lotion

Pure Works
Antibacterial
Lotion

Product
variety

Mild scent

Subjective

*****

***

**

****

Unisex scent

Subjective

***

***

**

***

Retailing
3

Hand and
body lotion
has compact
packaging
Hand and
body lotion
has an
attractive
packaging

Product
Dimesion
/100 ml

LxWxH
in cm

3,5x2x12,5

5x2x14,5

7x4x14

3,5x11x4,5

Attractive
packaging

Subjective

***

***

****

**

(Source: Author personal data, 2015)

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Table 4.2. Benchmarking Result Based on Needs (Contd)

Competitor
Need
Number

Grouping

21

Hand and
body lotion
has cheaper
price

23

Hand and
body lotion's
packaging
provide
useful
information

Hand and
body lotion
has
whitening
agents

Rank

Specification

Price

Informative
content on
packaging

Metric
Unit

IDR/100
ml

Content

Gwendolyn Antibacterial Hand


Lotion
Retailing

Caladine Lotion

Citra Body Lotion

Pure Works
Antibacterial
Lotion

24500

18000

7000

76000

Functions,
Ingridients, Nettom
Producer

Functions,
Ingridients,
Composition,
Contraindication,
How to use,
Warnings, Storage
methode, Producer

Function, How to
use, Warnings,
Ingridients,
Producer

Function, How
to use,
Warnings,
Ingridients,
Producer

1 Whitening agent
(1 Niacinamide)

Regulation

Concentration
of whitening
agent

w/w

(Source: Author personal data, 2015)

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Table 4.2. Benchmarking Result Based on Needs (Contd)

Competitor
Need
Number

10,19,25

10,19,25

22

Grouping

Hand and
body lotion
is nonirritant
Hand and
body lotion
is nonirritant
Hand and
body lotion
is nonparaben

Rank

Specification

Concentration
of irritant and
allergent
substances

pH range

Concentration
of preservatives

Metric Unit

Gwendolyn Antibacterial Hand


Lotion
Regulation

Caladine Lotion

Citra Body Lotion

Pure Works
Antibacterial
Lotion

w/w

0,3
Phenoxyethanol

2 Diphenhydramine
HCl

0,4
Phenoxyethanol

Benzethonium
chloride,
Phenoxyethanol

Unitless

5-7

9-10

4,1-6,5

5-7

w/w

0,5 Preservatives
(Methylparaben,
propylparaben,
ethylparaben,
butylparaben)

0,3 Preservatives
(0,2
Methylparaben, 0,1
propylparaben)

2,3
Preservatives (2
Diazolidinyl
urea, 0,2
Methylparaben,
0,1
Propylparaben)

(Source: Author personal data, 2015)

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Based on the benchmarking activity that we have done with results represented
in table above, we could see that the only lotion that has no antimicrobial function
is the Citra Body Lotion. We benchmark this product as a basis to know what is
the ordinary ingridients and compositions that the usual product of hand and body
lotion consists of. Apparently, there are slight differences if we compare the
ordinary hand and body lotion with the antibacterial one.
The difference is that, first, ordinary body lotion usually contain whitening
agents such as niacinamide. Second, ordinary body lotion also contain chelating
agents that used to make the product less adhere to other materials, it made Citra
Body Lotion has a less sticky after-use feel than any other products. Third, ordinary
body lotion also has less HLB value than antibacterial lotion, it means that it is more
soluble to water that any other product that we benchmark. Fourth, it has contains
more thickeners than any other products. Thickener made Citra Body Lotion
emulsion much more consistent than others. Last, ordinary body lotion has more
attractive packaging, more variant of scent, and a significantly cheaper price. The
last difference may be done in order to increase their selling rate by providing the
consumer with higher level of product perception.
Three other products, excluding Citra Body Lotion, are of the same kind of
product. However, all of them still has more benefits than other in some
specifications.Caladine Lotion is a well-renowned product of antibacterial lotion in
Indonesia. It can easily be distinguished by the pink-colored substance, the distinct
smell, and the after-use cooling sensation. Based on the table above, we see that
Caladine Lotion consists of some relatively unfamiliar compound in body lotion
formulation, such as calamine, and dipenhydramine HCl. We could note that
Caladine Lotion has no chelating agents, preservatives, and thickener that is listed
in their ingridients list. The deficiency of such substances make Caladine Lotion
the most inconsistent product substances. The deficiency can also make Caladine
Lotion more susceptible to product contamination, since it contains no preservatives
at all. Gwendolyn Anti-Bacterial Hand Lotion is a new brand of hand lotion. This
antibacterial hand lotion is the most similar kind of product to our antibacterial hand
and body lotion product. This lotion has the disadvantages of high level of
stickiness, longer aroma duration, and more specific gravity than any other
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35

products. The last product is the Pure Works Anti-bacterial Lotion. In reality,
because of the time limit, we cannot really benchmark this product since it has to
be imported from America, but, we can obtain the data from the Pure Works
website. This product has the disadvantages of having no organic substances added
in the ingridients. no sunscreen agents. The advantage of this product is that it has
less HLB values. The less HLB value means that this product is less soluble in
water, thus it is more water-resistant than any other product that we benchmark.
4.3. Marginal and Ideal Value
After we do benchmark, we can set the marginal and ideal value. By comparing
it to the grouping and ranking table of needs that we have obtain before, we can
specify how much each needs have to be quantified in order to maximize the
costumers satisfaction. Marginal value is the limit how the product can be accepted
by the consumer. Ideal value is the best value for the needs from the range of
marginal value that is expected to be provided in our product. The table of marginal
and ideal value is provided in table 4.3 below:

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Table 4.3. List of Product Specification

Need
Number

Grouping

Rank

Specification

Metric
Unit

Ideal Value

Marginal Value

Product Performance
Hand and body
lotion can
moisturize the
skin
Hand and body
lotion can reduce
pruritus (itching)
Hand and body
lotion has
whitening agents
Hand and body
lotion protects
the skin against
UV light

Concentration of
moisturizing
agent

w/w

2 10 Humectant, 0.02-5
Emollient

5 Humectant, 4.5
Emollient

Concentration of
antimicrobial
agent

w/w

0.25 5 Antimicrobial Agent

5 Antimicrobial Agent

Concentration of
whitening agent

w/w

1 Whitening agent
(1 Niacinamide)

Concentration of
sunscreen agent

w/w

10 UV Absorber, 0.5
Antioxidant, 6.5
Reflector

10,19,25

Hand and body


lotion is nonirritant

Concentration of
irritant and
allergent
substances

w/w

11

Hand and body


lotion can be
easily absorbed
by skin

Absorbency time

Seconds

105

6, 18

(Source: Some journals and reproduced from benchmarking, 2015)

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Table 4.3. List of Product Specification (Contd)

Need
Number

Grouping

Rank

Specification

Metric
Unit

Ideal
Value

Marginal Value

w/w

Milk Extract, Pachyrrhizus Erosus


Root Extract, Calamine, Camhor qs

Unitless

10 20

5.36

w/w

w/w

1 20

0.3

w/w

5 Calamine

w/w

4.1 10

57

w/w

0.1

w/w

0.5-10

2.4

Unitless

0.97
1.06

0.97

Product Performance
12
15
16
20
22
24

13
14
14

Hand and body lotion is


made from organic
materials
Hand and body lotion is
waterproof
Hand and body lotion is
non-stimulant to hair
growth
Hand and body lotion can
reduce hair growth
Hand and body lotion is
non-paraben
Hand and body has cooling
sensation
Hand and body lotion is
non-sticky
Hand and body lotion has
great consistency
Hand and body lotion has
great consistency

Concentration of organic
content

HLB (Hydrophile
Lipophile Balance ) Value*

Concentration of hair
growth stimulant

1
3
3

4
4
4

Concentration of hair
growth depressant
Concentration of
preservatives
Concentration of cooling
agent
Material Properties
Concentration of chelating
agents
Concentration of Thickener
(Rheology Modifier)
Specific gravity

(Source: Some journals and reproduced from benchmarking, 2015)

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Table 4.3. List of Product Specification (Contd)

Need
Number

Grouping

Rank

Specification

Metric Unit

Ideal Value

Marginal Value

Product Perception
7
8
9
17

Hand and body lotion


has long lasting perfume
Hand and body lotion
has great scent options
Hand and body lotion
has mild scent
Hand and body lotion
has unisex scent

Aroma duration

Subjective

600

Scent option

Subjective

Mild scent

Subjective

*****

Unisex scent

Subjective

***

Retailing
3
4
21

23

Hand and body lotion


has compact packaging
Hand and body lotion
has an attractive
packaging
Hand and body lotion
has cheaper price
Hand and body lotion's
packaging provide
useful information

Packaging type

Subjective

3.5 x 2 x 12.5

Attractive
packaging

Subjective

****

Price

IDR/100 mL

7000

Functions, Ingridients,
Composition, Contraindication,
How to use, Warnings, Storage
methode, Producer

Packaging
content

Subjective

(Source: Some journals and reproduced from benchmarking, 2015)

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Table 4.3. List of Product Specification (Contd)

Need
Number

Grouping

Rank

Specification

Metric Unit

Ideal Value

Marginal
Value

Regulation

No FDA
regulation for
niacinamide
because it is
only vitamin
B3

1 Whitening
agent (1
Niacinamide)

Unitless

4.1 10

57

Regulation

<0.08%

<0.08%

Regulation

Hand and body lotion


has whitening agents

Type of harmful
whitening agents

10,19,25

Hand and body lotion is


non-irritant

pH range

22

Hand and body lotion is


non-paraben

Allowed limit of
preservatives
concentration

(Source: Some journals and reproduced from benchmarking, 2015)

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Based on the literary reserach that we have done, up until now we have not
found a product that have the exact same concept of herbal antibacterial lotion with
our product. Thus, we chose patent number US 6383505 B1 titled Fast-acting
antimicrobial lotion with enhanced efficacyas a basis to determine the marginal
value in this benchmarking activity. Consideration regarding the patent we chose is
because the patent has the most resemblance in regards of product ingridients and
composition to our product. It composed of moisturizing agent , antibacterial agent,
and it has the similar range of pH value with our product.
In the regulation parts of the benchmarking table, we merge the needs of irritant
and allergent substances allowed limit and the paraben concetration limit because
based on the regulations for all the ingridients we benchmark, the most dangerous
and commercial substances is paraben. The regulations for allowed limit of paraben
is based on Commission Regulation (EU) number 358/2014 of April 9th 2014. Also,
we have not found the regulation for Niacinamide as whitening agents. The reason
may be because that Niacinamide is just B3 vitamin that is not harmful if used
excessively, unlike other whitening agents, such as mercury or hydroquinone.

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CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION

Based on the previous chapter that has been discussed before, it can be
concluded that:
1. Skin is the outer part of the body as the protecion from mocrobes and harmful
external influences;
2. Epidermis needs to stay moisturized to protect the deepper layers;
3. To keep moisture of epidermis, the skin produces Natural Moisturizing Factor
(NMF);
4. If NMF has disruption, it can lead to dry skin which has high potential for
bacterial developing;
5. Nowadays, most people use body lotion to moisturize the skin and no one use
body lotion to reduce bacteria on the skin;
6. Based on responses of the costumers, there are certain features that are highly
desirable to be featured in body lotion, including: sun protection, stickiness
level, allergen content, and compact packaging; and
7. There isnt any antibacterial hand and body lotion products which is made from
herbal ingredients.

41

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REFERENCE

Anonim. 2007. Parabens. USA: Food and Drug Administration;


Anonim. 2008. Bacterial Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in Adults: A Review of
Their Epidemiology Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Site of Care. Online:
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, Wednesday 25th February 2015, 15.00 WIB;
Anonim. 2011. www.webmd.com, Thursday 19th February 2015, 15.00 WIB;
Anonim. 2012. Chamomile (Matricaria Recutita). Online : www.herbwisdom.com,
Thursday 19th February 2015, 15.15 WIB;
Anonim. 2012. Chamomile. Online : www.drugs.com, Thursday 19th February
2015, 15.18 WIB;
Anonim. 2012. Olive Oil Fights Itchy Skin and Bad Breath. Online :
www.menshealth.com, Thursday 19th February 2015, 05.00 WIB;
Anonim. 2013. Anti bacterial moisturizing hand lotion fresh lemon. Online :
www.drugs.com, Monday 16th February 2015, 05.00 WIB;
Anonim. 2013. List of the More Widely Known Dangerous Ingredients in Body &
Food Products. Online : www.purezing.com, Monday 16th February 2015,
05.00 WIB;
Anonim. 2013. Antimicrobials. Online : cosmeticsinfo.org, Monday 16th February
2015, 05.00 WIB;
Anonim. 2013. Overview Information specific to: Calamine Lotion. Online :
www.nhs.uk, Thursday 19th February 2015, 14.40 WIB;
Anonim.

2014.

Making

Emulsions

For

Cosmetics.

Online:

www.makingcosmetics.com, Thursday 19th February 2015, 13.00 WIB;


Anonim. 2014. Perawatan Kulit dan Dampak Bahan Kimia Sabun Mandi. Online :
www.agensabunherbal.com, Monday 16th February 2015, 05.00 WIB;
Ashbery, Jason, et al. Moisturizing Lotion. Buffalos School of Engineering and
Applied Sciences: New York;
Chiller, Katarina, et al. 2001. Skin Microflora and Bacterial Infections of The Skin.
Journal of Investigate Dermatology Symposium Proceedings, 6, 170-174.
doi:10.1046/j.0002-202x.2001.00043.x;

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43

Dersonolo, Nova Gupita. 2012. Skripsi : Formulasi Sediaan Hand Body Lotion.
Online : ui.ac.id, Monday 16th February 2015, 08.00 WIBDobos, Kelly. 2014.
How do Skin Moisturizers Work ? Online : chemistscorner.com, Monday 16th
February 2015, 08.10 WIB;
Keithler, W. M. R. 1956. The Formulation of Cosmetics and Cosmetics Specialtics.
Drug and Cosmetic Industry: New York;
Latifah, Fatma and Tranggono, Retno I.S. 2007. Buku Pegangan Ilmu Pengetahuan
Kosmetik. Gramedia: Jakarta;
Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc. September 14, 2010. Antibacterial Hand Cream
with Beads. Patent : CL-H0019(LA);
Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc. March 9, 2011. Asian Beaty Skin Brightening
Cream. Patent : O-0020(AP);
Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc. November 15, 2012.Fresh and Silky Body
Moisturizer.Patent : B-0076(AP);
Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc. November 15, 2012. Luxurious Moisturizing
Body Cream. Patent : B-0077(AP);
Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc. May 21, 2013. Nourishing Body Lotion with
Shea Butter. Patent : B-0079;
Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc. February 26, 2009. In-Shower Body Lotion.
Patent : B- 0058;
Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc. May 31, 2012. Moisture Drench Body Lotion.
Patent : B- 0040;
Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc. November 20, 2007. SPF 30+ Sunscreen Lotion
Very Water Resistant. Patent : SU-0016;
Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc. December 5, 2007. Skin Moisturizing Lotion.
Patent : B- 0030;
Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc. November 5, 2007. Hand and Body Lotion.
Patent : B- 0021;
Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc. November 14, 2012. Mild Facial Cleanser with
Jojoba Beads. Patent : CL-F0031(AP);
Lynde, C. W. 2014. University of Toronto : Moisturizers, What They Are and How
They Work. Online : skintherapyletter, Monday 16th February 2015, 08.20 WIB;
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44

MacNeal, Robert J. 2014. Structure and Function of The Skin. Online :


www.merckmanuals.com, Monday 16th February 2015, 08.30 WIB;
Schmitt, W. H. 1996. Cosmetics And Toiltries Industry, 2ndEdition:Skin Care
Products. Blackie Academe and Profesional: London
Transdermal and Topical Drug Delivery. 2003. Chapter I: Structure and Function
of Human Skin. Pharmaceutical Press;
Voigt, R. 1984. Buku Pelajaran Teknologi Farmasi Edisi V, Terjemahan:
Noerono,S. UGM Press : Yogyakarta; dan
Yudi.

2013.

Kandungan

dan

Manfaat

Daun

Sirih

Hijau.Online

www.7manfaat.com, Monday 16th February 2015, 05.00 WIB.

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APPENDICE
APPENDICE A
List of Question for Questioner and Interview

Here are some questions which our group uses for interview:
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Apakah jenis kulit Anda ?


(Dapat dipilih lebih dari 1)
o Kering
o Normal
o Sensitif
o Berminyak
o Lainnya :

..
Apakah Anda memiliki riwayat penyakit kulit ?
o Ya
o Tidak
Jika ya, apa jenis penyakit kulit yang pernah Anda alami ?

..
Apakah Anda memiliki alergi yang berhubungan dengan kulit ?
o Ya
o Tidak
Jika ya, apa penyebab alergi tersbut ?
(Dapat dipilih lebih dari 1)
o Makanan
o Suhu lingkungan
o Lingkungan kotor
o Bahan pakaian
o Lainnya :
.
.

6.

7.

8.

45

Apakah Anda pernah merasakan gatal di kulit ?


o Ya
o Tidak
Jika ya, apa yang menyebabkan gatal tersebut ?
(Dapat dipilih lebih dari 1)
o Alergi
o Keringat
o Panas / Gerah
o Lingkungan kotor
o Debu / Asap
o Virus
o Bakteri
o Detergen
o Lainnya :
.

Apa yang Anda lakukan untuk mengurangi gatal tersebut ?


o Menggunakan obat/salep yang dijual bebas di apotek
(Sebutkan
merek
:
.)
o Menggunakan obat/salep berdasarkan resep dokter
(Sebutkan
merek
:
.)
o Lainnya :
.

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46

9.

10.

11.

12.
13.
14.

Apa bentuk obat yang biasa Anda beli untuk menghilangkan gatal
tersebut ?
(Dapat dipilih lebih dari 1)
o Obat minum antibiotik
o Salep
o Body Lotion
o Suntikan
o Lainnya :
.
....
Apa yang Anda tidak sukai dari porduk pengurang rasa gatal di
kulit yang sudah ada di pasaran ?
o Mahal
o Lengket
o Berbekas putih setelah pemakaian
o Baunya menyengat
o Terhapus jika terkena air/keringat
o Kemasannya sulit dibawa
o Lainnya :
..
..
Apakah Anda pernah menggunakan bahan herbal atau tradisional
untuk menghilangkan gatal pada kulit ?
o Ya
o Tidak
Jika ya, jelaskan bahan herbal atau metode tradisional seperti
apa ?

..
Apakah hobi Anda ?
(Dapat dipilih lebih dari 1)
o Berkebun
o Berenang
o Traveling
o Menjelajahi alam (hutan, naik gunung, dsb)

Olahraga
Menari
Marching band
Bermain alat musik
Melakukan aktivitas non fisik (membaca, menulis, main game,
tidur, makan)
o Lainnya :
.
.
Apakah Anda sering berkeringat ?
o Ya
o Tidak
Jika ya, apa penyebab Anda sering berkeringat ?

.
Bagaimana kondisi lingkungan tempat Anda tinggal ?
o Cenderung kering
(Spesifikasi
tempat : ....................................................................................)
o Cenderung lembab
(Spesifikasi
tempat : ....................................................................................)
o Biasa saja
(Spesifikasi
tempat : ....................................................................................)
Bagaimana kondisi lingkungan tempat Anda bekerja ?
o Cenderung kering
o (Spesifikasi
tempat : ....................................................................................)
o Cenderung lembab
o (Spesifikasi
tempat : ....................................................................................)
o Biasa saja
o (Spesifikasi
tempat : ....................................................................................)
Apakah Anda pernah menggunakan hand body lotion ?
o
o
o
o
o

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

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20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

o Ya
o Tidak
Jika ya, seberapa sering Anda menggunakannya ?
o Setiap hari
o Seminggu satu kali
o Lainnya :
..
..

Apa tujuan Anda menggunakan hand body lotion ?


(Dapat dipilih lebih dari 1)
o Melembapkan kulit
o Mencerahkan kulit
o Menghilangkan gatal di kulit
o Lainnya : ..
Apakah Anda pernah menggunakan hand body lotion untuk
mengurangi rasa gatal di kulit ?
o Ya
o Tidak
Jika ya, apa merek hand body lotion tersebut ?
..
..
Berapa nominal harga untuk membeli body lotion tersebut ?
o < 5000
o 5000 10.000
o 10.000 20.000
o 20.000 50.000
o 50.000 100.000
o >100.000
o Lainya :
..
..
Menurut Anda, fitur apa saja yang harus ada pada sebuah
produk body lotion?
(Dapat dipilih lebih dari 1)
o Melembabkan kulit

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Dapat menghilangkan gatal


Mudah dibawa
Packaging yang menarik
Mencerahkan/Memutihkan kulit
Mengandung SPF
Aroma yang tahan lama
Aroma yang enak dihirup
Aroma yang tidak menyengat
Tidak menyebabkan alergi
Daya resap ke kulit yang cepat
Terbuat dari bahan-bahan organik
Tidak Lengket
Konsistensi yang tepat (tidak terlalu cair atau terlalu kental)
Waterproof
Lainnya
..
..

26. Bagaimana bentuk produk body lotion yang biasanya Anda beli?
o Sachet
o Botol tanpa penekan
o Botol dengan penelan
o Wadah silinder
Lainnya
..
..
27. Bagaimana kemasan body lotion yang Anda inginkan ?
..
..
28. Menurut Anda, apa kekurangan dari hand body lotion yang sudah
ada ?
..
..
29. Hand body lotion seperti apa yang Anda inginkan ?
o

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30.

31.

32.

33.

..
..
Apakah Anda pernah menggunakan hand body lotion anti
bakteri ?
o Ya
o Tidak
Jika ya, apa merek hand body lotion tersebut ?
..
..
Jika ada hand body lotion anti bakteri yang terbuat dari bahan
herbal, apakah Anda berminat untuk membelinya ?
o Ya
o Tidak
o Sebutkan alasannya :
..
..
Berapa harga yang pantas untuk hand body lotion herbal anti
bakteri tersebut ?
o < 5000

5000 10.000
10.000 20.000
20.000 50.000
50.000 100.000
>100.000
Lainya :
..
..
34. Apa yang Anda tidak sukai dari porduk pengurang rasa gatal di
kulit yang sudah ada di pasaran ?
o Mahal
o Lengket
o Berbekas putih setelah pemakaian
o Baunya menyengat
o Terhapus jika terkena air/keringat
o Kemasannya sulit dibawa
o Lainnya :
..
..
o
o
o
o
o
o

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