You are on page 1of 138

ugrV wRpaw

ljZ uVj wg byiu woj

l.a WjWj qhJ hiVjq dl>z ug qhjiju


c[ij iP.qg rjvj Fp,Dy' wvJ d;v%j Wdn>cj
\Fje fdhvj|

Z.V epiP VjVw ljdhW ug


##epiP VjVw sj iPf WSjw[ VjijdHS u,e bjdHbj r[l rBjdHbj$$
##qjdHbj dal s[ V[C V bjr[ dVi.wji sj ljdHbj ly[ FjdHbj$$

blglJ

WjWj t[q dl>z ug


f+ w jLw

WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug

q"uPsj qhJfpiL
c[ij WjWj iP.qg rjvj Fp,Dy' wvJ@ Wdn.cj m
x'V ^ 0164-2741811@ 09216513139
1

lF h,w v[tw s[ ijtr[G hV m

sPug rji ^ 2010

blglJ

WjWj t[q dl>z ug


f+ w jLw

WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug

q"uPsj qhJfpiL
c[ij WjWj iP.qg rjvj Fp,Dy' wvJ@ Wdn.cj m
x'V ^ 0164-2741811@ 09216513139

Ajfw ^

df+B
> r{Kv
146@ dH>cglB+gbv x'wv fpbjdH>B@
b>dq+ali
2

aawij
a[ ldhu lph[v[ epSdh bq'v[ uea RpZjiS bjH[
11
epNCj vZqp vjvp qo{ hg fieBp dobj WjWj ug Wji[ Fdr,ta WyV 15
l'Hg ujS{ l'Hg fAjS{ uj wRp Vsdi dl>is[
16
Feda FeaV hP. WdV bjHg
28
H[w B[w e'dr>s wg dabjeg bVp bjl
30
Fdr,t Wji[ qjaj dfaj Vjv WyV
32
f+F ug Wldh ljZ wg ilVj
35
zi'G Wjhi dHwJa dr,y idhSj
37
uh uh itdh bjdf ah ujdH tC'rSj mm
39
l.a ijq dl>z ug lPLJ rjdvbJ Vjv dqvjf
40
dVNiJ sg f>c'ig
44
l+g b>Ddq+ali dVrjl siLV h'S[ a[ zi fhp>ySj
48
zi[ dBwjSj@ dxi zi'G yv[ ujSj
53
wfPiv[ fhp.ySj
55
ljZ w{ l.de Vhg wAp zjv mm
58
silVp F[Ba h'a dVhjv mm
58
RPV[ W[sg ljdhW;js[ Vjv dqvjf
61
RPV[ ljdhW a'G y,v w[ u.ev dr,y
62
h'i wHg blojVJ a[ dryi w[ zi zi'G dxi Wjhi
64
dH,w qplvqjV `wgi Vjv q[v
65
ueiJY fgi v,Df[ Ljh w'v ba[ dHl s[ bjl[ fjl[
70
ueijrJ a'G hnPi r,v
72
hnPi sg rjiaj
73
lavpu s[ dwVji[
75
lavpu dwVji[ a'G WiVjv[ r,v
78
WjWj ug V[ ZV"v[ fhp>yVj
81
dcRpTj sprHgbj
82
3

w'iCj A.s
dli dt>cg A.s
duqksji a[ dw+fj wiVg
l.a e.ej ijq Vjv dqvjf
l.a q>cvg Vjv debjV yiyj
dH,w sptgH[ sj s,pt sPi wiVj
Vjq qhjaqj ba[ diZ dlZ
dHw duqksji a[ dwifj wiVg
Fjig af,Ddlbj wiVg
Fea[ fhp.yVj
dryji
dligH[ rjv[ sg rjiaj
w'nj epiP s[ qvPw[ sg rjiaj
dadV s[dtbj dulp bjdf dstjH[mm u>cJ rjv[ sj dW+aJa
y'iJ a'G ljZ
l[rwp wgV' lsj dVhjvp mm u>cJ rjv[ a'G apiVj
F'vP rjvj
c[ij WjWj iPqg rjvj Fpy' wvJ
l>a WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug q>si qphji VjVwli a'G FppKy' ljdhW a,w

83
84
85
87
89
92
94
98
104
112
113
115
117
124
127
131
132
133
134

bisjl
sptgbj sis r.s si Rpa[@
sPi'G yvw[ bjdHbj mm
si si FBw[ n'wi tjr[@
dwa'G urjW Vj fjdHbj mm
wi dqhijqa bjfSg lJHg@
bjfS[ yiV vejv{ mm
qJ vjvg dfY vjvj@
hRp vjv[ wj ujdHbj mm

v[tw ldaVjq dl>z


df>c a[ cj! ci"vg FjHg
adhlgv q'ej@ d;v%j xigsw'B
blglJ WjWj t[q dl>z ug c[ij WjWj i.pqg rjvj
r,v'G^-q"uPsj qhJfpiL WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug c[ij WjWj iP.qg rjvj
5

lqifV
dHl Ziag sj qjvw bjf[@ bjf[ Wje vejdHbj mm
bjf[ fjSg dihj vejRpGsj@ bjf[ xp,v dtCjdHbj mm
dtC[ xp,v tLWPbJ bjHgbJ@ qdhw Rpng lF Ziag mm
WpvWv W'vg F"i[ eP.uS@ lF sj qV VdLbjdHbj mm1mm
dtC[ Wje dr,y qjvw W{nj@ bjfSj bjlS vjw[ mm
hjui lF l[rw yiVJ dr,y@ W{n[ bsW Wuj w[ mm
sjV[ sgrjV a[ qlajV[@ fH[ bjV.s dr,y NPqS mm
h'i W[-b>a Vj deSag bjr[@ W{n[ lgl dVrj w[ mm2mm
dH,w dVqjSj W.sj e.sj@ Vjv epVjhj Fdibj mm
Vj w'Hg l[rj dlqiS uf af@ dul a'G wpN Vj ldibj m
FjeJ rjv[ l[rj wi eH[@ siLV wi qV nji[ m
q>sFje[ } sil Vj h'dHbj@ Vj duRpGsj sj Vj qdibj m
Rpl q>s[ } dqv w[ lF V[@ dH,w dH,w xp,v xCjdHbj m
WjWj ug V[ upeag sl w[ epvslaj WSrjdHbj m
b,e[ ug u' a[ig l{ ] a{} wg wdi s[rJ m
a[ij a[i[ yiVJ b>si a{G hg dvbj itjdHbj m

1! WjWj bV.s dl>z ug wv[iJ rjv[ m 2! l.a Whjv sjl ug m 3! l.a bdy>a ijq
ug m 4! dHLjij v[tw r,v ] m

1 ldaepi f+ljds
l+g rjdhepiP ug wg xadh
1 ldaVjqp wiaj fpitp dViFRp dVir{ip
bwjv qPida buPVg l{F. epi f+ljds
mm ufp mm
bjds lyp upejds lyp ] Fg lyp VjVw h'lg Fg lyp mm
lv'w
c.cRpda W.sV bdVw Wji liW wvj lqio mm
c'vV a[ ijthp f+DFP VjVw s[ wdi ho mm

dWvjrvp q^ 4

\eRpCg W^ b^ q f| \256|

hqij dyap vpFa q'dh dWdtbj Whp spiqda q{vp Fij mm


apqig l[rj wdi V lwh f+F hq dwRp wdi qpeZ aij mm

q[i[ qV udf Vihi Vjqp Vihij mm

uV RPfdi dwifj f+dF Zjig dqdv ldaepi fjdi fij mm1mm ihjRp
hqi[ dfaj njwpi f+F lpbjqg hdi s[hp qag ulp wij mm
apqi{ l.de ve[ l[ RpZi[ duRp l.e wjlB v'h aij mm2mm
ljwa Vi h'Ag qda qdZq duV hdi hdi l[r Vj wij mm
a[ Vi FjehgV sphyjig YdH uVdq qpH[ dxdi qij mm3mm
duV wRp apq hdi q[vhp lpbjqg a[ VjH[ l.a't epi lij mm
spiqda q{vp eHg hdi Fdubj uV VjVw fjdi fij mm4mm

\799|

mm sl fjaLjhg q>evJ yiV mm


wpc
. vgbj

epi VjVw b>es epiP bqi sjl ijqsjl mm


l+g biupV biupV lpV' wi' lpq,a f+wjL mm
wi' lp q , a f+ w jl hi e' d W> s ep i fP i [ mm
hdi ijdH hi iPf liW idhbj FifPi[ mm
dli ABg ijt dVu hjo wg dul qPit wgV' yapi mm
dVu sjl ujV Wv WpZ l+g s[h hdi dw+LV lq+o epi mm

\y"fHg|

l+g epiP hi e'dW>s w[ V.sV mm sjlV w[ bz Yz dVw.sV mm


duV w[ Vjq dlqi lpt fjdH mm spt sdis dtV qdh dqB ujdH mm
wiSj wi{ e+.o h'dH fPiV mm dWzV wv[l hi{ lF aPiV mm
a[e Whjsi duVw{ Vjq mm u'i hjo daV yiV f+Sjq mm

\wdWa|

b>Ddq+a w[ sja[@ Wji[ lsj@ Wgi il ija[


yji'G wp.B qdh uja[@ Z.V l+g slq[L ug m
dWzV

hiV

sjl

ijtI'

liV

epiP ajiV aiV@ ujV[ qdhqj Vj L[L ug m


f>o tjvlj lujdHY@ Ziq dh>s w' WyjdHY
ue upvq dqBjdHY@ wgH[ wjiu drL[L ug m
wi W.s[ lgl VjdH@ wi' sjl wg lhjdH
8

dsh' dWzv VljdH dHh' dWV{ uea[; ug m


qhj

fp i t

q> e vj

yiV

\lr{Ij|

Frw Fr W.Z dVrjiV wRp@ udfRp duV bjn' ujq hig mm


dVl Wjlpi ujea u'a ufg@ rdlY dis qdh ldaVjdqhig mm
hdi Vjq ufa hdiVjdq FH[@ lF q{ f[tRp bdFijq hig mm
epS dW>+s ehgi ligi ZdiRp@ ##hiVjq hig$$ hiVjq hig mm
s'hij ^ Vjqp ufa hiVjq dl>z FH[ iPf hdiVjqp mm
u' i

hjo

dli

VjdHw{

wi"

yiV

fiVjq mm

\wdWa|
drL} sj iP f ujS fP d ubj l+ g ijq dl> z
q> V

w[

WyV

dy> a

ijq

bjf

Fg

daV

Whjv
dWs[ h

di, Z

sjl
h' H [

dl, Z

bjts[
da+ L Vj

fjHg

] mm

Ws[ h

WjWj

FvjHg

] mm

VjVw epiP sj iPf q>DdVbj WjW[ V.s dl>z


q> V

w[

WyV

wgag

wnV

wqjHg

] mm

FjrVj bZgV@ wga[ l[rw f+ZgV@ Z.V WjWj hiVjq dl>z a[ig
rdcbjHg ] m

1! l.lji s[ uVq qiV s[ W>ZV m 2! bn' fdhi m 3! wBS vHg m 4! hi r[v[ m


5! dsV ija m 6! lp.si m 7! lji[ epSj sj zi m

\wdWa|
l>a iPf Zjiw{ f+eB FH[ ue qdh lda iPf ldaVjq dis[ qjdh
ZjdiY mm s[ w[ Rpfs[L lF w,B a[ wv[L dVu sjlV w[ v'w f+v'w
w' lrjdiY didZ dldZ hjo u'i njcg ih{ spbji b,De@[ u'Hg wh{
l'Hg h'r{ Bia Vj BjdiY mm
yiV wqv fi W.sVj wia sjl wdiw[ q[hi lF dWzV dVrjdiYmm

bdCv
l+g hiVjq l+de.s uea qdh bqai[ m
sjlV dWzV dVw.s Fea Fruv hi[ m
duV vgRp Rp f s[ l LWs wqjdHY m
h' spt sis F" dVwB Vj daVw[ bjdHY m(

lr{Ij
l. a V

l. e

f> e a

Vjq

WV[

la

l. e a

Rp y jiV

wRp -

duh Fje Fv[ Vi ajdh dqv[


LpF ojV l' fjf dWsjiV wYqV dHAa fjra ] dah a[
q[h bjsw sPt drljiV wRphiVjq iP f ##hdiVjqp hig$$
FH[ W'dho fji RpajiV wRp10

a[ ldhu lph[v[ epSdh bq'v[


uea RpZjiS bjH[
b{lgbJ hlagbJ duV%J sg ugrV uqgVg Vhk ]@ RphVJ Wji[
riVS dwl ai%J wgaj uj lwsj ] m duV%J q>;vJ a[ Rph fhp>y[
hp>s[ hV RpV%J aw ljcg fhp.y VhgG m Rph bqv'w hlagbJ hp.sgbJ
hV m wpv qjvw dHVljVg Lwv Zji w[ ljc[ spt sis lpVS rjla[
braji Zjis[ hV m dH,w dHVljV qhJfpit sg ajvgq@ aigx@
dqLV@ bjsiL@ v'w fiv'w LwagbJ@ di,ZgbJ dl,ZgbJ Wji[
dWbjV aJ wg wi lwsj ]@ RpV%J s[ wpN s[t[ uJ lpS[ w"aw hg
wvqW.s wi lwsj ] m qhJfpitJ sj ugrV dvtSj bjq dHVljVg
l'y \Wp,Zg| Vjv lpq[v Vhk dwRpGdw dHh aJ dsV r[v[ lPiu sg
i"LVg dr,y sgfw v{ w[ apiV s[ lqjV ] m qhJfpit sg du>seg
l+[LB Wp,Zg s[ dryjiS a'G w'Bg bfi.-bfji ] m ljij l.lji qV
sg zjB a[ l' dihj h{ m qhJfpiL dHhg wdhS bjRpGs[ hV m uje' )
Rpnw[ tC[ h'r' Rpl rwa aw Vj ndhi' us a,w q>uv[ qwLPs
w' Vj fjRp m
dHVljV bjrjeqV sj y,wi ujSsj h'dHbj rg bSujS
WS uJsj ]@ qVp,t iPf sg h'Gs dr,y bj w[ f+q[Li dHVljV }
fpwji w[ bjtsj ] dw spVgbJ bjrjeqV sj y,wi ] dHh bldoi
] m f>u drwjiJ sg vjvlj dabje w[ f+FP sg LiV dr,y
bjY mqhJfpit aJ e.s[ fjSg dr,y rg bjfSg AjdHbj A,c uJs[
hV@ fi dHVljV ##q{G$$ dr,y tya idh>sj ] m ##qVG$$ dr,y q{v
h'r[ aJ ugrV sg zCg zp>eiPbJ rJe dWti uJsg ] fi dstjHg
Vhk ds.sg m FerjV dqv[ej bjaqj s[ BB'vV Vjv m FerjV }
11

fjRpSj ] aJ b>ai } uejY m l,y[ dsv sg bjrj; eP.usg ] aJ


sgrjiJ dhvj ds>sg ] m ljZP I'e Vjv WS[ aJ l,y@ u[ wqu'ig
uJ ci Vjv WS[ aJ NPn m l,y } fia,t wiV rjv[ qdhvJ s[
qjvw ijq } u.evJ dr,y FBwSj dfbj m f+q[Li a'G WtLg h'Hg
wiqI'e sg F,ng dr,y lj} lF } uvVj h'r[ej m wiqeag Bv
Vhk lwsg@ BjvS sj f+a,t ljZV ] qhJfpit sg l.ea u' b>ai
Lwag } Rpujei wisg ] m W+hq debjV q>si dr,y zdCbjv@
qlus dr,y dVqju wiV Vjv Vhk dqvsj ] m ujS rjv[ qpljdxi
vHg i'e dH,w WhjVj hp.sj ] m wiqI'e sg F,ng sg eiqg } hi
bjsqg V[ ldhV wiVj h'r[ej m ijq Vjq sg Lwag Vjv fjSg
a[ f,oi a{iV v,e uJs[ hV m
dHVljVg ligi@ iPh ba[ bjaqj sj dH,w df>uij ] m bjaqj@
iPh Vpqj f>Ag df>ui[ dr,y w{s hV m f>Ag df>ui[ dry'G dVwvsj ]
aJ df>uij w.Wsj ]@ f>Ag Rpc debj aJ df>uij tjvg idh debj m
dHh b>ai bjaqj } uejRpS vHg qhJfpit qVp,tg ligi dr,y
Ziag sg w.c a[ ugrV upeag s,lS vHg bjRpGs[ hV m dHV%J
qhJfpitJ dr,Dy'G dH,w qhJfpit WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug l,y sj
qjie siljRpS vHg Ziag a[ qVp,tg ugrJ s[ sp,t sg FCwsg
urjvj } WpNjRpS vHg braji Zji w[ bjH[ m dHV%J s[ ugrV
s[ wpN w"aw wvqW>s hV m
WjWj ug sj uVq awigWV RpVgrk lsg s[ btgi dr,y dWw+qg
l.qa 1870 uJ 80 \1813 uJ 1823 Hglrk| df>c qVlPirjv
dibjla wfPiovj \duv%j wfPiovj| du,Do[ b,u w,v uv.Zi
b>Ddq+ali i[vr[ vjdHV@ dWbjl lB[LV a'G RpKai fPiW sg Vpwi
dr,y dTvrJ W,l b,c[ a'G da.V wp qgv s[ xjlv[ a[ ldo,a ]@ WjWj
WPC dl>z ug s[ e+dh qjaj f+ZjV w"i sg wp,Dt'G h'dHbj \f[dwbJ
s[ zi qjaj ug sj Vjq FjVg lg| WjWj ug s[ da.V FjHg r,Dc[
12

lV m W,ej dl>z@ sl"Gsj dl>z ba[ dVZjV dl>z m WjWj ug sj Vjq


qjaj dfaj V[ dVhjv dl>z i,Ddtbj lg ba[ sl"Gsj dl>z ba[ dZbjV
dl>z } bjvj dl>z ba[ x,vj dl>z s[ Vjq Vjv rg fpwjis[ lV m
WjWj ug s[ VjVj ug sj Vjq wjhV dl>z@ VjVg sj Vjq V.s w"i
lg s' qjq[ lV r,cj qjqj qajW dl>z ba[ A'Bj epvjW dl>z m i>Zjrj
VjVdwbJ sg e'a lg m VjVw[ rg i>Zjrj df>c hg lV m WjWj ug
sj e'a W,v duqksjij lg m b,u w,v% rg df>c qVlPirjv da>V zi
hg W,v duqksjiJ s[ hV m A'Bg Rpqi dr,y qjaj ug@ WjWj ug }
qlajVj wdh dw hg dubjsj WpvJs[ lV m bjq df>c s[ v'w uJ
hjSg ##qjsP$$ wqvj wdh>s[ hp>s[ lV dwRpGdw bjf lsj hg qla
idh>s[ lV m
bjf ug s[ r,c[ FjHg aJ dfaj ug Vjv t[agWjCg s[ w.q dr,y
dh,lj v{Gs[ lV fi bjf hi lq[G ypfyjf@ duo[ W{n[ hV Rpo[ hg
W{n[ idhSj m eiqg@ lisg@ Fp,t ai[h sg f+rjh Vhk lV wis[ m
h'i WjvwJ rjvgbJ e,vJ@ t[cSj@ h,lSj@ i'Sj Fjr lF WyfV
sgbJ e,vJ a'G dViv[f hg lV m
F'v[ Fjv[ ba[ qla h'S wiw[ dHV%J sj Whpaj dtbjv qjaj
ug hg wdibj wis[ lV m i'Bg fjSg tpbjRpSj dHLVjV bjds
dwRpGdw bjfS[ bjf wpN Vhk wis[ lV m dH,w aJ A'B[ h'S wiw[@
dl,DZ[ ljs[ h'S wiw[ qjaj ug bjf } hg Whpa dfbji wis[ lV m
ws[ ws[ bjfS[ lpFjb bVplji wpN W'vs[ rg lV@ fi dwl[ }
lqN Vhk bjRpGsg lg m
qhJ fpit rjdhepiP s[ i>e dr,yi,aj h'dHbj ##u[aJ W'vS a[aj
debjV hp>sj ] fi>aP Rpl debjV } lqNS rjvj w'Hg drivj
hg hp>sj ] m qjdHbj dr,y qla h'Hg spVgbj dHV%J e,vJ a'G W[firjh
hg idh>sg ] m dHh' hg wjiS ] dw qhJfpitJ } zi dr,y idh>DdsbJ
hg dHl ai%J dHwJa h'S sj q"wj dqv uJsj ] m
13

Feaj wg yjv dVijvg


yjvj dVijvg Feajh w[ig dWtq qjide yvSj mm
vWp v'Fp bh.wji adu da=lVj Whpap Vjhg W'vSj mm

\b>e 918|

dul qhJfpit sj qV dvrvgVaj dr,y ]@ dul sg lpia Vjq


dr,y ] Rpl w'v W'vS sj lqJ hg dw,Do[ ] ( W'vsj w'S ] ( wWgi
ug sj woV ]@
whp wWgi APAj zBp W'v{ m
Fdibj h'dH lp wWhp Vj c'v{ mm

\b>e 870|

\e'c WjSg wWgi ug|


FjHg episjl ug s[ woV bVplji
rjdhepiP epip LWsp v{
dfiq dfbjvj ypdf yW'vj m

rji 1 mm fRpCg 17 mm

s[ woV bVplji qla bc'v hg idh>s[ lV m wpN r,cg Rpqi


h' ujS a'G Wjbs u[ dwa[ FijrJ V[ w'Hg w.q wiV vHg bjtSJ
aJ bjfV[ ypfyjf hg W{n[ idhSj m wHg rji aJ eiqg lisg dr,y
Wjhi W{n[ idhSj m dH,w rji qjaj ug V[ ija } q>u[ a[ W{n[ h'dHbJ
} s[dtbj m lF zi s[ ugb lpa[ fH[ h'S wiw[ bjrju s[ w[ dwhj m
##qlajdVbJ@ aP. lp,aj Vhk ( a{} Vks Vhk bjRpGsg (
b,e'G h,l w[ W'v[ ##qJ@ ljig spVgbJ lp,ag fHg ] m dwl[ }
bjfS[ bjf sg lpia Vhk ] m$$
##lF qs qja[ w'Hg Vj uje$$ dHl ai%J sj WyV wis[ hp.s[
lV us'G ws[ wiVj m

14

epNCj vZqp vjvp qo{ hg fieBp dobj


WjWj ug Wji[ Fdr,ta WyV
\b>e 1096|

dH,w dsV bjf dH,wv[ hg drhC[ dr,y W{n[ lV m dH,w iqaj


ljZP Vei dr,y dFdtbj q>esj-q>esj zi bj debj m dul rwa
sirju[ b,e[ bj w[ dFdtbj v{S vHg lsj wgag@ w'Hg zi Vj
h'S wiw[ Rpl } dFdtbj fjRpS vHg w'Hg Vj bjdHbj m aJ wpN
dyi RpcgwS dfA'G ljZP r[hC[ dr,y bj debj m b,e[ bjf q>ug
Rpa[ W{n[ lV m RpV%J l.aJ V[ bjf ug } dH,w s' rjig WpvjdHbj
fi bjf ug V[ us'G l.aJ r,v a,Ddwbj aJ Rph qhjaqj Rpl[ r[v[
uqgV a[ W{n eH[ m y.eg ai%J ligi s[ dy>V% y,wi h,oJ ba[ f{iJ
sgbJ i[tj s[ dVLjV s[tS ve fH[ m Rpl[ r[v[ qjaj ug bj eH[ m
r[dtbj dw l.a uqgV a[ W{n[ hV ba[ q[ij vCwj q>u[ Rpa[ W{nj
] m A[ag WjWj ug s[ w'v bj w[ wdhS veg@ ##r[ qlajdVbj@
l.a uqgV a[ W{n[ hV a[ aP. q>u[ Rpa[ W{nj ] m$$ WJh xC w[ h[nJ
dWnjV veg m bjf V[ aJ w'Hg RpKai Vhk ds,aj fi qhjaqJ V[
fpdAbj ##qjaj dHh Wjvw a[ij ] ($$ qjaj V[ ##hJ$$ dr,y RpKai
ds,aj ba[ s,Ddlbj dw dHh qla duhj idh>sj ] m dwl[ Vjv W'vsj
yjvsj Vhk m tjS fgS sg rg w'Hg dy>aj dxwi Vhg wisj m
b,e'G l.aJ V[ s,Ddlbj qjaj dHl sg WjWa w'Hg dy>aj dxwi Vj
wi m dHh aJ w'Hg r,cg wqjHg rjvj fpit ] m dHl } wqvj Vj
lqNk@ dHh spdVbjrg W,DdybJ riej W,yj Vhk ] m dxi qhjaqj
W'v[ b,Aj qjaj aP. dHw e,v sl@ ##a{G dwa[ dHl } bjq W,DdybJ
15

rJe i'Gs[@ h,ls[ s[dtbj ] dur[G dw W,y[ sj lp,a[ hg lpFj hp.sj ] m$$
qjaj V[ dwhj ##ug Vhk$$ m dxi qhjaqJ wdhS v,e[ ##dHo'G hg lF
wpN lqN v{ m blk NPn Vhk W'vs[ m m u' dHh bjfSg tpLg Vjv
wiV@ wig ujS dsY m dHh RpKyg wqjHg rjv[ qhJfpit hV m blk
aJ dHV%J sj siLV wiw[ dw+ajo h' eH[ hJ m$$ dHRp WyV wiw[
l.a RpKnS v,e[ aJ qjaj ug V[ dwhj W{n' ##f+Ljsj A,w w[ ujdHRp$$
dxi l.a ug f=Ljsj A,w w[@ dHaV[ WyV wis[ h'H[ yv[ eH[ m

l'Hg ujS{ l'Hg fAjS{ uj wRp Vsdi dl>is[


dHh Rph lqJ lg dul lq[G dH,w Rpsjlg a[ ljZP l.f+sjrJ
epiqda sj f+yji epiWjSg wgiaV@ woj ijhk lji[ Fjia dr,y
dxi w[ oJ fi oJ epiP VjVw s[ dqLV sj f+yji wis[ lV a[@
sPli[ lV dViqv[ m dHh s'r[G fhgH[ hp.s[ hV m s'r[G fhgbJ s[
drywji dH,w Zpij hp.sj ] m s'r[G fhgH[ dH,w Zpi[ dr,y v,e[ h'H[ r,cg
a'G r,cg q>Dduv adh wiw[ du,Do[ ujSj h'r[ qpljxiJ } fhp.yj lws[
hV m dHl[ ai%J Rpsjlg a[ dViqv[ l.a lV m hi dH,w f+jSg qja+
} s[L f+s[L dry dryi w[ VeiJ ba[ LdhiJ dr,y epi LWs sj
Rpfs[L b>Ddq+afjV wijRpGs[ lV m dHV%J s'r[G l.f+sjrJ s[ df>cJ dr,y
c[i[ rg WS[ hp.s[ lV m dHV%J c[dibJ dry rg woj wgiaV@ fjn
ba[ epi dHdahjl sg fPig fC%jHg wijHg uJsg lg m dHl fC+jHg
s[ lq[G l.ld*a@ dWiu FjLj ba[ h'i bV[w f+wji s[ q,aJ s[ e+.o
rg drdsbjiogbJ } fC%jMs[ hp.s[ lV m
dHh drdsbjiog drdsbj fC%V lq[G l[rj ba[ dlqiV sg
iphjVg tpijw rg f+jfa wis[ lV m dHh qhJfpit RpKyg lp,yg wiVg@
wqjHg rjv[ hp.s[ lV m dHV%J sg l.ea dr,y idh w[ drdsbjiog
rg RPy[ ugrV rjv[ h' uJs[ lV m
16

##drdsbj rgyjig aJ fiRpfwjig$$

\b>e 356|

rjvg e,v aJ dHV%J qhjaqj a[ fPig Tp,wsg lg m qhJfpit


slr[G fjaLjh ug s[ lq[G epiP s[ hpwq Vjv dl,tg f+yji rjv[ fjl[
v,e[ lV m wHg slr[ fjaLjh s[ h;Pig dl,tJ ba[ epiP w[ hpwq
bVplji dHl fjl[ v,e[ lV m wHg slr[ fjaLjh a'G fdhv[ ldaepiJ
s[ lq[G Vjv l.W.Z i,ts[ lV m wHg aJ iqa[ dxi api w[ df>cj dr,y
f+yji wis[ lV a[ wHgbJ s[ c[i[ df>cJ dr,y lV m l' b{l[ epidl,t
qhJfpit bjadqw ugrV rjv[ W[f+rjh a[ ##W[ei; W[firjh lsj
i.de hi w{$$ idhS rjv[ hp>s[ lV m dHV%J qhJfpitJ sg l.ea dr,y
idh w[ w'Hg Vj w'Hg drdsbjiog epiqp,t ugrV rjvj f{sj h' uJsj
lg a[ dHV%J blojVJ } l.Fjv w[ b,e[ a'G b,e[ yvjHg uJs[ lV m
sgr[ a'G sgrj ueS rjvg dqljv lg m wHg qhJfpit q>cvgbJ
ijhk dxi apiw[ dHh' f+yji ujig i,ts[ lV m dHV%J drdsbjiogbJ
} v.ei dry'G f+Ljsj a[ aV TwS } wfCj dqv ujS wiw[ eigW
a'G eigW zi sj drdsbjiog rg ##l.aV wj sjVj iPtJ l' liW
dVZjV$$ tj w[ f[B Fi v{Gsj lg ba[ ##Fea uVJ wj vPeij RpT
VeV Vj h'Hg bVplji ligi T,w v{Gsj lg m lWi Lpwi dr,y idh
w[ drdsbj bdFbjl l[rj dlqiV dr,y v,e w[ hi f,t a'G fPiV
h' uJs[ lV m dHl[ ai%J s'r[ hg l.f+sjrJ Fjr[G c[i[sji lg@ Fjr[G
dxi apiw[ q>cvgbJ ijhk drdsbj fC%jRpS rjv[ RpV%J sj dHw'
hg q>ar-qpt lg dw r,Z a'G r,Z f+jSgbJ } Vjq WjSg s[ vC
vjdHbj ujr[ m dHh s'r[G hg l.f+sjrJ epiP ziJ Vjv ePC%j lW.Z
i,tsgbj hV m ldaepiP VjVw s[r ug s[ r,c[ ljdhW;js[ WjWj l+g
y.s ug h'H[ hV m RpV%J V[ rg s[LJ f+s[LJ dr,y epiP Vjq LWs l'hvj
lpSjdHbj m Fjr[G bjf ligiw a"i a[ baga ih[ dxi rg lji[
ldaepiJ Vjv q[v dqvjf dihj ba[ lji[ ldaepiP dHV%J sj bsW
ldawji wis[ ih[ m WjWj l+g y.s ug V[ bjfS[ b>a lq[G dr,y dur[G
17

dw epi f+ajf lPiu dr,y dvdtbj ] dw epiP hi e'dW>s ljdhW


a'G bjf V[ fp,DdAbj dw aphjc[ dwaV[ ljdhWujs[ hV aJ huPi V[
dwhj dw f>u hV m dH,w f+v'w eqV wi debj ba[ yji Wjwg
hV m dxi WjWj l+g y.s V[ fpdAbj ##WjW[ dwbJ } dwhCj fp,ai
s[Sj ]( aJ ldaepiJ V[ WyV wgaj ##dw lji[ hg WjW[ w[ hV m$$
aJ WjWj l+g y.s ug V[ dwhj dw r,cj ldhW;jsj Fjr dB,wj lj}
s[ dsY m Rpl lq[G ldaepiP ug Vjv yji fp,ai q"ups lV m WjWj
epids,aj q,v fdhv[@ WjWj lPiu q,v sPu[@ WjWj bSg ijH[ agu[
a[ WjWj a[e Whjsi y"o[ m ba[ A[r[G fjaLjh V[ WjWj epids,aj
q,v } dHLjij wiw[ WjWj l+g y.s ug s[ be[ q,oj dB,,wj ds,aj m
WjWj l+g y.s V[ bjfS[ bjlS a[ dWnj w[ bjfSg l%[vg a[ B'fg
W?L w[ WyV wgaj ##WjWj epids,aj sgV spVg sj dB,wj@ ##l'Tg
zi sj wgbj lpvajV dHl upeag Vjv WjWj l+g y.s ug V[ bjfSg
l.f+sj lsj vHg bjfS[ dfaj epiP VjVw s[ q,a Vjv dqvj ds,ag m
b,e'G WjWj epids,aj q,v ug s[ yji l[rw h'H[ L+g WjvP hlVj ug@
l+g hixPv ug@ l+g e'sj ug ba[ y"o[ l+g bvqla ug m f+dl,Z Vjq
dHV%J s[ dHh lV m
Rpsjlg l.fs
+ j s[ qhJ fpit Vjq u.a+ fdhvg fRpCg\qPvq.ai|
1 ldaVjqp wiaj fpit!!!!!!!!!!!! hg ufV rjla[ ds>s[ lV m
us'G qpT
, hg dH,w WS debj dxi xiw wg idh debj m ligiw dy>V
aJ Fjr[G rti[-rti[ WS eH[ dHl Vjv w'Hg xiw Vhk f{Gsj m
RpsG' a'G hg r,c[ r,c[ epi ZjqJ sg l[rJ l.Fjv Rpsjlg qhjfpit hg
wis[ ih[ m
dViqv f>o s[ Wji[ FjHg episjl ljdhW ug V[ dvdtbj ]
qjdibj dl,wj ueda drdy VjVw dViqv f>op yvjdHbj m slr[G
fjaLjh V[ liW v'h e+o
. dr,y dViqv f>op s[ WjWa Whpa riVS
wgaj ] m
18

hpS ##f>o f+wjL$$ dr,Dy'G dViqv f>o Wji[ wpN VqPVj


debjVg debjV dl>z ug sg dvta bVplji dViqv f>o sg
Rpafag epiP VjVw s[ lq[G a'G h'Hg ] ba[ debjVg debjV dl>z
ug V[ FjHg episjl sg dHl fRpCg a'G bji>F wgaj ] m
dxdi WjWj bjdHbj wiajifpi F[tp Rpsjlg@ lev Rpajij
fdhdi l.ljig wfC[ q>ug W{dn wgbj brajij mm

\rji@ fRpCg 38|

Rph Rpsjlg F[t Fjr Fer[G Wla+ duV%J dl,tJ } WtLl h'Hg
Rph dl,t dViqv[ whjRpS v,e[ m
ba[ bjds epiP l+g epiP VjVw s[r ug a'G v{ w[ slq fjaLjh
a,w fpla'G fpLag Vjv ih[ l[rj dlqiV wis[ ih[ lq[G bVplji dul
ai%J dl,t l.eaJ sg ldaepiJ rv'G fit hp>sg ihg@ dHh rg lq[G
lq[G wlr,BgbJ RpKa[ fit[ uJs[ b"i fPi[ Rpais[ ih[ m ldaepiJ
sgbJ tpLgbJ f+jfa wis[ ih[ m
dH,w dsV wi dadV qaj wijij m FjHg y.sV vPdBY qjij m
dul rwa slq fjaLjh } faj vdebj hpwq s[ w[ Rph lji[
hg xC vH[ m dxi FjHg y.sV } l,sw[ fpdAbj dw y.sV dHV%J }
wg luj s[HgH[ y.sV V[ h,o u'C w[ W[Vag wgag eigW dVrju ug m
qji{ ijt{ H[w' bjdf m qjVpt w{ dwAp Vjhg hjdo mm

dHl a'G ljWa hp.sj ] dViqv fs ldaepi V[ dw>Vg bjaqw


RpyajHg rjv[ dl,tj f=ag RpyjiV wgaj ] ##agug WtLl$$ Rps'G
h'Hg us'G fjRpGB[ ljdhW drt[ f>u dl,t #izpVjo$ f>Ddca w'v fC%V
vHg F[u[ m RplV[ dl,tJ sg uja fp,A w[ fC%jRpS a'G dHVwji wi
ds,aj m dxi ldaepi ug V[ f>ca } fp,DdAbj m f>Ddca s[ dxi fCjRpS
rv'G dHVwji wiV Rpa[ epiP wj WyV h'dHbj duhCj ##lW+ v'h
e+.o$$ dr,y si; ] m
epiP ug V[ WyV wgaj h[ f>ca q{G dHV%j dl,tJ } y"sj f+wji
19

sg drdsbj WtLg ] m y"sj v'w sg drdsbj dHV%J } WtLg ] m


h[ f>ca ug lpS' duV%J } aP. LPs+ dwhj@ W+jhqS v'w dHVJ a'G
drdsbj fdC%bj wiVe[ m Rpl a'G Wjbs RpV%J f>uJ dl,tJ } l,s
w[ hpwq wgaj fpV ldaepi f>u dl,t WpvjH[ m wdhY fC' apq wjLg
ujH[ m fpV dltV wi u'i lpVjrj m adh Fg wW hq aHg fCjrj m
WlPVlpwv dft ujag lpV w[ m dsu Vj fC%jr[ LPs+ epV w{ m
dl,tJ V[ W[Vag wgag ug Fer[G Wla+ dwl ai%J aj ldaepi
V[ WyV wgaj m
Wlv wtjdH Zi[ epi bjds m vt didtbjV wj r[l bVjs{ mm

fhp>y[ wjlgfpig q+Nji m y[aV qB@ q{ ih[ dWyji m ujS vdebj


ldaepi V[ blgl ds,ag Rphg fplaw ejadibJ dr,y fjw[ Fer[G
i>e s[ Wla+ fdhVjw[ \devagbJ| s[ w[ Fi[ siWji dHRp WyV
wgaj m
##ujRp q[i[ fpai'@ aphjcg fjvSj bjf bwjv fpit wi{ m q{G
lF ZV fsjio aphjo'G wpiWjV wisj hJ m wjq bjswJ sj dabje
wiw[ hi ai%J s[ iLJ wlJ } A,c w[ hdi iptg i'Bg tjdH lqjv[$$
w[ woV bVplji ##sir[lJ V' v'Cgb{ iptj sg ugiJs m$$ A,figbJ
dr,y W{n w[ lqJ Waga wiVj m lhg bioJ dr,y blvg l.dVbjlg
ba[ W{ijeg w"S ] aplk dH,w VqPVj f[L wiVj ] m l.lji dr,y lF
bjL+qJ rjv[ aphjcj ugrV r[t w[ dldtbj fijfa wiV m drsrjV
aJ l.lji dr,y WC[ hV@ dVij fdCbj hg dwl[ w.q Vhk@ dwRpG(
fdCbj qPit bjtgb{ dulp vWp v'Fp bh>wjij us'G aplk dHl ai%J
s[ bjaqw ugrV rjv[ h' ujRpe[ aJ dxi aphjcj y.s+qj ba[ lPiu
Vjv'G Fg RpKyj qiaWj h' ujH[ej m l' dHl aiJ blglJ s[ w[ uea
epiP slq[l ug V[ WVjil fC%V vHg z,Dv[ m dul r[v[ dHh dl,t
WVjil a'G fC%w[ bjH[ dxi dHV%J } bdq+>a fjV wijw[ #e>cj dl>z$
#wiq dl>z$ #l{Sj dl>z$ #Wgi dl>z$ #ijq dl>z$ bjdsw Vjq it
20

ds,a[ m dH,w lq[G bV.sfpi dr,y wCjh f+Ljs sg s[e wiw[ hpwq
ds,aj ##dw vpB vr' )$$ da>V rji f+Ljs wiw[ da>V rji hg vpB
v{S sj hpwq ds,aj m duhC[ dl>z da>V rji Vhk Rpn[@ RpV%J sg
qV' brloj r[t w[ f+l.V h' w[ WyV wgaj m
##f>o dViqvj H[h qqyjv{ m fPuVgw lF h[a dWljv[ m
dH>DRPG Wi s[ epiP A.s Rpyji[ m liW v'hq{ v[hp dVhji[ mm

\f>o f+wjL|

dHl lq[G duhC[ dl>z vp,BS vHg Vhk Rpn[@ ljig l.ea dr,y
13 \a[ij| dl,t lV m #wiq dl>z$ #Ziq dl>z$ #e,uj dl>z$ #Z.Vj
dl>z$ #y.sV dl>z$ #q>Vj dl>z$ N.cj dl>z vtWgi dl>z m dHV%J
dl>z } slq[l ug V[ ##dViqv[$$ wdh w[ l.W.ZV wgaj m Rpl a'G
Rpfi>a dH,w dsV aCw[ ldaepiJ V[ lF dl,tJ dr,y uj w[ epfa
iPf dr,y fCajv wgag wHg dl>z lpa[ fH[@ wHg l.ljig e,vJ WjaJ
wi ih[ lV m u' epidl,t Vjq uf ih[ lV RpV%J } dViqv[ dl,t
bjt w[ dVrjdubj m dH,w rji epiP w[ siWji hpwq bVplji F.cJ
V[ w'Hg dL>eji il Fjr qV } vpF'S rjvg Vwv wgag m duV%J
dl>zJ s[ qV Vj Fiq[G RpV%J } dViqv[ l.a bjt w[ l.W'ZV wgaj m
dH,w rji slq fjaLjh ug V[ sgrjV dr,y ljig l.ea } hpwq
wgaj ##q>e' wg q>es[ h'$$
\f>o f+wjL debjV dl>z|
duV%J } ldaepiJ V[ dViqv[ fs WtdLbj RpVJ sg dHh
bjaqw brloj lg m
bW aW brip V qjeRp hdi fdh
Vjqp dVi>uV sgu{ dfbjdi mm
VjVw yjda+w b>Ddq+a uvp qje{
hdi ulp sgu{ dwifj Zjdi mm

epuig q^ 1

dHo[ dH,w h'i f+l.e dvtSj ngw hg h'r[ej dw dH,w rji lW+
RpfqJ I'e l+g 108 WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug V[ l.ea W{ng
21

h'Hg a'G l+g WjWj bjV.s dl>z ug } WyV wgaj #ditg ug wpN q>e
vY ($ WjWj bV.s dl>z ug V[ h,o u'C w[ WyV wgaj dw #epis[r
q{} aJ dWVJ q>eS a'G hg lF wpN dqv debj ] u[ s[Sj hg ] aJ
hqji{ H[h dwifj wgu{ mm bdv qwi.s yiV wqv dlRpG mm
qVp x[di x[di igN{ mm1mm ihjRp mm
bjV uvj dlRp wjup V wApb{ hdi W.Ps yjda+w wRp sgu{ mm
dWVp dqvW[ Vjhg l.a'tj f[dt silVp VjVwp ugu{ m

wdvbjS q^ 5!1629

dxi sPug rji WyV h'dHbj #wpN h'i q>e vY$ m sPug rjig
rg h,o u'C w[ dHh' hg W[Vag wgag m fi aglig rji dxi hpwq
h'dHbj #Vhk$@ uiPi q>e' m aglij WyV ]@ tjvg Vj ujr[ m aJ dxi
h,o u'C w[ W[Vag wgag dw ##eigW dVrju da>Vj v'wJ dr,y lPHg
s[ V,w[ duV%k ygu RpKa[ rg q[ig q[i Vj h'r[ m u[ q{G dwl[ rg yg;
Rpa[ q[i wiJ aJ q{} epi dl,tg a'G tjiu wi s[Sj m$$
uj wRp bjdHY H[wp ilj m
tjV fjV bjV Vhk tpdZbj aj w{ dyda V Wlj mm ihjRp mm
b>e 672

Wjwg f+l.e aJ dwl[ oJ dli ds,aj ujH[ej l' dHh ] fPiV


fpitJ sg q[hw lswj qV sg brloj m
dLr dWi.y bip dH>s+ v'w aj qdh uva" dxdibj mm
dlqdi dlqdi lpbjqg FH[ lgav sPt sisp F+qp dhdibj mm

\lj! q! f| 1219

h[ biuV W+hq v'w a'G v{ w[ duaV[ v'w@ fpViJriag lpFj


rjv[ hV@ Fjr u' v'w fp>V wiw[ dHV%J sg f+jfag wis[ hV@ fp>V
taq h' ujS Wjs Rpo[ idh Vhk lws[ m
dH>s+ v'w dlr v'wdh u{W' mm YA[ af wdi Wjhpdi b{W' mm

ZVjlig F^ wWgi 69

22

fi dHl } Rphg lqNs[ hV duV%J } dHh il bjdHbj ] m


dul } bjdHbj hg Vhk Rph wg ujS[ b,u s[ qVp,t } il bjdHbj
] l'V[ sj@ yJsg sj@ drwjiJ sj@ dV.dsbj sj@ ypevg sj@ dsV
ija dHV%J } F'esj ] b"i h'i Vr[G Vr[G il v{S s[ Rpsq wisj
idh>sj ] m
ilp lpdHVj ilp ipfj wjqdS ilp fiqv wg rjlp mm
ilp z'C[ ilp l[uj q>si ilp qgnj ilp qjlp mm
H[a[ il ligi w[ w{ zdB Vjq dVrjlp mm

dligije q 115

WjWj ug sg A'Bg Rpqi lq[G dH,w l.a q>cvg WjWj ug s[ uVq


Vei df>c qVlPirjv bjHg m Vei rv'G ug bjdHbj bjtS a'G
Wjbs l.zSg dW+AJ sg AJ h[n c[ij vj ds,aj m Vei dry'G sp,Z@
b>V fjSg v'C bVplji fhp.y debj ba[ lF V[ A,w dvbj m i'u
s[ dV,a V[q bVplji s' r[v[ woj wgiaV sj f'+eijq hp.sj lg m
Rpl[ ai%J dHl[ df>c qVlPirjv rg h'dHbj m Vei sg l.ea woj
wgiaV lpVS vHg eHg m WjWj ug s[ qjaj dfaj rg eH[ bjfS[
dfaj Vjv RpGev xC w[ bjf rg yv[ eH[ m l.ea s[ fhp.yS a'G
Wjbs woj wgiaV bi>F h' debj m Wjbs dr,y dHl q>cvg s[
fPuVgw qhjaqj rg l.ea dr,y bj w[ W{n eH[ m l.ea V[ l.aJ
} bsW Vjv Vqlwji wgag m ba[ l.aJ V[ l.eaJ } Vqlwji
wgag ba[ W{n eH[ ba[ qhjaqj s[ Vusgw hg WjWj ug bjfS[
dfaj ug sg e's dr,y W{n[ h'H[ lV m wgiaV s[ F'e a'G Wjbs
qhjaqj ug V[ woj bji>F wgag m Rpl r[v[ RpV%J V[ ljig l.ea
r,v s[dtbj ba[ WjWj ug s[ dfaj V[C[ W{n[ h'S wiw[ WjWj ug
r,v VgN vj w[ s[dtbj ba[ dxi woj bji>F wi dsag m woj wis[
wHg rjig WjWj ug r,v s[ts[ ih[ fi bjf dur[G qp,T a'G bj w[
l.ea dr,y W{n[ lV btgi a,w Rpl[ ai%J qla hjva dr,y W{n[
ih[ m woj sg lqjfag dfA'G l.aJ V[ w'v W{n[ dH,w l[rw } dHLjij
23

wiw[ l,s dvbj a[ WjWj ug s[ dfaj ug } WpvjS vHg dwhj m


dul rwa WjWj WPC dl>z ug l.aJ fjl eH[ aJ Vqlwji wiw[
W{n eH[ aJ bjf rg w'v W{n eH[ aJ l.aJ V[ fpdAbj dw FjHg
dl,tJ wg Vjq ] m bjf ug s[ dfaj ug V[ bjfSj Vjq sl ds,aj
aJ dxi wdhS v,e[ dHh Wjvw a[ij ] aJ b,e'G hJ dr,y wdhS
a'G Wjs bjf ug sj Vjq fpdAbj m dfaj ug V[ sdlbj dw blk
Vjq aJ #dVhjv$ idtbj ] fi dl,Zj ljZj h'S wiw[ blk dHl
} qlajVJ wdh w[ WpvJs[ hJ m aJ l.a ypf wi eH[ m WjWj ug
s[ dfaj V[ fpdAbj dw qhjiju wg e,v ]@ wpN sl' aJ lhg@ aJ
qhjaqj W'v[ lpS v{ FjHg@ aplk W[Lw qlajVj wh' uJ h'i wpA@
fi ljcg lqN bVplji dHh lZjiV Wjvw Vhk m dHl rwa Wjv
brloj h'S wiw[ aplg dwl[ dViS[ a[ Vhk fhp>y lws[ m lqN bj
lwSg qpLwv ] us'G sj dHh a[i[ Vjv bjdHbj ]@ dHl V[ w'Hg
b>e Vhk dhvjdHbj m be'G dfaj V[ dwhj dw dHh aJ zi dry
rg dHl[ ai%J hg idh>sj ] m eiqg@ lisg@ Vks@ Fp,t sg w'Hg f+rjh
Vhk wisj m l.aJ V[ dwhj dw u' blk a{} sdlbj ] ngw hg ] m
u[ w'Hg W,yj dl,Zj ljZj h'r[ aJ Rpl} eiqg lisg aJ vesg ] m
W'v[ a'G dWVJ aJ Rph rg Vhk idh lwsj m u' aplk b>sjuj vejRpGs[
h'@ Rph eva ] m dHl ai%J sgbJ l'yJ dryji A,c dsY m duo[
dHV%J sg dW+ag dBwg ] dB,wg idhS dsY m aphjc[ rv'G w'Hg b{lg
e,v Vj h'r[ dul wiw[ dHV%J s[ qV } w'Hg t'F h'r[ m lqJ bjH[ej
dHh Rpy w'Bg s[ qhJfpit h'Se[ ligiw sptJ lptJ dr,y dHV%J sg
dya dW+ag Vhk ] m dHh dwl[ driv[ qhJfpit sg bV.sqHg
drrloj hp>sg ] m fi RpV%J sg fdhyjV rg dwl[ driv[ } hp>sg
] m FjHg V.s vjv ljdhW V[ sdlbj ] ^f+[qg WjN'G Iji vWJ sg w'Hg wsi wg ujS[-l' dlbjS[ mm
dH,w IjwPa lpy[ sg wgqa u"hig b,t fAjS[ h' wpiWjS[ mm
24

dHl wiw[ dHV%J sg Wjvw brloj ] bu[ dHr[G hg idhSe[ m


dHV%J sg lpia Whpa RpKyg ] m dxi qhjaqj wdhS v,e[ dlqiV
wiV rjv[ } lF a'G fdhvJ ligi sg ljZVj rjv[ } y"GwCg qji
w[ W{nSj ;iPig ] m Fjr u' y"GwCg qji w[ W{n Vhk lwsj Rpl
sg lpia Vhk dHwjei h' lwsg m lpiag dHwjei dWVJ Vks Fp,t
eiqg lisg ligiw v'CJ rv'G W[f+rjh Vhk h'dHbj uJsj m
r,cgbJ-r,cgbJ wnV ljZVJ wiw[ dHh brloj WSsg ] m Rph
rg dwl[ driv[ sg ] hi dH,w sg Vhk m duhC[ siejhg qhJfpit
hp.s[ hV RphVJ } dHh WtdLLJ lp,a[ dl,Z hg f+jfa h' uJsgbJ
hV m dHV%J sg fpiWv[ uVqJ sg f+Wv wqjHg h'S wiw[ dHh Whpa
RpKy[ hV m h'i dHh l.ljig dila[sjig q'h qjdHbj s[ u.ujv a' rgG
Whpa Rpy[ hV m
l' dfbjdibj@ aP. ZV ] m dHV%J sg qjaj rg Z.V ] m Vei
rg Z.V h' dul Vei dr,y dHV%J V[ uVq Zjdibj m dHV%J s[ siLV
wiw[ blk rg Z.V h' eH[ m aJ dxi RpV%J V[ idrsjl ug sj dH,w
LWs fC w[ lpSjdHbj m
ijh kul swDu bYsnO hoie ] brn Abrn rMku nhI eIsuru ibml
bwsu jwnIAY jig soie ]1] rhwau ] bRhmn bYs sUd Aru KqRI
fom cMfwr mlyC mn soie ] hoie punIq BgvMq Bjn qy Awpu
qwir qwry kul doie ]1] DMin su gwau DMin so Twau DMin punIq
kutMb sB loie ] ijin pIAw swr rsu qjy Awn rs hoie rs
mgn fwry ibKu Koie ]2] pMifq sUr CqRpiq rwjw Bgq
brwbir Aauru n koie ] jYsy purYn pwq rhY jl smIp Bin
rivdws jnmy jig Eie ]3]
dW!Wj!i! \858|
\lw.s fpijSj|

dHl ai%J WyV wiw[ qhjaqj ypf h' eH[ m Rpl a'G Wjs l.a
q>cvg wHg dsV Vei dr,y ihg ba[ Rph qhjaqj WjWj ug sj
25

siLV hi i'u bjfS[ w'v l,s w[ wis[ ba[ ldawji wis[ ih[ m
l.ljig W.sJ aJ bjfS[ wiq Av F'eS vHg l.lji dr,y bjRpGsj
] a[ ws[ sptg ws[ lptg idh>sj ] m
Ajw BogMq kMd mUl bsMqy smIip kyhrh ]
qqRgqy sMswrh nwnk sog hrKM ibAwpqy ]41]

\l!dw+!q!f!b>e 1357|

dHl lv'w dr,y f>ur[G fjaLjh V[ W.s[ sg uVq a'G v{ w[ btgi


a,w hjva s,lg ] m b,u wdh>s[ hV Wwig } m dur[G Wwig wgqag
a'G wgqag xv tJsg h'Hg rg awCg Vhk h' lwsg@ us'G Rpl sj
dBwjSj W,Wi L[i w'v h'r[ m us'G L[i } s[t[eg Rpl sj tPV ci
Vjv lp,w ujr[ej m dHl[ ai%J l.lji sg ea[ Fjr hjva ] dHl
} dy>aj dxwi hi r[v[ v,e[ idh>s[ hV bqgi a'G bqgi W.s[ rv
r[t[@ r[tS } lptg ]@ fi@ us'G b>si'G x'v w[ s[t'G aJ faj vesj
] dHl riej sptg hg w'Hg Vhk m
sgl isRldt ko rwjw duKIAw (gRpCg.suKmnI m.p)
lpt w[rv Vjq dr,y ] Vjq ufS rjdvbj } ldaepiJ V[
l.a bjdtbj ] u' Vjq } ufsj ] Rpl s[ wiq dViqv[ h'S mm
dUK rog ibnsy BY Brm ] swD nwm inrml qw ky krm ]
g.su.m.5

RpV%J sj dfbji ] dVidHAa w[rv ufSj a[ ufg hg ujSj m


w'Hg f+aga rjvj \dfbji rjvj| hg uf lwsj ] m
Vj WPs h[y dVLJ hJ bjlqjV'G duqg mm
dw l' dw iPdH a[ brpis sj as'G Vjq dVljV Vj bjhj mm
df+org ba[ bwjL sj as'G Vjq dVljV Vj bjhj mm
dlw a[i[ dssji sg lj} qlaw bjV dVrjdHbj mm

\du>seg Vjqj|

dHl dfbji } dfbji wiV rjv[ hg lqN lws[ hV m Lql


aWi[u rie[ qla x,wi rg wpN dHr[G hg bjts[ hV m bjsl vj
26

WPs' qV WPsq m qV bjLdw s[ig Vj bq mm


us'G WjWj bjsq b>qj hrj bjsw w'Hg Vhk lg fi.aP Rpl
r[v[ q{G rg q"uPsj lJ ba[ q[ij tpsj rg q"uPs lg h[ tpsj q{G a[ij
f+[qg hJ m dwl[ h'i drdsrjV V[ rg dHl blvgba } sdlbj ] m
Vj WPds VwdL s' bjsq dw i>Dde Rpvxa WPs m
uqjVj aidh qph,Wa V Hg uqJ b>s[ta m
us'G s'hJ uhjVj sj w'Hg Vjq dVLjV Vhk lg fi Rps'G rg
dfbji i>e lg@ dfbji q"uPs lg m dfbji dHl lq[G Vhk@ dHh Whpa
fpijSj ] m wWgi ug V[ rg dwhj ]^
pUrb jnm hm qum@ry syvk Ab qau imitAw n jweI ]
\b>e 1469|

i,W sj dfbjij r[tS } aJ spVgbJ b>si rl[ m

b>si'G Rpl sg veV lJHg dr,y Rpl } r[t drel[ mm

\du>seg Vjqj|

qhJfpit bJRps[ hV liW,a s[ Fv[ vHg ba[ liW,a } ugb


sjV s[Sj hg RpV%J sj w.q hp>sj ] m
l.a lJHg s[ ue dr,y bjH[ daV Z.V uS[sg qjH[
duVj Fpdvbj iJh iWjSj da>Vj qjie fjH[
\d;>seg Vjqj|

qhJfpitJ s[ siLV wiw[ aV qV lJa h' uJsj ] qV dr,y


dlqiV wiV sj yjb f{sj hps
> j ] m lhg bioJ dr,y liW,a sj Fvj
Vjq ilgH[@ ljHk i>e dry ia[ w'Hg driv[ epiqpt uV hg wis[ hV m
bRpeS ldF dqBjdH w{ fiRpfwjip wi[dH

27

eRpCg!qjN!qhvj f!

Feda FeaV hP. WdV bjHg


us'G bjf ug sg Rpqi 10 wp ljv s[ veFe h'Hg aJ dH,w
dsV WjWj ug s[ dfaj V[ dwhj ##qlajdVbJ@ aP. zi s[ fLP yji
dvbjdHbj wi m$$ bev[ dsV lr[i[ df>c s[ qp>c[ l,s w[ RpV%J Vjv
q,NJ yjiV vHg a'i ds,aj a[ i'Bg Vjv W.V% w[ s[ ds,ag m zi s[
fLP qPhi[ vj ds,a[ m bjf fLPbJ s[ qei h' api[ m Wjhi uj w[ fLP
aJ yiV ve fH[@ Vjv s[ hjSg qp>c[ t[cS ve fH[ ba[ WjWj
ug } qp>DdcbJ V[ dwhj dw aP. fLPbJ sj dtbjv itk m us'G ljog
t[cS dr,y qla h' eH[ aJ V[C[ dHw wqjs sj t[a lg m bjf
Rpl dr,y rC w[ W{n eH[ m bjf ug V[ sdlbj ##blk l'dybj dw
b,u e,v qpwj s[HgH[ m qpC w[ w'Hg w.q } wh[ hg Vj m$$ t[c dr,y
v,e[ ljogbJ V[ rg w'Hg dZbjV VJ ds,aj m h"vg-h"vg fLP rg lji[
dHZi RpZi dt>c eH[ m dul r[v[ w'Hg rg fLP Rpo[ Vj dsdlbj aJ
ljog qp>DdcbJ V[ dVejh qjig aJ bjf rg V;i Vj bjH[ m fdhvJ
fLPbJ sg Fjv wgag m fLP v,FS a'G Wjs bjf } v,FS ve[ m
us'G Vj dqv[ aJ zi[ bjw[ sl ds,aj ##qlajVj$$ Vhk vdFbj m
faj Vhk dwo[ yvj debj ] ( dxi zi s[ dxwiq>s h' w[ v,e[
FjvS m h{ijV rg h'H[ dw dwZi yvj debj m ci rg Whpa ve[ m
Rpl lq[G bWjsg zB lg m u.ev Whpa lg m WdzbjC bjds qji
t'i[ ujVri Whpa deSag dr,y hp>s[ lV m fLPbJ ba[ W,DdybJ sj
VpwljV wis[ lV m duhC[ qjv yjiV rjv[ ljog lV RpV%J }
fpdAbJ aplk dwl oJ t[cS ve[ lg m Rpl r[v[ qlajVj dwo[ tCj
lg m RpV%J sdlbj blk H[Do[ hg t[cs[ lJ m dxi bjv[ spbjv[ Fjv
wgag us'G Vj dqv[ aJ Fjv wiV rjdvbJ dr,Dy'G dH,w V[ dwhj
##bjh wqjs rg s[t vr'$$ us'G wqjs s[dtbj aJ dryjdvY uj
28

dqv[ m qla hjva dr,y W{n[ lV m spfdhij bj debj ] i'Bg f,v[


W.Vg fHg ]@ tjZg Vhk ] m Wjh'G xC w[ Rpnj w[ Wjhi v{ bjH[ m
WjfP V[ h,l w[ dwhj ##fj dsagbJ V[ fPigbJ@ b,e[ a'G a[ij faj
v,e debj dw aP. c.ei yjiV u'ej rg Vhk m$$ dH>DRpG wdh w[ dfaj
ug zi v{ bjH[ ba[ qjaj } wdhS ve[ lJF v{ bjfS[ vjcv[
} m Rpl a'G Wjbs bjf } w.q wiV vHg dwl[ V[ Vhk bjdtbj m
Rpl hg qla hjva dr,y idh>s[ lV m Rpl a'G Wjs wHg rji qjaj
dfaj } ija } uje bjRpSg aJ wg s[tSj dw bjf W{n[ hg Vui
bjRpS[ aJ qjaj dfaj V[ bjtSj aP. l"Gsj dwRpG Vhk ( dH,w rji
wdhSj a[ f{ ujSj a[@ dxi Rpn W{nSj m us'G dfAv[ fdhi qjaj
V[ zi sj w.q wiV vHg RpKnSj@ Rpl lq[G qjaj V[ y,wg a[ bjBj
fglSj hp>sj lg a[ Wupie dfAvg ija h,v u'dCbj wis[ lV m
dHh lF wpN wiV vHg r,cg ija RpKnSj f{Gsj lg m us'G qjaj
dfaj V[ ujeSj aJ bjf } W{n[ hg s[tSj m dHl r[v[ } epiP zi
dr,y ##b>Ddq+a r[vj$$ bjdtbj ] ba[ dh>sP q,a dr,y ##W+hq qhPia$$
wdh>s[ hV m dHl sg qh,aaj@ rdcbjHg f+q[Lri s[ dfbjdibJ
s[ qV dr,y r,lg h'Hg ] m Rpsqg ba[ wdhSg wiVg s[ lpi[ Vjq
ilgH[ qhJ fpit duaV[ rg h'H[ hV m
dHl } i'ujVj du>seg sj dH,w b>e WSjdHbj ] dHl r[v[
Vks } dabje w[ ljrZjV h' w[ dlqiV wis[ hV m ldaepiJ V[@
FeaJ V[@ epidl,tJ V[ b>Ddq+a r[vj lF } fif,w wijdHbj ] m
yRpo{ fhdi lpWjh w{ lpidabj Rpfu{ yjRp mm
daVj sigbjrj dlRpG s'lag qdV qpdt lyj VjY mm

hdi ZVp b>Ddq+a r[v{ ra{ wj Wgdubj


Fea tjdH tidy ih[ dVtpB{ Vjhg m

\b>e 146|

lPhg q^ 4@ b>e 734

xigsj dfAdv ijda V ujdeYdh ugr.sC' qpdHRpdh

\L[t xigs 1383|

29

b>Ddq+a r[v[ s[ ujeS sg rjiaj FjHg episjl ljdhW ug


V[ ijqj V.s ug s[ ugrV dr,Dy'G riVS wgag ] m
h'dH dWiwap WVjilg idh>sj ijqjV.s eplJHg m
b>Ddq+da r[v[ Rpdn w{ uJsj e.ej V%jrS ajHg m

\Fea iaVjrvg|

FjHg iaV vjv ug rg b>Ddq+a r[v[ ujeS sg ajwgs


wis[ hV m
\d;>seg Vjqj|

#ldh; dZbjV W{ijeg$ br,loj f+jfa wiV rjv[ udebjlP


} dHl sg bdab>a v'C ] m f+jfag h' ujS a'G Wjbs rg qhJfpit
dHl lq[G } bjf l.Fjvs[ ba[ lda l.egbJ } dHl r[v[ sg qh,aaJ
s,l w[ b>Ddq+a r[vj ds+C wirjRpGs[ hV m l' dHl ai%J Wjv br,loj
s[ lq[G } bjfS[ qjaj dfaj w'v idh w[ Waga wis[ hV m b>sihp
dlbjSj Wjhdi F'vj mm)
\FjHg episjl ug|

H[w B[w e'dr>s wg dabjeg bVp bjl


dH,w dsV lr[i[ hg us'G qjaj ug zi sj w.q wiV vHg RpKn[
r,cj Fij ba[ dfaj t[a r,v } y,v eH[ m qjaj ug zi s[ w.q
dr,y v,e fH[ m bjf zi'G y,vw[ sdibj dWbjl u' bjf s[ zi
a'G wpN xiw a[ resj lg Rpls[ dwVji[ ujw[ W{n eH[ m us'G wpN
dsV yC% bjdHbj bjf zi Vj dsl[ aJ qjaj V[ dH,Zi-RpKZi
r[dtbj fi w'Hg faj Vj v,Ddebj m dHl ai%J widsbJ dsV r,cj
h' debj ba[ Vei s[ v'w bjf' bjfS[ fLP v{ w[ yjiV bj eH[ m
wpN W.s[ sdibj rjv[ fjl[ fLP yjis[-yjis[ bj dVwv[ m RpV%J V[
r[t w[ dlbjS dvbj ba[ bjrjuJ rg qjigbJ m fi bjf V[ w'Hg
RpKai Vhk ds,aj m t{i us'G t[a'G w.q wiw[ dfaj ug ba[ r,cj Fij
zi bjH[ aJ faj vdebj dw #qlajVj$ zi Vhk ] m dxi l'yS
30

v,e[ hpS dwo[ FjvgH[ m zi'G Wjhi bj w[ bJT-epbJT wHgbJ


a'G faj wgaj m fi lF WC[ dxwi q.s h'H[ dw dwZi yvj debj@
h"vg h"vg spfdhi T,vS s[ V[C[ h' debj m qjaj dxwi wiV v,eg m
dwZi yvj debj m b,u i'Bg Vhk tjZg m t{i hpS dfaj ug FjvS
vHg Rpn api[ m r,c[ Fij rg Vjv h' api[ m b,e[ qjv yjiV rjvj
dqv debj m Rpl} fpAS a[ s,Ddlbj dw q{G sdibj s[ dwVji[ W{n[
} s[dtbj ] m blk bjrj;J Whpa dsagbJ fi Rph W'dvbJ Vhk m
dfaj ug ba[ Fij sdibj r,v h' api[ m dfaj ug V[ bjdtbj dw
aP. A[ag A[ag apiw[ uj w[ Rpl } Rpnj w[ v{ bj m q{G rg y,v w[
a[i[ qei bj dihj hJ m Rpl} aP. wpN bjtSj Vhk m Rpl faj s,lS
rjv[ qp>c[ } rg Vjv v{ dvbj m dH,w Fij Rpls[ fLPbJ w'v tv'
debj m l' dHRpG e,vj wis[-wis[ Rpo[ w'Hg b,e[ w'Hg dfA[ lji[
hg fhp.y eH[ m r,c[ Fij V[ ba[ Rpl qp>c[ V[ fdhv'G aJ brjuJ
ds,agbJ m fi bjf Vhk W'v[ dxi w'v uj w[ Wjh'G xCw[ Rpnj dvbj
a[ dwhj ##b{cg sPi wg v{S bjdHbj ] ( yv zi y,vgH[ m$$ bjf
ypf yjf RpV%J s[ Vjv h' api[ ba[ ila[ dr,y dfaj ug rg api[
bjRpGs[ dqv fH[ m zi rjfl qpC bjH[ qjaj ug V[ fpdAbj ##dwo'G
dqdvbj ($$ dfaj a[ Fij wdhS v,e[ ##sdibj s[ dwVji[ uj W{nj
lg m$$ qjaj V[ h{ijV h' w[ dwhj ##Rpo[ dwr[G uj rdCbj ($$ dxi
qjaj V[ w'v dWnj w[ i'Bg tpbjHg m fi FijrJ V[ dwhj ##WjfP@ dHl}
b{cg sPi ujS a'G dwr[G i'wgH[ ($$ aJ dfaj V[ dwhj ##q{G wg s,lJ
dHl} w'Hg e,v whgH[ aJ w'Hg urjW Vhk ds>sj m q{G uJ aplk
wg wi lws[ hJ ($$ H[Vg e,v wdhS a'G Wjbs dfaj ug aJ ypf
wi eH[ Fij Vij; lV@ W'v[ wpN Vhk m dHl a'G Wjbs lji[ zi
s[ dVe%j its[ lV dw b,e[ rJe dwa[ dxi Vj yvj ujH[ m dHV%J
dsVJ dr,y hg dH,w lq[G zi W{dnbJ a'G WjWj ug sg WjWa d;wi
y,Ddvbj dw h'i aJ lji[ bjf' bjfSj w.q wis[ hV fi qlajV[
sj ljc[ a'G Wjbs wg WS[ej ( dfaj ug V[ dwhj w'Hg lqN Vhk
31

bjRpGsg RpVJ q>cvg rjv[ l.aJ V[ aJ dwhj lg dw dHl sj w'Hg


dxwi hg Vj wiVj a[ RpV%J V[ rdcbjHg rg dHl sg WCg wgag
lg m qjaj V[ dwhj ##dHl s[ A'B[ hp>s[ a'G dH,w l.a V[ rg q[i[ w'v
dHl } Whpa lvjdhbj lg@ dwhj lg@ q"wj bjRpS a[ faj
ve[ej dHh RpKy w'Bg s[ l.a WVSe[ m fi hpS aj bjfS[ bjf
sg rg lpia Vhk m dfaj V[ dwhj r[t' wg WS[ m qjaj dfaj aJ
dHRpG duwi wiw[ ypf h' eH[ m WjWj ug bjf dHh WyV wiw[ h,lw[
dwhj wis[ lV m dHh e,v lpSw[ blk qV dr,y hg i,W b,e[ bisjl
wgag dw h[ f+q[Lij@ bu[ lj} dHr[G hg idhS s[ zi dsbJ a'G
vpw[ hg ihgH[ m dHl ai%J wpN lqJ v.z debj m
jo jo icqvih swD jn so lyqw mwin ]

\b>e 817|

Fdr,t Wji[ qjaj dfaj Vjv WyV


uh W{ljvdh ah W{lj lpbjqg uh F[udh ah ujrj m
dH,w lq[G sg e,v ] WjWj ug qjaj w'v W{n[ h'H[ lV m qjaj
} wdhS v,e[ ##qJ@ q{G Wjhi } yv[ ujSj ]@ dHo[ ug Vhk v,esj m$$
qjaj lpSw[ h{ijV rg h'Hg a[ wdhS v,eg ##dwo[ ujSj ] ( ws'G
ujSj ] ($$ bjf V[ RpKai ds,aj ##o'C[ duh[ dyi } m$$ aJ qJ V[
dwhj ##bjfSj zi hg y.ej ] dWejVg oJ y.eg Vhk hp>sg m Wjhi
w'Hg dwl[ } Vhk ujSsj ba[ dlbjSsj m$$ bjf V[ dwhj dw ##qJ
duo[ w'Hg Vj ujS[ Vj dlbjS[$$ Rpo[ WCg q"u hp>sg ]@ blv bV.s
Rpo[ hg bjRpGsj ] m$$ dHh WyV lpS w[ qjaj ypf wi eHg@ fi
wpN Vj lqN lwg m dHh lg WjWj ug sj bjRpS rjv[ lq[G rv
dH,w dHLjij m dHl } bjdtbj ] #iqu$ m qhJfpit bjRpS rjv[
lq[G WjWa dHLjij aJ wis[ hV fi fPig e,v t'v% w[ Vhk s,ls[ m
s[tS dr,y aJ qhJfpit spVgbJsjiJ rie[ hg qjvPq hp.s[
32

hV m fi blv dr,y spVgbJ a'G dViv[f hp>s[ hV m


h"vg h"vg RpV%J s[ WyVJ a'G Vjq sg lpe.Zg@ wlaPig sg qdhw
rJe ujdhi h'S ve uJsg ] m Fjr[G dHVJ sj qwls blvg wg
] ( dHV%J V[ wg wiVj ] ( dHh e,vJ ujdhi h'S ve uJsgbJ
hV m qhJfpit sj w.q ] ugb sjV s[Sj Feag dr,y vjRpSj m
l' dHRpG WjWj ug bjfS[ bjRpS rjv[ lq[G sg WjWa s,l ih[ lV@
dw ljcg dabjig ] m
w,pN dsVJ Wjbs qjaj } dxi Rphg WyV Ijs wirjdHbj
##qJ@ q{G yv[ ujSj ] m q{} tpL h' w[ a'i m$$ qJ V[ dxi Rphg urjW
ds,aj ##b{Grg wig uJsj ] m wg wi[Gej Wjhi uj w[ ( zi W{n
dHo[ a[ij WjfP ]@ a[ij zi ] a[i[ Fij hV m lF wpN a[ij bjfSj
] m Vjv[ Wjhi w'Hg dwl[ } Vhk dlbjSsj m aP. Wjhi uj w[ wpN
wiV u'ej Vhk m Vj aP. dwl[ Vjv W'v[@ dxi aP. duo[ W{nj ]@ W{nj
hg idh>sj ] m Wjhi a[ij dVirjh Vhk h'Sj m$$ dxi bjf ug wdhS
v,e[ ##qJ@ dHo[ w'Hg rg dwl[ sj Vhk m F{S@ Fij@ qJ dfRpG@ zi
lF wpN A,v ] m lj} tpLg Vjv a'i s[@ blk idhSj Vhk m$$ dHh
wpN s,lS a'G Wjbs qjaj l'yS v,e fHg ##dHl sg debjiJ ljv
sg Rpqi h' eHg ] m ws[ W'dvbj hg Vhk u[ W'dvbj aJ Whpa
z,B m fi hpS sPug rji dHh e,v dwRpG bjtg m qJ V[ dwhj
##qlajdVbJ@ u[ a[ij zi dy,a Vhk v,esj aJ a{} VjVwg A,c
bjHgH[ m aJ bjf V[ dHVwji wi ds,aj #Vhk ujSj m$ dxi qjaj
V[ dwhj h'i dwo[ ujSj ] ( bjfS[ zi hg ih' m bjfV[ F'v[ Fj
h,l w[ dwhj ##qJ blvg zi aj h'i ] m$$ qJ V[ fpdAbj ##h'i
dwhCj ($$ aJ wdhS v,e[ ##a{} dxi ws[ s,ljeJ m$$ Rpl dsV ija
} qjaj V[ WjWj ug s[ dfaj w'v d;wi wgaj dw qlajVj q[i[
w'v s' rjig dHh e,v bjt ypdwbj ] dw q{G zi Vhk idhSj@
Wjhi yv[ ujSj ] m
33

dfaj ug wdhS v,e[ ##aP. fdhvJ Vj sdlbj ($$


qjaj wdhS v,eg ##q{G fdhvg rji aJ e,v bSlpSg hg wi
ds,ag lg m fi b,u sPug rji dHh e,v lpS w[ q{} dxwi h'dHbj
] m$$ dfaj ug wdhS v,e[ ##hpS q{G fp,A w[ s[tsj hJ m$$
dfaj ug V[ WjWj ug } Wpvj w[ fpdAbj@ ##qlajdVbJ aP.
bjfSg qJ w'v dwhj lg dw q{G Wjhi y,v[ ujSj ] m dwo[ ujH[ej ($$
fdhvg rji aJ ypf ih[ m sPug rji fpAS a[ h,l w[ wdhS v,e[
##hJ ujSj ] m$$
dxi dfaj V[ dwhj ##h'i dwa[ Vhk ujSj m q[i[ Vjv t[a }
y,v m$$ bjf W'v[ ##Vj w'Hg dwl[ Vjv bjdHbj ] a[ Vj w'Hg dwl[
Vj ujH[ej m bjRpSj ujSj dHwdvbJ sj hg ] m dHRpG wdhw[ ypf
h' eH[ m
dfaj ug l'y l'y w[ qjaj } wdhS v,e[ ##q{} aJ q>Tvg
rjv[ l.aJ V[ u' dHl sg WjWa dwhj lg ba[ a{} rg l.a zi bj
w[ s,l debj lg@ Rph' duhg e,v hg wpN WSsg vesg ] m$$
Rpl dsV dfaj ug t[a ujS ve[ WjWj ug } Vjv v{ eH[ m
dfaj a[ sPli[ FjHg aJ w.q wiV v,e fH[ fi bjf bijq Vjv
t[a dr,y dH,w r,B Rpa[ W{n eH[ m us'G qjaj ug zi'G i'Bg v{ w[
Rpo[ eH[ aJ lFVJ V[ i'Bg tj vHg a[ bjf ug } dH,w s' rji
dwhj m fi bjf bjfS[ qla lpFj bVplji ypf hg ih[ m dfA'G qjaj
ug dHV%J w'v eH[ m us'G qjaj s[ wdhS a[ v'C bVplji i'Bg tj
vHg@ zi } bjRpS v,e[@ Rps'G ypf yjf qjaj ug Vjv df>c }
bj eH[ m

34

f+F ug Wldh ljZ wg ilVj


WjWj ug s[ WyV bVplji Vei dr,Dy'G dH,w qjHg sj WjWj
ug sg qjaj Vjv Whpa dfbji lg m Rph qjHg dH,w dsV bjfS[
W,y[ } Vjv v{ w[ qjaj w'v bj eHg m b,e[ qjaj ug zi s[ w.q
dr,y ip,DN[ h'H[ lV a[ Rpl qjHg V[ bjRpS lji hg qjaj } dwhj
##u[ w'Hg q[i[ fp,ai } wpN dyi yp,w vr[ aJ q{G a[i[ Vjv w.q wirj
dsbJ m$$ qjaj V[ bjf rv dHLjij wiw[ dwhj@ ##qlajdVbj@ dHl
} ypw v{ m$$ bjf ug V[ bjfS[ lpFj bVplji fdhvJ aJ w'Hg urjW
Vhk dsaj m dxi sPug rji qjaj s[ wdhS a[ wdhS v,e[ ##q{G Vhk
ypwSj m$$ aglig rji qJ V[ ep,Dl[ dr,y bj w[ dwhj ##dwRpG Vhk
ypwSj ( a[[ij A'Bj rgi ] m A'B[ rgiJ } r,c[ yp,w dvbj wis[
hV m$$ qjaj V[ dwhj ##u[ aP. dHl } ypw vr[G aJ q{G A[ag drhvg
h' w[ a{} VphJ dsbJeg m$$ bjf V[ r,c[ Fij r,v dHLjij wiw[
dwhj ##Rpl } ypwj s[ m$$ qJ V[ dwhj Rph aJ zi sj w.q wisj
] m aP. drhvj ]G m aP. yp,w v{ m$$ aJ bjf ug wdhS ve[ a.P dxi
dHl } uiPi hg ypwjRpSj ] aJ dxi w,pN dsVJ Wjbs dHl }
i,W hg yp,w vr[ej m Rph W,yj epui debj m df>cj s[ dirju bVplji
qjaj rg Rpl qjHg s[ zi bxl'l wiV eHg aJ Rpl V[ qjaj
} b,e' RpvJFj dsaj ##a[ij fp,ai fdhvJ W'dvbJ hg wpN Vhk lg m
u[ W'dvbj aJ a[i[ fp,ai V[ dxi b{lg upWjV t'vg dw q[ij fp,a hg
v{ dvbj m tWi[ dHl sg dwh' duhg upWjV ] m$$ dHh lpS w[ qjaj
rg wpN Rpsjl idhS ve fHg m WjWj ug Vjv rg W'v yjv z,B
wi ds,ag m dH,w dsV qjaj i'Bg v{ w[ bjHg aJ bjf V[ i'Bg tjS
a'G dHVwji wi ds,aj a[ dwhj ##q{G tgi tjSg ] m$$ aJ qJ V[ dwhj
35

q[ig lh[vg sj fp,ai qi debj ] m tgi Vhk WVjRpSg aJ bjf


V[ dwhj dw q{G i'Bg Vhk tjSg m qjaj V[ dwhj hpS tj v{ lr[i[
tgi WSj dsbJeg m l' bev[ dsV qjaj V[ tgi WSj ds,ag m dul
r[v[ bjf tgi tj ih[ lV aJ qJ w'v W{ng lg aJ bjf qJ } fp,AS
ve[ ##aP. q[i[ Vjv ep,Dl[ dwRpG ] ($$ aJ qJ wdhS v,eg aP. dwh' duhg
F{Cg uWjV w,Tg m Rpl Vjv q[ij F{SJ a' r,Z dfbji lg@ aJ bjf
wdhS ve[ ##u[ Rph qp>cj dxi bj ujH[ aP. dxi aJ ep,Dl[ Vhk hp.sg m$$
qJ V[ dwhj ##yp,f wi r[ ws[ qi[ h'H[ rg bjH[ V[ m$$ bjf wdhS
ve[ ##hJ bj uJs[ hV$$ m aJ qJ V[ dwhj dwr[G@ wdhS ve[ ##dur[G
uJs[ hV Rpr[G bj uJs[ hV m us'G Rph bj ujr[ej aP. r[t vrk m
Rphg bjH[ej fi aP. ep,Dl[ Vj h'dHbj wi m$$ wpN lq[G Wjbs Rpl
qjaj s[ zi dH,w h'i fp,ai h'dHbj dul s[ V{S VwL lF fdhv[
vCw[ rie[ lV m dxi qJ } faj v,ej aJ qjaj Rpl lh[vg s[
zi eHg m us'G zi rjfl bjHg aJ WjWj ug V[ qjaj ug } fpdAbj
##dwo[ eHg lg ($$ qjaj V[ ljig e,v s,lg m dxi bjf wdhS ve[
##hpS aJ tpL ] m$$ qJ wdhS v,eg ##q{G hpS Whpa tpL hJ m$$ bjf
V[ dwhj ##u[ aP. q[i[ Rpa[ tpL ]G aJ q{} a'i s[ m q{G yv[ ujSj ] m
a{} aglig rji wdh dsaj ] m hpS y"og rji Vhk wdhSj m h,og
a'i s[r[G aJ y.eg e,v ] m u[ q{G ypf wiw[ yvj debj aJ aplk
Fjvs[ dxi'e[ m b,e[ aphjcg qiug m$$ qJ V[ fpdAbj ##ujH[Gej
dwo[ ($$ bjf wdhS v,e[ ##dvujS rjvj duo[ dvujH[ej m$$ qJ V[
fpdAbj ##w'S ] a{} dvujS rjvj m$$ bjf wdhS v,e[ ##q{} Rph
dvujH[ej dul V[ a[ig lh[vg sj fp,a q'C w[ ds,aj ] m h'i w'S
]@ q{} dvujS rjvj ($$ dHRpG WyV wiw[ bjf h,l fH[ m Rpla'G
Wjbs qJ dwl[ cP.zg l'y dr,y f{ eHg m dHl ai%J dur[G fdhv[ sl[
f+l.e bVplji l,F wpN s,l rg ds,aj a[ Vjv[ F[s rg i,t dvbj m
lWi b>sdi ljWig aVp H[r{ ujv[dV
h'dV Vugdw tpsjdH s{ F[ap V dwl{ s[dV mm
36

\b>e 1384|

zi'G Wjhi dHwJa dr,y idhSj


ljyg f+gda hq apq dlRp u'ig mm apq dlRp u'di bri l.de a'ig m
dul ai%J dfA[ duwi wgaj ] Rpl a'G Wjs bjf Whpaj lqJ
zi a'G Wjhi idhS v,e fH[ m lr[i r[v[ ypfyjf zi'G api ujSj m
ljij dsV Wjhi hg idhSj m Ljq } zi qpC bjRpSj m ws[ zi'G
i'Bg tj ujSg@ ws[ fdhvJ hg yv[ ujSj ljij dsV dVijhji hg
idhSj m us'G wHg dsV vejaji Wjhi uJs[ ih[ aJ qjaj } dxwi
h' debj m RplV[ dfaj ug w'v duwi wgaj m dH,w dsV dfaj ug
V[ dtbjv idtbj m us'G bjf ujS ve[ aJ dfaj ug rg qei
h' api[ m df>c a'G o'Cg sPi Wjhi yv[ eH[ aJ dfaj ug V[ bjrju
ds,ag a[ fpdAbj ##qlajdVbJ@ dwo[ y,DdvbJ ] ($$ bjf wdhS
ve[ ##bjfSj w.q wiV$$
dfaj V[ fp,DdAbj a[ij dwhCj w.q ] m aJ bjf V[ dwhj ##q[ij
w.q ] i,W sj Vjq u,fSj a[ Vjv hg dwhj WjfP aP. dfA[ qpC uj m$$
dfaj ug Vjv b,e[ ujSj yjhp.s[ h'H[ rg uj Vhk lw[ a[ dfA[ qpC
fH[ m dul rwa zi eH[ aJ qjaj V[ fpdAbj #qlajVj$ ( dfaj
V[ RpKai ds,aj #Rph wdh>sj ] q{G bjfSj w.q wiV ydvbJ hJ m$
q{G fpdAbj #dwhCj w.q$ wdhS vej #i,W sj Vjq ufSj m$ l' Rpl
dsV rg be[ rJe Ljq } zi qpC{ aJ qJ V[ vjc Vjv fpdAbj
b,u ljij dsV dwo[ dihj i'Bg dwo'G tjZg m bjf h,l w[ yp,f wi
eH[ m qjaj f+Ljsj v{ bjHg aJ v'C bVplji A,w dvbj@ fi o'C%j m
bev[ dsV lr[i[ bjf zi'G RpKn w[ bjf ug zi s[ V[C[ dH,w tPh
lg Rpl sg q"S a[ uj W{n eH[ m dHh tPh b,u wv W.s wgaj dfbj
] m u' dw blk uj w[ s[dtbj ] m WjWj ug V[ bjf dH,w rji WyV
37

wgaj lg ##dH,w tPh a[ WjiJ zpqj uqgV ljc[ dwl[ Wupie } dHVjq
dr,y dqvg h'Hg lg m$$ wpN dyi Wjs Rpl df>c sj bjsqg w'v sg
v.dzbj a[ r[t w'v yvj debj m bjf ug } Wjh'G xC w[ RpnjRpS
v,ej m us'G Vj Rpn[ aJ WjWj ug s[ zi uj w[ sdlbj m dfaj ug
eH[ aJ s[dtbj dw bjf Rpo[ hg W{n[ hV aJ Wjh'G xC w[ Rpnj
dvbj a[ wdhS ve[ ##dHh a[ig W{nS sg oJ WCg y.eg ] ( dwa[
h'i W{n uJsj m$$ dHRpG bjt w[ zi v{ bjH[ m dxi qJ } ljig e,v
s,lg m qjaj V[ rg dwhj ##tPh a[ W{nj wg wisj lg ( v{ i'Bg tj
v{ m$$ v'C bVplji i'Bg tjS a'G Wjs wpN dyi zi ndhi[@ dxi Wjhi
} yv[ eH[ m hV[ij h'S a'G Wjbs zi qpC bjH[ m dfaj ug V[ dwhj
##dxi ljij dsV Wjhi hg vj bjdHbj@ a{} Fpt a+[h Vhk vesg (
a{} ci Vhk vesj ( ws[ tPh a[ uj W{nsj ]G m ws[ Wjhi yvj
uJsj ] m$$ be'G h,l w[ W'v[@ ##WjfP ug u[ i,W sj ci q>V vHgH[@
dxi h'i w'Hg ci Vhk bjRpGsj m
xiqjV ]^

dViFRp uf{ lev FRp dqB{ mm


f+F w{ dlqidV FRp V dWbjf{

\b>e 262|

hi ai%J sj ci q>Vsj ] qV m us'G qV hg dlqiV dr,y vgV


h' debj dxi ci dwo[ m
dHl a'G Wjbs qjaj ug a'G v'C bVplji f+Ljsj A,w dvbj m
wpN dyi bjijq wgaj a[ zi rjdvbJ s[ l" ujS a'G Wjbs y"GwCg
qji w[ W{n eH[ m us'G lr[i[ qjaj dfaj Rpn[ aJ bjf W{n h'H[ lV m
rZp lpt i{VCgH[ df+b f+[Dqp vej m
zBp spt VgsCgH[ filRp lsj fej m

\dW^q^ 5@ b>e 544|

i,W sj qjie l.a uVj } vesj Whpa dfbjij mm


38

duRpG bjdLw qLpw evg uj w[ v{S hpvjij mm


l' qhJfpit yiV wqv sg q"u dr,y lqjH[ h'H[ idh>s[ w'Hg
wjiu wiVj h'r[ aJ hpwq bVplji wis[ lV m fi>aP qV sg dvr
f+q[Lri Vjv hg v,eg idh>sg ] m Vjq s[r ug V[ xpiqjdHbj ] m
wha Vjqs[Rp lpVhp dav'yV@
Wjvwp fjvV fRpTgbv[ m
b>adi Wjhdi wju dWiPZg m
ygap lp Wjdiw ijtgbv[ mm

\Vjqs[r@ b>e 972|

Fea ug spVgbjrg ds+LBJa s[ w[ qhJfpitJ sg b>ai


bjadqw brloj s,ls[ hV m dur[G qjaj W,Dy[ } f>zPC[ dr,y fjRpS
a'G Wjs w.q wji wisg h'Hg rg bjfS[ W,y[ } Ijs i,tsg ] m
l' qV wiw[ dHl ai%J qhJfpitJ sg brloj hp.sg ] m dHl LWs
s[ b>a+gr s[ Fjr bio h'i hV m dul s[ Vjv qhJfpitJ s[ qV'brloj } WjSg spbjij Fea ug V[ lqNjdHbj ] m

uh uh itdh bjdf ah ujdH tC'rSj mm

zi'G Wjhi ujw[ tPh a[ W{nS a'G Wjbs WjWj ug s[ woV


bVplji bjf ug V[ bjfS[ W{nS vHg dH,w h'i oJ v,F vHg m dHh
Vei a'G sPi l.zS[ sitaJ dr,y dH,w fpijSg l,f sg Wiqg h'S
wi w[ NjC bjdsw Whpa lV m v'wJ s[ dya dr,y dHh dtbjv
lg dw dHo[ dH,AjZjig l,f idh>sj ] duhCj bjfSg qiug bVplji
iPf Zji v{Gsj ] m dHl wiw[ v'w cis[ dHZi dsV[ rg Vhk uJs[
lV m l' bjf V[ Rph lojV bjfS[ W{nS vHg ypS dvbj a[ hi
i'u Rpo[ uj w[ W{n uJs[ m lr[i[ yv[ ujS a[ Ljq } qpCVj m dH,w
dsV bjf RpZi'G bj ih[ lV dwl[ V[ r[t w[ zi s,l ds,aj m qjaj
dfaj V[ fpdAbj aJ bjf ypf ih[ m bev[ dsV us'G Rpo[ ujS v,e[
39

aJ dfaj ug V[ ijh dr,y i'w dvbj ba[ fpdAbj ##dwo[ y,Ddvbj


] ($$ wdhS ve[ ##Rpo[ hg duo[ v'w cis[ hV m$$ dfaj V[ dwhj
##zi y,v m$$ aJ bjf V[ dwhj ##Vhk@ hpS Ljq } zi bjrJej m$$
dHRpG wdhw[ bjf b,e[ yv[ eH[ m us'G zi bjH[ qJ V[ fpdAbj ##dwo[
dihj ljij dsV ) dHRpG Vj wdibj wi Vj i'Bg Vj fjSg@ Fp,tj
dahjdHbj idh>sj ]G m a[ig dwr[ dshjCg Wgasg ]@ uj w[ rg Rpo[
W{nsj ] duo[ w'Hg Vj ujr[ m blgG ljij dsV wvfs[ idh>s[ hJ m$$
wdhS v,e[ ##qJ q[ij dxwi Vj wi@ q[ij dxwi f+q[Lri } ] m
lF sj Rphg itrjvj ] m$$ dHRpG wdh w[ ypf h' eH[ m
ija } v'C bVplji f+Ljsj A,w dvbj bev[ dsV lr[i[ zi'G
Rpn w[ apiV v,e[ m qjaj V[ bjrj; s[ w[ i''w dvbj m wdhS veg
##ljij dsV Fptj wg wiJe[ m sp,Z fg w[ ujHg m ##qjaj sp,Z v{ bjHg
v'C bVplji A,w w[ wdhS v,e[ ##v{ qJ hpS q{G uj dihj hJ m$$
qjaj V[ dwhj ##Rpo[ uj w[ Fp.u[ hg W{n[ej m bjh yjsi v{ uj m$$
dHRpG wdh w[ qjaj V[ t,si sg yjsi s[ ds,ag m yjsi v{ w[ wdhS
v,e[ v{ ##qjaj@ hpS q{ ujrj m$$ qjaj V[ dwhj ##y.ej uJ m$$ l' dHl
upeag Vjv bjfSg dH,Aj bVplji qjaj ug a'G hJ rg wij vHg m
qjaj V[ lqdNbj dw Ljq } rjfl bj ujSe[ m fi wg faj lg
iuj s[ qjvw hpS Vhk A[ag qpCw[ bjRpGs[ m dxi awigWV Wjij
f>siJ ljv zi Vhk bjH[ m us'G zi'G eH[ lV ligiw a"i a[ bjf
ug s[ woV bVplji a[iJ y"sJ ljv sg Rpqi lg m

l.a ijq dl>z ug lPLJ rjdvbJ Vjv dqvjf


dHV%J sj uVq Vei rg lPL df>c lg m
b{l lq[G dHV%J sg lqjZ dTvrJ Vei dr,y hg ] m dHo[ hg
dHV%J V[ ligi dabjdebj lg m
40

dHh qhJfpit epiqda drdsbj ba[ l.ldw+a s[ WC[ awC[


drsrjV lV m drbjwiV@ r[sJa ba[ I'e Ljlai s[ bjfS[ lq[G
dr,y dVfp>V q>V[ uJs[ lV ba[ iqa[ hg idh>s[ lV m dwa[ dBws[
Vhk lV ba[ dViqv F[t Vjv lW.Z its[ lV m dHV%J s[ r,c[
qhJfpit l.a l[rj dl>z ug h'H[ lV m duV%J V[ wvegZi ug a'G
b>Ddq+a fjV wiw[ ldaepiP ug s[ hpwq Vjv huPig dr,y idhw[
wdnV l[rj dlqiV sg zjvSj zjv w[ hpwq bVplji epidl,tg
f+yji wiV ve fH[ lV m l.a l[rj dl>z ug V[ A,ag ljv vejaji
epiP s[ hpwq bVplji l.eaJ } uv AwjdHbj@ qLw fjSg sg Fi
w[ b,n[ fdhi bjfS[ w'v itSg m l[rj dr,y a,afi idhSj m l.a
l[rj dl>z ug a'G ri'ljdH l.a sgrjV dl>z m l.a sgrjV dl>z a'G
ri'ljdH l.a qlajV dl>z b>Ddq+aligbJ m dHV%J sg dihjdHL WjW[
bB,v ljdhW s[ w'v ZiqLjvj dr,y lg m WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z
ug V[ dHh lF wpN bjfS[ qp,t a' W'vw[ hg dvtjHg h'Hg epiP f+Sjvg
bVplji s,Ddlbj ] m Rpl rwa ZiqLjvj s[ Vjq f>u l" zpqj ;qgV
ba[ s' tPh dr,y v,e[ h'H[ lV m l.a qlajV dl>z s[ dfaj WjWj
liPf dl>z wjr w'L s[ qhjV drsrjV lV m l.a qlajV dl>z
ug a'G ri'ljdH l.a q,v dl>z ug f>c'ig@ dVNiJ spbjW[ dr,y ] m
dHV%J sj e'a i'w' lg m uVq Vei WCP.sg vpdZbjS[ dr,y ] m dwa[
h'i rg h' lwsg ] dwRpGdw dHl dH,w VJ s[ df>c Ldhi wHg
dHvjdwbJ dr,y hV m t{i l.a q,v dl>z ug fdhvJ qhJijuj
iSuga dl>z s[ z'C blrjiJ dr,y V"wig wis[ lV m Rpl rwa
f>u ipfH[ qhgV[ sg aVtjh lg m V"wig A,c w[ l.a qlajV dl>z
ug s[ l[rw WS eH[ m l.a q,v dl>z ug sj blojV blk da>V
dl>zJ V[ bjf b,tk uj w[ r[dtbj ] m dHl rwa Rpo[ l.a bq'vw
dl>z ug hV m l.a q,v dl>z ug a'G y"o[ uJ f>ur[G oJ a[ hV ba[
v[tw } RpV%J a'G dH,w dViqv F[t sg l.f+sjdH f+Sjvg dH,w dW+A
s[ iPf dr,y dqdvbj ] m dul} dHl fplaw s[ qp,T dr,y dsaj
41

debj ] m Rpo'G siLV wi' dxi faj vesj ] m l.a l[rj dl>z ug
a'G dwaVg deSag dr,y dHh l.a qhjaqj h'H[ hV m hpS bjfJ
WjWj ug s[ dHdahjl r,v bjHgH[ m l' WjWj ug sj dqvjf dwl[
ue%j dHV%J Vjv Fjr l.a ijq dl>z ug s[ Vjv h' debj m WjWj
ug s[ woV bVplji blk RphVJ a'G fdhvJ epiP zi sg drdsbj
fC%g Fjr dw epiWjSg sj fjn ba[ dryji dltg m dxi l.ldw+a
s[ wHg e+.o fC[ dryji[ m u' h[nj siu hV m RpV%J } W[Vag wiw[
##qhjiju lj} rg dlqiV wiV sg upeag sl' ($$ RpKai dr,y
l.a ijq dl>z ug ##ufp ug ljdhW sj fjn wiV sj Rpfs[L dsaj
ba[ dwhj dw dHh ljig WjSg sj dlZJa ] m h'i WjSg dHlsg
drbjdtbj ] m dHlsj duV%J rg bdFbjl h' ujH[ RpaVj y.ej ] m
qPv q>ai Fjr fdhvg fRpCg sj dlqiV rg yjhgsj ] m fi aplk
fdhvJ ufp ug ljdhW sj vejaji dlqiV wi' m dwRpGdw WjWj ug
sg bda b>a wdnV drdsbj bdFbjl r[tw[ ba[ dHaVg agtS
Wp,Zg Wigw l.ld+wa s[ e+>oJ s[ dlZJa } lqNw[ RpV%J } f+l.V wgaj
lg m fi fC%dsbJ fC%dsbJ dVbjH[ ba[ I'e LjLa+ s[ W[b>a lv'w
uWjVg Ijs wi vH[ lV m wHg rji Whpa lji[ e+>oJ sj dlZJa
dqvjw[ b{lj bio dl,Z wiVj RpV%J V[ lpSw[ bda f+l.V h' ujSj m
l.a ijq dl>z ug Vjv u[ dwl[ h'i drsrjV V[ w'Hg dryji wiVg
aJ wHg rji bjf V[ hg bjfS[ vHg drdsbj epiP a'G hpwq v{
w[ o'C[ lq[G dr,y hg Rpl drsrjV } RpKai s[ w[ f+l.V wi s[Sj m
dHV%J e,vJ a'G f+Fjdra h' w[ l.a ijq dl>z ug dHV%J sj Whpa
hg ldawji wis[ lV m us'G WjWj ug } l.a ijq dl>z ug rv'G
l+g ufp ug ljdhW s[ fjn sj hpwq h'dHbj aJ RpKai dr,y fp,DdAbj
## dwaVj lqJ bdFbjl$$ Fjr dw dw>V[ fjn i'u wiV[ yjhgs[
hV m RpV%J urjW ds,aj dw W[-deSa W[-b>a } dqvS vHg bjf
} rg W[-b>a hg h'Sj fr[ej m dHl vHg bjf } hg lqNSj fr[ej m
dw dwaVg wp v'C ] m b>sj;j vej vr' m ##lda WyV$$ wdh w[
42

dli dVrj dsaj ba[ dV,a V[q bji>F wi ds,aj m b,Zg ija s[
Vjv hg Rpn W{nSj dwa[ o'hCj Wjhvj duh' duhj fjSg dqv debj
dHLVjV wiw[ y"GwCj qji w[ W{n ujSj m wpN lq[G dr,y hg dH,w
l" dH,w fjn wiV a,w fhp>y eH[ m dH,w dsV l.a ijq dl>z ug
V[ fp,DdAbj #dw>V[ fjn wis[ h'$ aJ bjf ug V[ s,Ddlbj #dH,w l"
dH,w m$ l.a h,lw[ wdhS ve[ ##bu[ deSag a'G Wjhi Vhk h'H[$$
fdhvJ dwl[ dhljW Vjv deSag wis[ lV m Rph A,c ds,ag ba[
dlix fjn wiV a,w hg bjfSj dVLyj wi dvbj m dxi dsV ija@
b,Dn[ fdhi fjn ujig hg idhSj m ilVj a'G RpKfi RpKn w[ Fjr
lpiag Vjv dHaVg a[;g Vjv dlqiV h'Sj dw uWjV Vjv'G dwV[
epSj r,Z m ija } o'Cj lqJ tC[-tC[ dwa[ Vks bj eHg aJ ngw m
u[ y"GwCj qjiw[ W{n eH[ aJ ljij lqJ W{dnbJ hg v.z ujSj m
u[ tv' eH[ aJ tv'a[ hg idhSj m u[ tv' eH[ aJ ijq dl>z ug
V[ blyiu h' ujSj ba[ wdhSj dw aplk ws[ bijq rg wi dvbj
wi' m dwRpGdw bjf ug dr,y lF ai%J sgbJ drL[LajHgbJ s[t w[
bjf ug sj WCj ldawji wis[ lV m bjf ug V[ h,l w[ dVq+aj
Vjv RpKai s[Sj@ ug q{} aJ ws[ ow[rj hp.sj hg Vhk m
dHV%J dsVJ dr,y dH,w dsV b,Zg ija sj lqJ lg dw l.a ijq
dl>z ug bjfS[ bjlS a'G Rpn w[ wpN sPi eH[ duo[ dw WjWj ug
y"GwCj qji w[ bjfS[ dlqiV dr,y qla lV m Rpl r[v[ WjWj ug
sg aJ lqjZg v,eg h'Hg lg m l.a ijq dl>z ug } WjWj ug s[ dyhi[
a[ dH,w b{lj VPi dsdlbj dw ija s[ hV[i[ dr,y WjWj ug sj dyhij
dsV rjeP. hg dstjHg s[ dihj lg m dHl blyiu w'aw } s[t
w[ l.a ug bdab>a f+L.V h'H[ m Rpl rwa aJ wpN VJ W'v[ m us'G
dsV yC%V a'G Wjbs WjWj ug Rpn w[ dHV%J fjl bjH[ aJ dHV%J
V[ dH,w w,fCj drAj w[ Rpfi W{nS vHg dwhj m WjWj ug V[ dVqiaj
Vjv Rpai ds,aj ug aphjc[ WijWi dHYG Vhk aJ be'G RpV%J V[
43

dwhj@ #Vhk aphj} W{nSj hg fr[ej m ljcj hpwq q>V w[ W{n ujY m
dxi WjWj ug } fpdAbJ dw aphjcj qjaj dfaj V[ wg Vjq idtbj
] m bjf ug sls[ lV dw blk b,e[ rg sdlbj lg m fi dxi bjfSj
VJ dVhjv dl>z s,l ds,aj l.a ug lpS w[ wdhS v,e[ #aphjcj Vjq
blk b,u a'G hdiVjq dl>z idtbj ] m sPlig ljcg W[Vag dHh ]
dw aphjcg wqjHg Whpa f+Wv ] m$
#dHl wiw[ aplk lpa.ai h' w[ bjfSg qi;g Vjv dryi' m$$
bjf ug V[ W[Vag wgag ##q{G hpS dwo[ ujrJ ($$ l.a ug V[ dwhj
##ljc[ epiP l.a WjWj q,v dl>z ug dVNij sg f>c'ig idh>s[ hV m
u[ aphjcj q>V q>V[ aJ Rpo[ yv[ ujY m$$ bjfV[ dwhj ##Rph aJ
q{} ujSs[ Vhk m$$ aJ l.a ug V[ dwhj ##blk dy,ng dvt ds>s[
hJ m$$ dHRpG wdhw[ RpV%J V[ dH,w fiyg dvt ds,ag a[ WjWj ug }
dVNiJ sg f>c'ig l.a q,v dl>z ug w'v F[u ds,aj m

dVNiJ sg f>c'ig
l.a q,v dl>z ug qhjijuj iSuga dl>z sg V"wig wis[ lV
l.a qlajV dl>z ug sj Rpfs[L v{ w[ V"wig A,cw[ zi bj eH[ m
zi'G dxi bjfS[ epiP fjl f>c'ig dV,Nij ih[ m dxi wpN lqJ lPl df>c
ih[ m dHo'G y,vw[ dWbjl dwVji[ dtvrg Vei bj w[ ih[ m dxi f>c'ig
dV,Nij bj w[ dBw eH[ m bjf WC[ Wgaije qhjaqJ lV ba[
drsrjV rg fPiV lV m f>c'ig idhw[ A,Wg ljv lqJ fPij wiw[
l.qa 1411 dWw+qg } l,yt>c eqV wi eH[ m \dHdahjl dViqv
F[t dr,Dy'G 340| Z.Vrjs ldha
l.a q,v dl>z ug dV,NiJ sg f>c'ig a'G yC%s[ rjv[ fjl[ o'Cg
hg sPi dH,w c[i[ dr,y idh>s[ lV m dHV%J w'v dldtbjiog drdsbj
fC%V vHg bjRpGs[ idh>s[ lV m dHo[ drdsbj sj v.ei a[ b>V sj
v.ei s'V' hg yvs[ lV m l' WjWj ug dHV%J fjl epiPbJ sg dy,ng
44

v{ w[ fhp.y eH@[ fhp.yS a'G Wjbs l.aJ V[ dy,ng fC% w[ dH,w rtij
wqij s[ ds,aj m bjf Rpo[ idhS v,e fH[ m RpV%J l.aJ w'v h'i
rg drdsbjiog idh>s[ lV m fi>aP RpV%J V[ bjfl dr,y h,lSj t[cSj
fi WjWj ug bV.s qeV hg idh>s[ lV m Vj dwl[ w'v ujSj ba[
u[ dwl[ V[ dHV%J w'v bj ujSj aJ rg w'Hg e,v Vj wiVg m u[
l[rjsji V[ WvjRpS sg w'dLL rg wiVg aJ b,e' w'Hg urjW hg
Vj s[Sj m dHl ai%J wpN lqJ Wgdabj m
dH,w dsV l.a q,v dl>z ug V[ lji[ drdsbjiogbJ } dH,wn[
wiw[ fpdAbj ##duhCj l.a ljc[ w'v l.a ijq dl>z ug sg dy,ng
v{ w[ bjdHbj ] Rph wg wisj ] m$$ RpV%J V[ dwhj ug Rph aJ
bjfS[ wqi[ dr,y hg idh>sj ] m uJ ws[ Wjhi } yvj uJsj ] m
W'vsj yjvsj dwl[ Vjv rg Vhk m ws[ Ljq } v.ei dr,Dy'G i'Bg
A,w v{Gsj ] m b,nJ fdhiJ dr,y dHw rjig A,wsj ] m$$ dxi vJeig
dl>z } Wpvj w[ fpdAbj Rpl V[ sdlbj ##b,nj fdhiJ Wjbs r,Z
a'G r,Z dH,w f+Ljsj hg A,wsj ] m dHl a'G dWVJ ws[ wpN Vhk
q>Ddebj m$$ dHh lpSw[ l.a q,v dl>z ug yp,f wi eH[ m wpN dsVJ
a'G Wjbs dH,w dsV l.a q,v dl>z ug c[i[ dr,y dxis[-dxis[ WjWj
ug s[ wqi[ s[ b,e[ bj eH[ a[ WjWj ug b>si W{n[ lV m WjWj ug
l.aJ } s[t w[ ldawji Vjv Rpn tv'a[ a[ RpV%J V[ rg dHV%J sg
idhSg WdhSg s[t w[ y.ej ldawji wgaj a[ dwhj ##u[ dwl[ ygu
sg v'C h'r[ aJ q>e dvbj wi' m$$ dHaVj WyV wiw[ l.a rjfl
qpC bjH[ m Rpl a'G Wjbs b{lj lqJ bjdHbj WjWj ug V[ bjfS[
wqi[ b>si rC w[ WPhJ b>si'G W.s wi dvbj ba[ yji dsV b>si
hg ih[ m y"o[ dsV l[rjsjiJ V[ l.aj w'v duwi wgaj ##u' VrJ
l.a bjdHbj ] Rph yji dsVJ a'G b>si hg W{nj ] m$$ RpV%J V[
dwhj ##ujRp faj wi' m$$ us'G l[rjsjij V[ bj w[ r[dtbj sirjuj
b>si'G W>s lg m l[rjsjiJ V[ l.aJ } uj w[ s,Ddlbj ##WPhj b>si'G
45

W.s wig W{nj ] m blk brjuJ rg qjigbJ a[ tCwj rg wgaj


] fi W'vsj Vhk m$$ l.a q,v dl>z ug Rpn w[ bjH[ a[ WPhj
tCwjdHbj m fi WjWj ug V[ w'Hg brju Vj ds,ag m dxi RpV%J V[
l[rjsjiJ a'G ata[ sg yPv fp,B w[ r[dtbj dw WjWj ug b>si y"GwCj
qji w[ lqjZg dr,y W{n[ lV m Rph r[t w[ rjdfl yv[ eH[ a[
WpvjdHbj Vhk m ata[ } Rpl[ ai%J e[B vj ds,aj a[ l[rjsjiJ }
dwhj ##dwl[ V[ sirju[ s[ V[C[ Vhk ujSj m us'G dHh bjfS[ bjf
Wjhi bjrS aJ lj} sl s[Sj m$$ Rpl dsV Ljq } WjWj ug V[
lqjZg t'v%g a[ Wjhi bjH[ m l[rwJ V[ l.aJ } tWi wi ds,ag aJ
l.a ldawji Vjv bj w[ dqv[ m fdhvJ RpV%J V[ uv fjSg fpdAbj
aJ WjWj ug V[ sp,Z q>Ddebj m sp,Z A,w w[ dxi Wjhi } yv[ eH[ m
us'G Wjhi'G qpC[ aJ wqi[ dr,y hg bj w[ dWiju eH[ m wpN dsVJ
a'G Wjbs l.a q,v dl>z ug V[ WjWj ug } bjfS[ w'v Wpvj w[
e,v Wja yvjHg m dwRpGdw l.a q,v dl>z ug awC[ drsrjV wqjHg
rjv[ lV m wpN f+qjio Wji[ WjWj ug Vjv f+LV wga[ m WjWj ug
V[ Ioju'e RpV%J s[ RpKai dsa[ m l.a RKpai lpS w[ WC[ f+l.V h'H[ m
dxi l.aJ V[ dVaV[q Wji[ fpdAbj a[ bjf V[ ufpug ljdhW s[ fjnJ
sj ba[ qPv q>ai s[ dlqiV sj dVaV[q s,Ddlbj m RpKai lpS w[
l.a Whpa f+l.V h'H[ a[ dwhj dw aplk Z.V h' m dHl ai%J wdhw[ h,o
u'C w[ bjfS[ rv'G ldawji wgaj m WjWj ug V[ h,o u'Cw[ W[Vag
wgag ##ug aplk ljc[ sjsj epiP h'$$ aJ l.aJ V[ dwhj ##Rpqi wiw[
uJ uVq wiw[ w'Hg r,cj Vhk WSsj wqjHg hg r,cg ] m u' wqjHg
wi[ej Rph ldawji I'e ] m$$ l.aJ V[ fpdAbj ##w'Hg xpiVj aJ
Vhk WdSbj ($$ WjWj ug V[ urjW ds,aj ##wHg rjig l.a ijq dl>z
ug w'v idh>DdsbJ a'G FeaJ sg WjSg fC%dsbJ h'dHbj blk dHh
f>eagbJ lpSgbj lV m
YdH fiq fpit s[rjdZ s[r m
Feda h[da Vidl>z F[r mm
46

Wl.a 1194
\FeaWjSg|

dxi blk l.a ijq dl>z ug w'v W[Vag wgag lg dw ##Vi


dl>z ug s[ rg siLV h' lws[ hV m$$ RpV%J V[ dwhj ##wqjHg wiV
rjdvbJ } lF wpN h' lwsj ] m$$ dxi blk RpV%J } fpdAbj ##dw
dwl ai%J$$ aJ RpV%J V[ RpKai dsaj lg ##Vi dl>z sj braji
Fea f+dhvjs sg idtbj wiV rjla[ h'dHbj lg m Rpl a'G Wjbs
Vi dl>z sg dwl[ V[ RpfjlVj Vhk wgag Vj dHh f+a,t h'H[ hV m
Rpl a'G Wjbs lj} w'Hg xpiVj Vhk h'dHbj m$$ aJ l.a q,v dl>z
ug V[ dwhj ##hJ ngw ] m$$
fi Vi dl>z sg f+gdtbj WCg wiCg ] m RpV%J sj siLV WCj
a[u rjvj ] m fi aplk dul ai%J wdnV wqjHg wi ih[ h' m dHl
b,e[ w'Hg r,cg e,v Vhk ] m u[ wiVj yjh'e[ aJ h' ujSe[ m dHl
ai%J WyV wiw[ l.a q,v dl>z ug V[ l+g Vi dl>z wry Vjq
sj dHw LWs s,Ddlbj m dwhj dw ##dHl s[ f>u fjn i'; Ljq r[v[
wi dvbj wi' m$$ l.aJ V[ dwhj ##bjfSj dVljVj aJ epiP VjVw
dVi>wji hg ] m$$ dHl a'G Wjbs WjWj ug RpKn w[ bjfS[ wqi[
dr,y yv[ eH[ m dHl WyV a'G wpN dsVJ Wjbs l.a q,v dl>z ug
c[i[ dr,y dxis[-dxis[ WjWj ug s[ wqi[ r,v yv[ eH[ m ujw[ WPh[
b,e[ tv' eH[ m WjWj ug lqjZg dr,y W{n[ ih[ m Rpl rwa l.aJ }
WjWj ug sg oJ Vi dl>z sj iPf ds,DDdlbj ba[ W[b>a a[u V;i
bjdHbj aJ l.aJ V[ brju s[ w[ WjWj ug } dwhj ##qhJfpit' l.Fv
ujY m$$ da>V[ rji dHh brj; ds,ag m bjrj; lpS w[ WjWj ug
V[ V[ai t'v%[ aJ l.aJ V[ dwhj ##aplk aJ bjf Vi dl>z WS[ W{n[
h' m WjWj ug V[ dwhj ##ug lj} aJ w'Hg faj Vhk m$$ l.aJ V[ dwhj
##blk f+a,t lF wpN s[dtbj ] ba[ aphjcg dHAj fPig h' eHg ] m$$
WjWj ug V[ dwhj ##ug lj} aJ siLV Vhk h'H[ m$$ aJ l.a q,v
dl>z ug V[ dwhj ##us'G bjf hg RpV%J sj iPf h' eH[ aJ siLV
rjvg e,v dfA[ aJ Vhk idh eHg m yv' dwa[ siLV rg h'
47

ujSe[ m$$ dxi l.a q,v dl>z ug V[ bjf ug sj Vjq fpdAbj m bjf
ug V[ s,Ddlbj ug l.a ijq dl>z ug V[ q[ij Vjq hdiVjq dl>z idtbj
] m l.a q,v dl>z ug V[ dwhj Vhk aphjcj Vjq #qhJ hdiVjq dl>z$
] m fi hpS aplk dHo'G yv[ ujY m bjfSg dHAj bVplji dryi' m
dHh ljcg W[Vag ] hpwq Vhk m dwa[ ljcj l[rjsji aphjcg W[bsWg
wi s[r[ dxi qpLwv WS ujH[eg m aJ bjf ug V[ fpdAbj ##q{G dwo[
ujrJ($$ aJ l.aJ V[ dwhj dw ljig Ziag aphjcg hg ] m aphjc[
idhS rjvg fdr,ai Ziag b>Ddq+ali ] m Rpo[ fhp>y ujY m l' dHl
ai%J RpV%J sj WyV q>V s[ b>Ddq+ali r,v h' api[ m lpdSbj ] dHo[
l.a wjhV dl>z ug l.a q,v dl>z ug s[ y[v[ lV m RpV%J s[ fjl
bj wiw[ dBw eH[ m

l+g b>Ddq+ali dVrjl


siLV h'S[ a[ zi fhp>ySj
l+g b>Ddq+ali idh>dsbj dHh dVIq i,Ddtbj dw ija TvS lji
hg li'ri dry dHLVjV wiw[ dwa[ f+wiqj dr,y y"GwCj qji w[
dZbjV dHldoa h' ujSj m dul r[v[ l.ea sg bjrjujHg LpiP h'
ujSg Rpl[ rwa Rpo'G RpKn w[ ws[ WjWj bB,v rjvg ue%j w'v
bj W{nSj m ws[ Wjhi u.ev r,v yv[ ujSj m ljij dsV Wjhi
idhS a'G Wjbs Ljq } Ldhi dr,y bj w[ WjWj bB,v ljdhW ug
w'v dH,w hvrjHg a'G sp,Z v{ v{Sj m wsg l.a qlajV dl>z sg
ZiqLjvj fhp.y w[ v.ei dry b>V A,w v{Sj m dxi f+wiqj dr,y
bj w[ ija } ndhi ujSj m dHl ai%J Whpa lqJ ws[ sp,Z ws[
dH,w uJ b,Zj xpvwj A,wSj m b,n fdhi Wjbs hg dHh F'uV
wiVj m dHl ai%j dHo[ awigWV b,n@ V"@ s,l ljv sj lqJ
vjdHbj m dH>V[ lq[G dr,y hg l,a v,t f,yg huji fjn ##l+g ufpug
48

ljdhW$$ s[ wga[ m dHh RpV%J sj bjfSj s,Ddlbj h'dHbj WyV ] m


dHl s[ Vjv qPv q>a+ sj dlqiV rg bap,B wis[ ih[ m dHV%J dsVJ
dr,y hg dH,w dsV Wjhi dHwJa dry W{n[ lV m lp,a[ qV dr,y
dtbjv bjdHbj dw bu[ ##Vi dl>z ug$$ siLV Vhk h'H[ m dtbjv
bjRpS sg s[i hg lg Rpl[ r[v[ bjrju bjHg ##ljcg tpijw lj}
s[ dsRp@ siLV wi vr' m$$ h{ijV h' w[ dHZi RpZi s[dtbj dw
bjrj; dwo'G bjHg ] m dstjHg wpN Vj ds,aj fi bjrju dxi Rpl[
ai%J hg bjHg m bjf lqN eH[ dwhj ##tpijw ] wg@ wg s[rJ ($$
urjW bjdHbj 1 a'vj l.tgbj tj vY dHh ljcg tpijw ] m RpKn
tv'a[ Ldhi bj eH[ m dsV yC[ a'G Rpl[ hvrjHg } s,l w[ 1 a'vj
l.tgbJ q>erj dvbj a[ ieC w[ fpCg W.V% vHg ba[ Rpo'G y,v fH[ m
y,vs[ y,vs[ uv.Zi s[ V[C[ fhp.y eH[ m Rpo'G dwl[ zi'G sp,Z q>e
dvbj m b,e[ dH,w A'Bg duhg hvrjHg sg spwjV lg m Rpl a'G Wixg
v{ w[ dH,w BpwCg dr,y l.tgbj iedCbj h'dHbj fj w[ rv[%B w[
A,w eH[ m Rpa'G sp,Z fg eH[ ba[ y,v fH[ m dwl[ df>c a'G o'C%g sPi
dH,w A,fC lg m Rpls[ dwVji[ a[ bj w[ W{n eH[ m us'G b,Zg ija
h'Hg aJ dH,w RpvBg bjHg m Rpl a'G Wjbs B,Bg bjHg m dHl ai%J
Vjv ajf rg WCj h' debj m RpvBgbJ B,BgbJ rg bjHgbJ m fi
ija TvS lji dHLVjV \dur[G dw dVIq lg| wi dvbj m dH,w
sita Vjv T'h vj w[ dV,aV[q dr,y upB eH[ m fi ajf RpvBgbJ
y,vsgbJ ihgbJ m dlqiV Vhk A,Ddcbj m dwr[G A,cS ( epiP
rjw ] m
u{l[ bfV[ ZVdh f+jVg qiVp qjc{ mm
a{l[ l.a uVJ ijq Vjqp V Ajc{ mm

\Wl.a Vjqs[r 1195-86|

whj FdHY uRp aVp FdHY dAVp dAVp mm


f+[qp ujdH aRp cif{ a[i' uVp mm

bjlj idrsjl ug 486

49

dHh f+ga ] m ljigbJ f+gaj dry'G f+ga ] dur[G spVgbJsji


aJ Rps'G i'Gsj ]@ us'G Rpl sj Z.V yvj ujH[ m fi qhJfpit i,W
s[ dfbji[ Rpl r[v[ l'yrjV hp>s[ hV us'G RpV%J sg f+ga zBsg
h'r[ m idrsjl ug sj woV ] m
q[ig f+gda e'dW>s dlRpG dudV zB{ mm
q{G aRp q'dv qheg vHg ugb-lB{ mm

ZVjlig idrsjl ug 694

RpV%J } faj ] dw dHh f+ga dwaVg qdh>eg ] m dwr[G WSsg


] m dHl vHg Rph ljrZjV h' w[ dHl f+ga } dVFjRpGs[ hV m
Bp,BS Vhk ds>s[
f+gda f+[q aVp tjdy idhbj mm Wgy V ijHg h'a mm

yRpW'v[ q^5 \1393|

ijHg sj sjSj lF a'G A'Bj sjSj ] m dHl vHg bjdtbj ] m


q[ig f+ga dr,y ijHg duaVj xiw Vj fr[ zB[ Vj@ rZ Fjr[G dw>Vg
ujH[ m dur[G spVgbjsji yjhp>sj ] m q[ig bjqsV rZ[ m sl ipf{
zB ujS dwaVj l'ysj ] m dwRpGdw zB[ w.q wiV } dya hg
Vhk wisj m u[ dwa[ s' iPf{ hg r,Z bj ujS aJ tpLg sj b>a Vhk
idh>sj m dHr[G hg qhJfpit Vjq ZV } t,Bs[ hV m dHh Vjq RpV%J
sj blvg ZV ] m dHh dqvsj ] f+ga Vjv@ f+[q Vjv h'i dwl[
aigw[ Vjv Vhk dqv lwsj m t{i hpS dHo[ b>Ddq+a r[v[ dH,w Fjig
tCjw h'dHbj dur[G dw Ziag fjB eHg h'r[ m Vjv hg dH,w ds,W
f+wjL lji[ hg fjl[ Vui bjdHbj m Rpl f+wjL dry'G l+g Vi dl>z
ug s[ siLV h'H[ m Vjv hg da>V rji dHh WyV h'dHbj dw
wdvuppde f+qjSp VjVw epip mm
wdvuppde f+qjSp VjVw epip mm
wdvuppde f+qjSp VjVw epip mm

dHls[ Vjv hg Rph liPf bv'f h' debj m fi f+wjL Rpla'G


50

rg r,Z debj m Rpl f+wjL dr,y epiP VjVw fjaLjh ug sj liPf


f+a,t h' debj m dHaVj a[u LJaqHg f+Fjr wdhS woV a'G Wjhi
] m fi qlag b{lg bjHg wdhS woV a'G Wjhi ] m
bvRpag wj u{l[ FdHbj Wi[cj
dudV fgbj dadV ujdVbj m eRpCg wWgi \333|

wpN faj hg Vj v,e[ ligi ] rg dw Vhk m dHl bV.s dr,y


W{dnbJ } Wjwg lqJ dwr[G v.dzbj@ faj hg Vj v,ej m dsV[ wHg
bjRpS rjv[ v'wJ V[ r[t w[ w'Hg qdibj hg lqN dvbj m h"vg
h"vg dH,w sPu[ a'G lpSw[ lF } faj v,e debj m duhC[ lpS w[
r[tS bjH[ RpV%J dr,y dH,w W.sj dlbjSj lg m Rpl V[ V[C[ h' w[
r[dtbj a[ dwhj ljh bjRpGsj ] Whpa e"i Vjv r[tw[ qjvPq hp.sj
] m h'i v'w aJ yv[ eH[ fi H[h w'v W{n debj m wpN lq[G Wjbs
WjWj ug sg dWiag tpvg a[ V[a+ tpv eH[ aJ Rpl V[ fpdAbJ ##a[ij
Vjq wg ]@ dwhCj df>c ] ($$ WjWj ug V[ dlix dHaVj hg s,Ddlbj
##df>c qVlPirjv ] m$$ W,l dHaVj s,lS sg s[i hg lg Rpl V[
fAjS dvbj a[ fpdAbj ##aP. WPC dl>z sj qp>cj ] #qlajV$ m bjf
V[ dwhj #hJ$ dwRpGdw dHh aJ WjWj ug s[ dfaj ug sj Whpa dqvS
rjvj lg m us'G zi a'G eH[ lV Rpl r[v[ Fjv h'Hg lg aJ dHh
rg Vjv hg lg FjvS rjdvbJ dr,y m faj Vj v,eS wiw[ lF
zi s[ yp,f wiw[ W{n eH[ lV m dHl } ljig e,v sj faj h'S
wiw[ A[ag fdhyjS bj eHg m dxi Rph W.sj W'dvbj ##aP. dwZi
yvj debj lg m a[i[ lji[ zi s[ a{} Fjv-Fjv w[ o,w eH[ m$$
o'Cj h,l w[ bjf W'v[ ##duo[ dvujS rjvj v{ debj m$$ Rph wdhS
v,ej ##y,v q[i[ Vjv zi } m a{} i'Bg fjSg tpbj w[ a[i[ df>c
fpyjrJ m$$ dxi Rpl V[ Wjh'G xC w[ RpnjSj yjdhbj m Rpdnbj Vhk
debj m dHRpG qdhlPl h'dHbj dur[G lji[ ligi sg e.T W,N eHg
h'r[ m dHV%J } A,c w[ dxi Rph zi debj ba[ sp,Z v{ bjdHbj m
51

bjfV[ v'C bVplji A,w dvbj m dxi Rpl V[ dwhj ##a{} a[i[ zi
dwr[G fpyjrJ a{o'G aJ Rpdnbj Vhk uJsj ($$ Rph df>c dr,y uj
w[ qdhi[ \dNRpi| rdh>eg rjv[ } v{ bjdHbj m ljig e,v lqNj w[
dwo[ fhp.yjRpS ] ba[@ u' Rpl V[ dqhVa q>eg Rpl } s[ ds,ag m
dxi qdhi[ V[ rdh>eg s[ dHw fjl[ fjSg sj zCj Fi w[ i,t dvbj@
sPli[ fjl[ fgC%g cjh w[ dHVJ } dWnj w[ y,v dfbj m apis[ apis[
} du,Do[ spfdhij h' debj Rpo[ AJ r[t w[ RplV[ spfdhij w,BS vHg
rdh>ej i,t ds,aj ba[ bjf ug } bjfS[ w'v hg dW+A s[ Vjv
T' duhj vpbj w[ dWnj ds,aj m bjf l'G debj m dHo'G spfdhi s[ lq[G
dH,w rji epiP VjVw fjaLjh s[ siLV h'H[ m Rph WyV bjf hg
qhJ fpitJ V[ lpSjdHbj lg m sPug rji siLV h'S s[ Vjv qV'
brloj h'i rg RpKyg h' eHg m dxi aJ f,a[-f,a[ dr,y VPi hg VPi
ds,Dl[ m dHl brloj } FjHg episjl ug V[ lj} lqNjRpS vHg
wpN dHVJ btiJ spbjij riVS wgaj ] ^
yiV wqv Fdu wqv f+ejl FH[ silsidl3 lq-sil dstjH[ ] mm
lWs lpida bVhs dvrvgV FH[@ RpVqV qeV eeV fpi AjH[ ] mm
f+[q il Wdl h'dH dWlq dW s[h FH[@bda blyiu q{ h[ia dhijH[ ] mm
epiqpdt lpt xv qdhqj bejZ W'dZ bwo woj dWV's@ wha Vj bjH[ ] mm
ldaepi siLV LWs bjejdZ W'Z@ bdWeda eda V[da Vda Vq' Vq ] mm
sil dZbjV bip LWs debjV dvr@ epfa f+eB nB fPiV W+hq ] mm
dViepV liepV wplqjrvg lpe.dZ l.dZ@ H[w bRp bV[w iPf e.dqaj beq ] mm
fiqsFpa blyiu{ blyiu q@{ bwo woj bvt dWlq{ dWlq ] 4781 mm
yiV wqv w' qhjaq bejdZ Wd'Z@ bda blyiu q{ Vq' Vq' Vq ] mm
w'qv w'qvaj bRp lgav lgavaj w{@ WjlV lpWjlp ajlp spagbj V lq ] mm
ldhu lqjdZ dVu bjlV dl>zjlV l:js dWlqjs ih iligdqaj beq ] mm
1! dhis[ sj wqv 2! siLV 3! r[tw[ 4! bjfS[ liPf dr,y qeV h' eH[
5! w'aw 7! blyiu 8! igag 9! W[-b>a 10! WS debj 11! q[v h' debj
12! Ziq blyiu h' debj 13! bjV.s qHg w"aw

52

iPf w{ bVPf iPf@ qV qVlj owa@ bwo woj@ dWV's dWlq{ dWlq ] mm
dHl brloj } riSV wiVj ldaepiP VjVw s,ls[ hV m
VjVw woVj wiCj lji mm dxi rg WjSg spbjij epiP ljdhWjV V[
Feaj V[@ FjHg episjl rie[ W+hq debjVg epi dl,tJ V[ u' wpN
s,lS sg w'dlL wgag ] Rpl } bljc[ lqN e'yiJ wiV vHg
btiJ spbjij dHRpG hg riVS wgaj ] m fi ligi } hiwa dr,y
dvbjRpSj qpLdwv lg m dHh rg dHw w'Hg wpsiag f+gdtbj hg lg m
spfdhij T,vS a'G Wjbs rdh>eg rjvj y,v dfbj m bjoS a,w
qVlPirjv fhp>y debj m us'G zi eH[ aJ qjaj r[t w[ WCg h{ijV
rg h'Hg ba[ dHw dH>V[ dyi df,A'G zi bjH[@ wHg ri[% hg Wjhi
v,e eH[ lV sPlij WjWj ug zi'G yv[ ujS s[ Wjbs dfaj ug
ligi dabje eH[ lV m dHw WjWj ug zi'G Wgqji h' w[ eH[ lV
lF e,vJ iv eHgbJ m qjaj V[ r{ije WCj wgaj m ev ve w[
i'Hg ba[ dwhj ##a[i[ dfaj a{} dqvS vHg ails[ l.lji a'G yv[
eH[ m aP. dwZi yvj debj lg m$$ dHl ai%J qjaj V[ Whpa r{ije
wgaj m bjf bjfS[ i>e qla ih[ m w'Hg RpKai Vj ds,aj m rdh>e[
rjvj aJ dHw ija w,B w[ rjfl y,vj debj fi bjf bjfS[ zi
hg ih[ m

zi[ dBwjSj@ dxi zi'G yv[ ujSj

qjaj ug V[ l[rj wiVg LpiP wi ds,ag ba[ duh' duhj dHvju


Rpl r[v[ spbjHg bjdsw lg@ Rph wis[ ih[ m Rpl r[v[ WjWj ug
sg Rpqi awigWV 26 \A,Wg| wp ljv sg lg m fi ligi Rpl[ ai%J
Wgqji lg m dHvju Vjv w'Hg xiw Vhk dfbj m u' dlqiV sj f+rjh
lg Rph dVi>ai yv dihj lg m A[ qhgV[ qjaj ug hg l[rj l.Fjv
wis[ ih[ m q>u[ Rpa[ dfbj sj hg B,Bg-dfljW qjaj ug wi"Gs[ ih[ m
dHw dsV qjaj ug dwa[ Wjhi eH[ lV m bjf ug } B,Bg-dfLjW
sg hjua h'Hg m zi s[ dwl[ h'i V[ dZbjV Vj wgaj m r,cg FiujHg
53

} dwhj aJ Rph V[ l.FjvV sg oJ m RpvBg W'vg qjig ##bj rdCbj


rjfl m a{} Ndvbj Vj dwl[ V[ ( ljcj i'Bg fjSg sj r[vj ] m
dHl V[ i'Bg tjSg rg sp,Fi wi ds,ag ] m$$ h'i rg bV[w ai%J s[
w"C[ WyV wh[ m fi l.Fjdvbj Vhk m bjf ug V[ Rpl rwa hg
dwhj ##h[ dVi>wji a[ig iuj ] m aP. dHh' wirjRpSJ lg bljc[
Vjv m$$ Rpl[ r[v[ q>u[ sg f{Gs dr,y v,aJ xlJ w[ u'i qjdibj m Rpl[
rwa lF u'C aCjw-aCjw wiw[ tpv% eH[ m Rpl r[v[ awvgx
aJ Whpa h'Hg m Rpl[ r[v[ hg Rpn w[ q>u[ a'G h[nJ W'ig a[ W{n eH[ m
qJ rg Wjhi'G bj eHg m W{n[ s[tw[ WCg tpL h'Hg wdhS v,eg ##bjh
b,u w'S ngw wi debj m$$ bjf W'v[ ##dul V[ e.T W.Vg lg@ Yhg
t'v% debj ] m ##Rpl a'G Wjbs f>siJ wp dsV dr,y apiV dxiV
u'e[ h' eH[ m B,Bg-dfLjW rg Wjhi ujS v,e fH[ m dH,w dsV qjaj
} wdhS v,e[ ##qjaj hpS q{} a'i s[ m$$ qJ V[ dwhj dw ##bu[
ndhi uj m wpA h'i awCj h' m tpijw tj w[ yvj ujrk m bu[ aP.
Wjhi ujS sg t[yv N,vS u'ej Vhk@ wq;'i ] m$$ dxi WjWj ug
V[ FiujHg rjvg ljig ev s,lg m s,l w[ wdhS v,e[ ##v{ qJ aP.
ljcg l[rj Whpa wgag ] m a[ig l[rj lsw[ a[ig W.l ih[eg m Rph
rg dH,w FjHg sg h'i dwl[ sg b"vjs Vhk idhSg m lF qi tf
ujSe[ m duhC[ Wy[ RpV%J } i'Bg rg qpLdwv Vjv upC[eg m$$ b"vjs
aJ dH,w FjHg sg hg wjdHq ]@ h'i dwl[ sg Vhk m zi'G rg w.q
ngw hg ] m df,A[ aJ hjva favg hg lg@ fi hpS wpN y.eg ] m
da>V zi hV m dH,w w'v V.Wisjig ]@ s' h'i hV m lpS w[! qjaj
s[ dy,a } Whpa sp,t h'dHbj m qjaj V[ WCj u'i vjdHbj dw Vj
uj fi bjf idhS vHg dabji Vj h'H[ dxi qjaj V[ dwhj ##aP.
dwr[G ujr[Gej ($$ bjf wdhS v,e[ ##dur[G rdh>eg dr,y w'Hg dHo[
A,c debj ] ( Rpr[G hg aplk q{} rdh>eg a[ Rpl[ df>c fpyj dsY m
b,e[ q{ bjf[ h"vg-h"vg yvj ujRPGej m$$ btgi qjaj V[ quWPi h'
w[ Fi[ dsv Vjv da>V w,fC[ t,si s[ dH,w wpCaj@ dH,w yjsi@
54

dH,w spf,Bj ba[ dHw A'Bg duhg wp,ug dr,y l[i dzRp fj w[ dNRpi
} l,s w[ Rpl[ ai%J rdh>eg dr,y dWnj w[ duo'G b,e[ bjH[ lV@ qVlPi
rjv a'G wpN sPi rjB fhp>yj ds,aj m WjWj ug Rpl[ ai%j qla hjva
dr,y idh>s[ lV m
l.aV bri V wjhp ujVg mm
W[-firjh lsj i>Dde hdi w{
uj w' fjtp lpbjqg mm ihjRp mm

\B'cg q^ 5 711|

dlqiV dVi>ai qPv q>ai sj dsV ija wis[ idh>s[ lV m us'G


dwa[ dya q>VSj@ q>e w[ i'Bg tj v{Sg Vhk aJ bjV.s dr,y hg
idhSj m dxi dwa[ h'i fjl[ } y,v fH[ m

wfPiv[ fhp.ySj
dHl df>c a'G o'Cg duhg sPi ujS Wjbs dH,w e,c[ rjvj
dqdvbj m fpAS v,ej ##l.a ug dwo[ ujYe[ ($$ Rpai ds,aj dw
##l+g bV.sfpi ljdhW r,v m$$
Rph wdhS v,ej ##aplk aJ apis[ rg h"vg-h"vg h'@ dHl ai%J
ws'G fhp.y'e[ ($$ bjf V[ s,Ddlbj ##ligi } awvgx h'S wiw[
apdibj Vhk uJsj m$$ e,Dc[ rjvj W'dvbj ##wfPiov[ a,w aJ q[i[
Vjv yv[ yv' m Rpo'G a,w q{G fpyj lwsj hJ m q{G Rpo[ a,w hg ujSj
] m$$ bjfV[ dwhj ##Vhk ljcj w.q hg i'u Wjhi idhSj sj ] m
dw,Do[ lrjig FjvJe[ m aP. uj m$$
Rph wdhS v,ej ##hpS aJ aplk W{n ujY m$$ Rpls[ wHg rji
wdhS Rpa[ q>V eH[ m RplV[ e,Dc[ Rpa[ q>ug itg h'Hg lg m wdhS
v,ej ##dHl Rpa[ bijq Vjv W{n ujr'e[ m$$ bjf h,l w[ wdhS v,e[
##WHg a[i[ aJ e,c[ Rpa[ WdhS sj ljc[ w'v wpN s[S } Vhk u[
q>ug Rpa[ W{n eH[ a[ x[i FjCj q>e[ej m$$ Rph W'dvbj ##ug@ q{G wpA
55

Vhk q>esj m aplgG W{n ujY m$$ bjf W{n eH[ m Rph e,cj h"vgh"vg a'isj dihj m ila[ dr,y duo[ Ljq f{ eHg m Rpo[ e,cj i'w
ds,aj m RplV[ i'Bg dabji wi vHg a[ wdhS v,ej ##l.a ug@ i'Bg
tjY ug m$$ bjf wdhS v,e[ ##lj} aJ Fpt Vhk@ aP. tj v{ m$$ RplV[
dwhj ##aphjc[ rjla[ s' i'BgbJ it ds,agbJ hV m us'G dy,a q>V[
tj v{SgbJ m$$ dHRpG wdhw[ f+Ljs[ WjWj ug s[ spf,DB[ dr,y vf[B
ds,a[ m bjf i'Bg tj vHg a[ h,o Z' w[ wdhS v,ej ##l.a ug q{G aJ
o,Ddwbj h'dHbj hJ bijq wisj hJ m Vks bjRpGsg ] m$$ dHRp
wdhw[ W'ig Rpa[ sig drAj w[ uqgV a[ v[B debj m WjWj ug wdhS
v,e[ WHg aP. q>ug Rpa[ f{ uj m$$ Rph wdhS v,ej ##dHh q>ug aphjcg
Vdqa hg ] m hpS Vjv[ aplk Rpfi'G lji[ dVejh it'e[ m q{G odwbj
h'dHbj hJ m u[ q{G q>ug Rpa[ f{ debj q{} o,Dw[ } Vks Vhk
bjRpSg m$$ dHl wiw[ ;qgV a[ v.qj f{ debj m o'C[ dyi l"S a'G
Wjbs Rpnw[ us'G RplV[ dVe%j qjig m Wvs r[t[ aJ dH,w Wvs
dvB dihj lg dur[G WC[ u'i sj sis h'r[@ qvPq hp.sj lg hpS qdibj
dw hpS qdibj m Rph r[tw[ Rpyg-Rpyg i'S ve dfbj m bjrju
lpSw[ bjf V[ V[a+ t'v%[ fpAS v,e[ m ##dwRpG WHg wg e,v h' eHg ($$
i'Gsj h'dHbj W'dvbj m ##ug q{G qjdibj debj@ eigW bjsqg hJ m
drbjuP f{l[ v{ w[ q{G dHh Wvs tigdsbj ] m FjCj dwijdHbj T'h
w[ epujij wisj hJ@ A'B[ A'B[ W,y[ hV m uqgV edhS[ fjHg h'Hg
] m h'i w'Hg i'ug sj rlgvj Vhk m
bjf wdhS v,e[ ##awCj h'@ dul V[ f{sj wgaj ] Rph i'ug
s[r[ej h"Glvj wi m$$
wdhS v,ej ##dwr[G h"Glvj wiJ ( dli a[ qpw,sqj yvsj ]
dHl aigw a[ tWi[ wg x{lvj h'r[ ( Rpa'G Wvs rjvg dWfaj f{
eHg m$$ i"Gsj r[tw[ qV dr,y sdHbj bj eHg m qhJfpit sj qV
WCj dViqv a[ w'qv hp.sj ] m dwl[ sj spt r[t WCg A[ag dqhi
56

wis[ hV m RpV%J sg dVe%J dr,y q[hi@ yiVJ dr,y q[hi@ h,oJ dr,y
q[hi m dwl[ ildaRpG w'Hg bjr[ q[hi h'Hg lqN' m blk bjf hg w'Hg
Fp,v wi W{ns[ hJ m dulsj xv lj} spt iPf dr,y dqvsj ] m WjWj
ug V[ fpdAbj ##dw duhCgbJ s' i'BgbJ ljc[ vHg itgbJ hV Rph
dvbj dwo[ hV m$$ RplV[ WjWj ug s[ fiV[ s[ vC a'G s' i'BgbJ
w,T w[ xCj ds,agbJ m dH,w i'Bg wTw[ wdhS ve[ ##v{ dHh i'Bg
Rpl Wvs } trj dsY m
Rph wdhS v,ej ##ug Rph aJ uqgV a[ dvBg uj dihj ] m
Rpnsj hg Vhk m tjH[ej dwr[G ($$
bjf wdhS v,e[ ##aP. Rpl s[ w'v uj qP>h b,e[ aJ wi m b{o[
e,vJ wig uJsj ] m$$ dul r[v[ Rph i'Bg v{ w[ debj Wvs V[ N,BqP>h
dr,y fj vHg m tjS lji hg sis hB debj Wvs Rpn s[ tC'
debj m Rph tpL h' debj m bjf wdhS v,e[ m$$ aP. hpS W[-dxwi
h' w[ l"G uj m Rph uj w[ l"G debj m fi dH,w-s' rji Wvs } Rpn
w[ r[dtbj m Wvs ngw lg m duaVg rji Rpdnbj WjWj ug Rpl
} W{n[ hg V;i bjH[ m us'G dsV ydC%bj@ apiV sg dabjig wiw[
y,v fH[ ila[ dr,y Rpl V[ duwi wgag dw ##l.a ug qhjiju@ dwa[
q[i[ rg y.e[ dsV bjRpSe[ ( us'G sg q{G h'L l.Fjvg ] q{G w'Hg rg
lp,t Vhk r[dtbj m$$ dHl ai%J wiw[ i' dfbj m bjf ug Rpai ds,aj
##Vj hg lsj dsV y.e[ idh>s[ hV ba[ Vj hg lsj hg qjC[ idh>s[
hV m aP. dwia wqjHg wig yv f+q[Lri Fvg wi[ej m
Rph W'dvbj ##ug dH,w q[i[ a[ dwl[ V[ qpw,sqj wgaj ] m
wydhig dr,y b,u Rplsj x{lvj h'Sj ] m$$ WjWj ug h,lw[ wdhS
v,e[ ##x{lvj a[i[ h,w dry h'r[ej m b,u hg h'r[ej m$$ Rph W'dvbj
##ug dul W.s[ Vjv q[ij qpwsqj ] Rph WCj u'i rjvj ] m dHo[
Rplsg WCg yvsg ] m$$ bjf h,l w[ W'v[ ##u[ a{} Vhk dHaWji
aJ blk RpaVj dyi a[i[ e,Dc[ Rpa[ hg ihje[@ o,v[ f{i Vhk
57

vjRpGs[ m$$ wfPiov[ fhp.yS a'G Wjbs Rpl V[ e,cj i'w ds,aj m bjf
W'v[ ##uj W[-dxwi h' w[ blk W{n[ hJ a[ij qpw,sqj du,a[ a'G hg
ujrJe[ m$$ Rph wydhig yvj debj m dul r[v[ bsjva v,eg
fdhvg brj; hg dHl W.s[ } fHg ba[ u,u V[ ljij qpw,sqj lpS
w[ x{lvj dHl s[ h,w dr,y s[ ds,aj m W,l dxi wg lg tpLg tpLg e,Dc[
w'v bjdHbj aJ bjRpGs[ lji Rpl r,v r[t w[ WjWj ug h,Dl[ wdhS
v,e[ dwRpG a[ij w.q aJ ija hg wi ds,aj lg m aP. b{r[G cig uj
dihj lg m$$ wdhS v,ej ##q{} aJ aphj} i,W V[ dqvj ds,aj WCg
q[hi h'Hg q[i[ eigW Rpa[ m$$ bjf W'v[ ##blk aJ hpS yvs[ hJ m
bjfSj lqjv lJF v{ m$$ apiV vdebj@ Rpl } da>V WyV dwa[ m
!

dH,w aJ dwl[ sj h,w Vj itg m

duVj h' lw[ f+q[Lri } Ijs wig m

bjfS[ dr,a bVplji bjH[ l.a ljZ sg l[rj wik m epiP VjVw
Fvg wi[ej m

ljZ w{ l.de Vhg wAp zjv mm


silVp F[Ba h'a dVhjv mm
dHo'G apiV v,Ddebj V[ dH,w VrJ r[l wi dvbj m dH,w e'sCg
riej q'Bj w,fCj dul s[ Vjv bjfS[ qpt a[ fCsj hi r[v[ i,tSj m
yjsi sg ws[ Wp,wv qji v{Sg ws[ q'T[ Rpa[ it v{Sg m v,w t,si
sj sp,fBj ba[ dH,w h,o dr,y dy,fg dH,w h,o l'Bg h"vg-h"vg apis[apis[ RPV[ ljdhW s[ V[C[ dH,w RpujC dr,y dW+A h[n T'h vj w[
W{n eH[ m o'C[ dyi dr,y W,wigbJ yjiV rjvj bjuCg bj debj m
Rpl V[ r[t w[ dwhj dw w'Hg x,wi W{nj ] m Rpl V[ V[C[ bj w[
Vqlwji wgag a[ dwhj ##x,wi lJHk@ dHo[ ljhqS[ RPVj Ldhi ] m
Rpo[ uj w[ u[ dFdAbj wiVg ] aJ wi vr'@ Vhk aJ Rpo[ #W[sgbJ$
sj v.ei b,Dn' fdhi y,vsj ] m Rpo[ lF } i'Bg dqvsg ] m Rpo[
58

yv[ ujY m$$ fdhv'G aJ bjf wpN Vhk W'v[@ sPug rji Rpl s[ wdhS
a[ W'v[ ##dfbjdibj@ aP. w'Hg dxwi Vj wi bjfSj w.q wi uj
w[$$ m Rph W,wigbJ yjisj yjisj b,e[ yvj debj m Ljq } Rph
rjfl qpdCbj aJ bjf ug } Rpl aiJ Rpo[ W{n[ r[dtbj m V[C[ bj
w[ Vqlwji wiw[ wdhS v,ej ##i,W rjdvY@ aplk dHo[ hg W{n[
h' m dwa[ eH[ Vhk F'uV A,wS vHg ($$ bjf V[ dwhj dw ##Vhk m$$
bjuCg W'dvbj ##u[ qVuPi wi' aJ dH,w W,wig sj sp,Z hg o'Cj
v{ vr' m$$ bjf V[ dwhj u[ aJ dHVJ dr,y a[ig bjfSg W,wig ] aJ
Rpl sj sp,Z s[h@ Vhk aJ dwl[ sg W,wig sj Vhk m$$ Rph W'dvbj
##dHV%J dr,y s' W,wigbJ q[igbJ hV m dH,w sj v{ vr'G m$$ dHaVj
bjt w[ Rph W,wig w.V' xC w[ v{ bjdHbj m bjf V[ Rplsj sp,Z
dH,w dy,fg dr,y y' w[ A,w dvbj m bjuCg aJ zi yvj debj
a[ dul rwa bjfS[ zi uj w[ W,wig y'Hg aJ sPug W,wig s[
oSJ dr,y sp,Z r[dtbj@ h{ijV duhj h' w[ l'yS v,e dfbj@ dHh
W,wig aj l.aJ V[ y' vHg lg m us'G oS Fi[ r[t[ aJ sp,Z y' dvbj m
fi ljig ija l'ysj dihj m dsV ydCbj aJ W,wigbJ v{ w[ lF
a'G fdhvJ Rpo[ hg fhp.dybj m fi bjf Rpl s[ bjrpS a'G fdhvJ
hg yv[ eH[ m dxi bjuCg V[ W,wigbJ rg yjigbJ@ bjf ug sg
Fjv rg wgag dwa'G Vj dqv[ m sPu[ dsV rg Vj dqv[@ agli[ dsV
Fjv rg wgag w'Hg faj Vj v,ej m y"o[ dsV dH,w oJ dH,w dW+A
h[n W{n[ byjVw hg dqv fH[ m RplV[ fAjS w[ w'v uj w[ Vqlwji
wgag a[ W'dvbj ##ug q{G aJ@ WCg sPi a,w Fjv wgag@ dwa[ faj
Vhk v,ej a[ b,u byjVw hg dqv fH[ m$$ h,l w[ wdhS v,e[ ##lj}
dwo'G dwo'G Fjv[ej ( aP. bjfSj w.q wi uj w[ m$$ Rph W[Vag wiV
v,e ##ug sp,Z wpA h'i v{ vr' m$$ wdhS v,e[ w,v } lhg@ b,u
aJ v'C Vhk m$$ bev[ dsV lr[i[ hg Rph W,wig v{ bjdHbj ##vY
qhjiju ) spZ y' vr' m$$ bjf V[ sp,Z y' w[ A,w dvbj m Rpl bjuCg
s[ qjvj xCg h'Hg r[t w[ WjWj ug wdhS v,e[ ##aP. alWg x[isj
59

hp.sj ] ($$ Rpl V[ dwhj wHg ljv h' eH[ m dxi fpdAbj ##dwo'G
Rpfs[L dvbj lg ($$ RplV[ s,Ddlbj ##ug ljcj dH,w fgi lg m RplV[
ljij wpN s,Ddlbj lg Rpl V[ h'i Whpa wpN dwhj lg@ dw b>si'G
WCgbJ l'hSgbJ brj;j bjRpGsgbJ hV m dxi dwl[ i,Wg VPi sg
Nvw rg f{S v,e uJsg m fi bu[ wpN Vhk faj v,ej m dxi WjWj
ug wdhS v,e[ ##ljc[ V[C[ h' a{} wpN dstjHgH[ m$$ us'G V[C[ h'dHbj
aJ wdhS ve[ ##dHo[ W{n w[ hpS fC% u' a[i[ fgi V[ s,Ddlbj ] m$$
us'G Rpl V[ fdC%bj aJ qV h'i hg h' debj m bV.s b{lj bjdHbj
dw woV a'G Wjhi@ u' dHl } ws[ bjdHbj hg Vhk lg m qla h'
debj m dxi WjWj ug W'v[ ##dwRpG WHg hpS s,l m$$ wdhS v,ej
##b,vj rjdvY@ WCg idhqa wgag q[i[ eigW Rpa[ m wpiWjV
ujrJ m$$ dHh lF wpN b>si'G hg dstj ds,aj ] m$$ bjf h,lw[
W'v[ ##hJ@ lF wpN b>si hg ] m$$
##FjHg V.s vjv ljdhW$$
uqjdv Y hqj uj@ W[ hujW uvrjei bla
aP. si hujdW tpsg@ Ijdi dy^ wp V.s ( 2 mm
lJHg hi oj hjui Vjui@ fCsj dr,y Vj ijHg
a{} bjf tpsg Rphvj s,l wi[ wg qjhg mm
lF dwAp zi qdh Wjhdi Vjhg mm

qjN^ q^ 5 \102|

dxi bjuCg } W'v[ ##uj bjfSj w.q wi m hpS dur[G b,e[


dqhVa wi[eJ@ Vjq u,Df[ej@ dHh bV.s rZsj hg ujH[ej m fi
i,tk l.Fjv w[ m$$
ijq fsjiop fjdHw{
wWgij eJdn Vj t'v mm 1395 mm

dHl ai%J Rpl } dVhjv wiw[ bjf b,e[ yv[ eH[ mm

60

RPV[ W[sg ljdhW;js[ Vjv dqvjf


dHo'G y,vw[ h'i b,e[ ujw[ RPV[ ljdhW s[ V[C[ yv[ eH[ m dHw
sita s[ h[n uj W{n[ m wHg dsV dHo[ W{dnbJ V[ Waga wga[ m
dH,w dsV dHl fjl[ r,v W[sg ljdhW;js[ L[i sj dLwji wis[ h'H[
bj eH[ m bjf dHo[ hg W{n[ lV m Rpl dsV aJ bjf s[ Vjv w'Hg
e,v Vhk h'Hg m bev[ dsV us'G Rph x[i dHZi } bjH[ bjf ug
} H[o[ W{n[ r[dtbj a[ w'v bj eH[ Vqlwji wiw[ fpAS v,e[@
##qhjaqj uV dwo'G bjH[ hV m$$ bjf ug V[ s,Ddlbj dw ##spbjW[
r,v'G m$$ h'i ljij Vei re{ij fpAS a'G Wjbs W[sg ljdhW wdhS
v,e[ w'Hg uv fjSg dwa'G Adwbj w[ Vhk m bjf W'v[ m ##bu[ aw
aJ Vhk Adwbj ba[ V w'Hg dH,Aj h'Hg ] m$$ dxi fpdAbj ##dFdAbj
Vhk wis[ ($$ RpKai ds,aj ##ws[ wi rg v{Gs[ hJ@ ws[ Vhk rg
wis[ m dxi W[sg ljdhW W'v[ ##u[ hpwq dsY aJ dHo[ hg uv fjSg
fhp>yj s[HgH[ m$$ WjWj ug V[ dwhj ##aplk dHaVg t[yv Vj wi' wg
faj blk ws'G dHo'G yv[ ujHgH[@ dxi aplk epiP sg b>l h' aphj}
t[yv s[Sg Vhk WSsg m$$ dxi ljdhW;js[ V[ fpdAbj dw ##qpt a[
w,fCj dwRpG i,ts[ h' m$$ WjWj ug V[ h,lw[ dwhj ##dHr[G hg ngw
] m$$ ljdhW;js[ wdhS v,e[ ##dur[G aphjcg iuj Rpr[G hg ngw ]
a[ aphjcg wiVg ] wirjRpSg Vhk m ws[ q"wj dqdvbj aJ siLV
wiJe[ m dHRpG WyV wi lpSw[ W[sg ljdhW;js[ yv[ eH[ m

61

RPV[ ljdhW a'G y,v w[ u.ev dr,y


Rpl a'G df,A'G wHg dsV Waga wiV dfA'G dH,w dsV dxis[
dxis[ ldhu lpFj hg RPV[ ljdhW s[ V[C[ fhp>y eH[ m Wjhi hg dH,w
Vr[wvg ue%j Rpa[ W{n eH[ m wpN dyi Wjbs dHo'G dHw f+[qg
v.dzbj m bjf ug } r[t w[ wdhS v,ej@ ##l.a ug v.ei sj rwa
] m yv' f+Ljsj A,w vr'@ v.ei ria dihj ] m$$ fi bjf lqjZg
$y W{n[ lV W'v[ Vhk m Rph b,e[ v.z debj m uj w[ vJeig } wdhS
v,ej ##Wjhi dH,w qhjaqj W{n[ hV@ q{G RpVJ } v.ei A,wS sg
W[Vag wgag lg@ fi RpV%J V[ w'Hg RpKai Vhk ds,aj m u[ aP. q{}
wpA f+Ljs[ xCj s[r[G@ q{G uj w[ RpV%J } s[ bjrJ m$$ W[sg ljdhW;js[
rg w'v hg tv'a[ lV fp,AS v,e[ ##dwo[ wp hV ($$ Rpl V[ dwhj
##ug ) Wjhi W{n[ hV m$$ yjsi sg Wp,wv qjig ] m qP>h a[ h'i wfCj
dvbj ] m ##W[sg ljdhW lqN eH[ m N,B wdhS v,e[ ##RpV%J w'v
blk bjf ujrJe[ m$$ dHRpG wdhw[ sjv f+Ljs[ v{ w[ ojv dr,y i,t
w[ dH,w l[rjsji } Vjv v{ w[@ Rpo[ fhp>y eH[ m WjWj ug V[ r[tw[
epiP wg b>l ujSw[ ldawji wgaj ba[ dwhj ##aphj} t[yv wiV
sg wg v'C lg ($$ W[sg ljdhW V[ RpKai ds,aj m ##wqjHg r,cg ]@
uja@ uVq r,cg Vhk m ug bjdHbJ } vY f+Ljsj A,Dw' m$$ WjWj
ug V[ v'C bVplji A,w dvbj m h,o lp,y[ wiV a'G Wjbs WjWj ug
V[ dwhj dw lj} bjdebj dsY@ aphjcj WyV duhCj aplk wgaj
lg RPV[ ljdhW bjdHY@ hpS q>V dvbj ] m ##W[sg ljdhW;js[ wdhS
v,e[ ##u[ aplk hpwq dsY aJ bjh ljig uqgV sPi a,w u.ev rjvg
bjfSg hg ] m du,Do[ ue%j fl.s h'r[@ Rpo[ wpBgbj WSrj ds>s[ hJ
ba[ l[rjsji dH,w uJ s' aphjc[ fjl idhSe[ m hpwq bVplji lF
62

ygu aphj} bjlV a[ fhp.y ujdHbj wi[eg m$$ WjWj ug V[ dwhj


dw ##lj} w'Hg dHwJa blojV s,Dl' m duo[ V[C[ V[C[ w'Hg bjWjsg
Vj h'r[@ dlix dH,w fjSg h'r[ m aJ W[sg ljdhW wdhS v,e[ Rph
dBwjSj ] aJ lhg m dHo'G ##wHg dsV s[ dr,y fhp.ygsj ]@ Whpa
sPi ] m$$ bjf W'v[ Rphg yjhgsj ] m$$
W[sg ljdhW V[ lF dVLjVgbJ s,l ds,agbJ m bjf Rpl rwa
hg api fH[ m h"vg h"vg f>u l,a dsVJ #y fhp>y eH[ m yji ypx[i[
Rpy[ fhjCJ dryjv[ dH,w l.zS[ dWiA h[n sg Vsg sj dViqv
u,v re dihj lg m dH,Do[ eiqg lisg q"qq WCj lp.si lg m l' Rpl
Vsg s[ dwVji[ W{n eH[ m WjWj ug WyV wis[ hp.s[ lV@ ##dHo[ blk
f>u ljv ih[ m$$ wpN dyi WSJ dr,Dy'G xv dqv ujSj A,w v{Sj m
fdhv[ qhgV[ agli[ dsV dH,w xv m sPu[ qhgV[ l,aJ dsVJ Wjbs
dH,w xv m agu[ qhgV f>siJ dsV Wjbs dH,w xv m y"o[ qhgV[
y"GwCj qjiw[ W{h eH[ m dH,w ljv Wjbs lqjZg t'vg aJ s' xv
fH[ V;i bjH[ m r[t w[ qV dr,y xpiVj bjdHbj dHh w'S i,t
debj m dH,w brj; bjHg dHh aphjc[ Vdq,a hV A,w vr' m l'dybj
dHh brj; dwo'G bjHg sPug rji dxi Rphg lpSjHg ds,ag m lpS
w[ xv A,w dvbj m Rpl a'G Wjbs dxi lqjZg vgV h' eH[ m s'
ljv Wjbs lqjZg t'vg m aawjv dxi lqjZg vgV h' eH[ m s'
ljv Wjbs dxi lqjZg t'vg m bjf hg WyV wis[ hp.s[ lV blk
f>u sgbJ 3 y"GwCgbJ vjHgbJ m fdhvg 1 ljv sg sPugbJ s's' ljv sgbJ m
u[ w'Hg fp,A[ lqjdZYG RpnS a'G Wjbs lq[G sj debjV dwr[G
idh>sj ] m dHl sj RpKai ldaepiP V[ bjf hg WjSg dr,y ds,aj ] m
Aagh upe epWjip lj bjf[ eSa wgVg mm

h'i Aagh upe epWjip wi ridabj lp.Vjhi mm


63

rji! ij! 949

qhJ fpit sg brloj h'i ] m qhJ fpit dVi>wji Vjv h' w[


lq[G bVplji s[h dr,y bjRpGs[ hV m Rpl r[v[ lq[G sj debjV N,B
hg lxpiV h' uJsj ] m dwRpGdw rjdhepiP y[aV ]@ uC% Vhk m
rjdhepiP sg y[aVj l,aj hg lF } y[a.V i,tsg ] m Vjq spbjij
vgV fpit lsj hg y[a.V ] m l.ljig W.sj us'G dwa[ W[h'L hp.sj ]@
q{G dwo[ hJ@ aplk q{} wg wi ih[ h'@ bjdsw m qhJ fpit dHla'G
aJ dwa[ RpKfi hV m
lWs[ hg l'Ng fHg ly{ bjdf WpNjHg mm 5 mm

rj!ij!q! 3858

h'i wHg blojVJ a[ dryi w[ zi zi'G dxi Wjhi

f>u ljv Wjbs bjlS yp,w w[ y,vs[ y,vs[ #hig spbji[ diLk
w[L hp.s[ h'H[ W,s+g Vjo yv[ eH[ m dxi Rpl a'G b,e[ dwl[ oj dwa[
u.ev dr,y af,Ddlbj wis[ ih[ m dxi dur[G bjf s,ls[ hV
blk ##h[q wp.c$$ s[ V[C[ hg dwa[ dBw[ ih[ m Rpo[ wHg didLbJ Vjv
q[v h'dHbj@ duhC[ dw fpijaV lq[G a'G bjfSg dH,Aj bVplji ligi
i,ts[ hV m I'eg uV V[ slq[G spbji lpbjl dBwj v{S[ l"-l" Wil
uJ dHl a'G rg r,Z lqJ lqjZg vj w[ W{nSj m b{l[ qhjV I'eg
uV rg dHo[ dqv[ m dxi Rpl a'G Wjbs s,ls[ lV ##wpN b{l[ dl,tJ
s[ rg siLV h'H[ m duhC[ slq fjaLjh s[ lq[G a'G hg epiP w[ hpwq
bVplji ligi i,t w[ u.evJ dr,y dryis[ hV m dHh dl,t Ws[h
qpwa brloj rjv[ hp>s[ hV m dul r[v[ l.lji dr,y epiP ugrV rjv[
zBs[ ds,lS aJ epiP w[ hpwq bVplji dHh ligi Zji w[ l.lji
dr,y dxi a'G epiP dl,tg ugrV sja WtL w[ bfVj lqJ fPij wiw[
siejh } yv[ uJs[ hV m dHV%J } dHh hpwq ] m dHls[ Vjv dH,w
Fdrta WyV wgaj dw us'G Ziqg fpit iju wi[ej Rpl r[v[ Rph
WtLgbJ h'HgbJ iPhJ@ lF lisjigbj@ epiP w[ hpwq bVplji
wiVegbJ m Rph lF s[ uo[sji WSVe[ m dHo'G api w[ dxi q{sjVg
dHvjw[ rv bj eH[ m dHo[ W{dnbJ } hpwq h'dHbj dw ujw[ dH,w
64

rji qjaj } dqv' Rpl V[ Ijs wgaj ] m hpwq q>V w[ y,v fH[ m
Vei fhp.y[ m dul r[v[ zi eH[@ b,e[ qjaj sj ligi wpN dT,vj
lg m zi dwl[ ug V[ bjrj; s[ w[ dwhj ##qJ@ qlajVj bj debj
] m aP. Ijs wisg lg m$$ qJ V[ b,tJ t'v% w[ r[dtbj Vjv hg qjaj
s[ lpbjl fPi[ h' eH[ m dxi zi Vhk ndhi[ m rjdfl RpVk f{ig qpC[ m
dHo'G yvs[ h'H[ Whpa sPi dVwv eH[ duo[ epiP VjVw sj dq,nj
ignj blojV ] m dHo[ wpN dsV ndhi[ m dHo'G y,v w[ bjei[ ##ijZj
lpbjqg$$ qa s[ dwl[ bjeP Vjv q[v h'dHbj m Rpl s[ fjl ndhi
w[ dxi b,e[ yv[ eH[ m

dH,w qplvqjV `wgi Vjv q[v


dH,w ue%j u.ev dr,y qplvqjV `wgi idh>sj lg m dHls[ V[C[
hg bjlS vj w[ W{n eH[ m wpN dyi dfA'G Rpl sj dH,w qpigs dHZi
bj dVwdvbj m bjf ug } W{dnbJ r[t w[ wdhS v,ej ##l.a ug@
aplg dwo'G bjH[ m$$ bjf ug V[ ljig e,vWja s,lg m Rph lpSw[ wdhS
v,ej@ ##aphjcj dHo[ idhSj qpLdwv ] m$$ WjWj ug V[ fpdAbj
##dwRpG m$$ Rph W'dvbj@ ##q[ij fgi ] m Rph hpS aJ yvgl{ dr,y
W{nj ]@ s'-yji dsVJ a,w Wjhi bjr[ej m Rph dwl[ dh>sP } y.ej
VhgG lqNsj m Rpl r[v[ aphj} dHo'G ujSj fr[ej m$$ WjWj ug wdhS
v,e[ ##dHh dwRpG ( u[ w'Hg dwl[ sj drejC[ Vj aJ Rpl } aJ w'Hg
rg qjCj Vhk lqNsj m dxi dHh aJ x,wi ] dHl } wg dHV%J e,vJ
Vjv ( Rph W'dvbj@ ##ug@ dHaVj aJ q{} faj Vhk m dul e,v
sj q{} faj lg q{G s,l ds,aj ] m b,e[ aphjcg qi;g m u' q{} q[i[
fgi sj hpwq lg q{G wdh ds,aj ] m RplV[ q{} Vlgha wgag ]
dw w'Hg dh>sP q[i[ q,Do[ rg Vj v,e[ m wHg rji Rph Wjhi rg bj
uJs[ hV m u[ dH,Zi bj eH[ dxi qpLdwv h'H[eg m$$ bjf ug V[
w'Hg RpKai Vhk ds,aJ Rph yvj debj m Ljq } us'G fgi V[ b>si
W{n[ V[ brju s[ w[ qpigs l,s w[ e,v Wja wgag m qpigs V[ fgi
65

sg e,v lpS w[ WjWj ug rjvg ljig rjiaj wdh lpSjHg m lpS w[


Rph ep,Dl[ dr,y bj debj m wdhS v,ej ##uj w[ r[t m u[ Rph yvj
debj ] aJ ngw ] m u[ Vhk aJ b{l[ r[v[ hg Rpl } a'i s[h m$$
Rph debj m uj w[ WjWj ug } wdhS v,ej ##l.a ug@ aplk yv[
ujY m q[i[ fgi sj hpwq ] m$$ lpS w[ WjWj ug W'v[@ ##blk da>V
yji dsV dHo[ idhSj ] m bu[ Vhk ujSj m$$ lpS w[ qpC debj m
Rpl V[ uj w[ s,Ddlbj ##ug@ Rph q[i[ a'dibj Vhk uJsj m$$ fgi
V[ dxi dH,w h'i y[vj F[dubj m Rpl V[ bj w[ dwhj ##yv[ ujY m$$
b,e'G bjf V[ RpKai ds,aj m ##fgi } dqv[ dWVJ Vhk ujSj$$ y[v[
V[ dwhj ##Rph aJ qplvqjV a'G dWVJ dwl[ Vjv e,vWja wiw[ Vhk
ij;g m aplg bjts[ h' fgi } dqvSj ] m$$ WjWj ug V[ dwhj dw
##blk Rpl} dqvSj ] ba[ b,u ija } dqvSj ] m aP. Rpl }
bjts[ a{} dqv w[ ujSe[ m b{r[G Vhk ujSj m Rpl V[ ujw[ fgi
} s,Ddlbj ##ug@ Rph aJ dHRpG W'vsj ] m$$ lpS w[ fgi ypf dihj m
b,Zg ija a'G Wjbs fgi s[ sis LpiP h' debj m r,Zsj r,Zsj r,Z
debj@ lhjdibj Vj debj m b{lj sptg h'dHbj hjH[ hjH[ wi[ m dxi
qpigsJ } wdhS v,ej m##ujRp@ Rpl l.a } l,s w[ dvbjY m$$ dH,w
y[vj debj m WjWj ug } uj s,Ddlbj m ##ug aphj} fgi V[ Ijs
wgaj ] m$$ bjf Rpl s[ Vjv h' api[ us'G w'v eH[ fpdAbj ##fgi
ug wg hjv ] ($$ Rph W'dvbj ##ujV dVwvsg ] sis Vjv m
idhqa wi' m$$ WjWj ug s[ h,o dr,y l'Bg lg m Rpl s[ f[B Vjv
vjHg sis W.s h' debj m dxi fpdAbj ##hpS dwr[G ] ($$ Rph
W'dvbj@ ##hpS aJ sis Vhk hp.sj m$$ bjf W'v[@ ##blk aJ hpS
yvs[ hJ Wjwg e,v lr[i[ wiJe[ m
bev[ dsV lr[i[ Rpl V[ l[rw F[u w[ ldawji Vjv w'v
l,Ddsbj ba[ bjfS[ w'v'G dH,w w,fCj drAj w[ Rpfi dWnjdHbj m
Rpl V[ fpdAbj ##wg Vjq ] bjfsj($$ bjf W'v[ ##ljcj Vjq
66

qhJhdiVjq dl>z ] m$$ fgi W'dvbj ug q[ij dH,w w.q dreC debj
] m$$ bjf W'v[ ##Rph dwhCj ($$ fgi W'dvbj q[ij dVIq lg dw
b{V[ dsV vejaji bjfSg W.seg s[ s"ijV bjfS[ bjlS Rpa[
dwl[ } Vhk bjRpS s[Sj@ fi sis h'S wiw[ dVIq Bp,B debj m$$
bjf h,l w[ W'v[ ##aP. dwadVbJ s[ dVIq a'C[ hV m b,u a,w deSag
wiw[ r[t m ##fgi ug q{G dwr[G a'C[ ($$ aJ bjf W'v[ ##dw>V[ dh>sP
v'w qplvqjV WSjH[ m Ijs wi m Rph sptg h' w[ b"vjs r,v'G@ zi
r,v'G a[i[ w'v bjH[ m dH,w x,wi ujS w[ fi aP. lF } qplvqjV
WVS sj Rpfs[L wgaj m wHg aJ WS rg eH[ bjfSg eiu rjla[ m
wg RpV%J sj w'Hg dVIq Vhk lg duhCj aP. a'dCbj h'r[ ( hpS rg
a[i[ hpwq Vjv a[i[ qpigs dwl[ dh>sP } a[i[ V[C[ Vhk h'S ds>s[ m
b{Vg W.seg wiw[ qpaljW wiV sg wg v'C m u' a[i[ qpidLs V[
a{} s,Ddlbj ] Rph aP. wi m u[ w'Hg a[ig wiVg r[t w[@ a[i[ a[
LiZj wisj ]@ aP. bjfSg ajwa Vjv Rplsg spdVbjrg v'C fPig
wi lwsj ]@ u[ w'Hg iPhjVgba Wji[ lrjv wi[@ wpN q>e[@ Rpl
W.s[ sg lpia dWiag Rpo[ v,e[ h'H[ sg Rpyg wis[@ qV sg brloj
Wsvs[@ sgV WsvjRpS sg v'C Vhk m duo[ WPBj v,ej h'r[@ rdZbj
xpdvbj h'r[@ Rpo'G fp,BS sg v'C Vhk m wg faj a[ij h'i oJ vjdHbj
h'dHbj v,e[ w[ Vj v,e[ m u' wpN aP. wi dihj ]G dHh zjB[ rjvj
l"sj ] m Whpa[ qpigs WSj w[ r,c[ aJ Vhk WSgsj m ugrV rjv[
o'C%[ hg Wha hV@ Whpa[ ws[ h'H[ rg Vhk m$$
h{dV driv[ Vjhg zS[ x{v xwCp l.ljip m

rjiJ a[ rZgw q^ 1@ 1411

WjWj ug V[ s,Ddlbj ljc[ epiP s[ zi dr,y aj dHY hpwq ]^f+oq[ qVp fiW'Z{ bfVj fjA{ bri igNjr{ mm

\b.e 381|

dHh hpS r[t vY bfVj qV lqNjRpS Rpa[ wg wpN wiVj


f{Gsj ] m Rpl WyV V[ fgi ug s[ qV Rpa[ b{lj f+Fjr fjdHbj
67

dw bfV[ qV sg ljig hjva WjWj ug w'v t'v% ds,ag m Vjv s,Ddlbj


##ug q[i[ r,l sg aJ w'Hg e,v Vhk m Whpa u'i vj yp,wj hJ m$$ WjWj
ug V[ fpDdAbj ##a[ij qpiLs dwo[ ] m$$ fgi W'dvbj ug Rph aJ
rxja \Fjr qi yp,w[ hV| m$$ dHRpG WyV wiw[ wdhS v,e[ wvqj
lpSj m RplV[ lpSjdHbj m dxi W'v[ ##dul wvjq s[ yjvgl[ wga[ hV@
Rph rg Rpl sj hg bjfS[ dVIq bVplji fjn LpiP wi s[ m dxi
r[t dwr[G i.e ves[ hV m$$ l,a WyV wdh w[ Rpl V[ bevg lr[i
a'G hg LpiP wi ds,aj dH,w s' dsVJ dr,y hg qV sg brloj h'i
h' eHg m y"o[ dsV bjf apiV } dabji h'H[ aJ h,o u'C w[ fgi
V[ W[Vag wgag ##i,W rjdvY@ aplk lsj hg q[i[ w'v dBw' m q{G bjf
sg d?sqa wiJej m$$ bjf W'v[@ Vhk@ blk hpS ujSj ] m$$ WjWj
ug fjl dH,w h,o dvta r[t w[ fpAS v,ej ##dHh dwhCg dwajW
] m$$ Rph W'dvbj ##q{} s[ dsY m$$ WjWj ug wdhS v,e[ ##v{ vj@
aP. epiqptg dwr[G fC[%Gej ($$ Rph W'dvbj ##q{G epiqptg fC lwsj
hJ m q[ij df,Aj f>ujW sj hg ] m$$ l' Rpl V[ epBwj v{ dvbj m dxi
W'dvbj ug@ ##dH,w ija h'i dBw' m$$ W[Vag q>V w[ dBw eH[ m dxi
fgi V[ epBw[ dr,Dy'G l=g ufp ug ljdhW sj fjn wgaj m dya f+l.V
h' debj m W[Vag wiV v,ej ##u[ hpwq dsY@ aJ q{G dHlsj rg fjn
wi dvbj wiJ m bjf W'v[@ ##wi dvbj wi$$ dxi Rpl} l=g ufp
ug ljdhW s[ fjn sg qijIjsj lqNjHg dw dHl fjn } dHRpG wiVj
] m$$
dxi W'v[ ##dHh fjn lrj v,t h' ujH[@ W[Cj fji h' uJsj ] m$$
bev[ dsV api fH[ m fgi drsj wiV sPi a,w Vjv debj m wpN
be[ uj w[ tv' eH[ W'v[@ ##fgi ug@ hpS qpC ujY m duaVg spVgbJ
Vjv'G f+gag Bp,DDB[eg@ i,W Vjv rZ[eg m W.seg wiV sj r[vj h'r[
w'Hg ipwjrB ila[ dr,y bjr[@ Rpl sg f+rjh Vhk wiVk m$$
W[Tg f+gda quPig qJe{

68

uRp w'Rp AjdV Arjr{ h' mm


v'e wpB>W lFhp a[ a'i{ aRp bjfV W[Tg bjr{ h' mm
l'^ Vjqs[r 657

fgi ug b>si Wjhi i,W lji[ hg ] m fi Rpl Vjv us'G dfbji


f{ ujr[@ dfbji b{Vj h'r[@ dur[G s,Ddlbj ] m Rph b>si'G f+a,t h'
uJsj ] m W>seg Vjv dfbji wi' m dHh' hg lF a'G lpbjsvg rlaP
] m ujY qpC'@ W{n' bjfS[ oJ Rpa[ m$$ fgi V[ bjtig rji fpdAbj@
##u[ dwa[ dqvSj h'r[ aJ dwo[ ($$ bjf W'v[ ljcj Vjq qhJhdiVjq
dl>z iPqg rjv[ ] m us'G rwa bjdHbj bjf l,s vrJe[ m
qhJfpitJ sg l.ea sj dHh xv ]

q[vp t'Hg w'dB bz hi[ dViqv FH[ ygaj mm ihjRp mm

dWvrv q^ 809

wgqgbjdHi ei d; dqL lj;s davj Hk sPi V[la mm


ajvdo h,w tjw ij@ tpilgds bVri q[ wpVs mm
wi[ iljdHS rjvj l'Vj aJW[ } us ejv[ sPi Vj Fjv[
tjw } lPiu wi dstvJs[ l,Dy[ ljHk rjv[ idhS lptjv{ mm

FjHg V.svjv ug

l' dHl ai%J WjWj ug V[ fgi } w,BC f>ogbJ@ LiHgbj a'G


RpKyj yp,w w[ i,W rjv[ fjl[ vjdHbj m dHh `wgi dHw rji Fp,Dy'
fhp.dybj lg m dHl } WjWj ug V[ ##Vjefpi rjvj$$ wdh w[ l,Ddsbj
lg m Rph f+l.e dwl[ bev[ dh,Dl[ dr,y bjH[ej m

69

ueiJY fgi v,Df[ Ljh w'v


ba[ dHl s[ bjl[ fjl[
dHl fgi a'G drsj h' w[ ws[dwa[- ws[dwa[ dBwjSj wis[
h'H[ ueijRpG bj w[ ndhi[ m dHo[ fgi v,Df[ Ljh idh>sj lg m dH,w
wiVg rjvj fpit h'dHbj ] m ueijRpG dr,y dHl sg fPuj wiV
rjv[ v'w LiZjvP Whpa hV m WjWj ug s[ WyV bVplji dHl Vjv
q[v h'dHbj ba[ dHl V[ uv fjSg sg l[rj fp,Ag m WjWj ug V[ dH,w
l[i bjBj fpijSg wSw sj@ dH,w l[i dzY@ dH,w l[i t>c@ dH,w
l[i qJh sg sjv@ yji yg;J q>egbJ m Rpl V[ dvbj ds,agbJ m
bjf WSj w[ A,w eH[ m lF wpN A,wS a'G dfA'G dHl s[ Vjv f+qjio
s[ WyV h'H[ m dH,w sPu[ } WyV wi lpS w[ fidtbj m dxi fgi
ug V[ WjWj ug } dwhj@ ##dHo[ wpN dyi ndhi' m$$ bjf ug V[ WyV
wgaj dw ljc[ ndhiV sj lqJ bu[ Vhk m bu[ wpN dyi h'i dxi
api w[ x[i bjlS vjrJe[ m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj v,Df[ Ljh
ueijrJ a[ig ijuZjVg ]@ aP. ijuj ]G dHl Ldhi sj m bjfSg
fiuj a[ idhq wi m$$ Rpl V[ s,Ddlbj@ ##ug dH,w rji w'Hg dHl
Ldhi } vp,BS vHg bj debj m Rpl r[v[ q{G WyjdHbj m$$ b,e'G
WjWj ug V[ RpKai ds,aj@ ##Rps'G aJ Wyj dvbj m fi dxi dHh dwRpG
dwhj dw ueijrJ } fjSg qji[ej m$$ wdhS v,ej@ ##ug@ q[i[ qP>Dh'G
dVwv debj m$$ WjWj ug W'v[@ ##dH,w rji aP. Wyj dvbj m sPug
rji WyjRpS rjvj qhJfpit rg bj dihj ] m$$ RplV[ fpdAbj@ dw,Do[
bjr[ej ($$ bjf ug W'v[@ ##ueijRpG a'G dAfs[ fjl[ r,v Wjhi bjw[
ih[ej@ Rph i,Ddtbj wi[ej m$$ dHh dHLjij WjWj bV.s dl>z ug
qhjiju r,v lg m dfaj ug a'G lpdSbj ] m dHh WyV -
70

l.V - dr,y WCg Fjig WjiL h'Hg m Rpl rwa WjWj bV.s
dl>z ug qhjiju VjVw li rjvg ue%j a[ ndhi[ lV f,wj bjlS
vjdHbj h'dHbj lg m ueijRpG s[ bjl[ fjl[ fjSg hg fjSg lg m
WjWj bV.s dl>z ug qhjiju VjVw li a'G bjlS y,pw w[
l+g epiP e+.o ljdhW sj liPf v{ w[ bjf WjiL f{Gsg dr,y l+g epiP
e+.o ljdhW ug s[ liPf Rpa[ A,aig s[w[@ Wjwg ipqjv[ FjHg ci'vg
} ypwj w[ wpN h'i f+[qgbJ } Vjv v{ w[ W[igbJ sg w'ng ndhi[
lV m Rpl lq[G WjWj ug Vjv l[rw WjWj huPij dl>z ba[ FjHg
ci'vg lV m wpN lqJ Rpo[ epujdibj m dHw dsV FjHg ci'vg w'v
WjWj ug V[ Fp,Dy' rjdvbJ s[ d;wi wiw[ dxi dHh WyV wgaj
lg m ##bjh ) Rph lqJ b,u WdSbj h{ m RpV%J s[ hpwq Vjv i,dtbj
h' eHg h{ m$$ dHh WyV WjWj bV.s dl>z ug V[ Rpl r[v[ fPij wgaj m
hpS bjfJ WjWj ug s[ f+l.e r,v y,vgH[ m dHl a'G Rpfi.a WjWj
ug } v,f[ Ljh V[ fpdAbj@ ##dw q{} ufpug ljdhW sj fjn
lpSjYe[($$ WjWj ug V[ dwhj@ ##hJ lpS v{ m$$ dHM wdh w[ fjn
lpVjRpSj LpiP wi ds,aj m WjWj ug V[ fjn sj F'e fjdHbj aJ Rpl
sg lqjZg v,eg h'Hg lg m wpN dyi Wjbs WjWj ug V[ bjrj; s[
w[ Rpl sg lqjZg tpv%jHg m v,f[ Ljh V[ dwhj@ ##qhjiju ug@ u' bV.s
b,u bjdHbj h{@ d;>seg dry b,e[ ws[ VhgG bjdHbj ba[ dHaVg
ajwa q[i[ dry h{@ dw u[ wHg ljv a,w lqjZg vej w[ W{nVj
yjhJ aJ W{n lwsj hj m b,u q{G lqNsj hJ q[ij lF wpN wgaj
h'dHbj@ aphjc[ siLV wiw[ lxv h' debj m$$ dxi Rpls[ W[Vag
wiV a[ ufpug ljdhW sj fjn Rpl} ;WjVg Ijs wirjdHbj m
dxi Rpo'G drsj h' eH[ m

71

ueijrJ a'G hnPi r,v


ueijrJ a'G y,v w[ Wjhi dVwv[ hg lV dw ila[ dry dHw
d;qgGsji dqv dfbj m ljZP F[l a,w w[ RplV[ l[rj fp,Ag m WjWj ug
V[ Rpl} dH,w l[i t>c@ dHw l[i dzY@ dHw l[i fpijSg wSw sj
bjBj@ dH,w l[i qJh sg sjv s[S vHg dwhj m Rph wdhS v,ej@
##b{Vj wpN aJ VhgG dH,w b,Zg i'Bg s[ ds>sj hJ m Wjwg dwa'G h'i
q>e vr' m$$ WjWj ug wdhS v,e[@ ##u' wpN v{Sj h'r[@ dHw' zi a'G
v{Gs[ hJ m dqv ujr[ej aJ ngw h{@ VhgG aJ dwa[ h'i m$$ dHh WyV
wiw[ Ldhi a'G Wjhi yv[ eH[ m dH,w dW+A h[n s' dsV W{n[ ih[ m
agli[ dsV dH,w W,wigbJ rjvj w'v bjdHbj wdhS v,ej@ ##aplgG
wHg dsV a'G dHo[ W{n[ h' m q{G i'; r[tsj hJ m aplgG q>eS VhgG rg
uJs[ m$$ bjf wdhS v,e[ ljcj q>eSj dHh h{ dw dHw' hg zi a'G
q>egsj h{@ u[ Vj dqv[ aJ sPu[ zi VhgG uJs[ m s' dsV h' eH[
dH,w a'G q>debj lg m Rpo'G dqdvbj VhgG Rpl a'G Wjbs Rpl} Rpl[
ai%J hg ijLV s,l ds,aj m Rph wdhS v,ej@ ##ug q{G aJ eigW hJ m
q[i[ fjl aJ s,l wp W,wigbJ hg hV m dHV%J sj sp,Z hj;i h{ m$$
dxi fp,dAbj ##W,wigbJ a[igbJ hV@ dw v'wJ sgbJ($$ Rph W'dvbj@
##ug@ wpN q[igbJ rg hV m$$ WjWj ug wdhS v,e[ bjfSg W,wigbJ
sj sp,Z s[ s[ duV%J h' lwsj h{ m$$ dxi dwhj@ ##a[igbJ W,wigbJ
sj sp,Z a'v dry dwaVj wp h'r[ej($$ Rpl V[ dwhj u[ hpS y'HgH[
aJ o'Cj hg dVwv[ej m fi u[ bjoS[ y'HgH[ aJ l,a wp l[i dVwvsj
h{ m$$ dxi WjWj ug V[ fp,DdAbj@ ##sp,Z sj wg Fjb h{ m$$ wdhS v,ej@
##ug@ yji uJ f>u f{l[ l[i drwsj h{ m$$ WjWj ug lpSw[ ypf wi
eH[ m Rph dH,w-dH,w wiw[ W,wigbJ v{ bjdHbj a[ WjWj ug y'S
72

v,e fH[ m wpsia b{lg h'Hg dw hi dH,w W,wig V[ Rpl s[ b>sju[


a'G sp,Z r,Z ds,aj m WjWj ug ljij sp,Z fg eH[ m Rph s[t w[ h{ijV
h' debj a[ wdhS v,ej@ ##aplgG dwaV[ wp dsV s[ Fp,Dt[ lg m$$ bjf
W'v[ ypf ihp W'vgsj VhgG hp.sj m$$ dxi fp,DdAbj s,l aP. sp,Z s[ f{l[
v{S[ hV m dw sp,Z sj sp,Z v{Sj h{ m A[ag s,l m$$ Rph yp,f wi dihj m
WjWj ug dxi wdhS v,e[@ ##lqdNbj h{ dw VhgG m$$ Rpo'G W[n[ hg
o'C%g duhg ;qgV fp,B w[ wdhS v,e[@ ##bjh v{ xC a[i[ sp,Z a'G
r,Z hg qp,v ds>s[ hJ m s' ipfH[ Rpl s[ h,o xCjH[ m bjf Rpn w[
o'C%g sPi uj w[ bjijq wiw[ hnPi dHw fpijSj wlWj h{ Rpo[ fhp.y
eH[ m dHo[ rg dH,w y.eg ajwa rjvj fgi idh>sj lg m Rpl} uj
w[ dqv[ m$$

hnPi sg rjiaj
hnPi WjWj ug dH,w x,wi } dqv[ aJ RplV[ WjWj ug sj Whpa
ldawji wgaj m dHo[ wpN dsV dBw[ m dHl x,wi sj dH,w epi-FjHg
dwa[ Wjhi debj h'dHbj lg m WjWj ug s[ hp.dsbJ hg bj debj
us'G Rpl V[ r[dtbj dw q[ij FjHg dwl[ h'i q,a s[ l.a } bjfS[
w'v i,tg W{nj h{ a[ Rplsj Whpa qjV ldawji wisj h{@ Rph r[t
w[ Whpa dVijL h'dHbj a[ W'dvbj@ ##dHl Vjv bjfSj qplvqjVJ
sj wg qavW( dHl } dHo'G a'i s[ m$$ Rph wdhS v,ej@ ##Vj WHg
dHM VhgG a'iVj m dur[G bjH[ hV Rpr[G hg bjf[ yv[ ujSe[ m Vjv[
u[ w'Hg spdVbjsji W.sj h'r[ aJ a'i s[HgH[ m$$ sPuj wdhS v,ej
Vhk aJ q{G a'iJ fdhvj wdhS v,ej dwr[G a'i[Gej($$ aJ sPu[ V[
dwhj@ ##dur[G ljZ } ljZ a'isj h{ m$$ Fjr Lwag Vjv a'iJej m
fdhvj h,l w[ wdhS v,ej@ ##a[i[ Vjv'G awCj h'dHbj aJ dxi wg
wi[Gej( q{} faj h{ dw dHh Whpa hg r,cg wqjHg rjvj h{ m sPuj
73

ep,Dl[ dry bj w[ W'dvbj aP. yp,f wi uj m q{G bjf[ lqN vrJej m$$
bev[ dsV lr[i[ WjWj ug W{n[ lV m sPuj rg w'v fhp.y debj m
WjWj ug } wdhS v,ej@ ##iJdNbj@ hgi dqvg h{ dw VhgG m dwa[
q,NJ yjigbJ b{r[G aJ VhgG eHgbJ( u[ wpN VhgG WdSbJ aJ dwl[
Vjo } epiP Zji v{ m$$ dHlsj bio dHh h{ dw b{Vg ljZVj wiw[
wpN Lwag rg dqvg h{ uJ VhgG m u[ VhgG dqvg aJ dwl[ h'i sj
y[vj WS uj m WjWj ug V[ dHh WyV bjf hg dH,w dsV l.ea
dry s,dlbj lg m l.a Whjv sjl ug Rpl dsV bjfS[ l[rwJ Vjv
siLV wiV bjH[ h'H[ lV FjHg iaV dl>z ci"vg f,Dt[ sg l[rj
wi ih[ lV m h;Pi W'v[@ ##blgG Rpl} wdhSj aJ wpN VhgG lg
yjhp.s[@ fi us'G Rpl V[ VrJ epiP ZjiV wiV rjvg n'wi qjig
aJ l'dybj dw hpS aJ epiP VjVw r,v hg RpGevg wi ds,ag h{ m
hpS aJ urjW s[Sj hg fr[ej m blgG dwhj dw@ ##dHo[ aJ wHg
hgiJ b,e[ df,A[ apigbJ dxisgbJ hV@ ws[ dwl[ r,v r[dtbj rg
VhgG@ a{} fp,AS sg wg v'C fHg h{ m$$ Rph W'dvbj@ ##aP. qP>h V.ej
wiw[ q[i[ Vjv e,v wi m$$ WjWj ug W'v[@ ##`wgi lJHg@ bjfSg
w'Hg vCjHg o'C%g h{ m bjfJ vCs[ y.e[ VhgG v,es[ m us'G Rph Vj
hg hKdBbj aJ dxi bjf W'v[@ ##y.ej dxi h' ljhqS[@ dHM WyV
wiw[ us'G qP>h a'G w,fCj fjl[ wiw[ r[dtbj aJ Rph ;qgV a[ dc,e
dfbj m Rpl sj epiPFjHg rg bj debj m wdhS v,ej@ ##ug@ dHh
rg bjfS[ bjf } i,W lqNsj lg m y.ej hg h'dHbj A[ag faj
v,e debj m$$ Rph aJ W[h'L dfbj dihj m Rpl s[ Vjv rjv[ } WjWj
ug V[ dwhj A[ag Vjv dHl s[ qP>h dry fjSg fjRp m$$ uv q>ej
w[ dA,Bj ds,aj m h'L bjHg aJ RpKn w[ yiVJ Vjv dvfB debj m
wdhS v,ej@ ##ug@ q{} dtqj wi dsY m q{o'G WCg br,Ddebj h'
eHg h{ m$$
WjWj ug V[ lqNjdHbj dw w'Hg ljZP dwl[ i.e dry h'r[ Rpl
74

} Wpij Vj wh' m a{G lj} epiP r,v dHLjij wiw[ Bw'i vjHg aJ
dHo'G a,w e,v fhp.yg m VhgG aJ lj} wg v'C lg@ dHh w.q wiV
sg( Rpl V[ dwhj@ ##ug@ q{G aJ epiP VjVw sj Vjq VhgG dvbj m$$
WjWj ug W'v[@ ##us'G aP. h'i epiP ZjiV rjvg e,v wgag dHl sj
qavW dHh' hg lg m ajwa WS ujH[ ui v{Sg y.eg h{ m$$ RplV[
W[Vag wgag@ ##q{} rg epip VjVw sg wvjl s,Dl' m$$ aJ Rpl }
qPv q>ai lpSj w[ wdhS v,e[@ ##dHl } udfbj wi m LwagbJ
rg Whpa bj ujSegbJ a[ qV } lpt LJag rg dqv[eg m$$

lavpu s[ dwVji[
hnPi a'G yvw[ ueijrJ r,v bjH[ dxi Ldhi dry VhgG eH[ m
bjl[ fjl[ hp.s[ h'H[ lavpu sdibj dwVji[ fhp.y eH[ m dHo[ dHw
q,NJ yjiV rjvj qplvqjV dHZi bj dVwdvbj m WjWj ug } W{n[
s[t w[ wdhS v,ej@ ##lJHg ug@ aplgG dh>sP h' dw dl,t($$ bjf V[
dwhj dl,t hJ m dxi wpN l'y w[ W'dvbj dw q{G aJ qplvqjV hJ@
aphjcg l[rj dwr[G wiJ m bjh q[igbJ q,NJ rg sp,Z VhgG ds>sgbJ m
dHw q,N h{ duhCg b,nJ fdhiJ Wjbs sp,Z ds>sg h{ m b,u lr[i[
hg y'Hg h{ m Rph hpS w,v% } dqv[eg m bjf wdhS v,e[ dxi idhS
s[ m Rph W'dvbj@ ##q[ij dy,a aJ sp,Z dfbjRpS } wisj h{ m$$ bjf
ug V[ dwhj@ ##u[ ;iPi dy,a wisj h{ aJ s,l sp,Z sj wg qp,v
vr[Gej($$ Rpl V[ dwhj@ ##q{G aJ l[rj wiVg h{ m qp,v VhgG r[ySj m
q[ig q,N V[ rg hpS dqvSj VhgG m WCg w"C h{ m$$ bjf ug W'v[ ##u[
a[ij dHaVj dfbji h{ aJ dvbj q,N s[tgH[ dwhCg h{ m$$ Rph wdhS
v,ej@ ##b"h WPi[ i.e sg m lF a'G b,e[ ujS rjvg h{ m$$ bjf ug
Rpn w[ Rpl s[ w'v eH[ m ojfg qji w[ q,N h[n W{n eH[ m q,N tv'
eHg m bjf bjfSg WjBg dry hg sp,Z y'Gs[ ih[ a[ Vjv'G Vjv fgGs[
eH[ m bjfSg dH,Aj qpajWw A,w w[ Rpn tv'a[ m Rph h{ijV h' w[
75

wdhS v,ej ##i,W rjdvY aphjcgbJ aplgG hg ujS' m$$ q[i[ w'v dHl
q,N } bjHg } s,l ri[% h' eH[ hV m q{o'G dWVj dwl[ } V[C[ VhgG
bjRpS ds>sg m sp,Z aJ dHl V[ wg s[Sj h{ m ##bjf ug W'v[ ##i"vj
Vj fj lr[i[ bjHgG m dxi a[i[ Vjv w'Hg e,v wiJe[ m$$ Rph lr[i[
q,N y'H[ a[ dWVJ v{ w[ bj debj m WjWj ug W'v[ ##q,N } dwM Vjv
dvbJsj($$ ##Rph W'dvbj$$ dHh q,N hpS q{G VhgG y'Sg@ aphjcg hg
h{ m ##bjf W'v[ VhgG WHg dH,w c.e } y'dHbj wi ba[ dHw c.e
blgG y'dHbj wiJe[ m ljcj dHw w.q h'i h{ a[i[ f+ag m u[ wi[Gej
aJ s,lgH[ m$$ Rpl V[ dwhj@ hpwq wi'@ ;iPi wiJej m ##aJ WjWj
ug V[ dwhj$$ blgG dHo[ yjvg dsV idhSj h{ m w'Hg oJ s,l m sPuj
aP. dwl[ w'v e,v Vj wigG m Rpl V[ dHw dVr[wvg duhg oJ@ dWvwpv
sdibj s[ dwVji[ V[C[ dstjHg m WjWj ug ue%j fl.s wiw[ W'v[ #dHh
ngw h{ dHo[ dBwJe[ m Rpl } dHh hpwq wgaj ##aP. lPiu Tv[ a'G
q,NJ yjiV s[ WhjV[ Vjv bj ujdHbj wigG m blgG bjf[ hg Rpn
w[ y' dvbj wiJe[ m aP. blJ } WpvjRpSj VhgG m u[ v'C h'Hg aJ
e,v wdibj wiJe[ m ##dHl ai%J Rpl } wdh w[ Rpo[ dBw eH[ m
Rph i';jVj bj w[ q,N sj sp,Z ypbj ujdHbj wi[ m us'G wpN dsV
dHl[ ai%J v.z eH[ m RplV[ l'dybj r[tgH[ aJ lhg dHh wg wis[
hV m aJ dHM l'y w[ Rph lPiu dAfS s[ rwa bjdHbj aJ Rpl}
dHw WCj Fjig lpdVhig i.e sj l,f V;i bjdHbj a[ Rph r[t
w[ ci debj m b{cj r,cj l,f dwo'G bjdHbj( dHaV[ dyi } WjWj
ug Wjhi bjH[ m fp,AS v,e[ dwr[G bjdHbj b{l r[v[( Rpl a'G W'dvbj
Vj debj m WjWj ug Rpl s[ dWvwpv V;sgw bj w[ wdhS v,e[@
hpS cisj dwM h{( r[t v{ u[ wpN s[tSj h{ m aJ i' w[ wdhS v,ej@
##q{} WtL vRp m q{o'G Fp,v h' eHg m qpC w[ b{lg evag VhgG wisj m
dxi W'v[ y.ej hpS uj m Rph Vqlwji wiw[ yvj debj m$$
dHw dsV bjfS[ rwa bVplji q,N v{ w[ bjdHbj aJ RplV[
76

WjWj ug w'v dHw dy,DB[ i.e sj L[i r[dtbj a[ ci debj m bjf


W'v[ ##aP. ci Vj dHh ljcj fdhi[sji h{ m dHl s[ Vjv sj aP. b,e[
l,f s[ iPf dry r[dtbj lg m aP. yp,f wiw[ u' l[rj hp.sg h{ wig
y,v m$$ dHl[ ai%J yjvg dsV fPi[ h'S a'G Wjbs dul dsV Rpo'G apiVj
lg Rpl } W'v[ ##q>e v{ hpS u' q>eSj h{ m ljcg hpS dabjig h{ m$$
Rpl s[ zi w'Hg W,yj VhgG lg m ujdHsjs y.eg lg m fi Rpqi r,cg
h'S wiw[ Liq wi[ m bjf ug W'v[ ##LiqjRpSj VhgG m hpS q"wj
h{ A[ag wi m ##Rph W'dvbj$$ ug fp,ai VhgG h{ m ##bjf ug W'v[$$
a[i[ zi s' fp,ai h'Se[ a[ h'Se[ rg u'C[ m ##dHw sj Vjq itgG
##b,v%j ds,aj$$ a[ sPu[ sj Vjq ##b,vj i,tj$$ m s'r[G hg WC[ y.e[
V[w h'Se[ m h'Se[ rg b,u a'G dHw ljv s[ dry hg m$$ a[ dxi W'v[
##wpN h'i q>e v{ m$$ Rpl sj w'Hg fp>V ujdebj a[ wdhS v,ej$$
ihdq wi' m s';t a'G WyjY m bjf V[ Rpl} wvqj fC% w[ sdlbj
ba[ dwhj ##dHM wvqj fdC%bj wi m$$ Rpl a'G Wjbs Rpl} qjvj
x[iV sg upea lqNj w[ dxi W'v[ m v{ hpS blgG yvs[ hJ m ##Rph
W'dvbj wpN lqJ h'i VhgG dBws[ m$$ bjf ug W'v[ VhgG@ idhSj aJ
qpLwv h{ m fi s' dsV h'i a[i[ rjla[ idh>s[ hJ m s' dsVJ Wjbs
Rpl lojV a'G y,v fH[ m ujS a'G fdhvj Rpl} dHw lv'w fC% w[
lpSjdHbj m
lv'w q^ 1
f>du dVrjuJ rta f>du f>uj f>u[ VjRp mm
fdhvj lyp hvjvp spdH aguj t{i tpsjdH mm
yRpog Vgbda ijdl qVp f>urgG dlxda lVjdH mm
wiSg wvqj bjdtw{ aJ qplvqjSp lsjdH mm
VjVw u[a[ wPdCbji wPC[ wPCg fjdH mm

\rji qjN wg|

77

lavpu dwVji[ a'G WiVjv[ r,v


lavpu s[ dwVji[ a'G y,v w[ wv[iJ s[ V;sgw fhp.y[ duo[
b,u wv VjVwli ] m dHo[ wpN dsV dBw[ m dHl ljtg sj WjWj
ug s[ woV bVplji hg faj vdebj ] m us'G WjWj bV.s dl>z
ug } VjVwli rjvg ue%j wqiw,lj t'v%S vHg hpwq h'dHbj lg
Fjr Rpo[ dBwS vHg hpwq wgaj lg@ Rpl rwa WyV wgaj lg
##Rph ue%j rg ljcg ] m blk dwl[ lq[G Rpo[ dBw[ lg a[ dHl s[
bjl[ fjl[ wHg ue%j a[ dryis[ ih[ m dHo'G yv w[ dwvg yjhvJ
rjvg fhp>y[ m Rpo[ u'eg fgi sj c[ij lg@ Rpo[ dBw[ m dHo'G apis[ apis[
dwl[ i,Wg f=[iVj bVplji ##lpvajVfpi rv yv[ eH[ a[ dHo'G dwl[
epfa blojV a[ dVrjl wgaj m dwl[ lq[G df>c ##qgH[ dr>c$$ dry
dryi[ m qgH[ dr>c df>c dry WjWj ug s[ dfaj s[ VjVw[ lV u'
epiP b>es ljdhW s[ df>c Vje'w[ tcPi s[ V[C[ hg ] m
qgH[G dr>c sj dHw dl>z epids,a dl>z lg dul sg dsYv e'a@
Rpl sg F{S l.ag@ zirjvg t[q' lg a[ vdhSj dl>z qjqj m dHw
qhgVj Rpo[ ndhi[ m dHo'G b>V fjSg A,ws[ ih[@ wSw sj xpvwj
qjhJ sg sjv m vdhSj dl>z s[ fp,ai f'ej dl>z a[ liqpt dl>z
lg m WjWj ug s[ dfaj WjWj WPC dl>z s[ qjq[ s[ fp,ai qgH[G dr>c
s[ rjlg lV m dHo'G Rpn w[ dxi c[ij ##u>sj$$ s[ vjdHbj m fdhvJ
epids,a dl>z V[ dxi spvj dl>z V[ l[rj wgag m dHh dvta WjWj
ug V[ 30 Vr>Wi 1920 Hglrg } hiy>s dl>z fp,ai lp,yj dl>z
f,ag FjHg ug berjC WgWg wj a'G wirjHg m Rpla'G Wjbs 1915
dry dHhg dvta FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg a[ Rplsg lpfaVg }
wirjHg m dHo[ bjf bjfS[ qpt s[ dHw e'sCg riej w,fCj its[
78

lV m A'B[ A'B[ W,dybJ Vjv t[cs[ lV m RpVJ } wHg f+wji sgbJ


yguJ rg e'sCg dry'G w,T w[ s[SgbJ m ws[ f{l[ rg s[ s[S[ m lF
wpN e'sCg dry'G hg w,T w[ s[Hg ujSj@ fi qpt V.ej VhgYG lV
wis[ m dxi qjz s[ qhgV[ q>e w[ tjZj m
dHo[ WyV wis[ lV ^
Wjvw sjl V[ vHg xwgig fdhvj c[ij dFtg
q>e a>e w[ BpwC[ tjZ[ Wjvw cdh eH[ dH,Bg
dHl xwgig a'G Wjvw sjlj qpCw[ iv uj dltg m
dxi dHo'G rjdfl qpC fH[ q'e[ r,v m ila[ dry dHw ##dl>zj
rjvj$$ Vei ] m dHo[ qhJfpit l.a q[hi dl>z h'H[ hV m dH>VJ }
dqv[ m dHh l.a bjfS[ h,ok bjBj fgh w[ v.ei yvjRpGs[ lV m dHV%J
fjl wpN dsV ndhi[ m dHV%J l.aJ sj dHh dVIq lg b,Zg ija }
dl>zJ rjv[ a'G Rpn FjHg wg ci'vg qjaj sq'sig ljdhW s[ dshpi[
sg l[rj wiVg m Rpo[ NjCP s[ w[ rjdfl bj w[ h'i w'Hg w.q wis[
lV m wpN lqJ WjWj ug dHV%J w'v idhw[ b,e[ yv[ eH[ m dHo'G yvw[
wJeC df>c dHw ija ndhi[ m
wJeC a'G WiVjv[ r,v xiWjhg df>c fhp>y[ m dHl df>c dry
dHw l.a o.qS dl>z h'H[ hV m xiWjhg a'G WiVjv[ yv[ eH[ m WiVjv[
Vei a'G Wjhi hg dBw[ lV m dHo[ s' dsV Wjbs wg r[dtbj dw
dHw eigW zi sg qjHg u.ev dry v,wCJ WjvS ypesg dxisg
] a[ i'Hg uJsg ] m WjWj ug V[ fpdAbj ##qjHg i'Gsg dwRpG ] ($$
fdhvJ aJ Rpl V[ dwhj ##ug@ q[i[ wiqJ sj hg xv ] u' dqv dihj
] m$$ bjf ug V[ fpdAbj dxi rg wg e,v ] m wdhS v,eg ##q[ij
fag qi yp,wj ] a[ dHw f>u ljv sj vCwj ] m Rpl } dHw ljv
a'G b{lg dWqjig ] m w'Hg lqN Vhk bjHg m duaVg q[ig dh>qa fHg
Rpl } spbjHg rg wij ypwg hJ m wHgbJ l.aJ } rg q,oj
dBwjdHbj@ fi dwa[ bjijq Vhk bjdHbj m W,l hpS b,u qdibj
79

dw w,v qdibj lqN' m$$ bjf wdhS v,e[ qjHg ##u[ Wy ujH[ ($$
Rph W'vg ##y.ej hg ] u[ Wy ujH[ m$$ bjf W'v[ ##aP. wpA wi[Geg
rg m$$ wdhS v,eg eigWSg hJ m q[i[ fjl f{lj aJ w'Hg ] Vhk @
dul s[ Vjv fp>V sjV wi lwj m bjf W'v[ ##a[i[ fjl'G fp>V dlix
dHw' hg wijRpSj ] m$$ Rph W'vg wg ( ##dHh W,yj dwl[ } s[ s' m$$
wdhS veg ##dwl} ( dHl hjva dry vr[ej w'S ($$ aJ bjf
W'v[ ##blk vrJe[$$ m
qjHg ##aplk y[vj WVjRpSj ] (
WjWj ug ##a{} wg Fjr[G WSjHgH[ Fjr[G Vj WSjHgH[ m$$
##dsbJe[ ijug h'H[ a'G$$
##uj v{ bj W,Dy[ }$$@ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj m
qjHg W,Dy[ } Rpl[ r[v[ uj w[ v{ bjHg m WjWj ug V[ s[dtbj
a[ dwhj ##WCj wqu'i h' debj m ##Rph W'vg ##s[t vY m$$ bjf
W'v[ ##b{o[ ljc[ ljq%S[ uqgV a[ fj s[ m$$ Rpl V[ fj ds,aj m huPi
V[ dHw w,fCj dHl s[ Rpfi s[ ds,aj m dxi qjHg } W'v[ ##hpS aP.
uj w[ bjfSj w.q wi v{ m$$ Rph u,Dw' a,wg dry Rpn w[ yvg eHg m
us'G WjvS v{S bjHg aJ W,y[ s[ w'v W{nS v,eg WjWj ug W'v[
##uj zi } a[ dHw fdhi a'G Wjbs bjrk m$$ Rph api aJ fHg@
fi dHw s' rji dfAJ qpC w[ s[tsg ihk m zi'G uj w[ uvsg hg
bjHg mdul r[v[ bj w[ WjWj ug } bjrju ds,ag@ aJ bjf W'v[
w,fCj ypw w[ bjfS[ fp,ai } s[t v{ m us'G Rpl s[ qP>h a'G w,fCj
vjdhbj@ s[t w[ h{ijV idh eHg m vCwj aJ Rpl } dHRpG vdebj
dur[G dwa[ dWqji h'dHbj hg Vhk hp>sj m WjWj ug h,l w[ W'v[ ##hpS
dHh ljcj ] a[ij Vhk m ih[ej a[i[ w'v hg fi ljcj WS w[ ihPej m
dHh dlZ fpit h'r[ej m dHl dHvjw[ dry us'G w'Hg w.q wiVj
h'H[ej dHl s[ ijhk wdibj wiJe[ m$$ dHRpG WyV wiw[ W'v[@ ##dHh
e,v dwl[ } Vhk slSg@ ypf hg idhSj ] m$$ dxi qjHg V[ fpdAbj
80

##ug aphjcj Vjq wg ] ( dwo'G bjH[ h' m$$ bjf W'v[ ##bjH[ hJ
dxis[ apis[ m ljcj Vjq ] qhJ hdiVjq dl>z iP>qg rjv[ m$$ dxi
bjf V[ W,Dy[ sj Vjq fpdAbj a[ qjHg s[ Vjq s,lS a[ W'v[ ##dHh
Vjq Vhk y.ej m dHl sj Vjq blk itJe[ m$$ dHls[ Vjv hg
dwhj ##dHlsj Vjq ] dqiyJ tjSj m$$ qjHg W'vg dHh rg w'Hg VJ
] m bjf V[ dwhj u' qiug itgH[ m dwl[ } wg m blk bjfS[ sj
Vjq i,t dsaj u' lj} y.ej v,debj m dxi W'v[ ##v{ uj dHl} b,e[
a'G dHh qla hg ih[ej m dwl[ Vjv W'v[ej Vhk m eiqg@lisg@ Fp,t@
a[h sg rg dHl } w'Hg f+rjh Vhk h'r[eg m b{r[G v{ w[ v'wJ w'v
Vj F,ug dxig zi hg dHl } l.Fjv w[ i,tg m$$

WjWj ug V[ ZV"v[ fhp>yVj


s'hij

lpS' li'aj dZbjV $s[ qV q[ Zji dryji


Vei ZV"vj fhp.y eH[ hiVjq hig sjaji

dcRpcj A.s ^
dW+AJ s[ h[n bjlS vej dvbj@ h'dH w[ bV.s ug m
du>V%J duV%J bj w[ sil fj dvbj@ wB[ eH[ x.Z ug m
df>c rjv[ v'w rg AjdHbj s[ h[n } bjH[ h"vg h"vg ug m
W{n[ bj w[ w'v Vj dwl[ q,oj B[dwbj Vj w'Hg e,v e"vg ug m
bjf' dry dHw sPu[ Vjv dqvw[@ ih[ N,t qjis[ m
i,W a'G W[qpt Fpv[ h'H[ Vjv a'G@ uVq drejCs[ m
eiqg sg ip,a a,ag re[ hrj ug dlti spfdhi lg m
w'Hg W.sj w.q rjvj bjr[ Wjhi } Rph rg dH,wvj wdhi lg m
veg uj dfbjl bjlS a[ W{dnbj l.a qhjiju } m
sl' WHg dfbjdiRp u[ fjSg dqv ujH[ s[Gs[ V[ bjrju } m
81

RpVJ dry'G dHw W'dvbJ lg h,l w[@ wisj dHLjij ug m


e.sj fjSg dul B'H[ dry Fdibj@ dq,Bg a[ ejij ug m
dHo[ dHh'G fjSg ] ug fgS rjla[@ fgRp i,u i,u w[ m
dHl a'G dWVJ h'i fjSg Vhk dqvSj@ bjdtbj lg e,u w[ m
lpS w[ dHh e,v qhjiju W'vs[@ ds>s[ V[ uWjW } m
dHh aJ blk idtbj aphjc[ rjla[@ A[CgH[ Vj bjW } m
lpS w[ WyV dHw W.sj Rpdnbj@ qV dfbj h"v ug m
ypf ih' RpV%J ljdibj } bjtsj@ wi' Vj qt"v ug m

dcRpTj sprHgbj
aplk l.a ug dHo[ W{n' q{G uj w[ uv dvbjrJ
a[ x[i AwjrJ
zi q[ij ] V[C[ dHo'G q{G A[ag qpC bjrJ
s[i Vj vjrJ
dHRpG wdhw[ zi } Rph apdibj v{ bjdHbj uv Fiw[
A[ag wiw[
wdhS vej vY l.a ug uv bjfS[ h,o Ziw[
hdi hdi wiw[
uv v{ vgaj api>a hg fgaj qPh'G wpN Vj W'v[
ih[ bc'v[
lF Rpn bje[ zik lsjH[ W{n[ bijq ba'v[
bV.s bc'v[
ija fHg lF v'wk lpa[ b,Z ija drhjHg
lqN Vj bjHg
82

ajf ydCbj lF qpZ[ h'H[ Vjv RpvBg bjHg


Whp sptsjHg m
dsV ydC%bj lF dH,wn[ h'H[ wiV dryji dlbJS[
ba[ dVbjS[
dHh wg FjSj ridabj uji' i,W s[ f[B[ ajS[

w'iCj A.s

i,W hg ujS[ m

fjSg AwjdHbj dulV[ qhjiju }


ljdibJ y Rph s[Grsj bjrju }
w,v rjvg bjtg e,v e"v RpH[
l.aJ } lg duhCj wgaj qt"v RpH[
Rpl sj hg dqdvbj ] xv bjfJ }
veg ] RpAjvg a[ yCjdHbj ajfJ }
lji[ dH,wn[ h' w[ ujHgH[ RpVj fjl ug
Fpv WtLjY wi' bisjl ug
W[Vag lrji[ dWejC[ h'H[ wju }
ljdibJ y Rph s[Grsj brju }
lji[ q>V eH[ bjtg e,v ug
bjRp Fpv WtLjHgH[ l.aJ fjl y,v ug
sjV[ W.s[ h'i rg ivjRp Vjv ug
dWeC[ Vj e,v wi vY dtbjv ug
lji[ h' w[ dHw,n[ eH[ l.aJ fjl ug
sptCj lpSjdHbj wgaj bisjl ug
83

bjf hg lrji' dWeC[ h'H[ wju }


ljdibJ y Rphg s[GrsJ bjrju }

dli dt>cg A.s

WtL' WtLS hji h'Hg br,Ddebj


blk hJ FpvS hji Fpv[ qpT a'G m
l.a lsj hg dsbjvP bjH[ WtLs[@
apq lq w'S dw+fjvP i,W sj iPf h' m
duaVg wgag Fpv xv rg dqv debj@
liV bjH[ yv wpv@ hpS Vj q'dCY m
fHg dWqjig lF} zi zi cjws[@
Wy[ WpT[ Vi aCxV qgV duY m
dHYG wdh lgl dVrjdHbj spdH h,o u'C w[
ev dry f,vj fjdHbj FpWk i'Grs[ m
h,l w[ W'v[ bjf y.ej dHRpG wi'
uv dHl A,fC rjvj dfvj dsY lF}
h'r[ Rph bi'e u' fgr[ i,u w[@
Rphg ih[ dWqji Vxia u' wi[
WyV q>V w[ l,a du>Vj fg dvbj
i'e wB[ aB xB qV lptg h'H[
dxi wgag bisjl dqvw[ ljdibJ
dHo[ wi' dVrjl wpBgbj WS ujH[
l'inj

h,l w[ W'v[ bjf dHh oJ idhS vj u'e ]


iqa[ bjH[ ljZ iqa[ hg api ujH[Ge[ m
84

duqksji a[ dw+fj wiVg


ZV"v[ a'G yv w[ FjHg iPf[ s[ Vusgw uj fhp>y[ m V[C[ a[C[ s[
VeiJ dry'G f+Ljsj q>e w[ A,w v{Gs[ lV m dwl[ dH,w zi a'G hg
ils v{Gs[ a[ dwl[ zi f,Ddwbj f+Ljsj rg v{ v{Gs[ lV m fi v{Gs[
dH,Dw' zi a'G m u[ Vj dqvsg aJ sPu[ zi Vhk uJs[ lV m dxi dwa[
Wjhi uj w[ W{n uJs[ m dHl aiJ wpN lqJ epudibj m
dHw dsV b{lj q"wj bjdHbj dHw Vei dry dwl[ zi f+Ljsj
q>eS rjla[ eH[ aJ be[ dHw duqksji q,N } uPC fj w[ wpB
dihj lg dwRpGwg Rph spZ s[S r[v[ dhvsg lg m bjf uj WPh[ b,e[
tv'a[ m duqksji s[ zi rjvg bjBj b{ w[ bjHg m WjWj ug V[ dwhj
##blk aJ sp,Z v{Sj ] m$$ Rpl duqksji V[ WjWj ug sg bjrju
lpS vHg a[ wdhS v,ej ##dHh w'S ] sp,Z q>eS rjvj ($$ Rpls[
zi rjvg V[ sdlbj ##dHw l.a ] m$$ Rpl V[ dwhj ##sp,Z aJ ljcg
q,N hg Vhk ds>sg m blk wpB wpB w[ rg ow eH[ hJ m ##WjWj ug
V[ Wjhi tdC%bJ hg brju ds,ag ##u[ dqv fr[ aJ sp,Z ljcj h'r[ej
m$$ Rph wdhS v,ej ##ngw ]$$ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##q,N sj
uPC t'v s[ m$$ Rpl V[ dHr[G hg wgaj m WjWj ug wdhS v,e[ ##hpS
h,o lp,Dy[ wiw[ dHls[ h[nJ W{n uj m$$ Rpl V[ h,o Z'a[ a[ ojfg qji
w[ q,N h[nJ uj W{nj m q,N V[ sp,Z vjh dvbj m du>V[ c.eJ sj sp,Z
Vhk dsaj lg q,N V[ Rph ljij sp,Z hg s[ ds,aj m sp,Z y'S a'G Wjbs
y"Gai[ Rpfi i,t w[ WjWj ug } l,s dvbj m q>uj cjh ds,aj a[
wdhS v,ej ##ug sp,Z A,w vY m ##WjWj ug q>u[ a[ W{n eH[ m sp,Z
fg dvbj m dul r[v[ apiV r[v[ apiV ve[ aJ Rpl V[ dwhj ##ug
sp,Z h'i rg ] m$$ bjf W'v[ ##Vhk dHh a{} ds,aj m$$ apiV vdebJ
85

a'G Rpl s[ zi rjvg h,o u'C w[ b,e[ tv' eHg aJ bjf V[ fpdAbj
##wg dH,Aj ] a[ig@ W[Bj ($$ Rph W'vg zi dry sp,Z a[ fp,a sg wqg
] m WjWj ug W'v[ ##wpA fC%g ] m$$ Rpl V[ dwhj ##hJ ug@ q[ig qjaj
V[ q{} epiqptg fC%jHg lg m$$ dxi fpdAbj ##a[i[ w'v epiWjVg sg
w'Hg f'og ] m$$ Rph b>si'G uj w[ ipqjv dr,y vf[Bg dHw f'og v{
bjHg m us'G bjf V[ Rplsj ipqjv t'v w[ s[dtbj Rph f>u ei>og
f'og h,o sg dvtg h'Hg lg m f'og s[t w[ W'v[ ##v{ dul zi dHh
f>u ei>og f'og ] m Rpl s[ zi lF wpN ] m dHl sj b>Ddq+a r[v[
Rpn w[ dHlVjV wiw[ fjn wdibj wi a[ a[i[ fag lpdSbj wiV m
lF wpN ngw h' ujr[ej m dHl f'og sj ldawji wiVj ] m Rpy[
lojV a[ ljx ipqjv[ dry vf[B w[ itSj ] m dHl sj dVaV[q wis[
ih' m epiP VjVw s[ zi dry w'Hg zjBj Vhk m$$ dHaVj WyV
wiw[ Rpo'G yv fH[ m us'G zi a'G o'C%g sPi hg eH[ aJ zi rjvj
dxi F,u w[ bjdHbj a[ fpAS vej ##l.a qhjiju aphjc[ siLV
dwo[ h'Se[ ($$
W[f+rjh qhJfpit W'v[ ##u[ rwa h'dHbj aJ dwa[ dHl ai%J
hg dqv frJe[ m
qhJfpit Vjq ufS rjv[@ Vjq s[ ilgH[ dul aigw[ Vjv rg
dwl[ a[ dw+fj wiVg yjhp.S h' uJsg ] m bjfS[ WyV Vjv rg wi
ds>s[ hV a[ dwl[ upeag Vjv Vjq ufj w[ rg wi ds>s[ hV m Vjq
ufS s[ lswj RpVJ sg ilVj a[ f+q[Lri sj dVrjl hp.sj m dHl
wiw[ ljdhW V[ WjSg dry woV wgaj ]^f+F ug Wldh ljZ wg ilVj

e lp^ q^ 5

RpVJ sg ilVj a'G dVwdvbj h'dHbj WyV dWioj Vhk uJsj m


hq[Lj bB,v hp>sj ] m dHl sj bevj dh,lj rg dwa[ h'i oj bjr[ej m
fPi[ ldaepiP q[i[ V[ a{} dlqiV dltvjdHbj
rjh rZjHg h'r[ a{} la Rpfs[L bZPij ] dvbjdHbj m
86

l.a e.ej ijq Vjv dqvjf


dHw r[iJ bjf Wjhi W{n[ lV m dHw r,cg Rpqi sj qhjaqj
bjf ug fjl bjdHbj a[ Vqlwji wiw[ W{n debj m bjf V[
fpdAbj ##l.a ug dwo'G bjH[ h' ( wg Vjq ] ($$ qhjaqj W'v[ ##ug
iqaj hg idh>sj hJ m dxisj apisj dHZi bj dVwdvbj m q[ij Vjq
e.ej ijq ] m q{G wpN f+LV fp,AS[ hV m$$ bjf W'v[ ##fp,A v{ m$$ Rph
wdhS v,ej ##ugr sj qV lsj sp,t lpt s[ y,wi dr,y hg idh>sj
] m dHl dry'G dwl ai%J dVwv[ ( hi r[v[ qV } dHw' duhj bV.s
dwr[G ih[ ( dHh yguJ q{G ei>oJ dr,Dy'G fC%gbJ aJ hV fi qV a[
Vhk zBgbJ m l' dHh brloj q{} dwl[ aigw[ Vjv dqv
lwsg ] ($$
dHl ai%J sj WyV FjHg V.s Vjv ljdhW V[ wgaj ]

I,w sq-W-?[q ijh Vj Wpisq dw^ wglaq m


b{ rjH{ Vwds du>segbq@ ijdHeJ ep;la mm4mm
bjfSj bjf fAjS Vj ldwbj dHw sq lPN Vj bjHg@
tWi Vj fjHg@
Whpa L'w u' ljig RpqiJ b{r[ yjdH epbjHg@
w>q Vj bjHg m
\d;>seg Vjqj FjHg V.s vjv ug|

WjWj ug wdhS v,e[ ##hJ h' lwsg ] m fdhvJ dHl Vei dry
uj w[ dHw zCj q>e w[ dvbj m$$ Rph zCj v{ bjdHbj dxi W'v[
##yv dwa[ dHLVjV wigH[ m$$ dHl ai%J wdhw[ Rpl } Vjv v{ w[
dHw A,fC s[ w'v bj eH[ m W{n w[ wdhS v,e[ ##uv Fi w[ dvbj m$$
dHl ai%J Rpl V[ bjf ug } dHLVjV wijdHbj m faj Vhk dw>V[
87

zC[ Fi-Fi w[ dvbjw[ dHLVjV wijdHbj m dHLVjV wiV a'G


Wjbs Rpo'G Rpn w[ dHw fjl[ uj W{n[ fp,AS v,e[ ##a{} WjSg Ijs
] ($$ Rph W'dvbj ##ug ufp ug ljdhW Ijs ] m$$ bjf W'v[ dHo[
W{n w[ fjn lpSj m$$ Rpl V[ fjn LpiP wi ds,aj m dul rwa fjn
lqjfa h'S a[ bjdHbj@ bjtig fRpCg sgbJ btgivgbJ
f>eagbJ fC%gbJ ^
duV wRp Vsdi wiqp daV wji mm
VjVw Vsig Vsdi dVhjv

dli a[ h,o itw[ W'v[ ##uj dVhjv h' debj m$$ da>V rji WyV
wgaj m us'G fjn lqjfa wgaj m dxi qhjaqJ sg lqjZg ve eHg
a[ qV dBw debj m wpN dyi Wjbs bjrj; s[ w[ WpvjdHbj aJ
RpV%J V[ V[ai t'hv[ m f+l.V h' w[ W'v[ ##uj q"u wi m diZgbj dlZgbJ
a[i[ yiVJ dry idhSegbJ m$$
dHl dqhi sg dVejh } WjSg dry s,Ddlbj ]@
ikpw ktwK Avloknu kIno dws kw dUKu ibdwirE ]
ljdhdW hjv W-up; hidx tpsj@ sq V uVs m
e{di duwiL@ lqj brju Wrs wgv' qwjv mm5

\b>e 681|

FjHg V.s vjvj ug

lJHg WJN'G l.aJ s[ qpt sPug e,v Vj bjr[


Vjq lJHg dWV u' wpN wdhSj lF ev brJH[
qpiLs wjdqv qj@ W.segba `iqjdHs m
b{ uh[@ xjdv qpWjdiw dw wpVs ljdhW hjv mm6mm

FjHg V.s vjv ug

fPi[ ldaepiP q[i[ V[ a{} dlqiV hg dltvjdHbj


rjh rZjHg h'r[ a{} la Rpfs[L dvbjdHbj m

88

l.a q>cvg Vjv debjV yiyj


FjHg iPf[ s[ dHvjw[ a'G y,v w[ apis[-apis[ dHw h'i ue%j
yv[ eH[ m wpN lqJ dHo[ dBwS a'G Wjbs WjWj ug w'v dHw
l.a q>cvg bj eHg m RpV%J V[ rg dW+A h[n c[ij vj dvbj m Ljq
s[ rwa us'G RpV%J V[ bjfSj F.cjij dabji wgaj aJ WjWj
ug } W{n[ s[t w[ dH,w ljZP V[ bjrj; ds,ag m fi bjf bjfS[
bV.s dr,y b{l[ qeV lV dw Rpl ljZP sg bjrj; lpSg hg
Vhk m Rph aJ bjrj; s[ w[ y,vj debj a[ F.cjij riaVj LpiP
h' debj m F.cjij riajRpS r[v[ us'G qptgH[ l.aJ sg dHZi dVejh
fHg aJ bjf } Rpo[ bjlS a[ hg W{n[ s[dtbj m RpVj V[ dxi
dHw l[rjsji } F[dubj ##l.aJ } Wpvj w[ dvbjY m$$ l[rjsji
dxi sPug rji WpvjRpS debj m l[rjsji V[ dxi uj w[ s,Ddlbj
##ug@ Rph aJ w'Hg urjW Vhk ds>s[ m
qhjaqj V[ dwhj ##dwhj yv' ngw ] m$$ F.cjij riaj ds,aj
debj m Rpl a'G Wjbs qhjaqj V[ ija } wHg rji Rpn w[
s[tS sg w'dLL wgag m bjf bjlS a[ hg W{n[ ih[ m dsV yC%
debj m fi bjf dxi rg Rpo[ hg driju[ ih[ m RpV%J qhjaqj
s[ qV dr,y WCj blyiu h'dHbj dw b{lg bt>c lqjZg ] m
dya dr,y dryji bjHg dw dHV%J Vjv wpN WyV wigH[ dHl
dryji Vjv WjWj ug fjl bj w[ W{n eH[ m fi WjWj ug aJ
Rpl[ bV.s dr,y qla lV m wpN dyi W{n[ ih[ m fi bjf V[ lqjZg
Vhk t'v%g a[ qhjaqj Rpn w[ yv[ eH[ uj w[ bjfSg q>cvg rjv[
ljZPbJ } wdhS v,e[ ##b,u c[ij dHo[ hg i,tSj ] m dHo'G ujSj
Vhk m$$ RpV%J V[ dHl sj wjiV fp,DdAbj aJ qhjaqj W'v[ ##duhC[
89

b"h l.a w,v% s[ lqjZg a'G Vhk Rpn[@ RpV%J s[ siLV wiw[ a[
WyV lpS w[ yvJe[ m dHl aiJ wdhw[ qhjaqj V[ c[ij Rpo[
hg i,t dvbj a[ Rpcgw wiV v,e[ dw WjWj ug ws'G lqjZg dr,Dy'G
Rpns[ hV m dul rwa WjWj ug V[ lqjZg t'v%g aJ lPiu Tv
yp,wj lg m Rpl[ r[v[ qhjaqj V[ s[t w[ WjWj ug fjl bj w[ Vqlwji
wgag m Vjv hg qhjaqj s[ dH,w s' h'i l[rw bjH[ m dHh qhjaqj
s[ y[v[ WC[ drsrjV lV m qhjaqj aJ Vqlwji wiw[ W{n eH[@
fi y[v[ qV dr,y drdsbj sj bdFqjV vHg W{n[ lV m RpV%J
l[rwJ s[ qV'Fjr } fC%w[ WjWj ug V[ dHw l.ldw+a sj lv'w
fdC%bj ^blgaI yapi' r[sjV Ziq LjlaijVg bS[ wl m
W+hq aa>r Vj ujVjda sirg fjw il.a oj m

qpwagV RpfdVLs b! 2 lv'w 35

dulsj Fjr bio lg - yji r[s fC% vH[ m Ziq e+.o bV[w
Ljlai rg fC% vH[ m f+>aP W+hq } Vhk ujdSbJ m w'Hg lpt Vhk
dqdvbj m dur[G lji[ fsjioJ dry dxisg h'Hg wCAg tjvg idh
uJsg ]@ w'Hg lpbjs Vhk slsg m
wCAgbJ dxi.dV% lpbjRp V@ ujSdV lpEgbJ m
l[Hg qpt dsl.dV VjVw ia[ f+[q idl m

\e!rj! q^5@ b>e 521|

dHh WyV lpSV a'G Wjbs qhjaqj aJ Vqlwji wiV v,e


fH[@ fi dH,w RpV%J sj y[vj u' WCj drsrjV lg@ Rpl V[ f+LV
wgaj@ ##l.a ug qhjiju@ dxi drsrjV v'w wg h'H[ ($$ WjWj ug
V[ dHw h'i lv'w fdC%bj m
Fji rjig eisF m
Fji ypwS rjvj dHw eZj ] m
bV[w Ljwai> Whp r[dsarI wjv'
90

Ih ljiFPa> asRpfjdlarI h.l'I Ij tgi

dqrJWp qZIja mm

bio-Ljla+ rg Whpa hV m dul W+hq } f+jfa wiVj ]


Rplsj rg w'Hg b>a Vhk m h'i lqJ Whpa o'Cj ] faj Vhk q"a
ws'G bj ujr[ m dWzV Whpa f{Gs[ hV m ei>oJ dry u' lji rlaP
] Rpl w' f+jfa wi' m dur[G h.l fjSg dry'G sp,Z } r,t wi v{Gsj ] m
fdC fdC e,cg vsgbdh fdC fdC Figbdh ljo mm
fdC fdC W[Cg fjHgb{ fdC fdC ecgbdh tja mm
fCgbdh u[a[ Wil Wil fCgbdh u[a[ qjl mm
fCgb{ u[ag bjiuj fCgbdh u[a[ ljl mm
VjVw v[t{ dHw ev h'ip hRpq{ NtSj Njt mm
bjlj sg rji q! 1 \467|
dHh WyV lpS w[ RpV%J s[ qV dr,y dryji bjdHbj ba[ lF
qhjaqj W{n eH[ m h'i WyV dWvjl hp.s[ ih[ m Wjbs dr,y WjWj
ug } uv fjSg fp,dAbj m bjf V[ dwhj ##u' wpN dabji ] dvbj
dsY@ Vhk aJ w'Hg dH,Aj Vhk m u' wpN dHl r[v[ dabji lg dvbj
ds,aj a[ bjf V[ A,w dvbj m Wjbs dr,y Rpl qhjaqj V[ bjfS[
y[dvbJ } l.W'ZV wiw[ dwhj@ ##W,DDdyY@ dHh Whpa hg qhjV I'eg
iju qhjaqj hV m dHV%J } b{r[G Vj lqN dvY m aplk drsrjV
;iPi h' fi fiq a,a sg f+jfag aphj} bu[ Vhk h'Hg m u' FerjV
dw+LV V[ egaj dr,y fPiV fpitJ s[ v,AS s,Dl[ hV@ Rph aplk fC[
aJ hV m b,u aplk f+a,t iPf dr,y ljhqS[ W{n[ s[t vY m$$
dxi qhjaqj V[ egaj sj dHw lv'w fC% w[ lpSjdHbj ^Lq^ La+RP #y dqai{ $y aoj qjV bfqjVI' m
Lga RpLV lpt spt[LP lq^ l.e drsiduah mm
apv dV.sj Rplapag igq"Vg l.apL'B I[V w[V dua mm
bdVwa^ dHl doi qda^ Feag qjV q[ f+Rp Vi^

Fera egaj b^ 12 lv'w 18-19

91

ausqiq inMidAw nwih ijih kMcn loh smwin ]


khu nwnk suin ry mnw mukiq qwih qY jwin ]

l!q! \b>e 1427|

suKu duKu ijh prsY nhI loBu mohu AiBmwnu ]


khu nwnk sunu ry mnw so mUriq Bgvwn ]

l!q! \b>e 1427|

dHl a'G Rpfi>a qhjaqj h'i WyV dWvjl wiw[ bjdebj v{


w[ b,e[ } yv[ eH[ m

dH,w sptgH[ sj s,pt sPi wiVj


qhjaqj s[ yv[ ujS a'G Wjbs bjf rg dHo'G b,De[ yv[ eH[ m
dHw Vei s[ Wjhi dH,w dB,Wj lg m Rpl dB,DW[ a[ dH,w wigi sg
AJ h[n W{n eH[ m V[C[ hg dHw d;qksji sj h,v u'dabj h'dHbj
lg m d;qksji h,v rjh dihj wvgbJ ej dihj lg m WjWj ug }
s[t w[ yp,f wi debj m Rpl } yp,f s[tw[ bjf wdhS ve[ ##dH,w
rjig dxi lpSj@ Rph hgi rjvg wvg m$$ aJ Rpl V[ dxi Rph lpSjHg m
bjf lpS w[ Whpa tpL h' w[ wdhS v,e[ ##dxi lpSj m$$ dHRpG vejaji
da>V yji rjig lpSg m us'G lpS hB[ aJ w'v bj w[ wdhS v,ej ##l.a
ug@ aphj} hgi sg wvg WCg y>eg v,eg m$$
bjf wdhS v,e[@ ##hJ Rph rg bjdLw ] m hgi a[ iJNj s'r[G
bjdLw h'H[ lV m$$
Rpl V[ lpa[ dlZ hg fpdAbj ##ug@ aplk rg dwl[ s[ bjdLw h' ($$
wdhS v,e[ ##hJ@ blk i,W s[ bjdLw hJ m$$ dHl ai%J WyV
wiV a'G Wjbs Rph d;qksji h,v A,c w[ w'v bj debj m us'G
w'v bjdHbj aJ WjWj ug wdhS v,e[ ##aP. zi fhp.y m$$ RplV[ dwhj
##ug q{G zi'G lr[i[ hg bjdHbj hJ m$$
bjf wdhS v,e[ ##a[i[ zi W,yj W,yg h'S rjvj ] Vj@ zi[
92

a[ig hg v'C ] m$$ Rph h{ijV h' w[ wdhS v,ej ##aphj} dwr[G faj
] ($$ WjWj ug ypf hg ih[ m aJ d;qksji A[ag dsV[ hv v{ w[ zi
fhp>y debj m Rpl sg zi rjvg } wjxg awvgx lg m Rpl r[v[
Rpl V[ sjHg } Wpvj w[ u' dHvju h' lwsj lg wgaj m fi us'G
wpN bijq Vj bjdHbj a[ awvgx r,Z eHg@ qV dr,y dryji wgag
RpV%J l.aJ w'v yvgH[ aJ Rpl[ r[v[ WjWj ug fjl fhp.dybj m ljig
awvgx s,lg m bjf wdhS v,e[ ##b,Aj@ ujh epiP Fvg wi[ej m$$
Rpl} Zgiu Vj bjr[ m WjWj ug V[ Whpa dfbji Vjv dwhj ##hpS
aP. zi uj@ a[ij w.q LpZ ] m$$ l' Rph api aJ dfbj m dul r[v[
zi fhp.dybj aJ bjRpGs[ } sjHg V[ rZjHg ds,ag a[ dwhj ##vCwj
h'dHbj ] m$$ Rpl a'G Wjbs d;qksji dxi WjWj ug fjl fhp.dybj
a[ ljig drdtbj s,lg m WjWj ug wdhS ve[ ##a[ij w.q h' debj
] uj q"u wi m$$ ##ug q[i[ vjdHw w'Hg uv fjSg sg l[rj WtL' m$$
WjWj ug wdhS v,e[ ##sp,Z A,ws[ hp>s[ hJ u[ a[i[ zi ] aJ dvbj m$$
Rph lpS w[ zi bjdHbj ba[ duaVj wp sp,Z lg v{ w[ WjWj ug
fjl fhp>y debj m sp,Z bjf V[ A,w dvbj m A,wS a'G Wjbs fpAS
v,e[ ##aJ a[ij wji'Wji dwh' duhj yvsj ] ($$ Rpl V[ dwhj ##qjCj
q'Bj hg ]@ epujij hg yvsj ] m bjf wdhS v,e[ ##awCj h'@ h"Glvj
wi m dul V[ f{sj wgaj ]@ Rph i';g rg ds>sj ] m$$ Rpl V[ W[Vag
wgag ##ug q[i[ vHg w'Hg h'i l[rj m$$ bjf wdhS ve[ ##blk wpN
dsV dHo[ dBwSj ] m dHl wigi s[ bjv[ spbjv[ lj} dH,w A,fig
W.V s[ m$$ RplV[ wpN dsVJ dr,y li a[ wjVj We{i dvbj w[ A,fig
W.V ds,ag m
dxi Rpl } wdhS v,e[ ##hpS blk wpN dsV dHl dry
ndhiJe[ m dHw zCj fjSg sj Fi w[ dvbj s[ ba[ dHw i'Bg lr[i[
sp,Z s[ Vjv dvbj dsbj wi m h'i b,e[ dfA[ aP. ljc[ w'v Vhk
bjRpSj m aP. df>c dry ljc[ Wji[ w'Hg e,v Vhk wiVg ] m$$ dHl
93

ai%J wpN lqJ Rpl s[ t[a dr,y epujdibj m dHw dsV Rph duqksji
bjfS[ zi dr,y fLP W.VS vHg dw,Dv[ rjla[ oJ fp,B dihj lg m
byjVw hg e.Zjvj ;qgV dry dwl[ yg; Vjv BwijdHbj m us'G
Rpl V[ h,o fj w[ s[dtbj aJ T,wS rieg w'Hg yg; ujfg m Rpl
V[ whg v{ w[ B'dHbj fp,dBbj aJ Rpl dr,y dHw WiaV dqdvbj
dul dry ipfH[ lV m zi dr,y WCg tpLg h'Hg m us'G bev[ dsV
lr[i[ WjWj ug fjl i'Bg a[ sp,Z v{ w[ debj aJ WjWj ug V[ fpdAbj
##WHg qp>c[ sj Vjq wg i,Ddtbj ] ($$ Rpl V[ dwhj ##aplk hg i,t
dsY m$$ bjf wdhS v,e[ ##qp>c[ sj Vjq aJ blk wv% hg i,t ds,aj
lg m us'G a{} ipfHgH[ v,DF[ lV Rps'G i,dtbj ] m$$ Rpl V[ h{ijV h'
w[ fpdAbj ##ug Rps'G dwhCj Vjq i,Ddtbj ] ($$ bjf wdhS v,e[
##dul s[ bjH[ a'G ZV bj debj ] m$$ dHh e,v lpS w[ Rpl V[ h,o
u'C w[ Vqlwji wgag aJ bjf W'v[ b,Aj hpS ljcg dabjig ] m$$
Rpl V[ dwhj ##wpN dsV aJ h'i ndhi' m$$ fi bjf W'v[ ##hpS Vhk
idhSj m aP. v'wJ w'v e,v wi[ej@ v'w lj} bj w[ b"t[ wiVe[ m
a[ij w.q h' debj ] hpS lF ngw ] m$$ dHl sj bevj f+l.e dwl[
h'i oJ bjr[ej m

Vjq qhjaqj ba[ diZ dlZ


dHV%J dsVJ dr,y us'G bjf Wjhi hg apis[ dxis[ lV wHg
f+wji s[ qa qaJsiJ s[ l.a qhjaqJ Vjv dqvjf hp.sj dihj m
dwl[ lq[G FjHgbJ Vjv dryjiJ rg h'HgbJ m RpV%J dr,Dy'G wpN dHRpG
hV m dHw rji s' ljZP y.e[ drsrjV ba[ ljZVJ wiV rjv[ bjf
} dqv[ m RpV%J V[ WjWj ug sj ligiw fdhijrj s[dtbj fi w'Hg
dVlyj Vj wi lw[ dw dHh dwl F[t dry'G hV m us'G W{nS sj
aigwj r[dtbj@ w'Hg y"wCj Vhk qjiVj@ dur[G W{n[ hV Rpl[ ai%J
hg W{n[ idhSj m btgi Whpa l'yS dryjiV a'G Wjbs RpV%J V[
94

bjf hg fpA dvbj m Rpai dry bjf V[ s,Ddlbj ##blk VjVw f>og
hJ m epiP VjVw q,a s[ ZjiVg m$$ dxi f+LV wgaj ##wg w'Hg ljZVj
rg wis[ h' ($$ ##Vjq ufs[ hJ dHh' ljZV ] m$$ dxi RpV%J V[ f+LV
wgaj ##w'Hg I'e ljZV@ wiq wJc w'Hg dryji dwl[ fjl[ f+driag
] m$$ I'e bjdsw ljZVj dWVJ ligiw Lp,Zg Vhk hp>sg ba[ ligi
sg LpZaj We{i dZbjV Vhk dBwsj@ dZbjV dWVJ wpN ujdSbJ
Vhk uJsj m bjf W'v[ ##lF ljZVj a'G L+'qSg ljZV Vjq ]@ r[s
LjLai fpijS@ ufap lF bjfS[-bjfS[ oJ a[ hV m liW L'+qSg
L+g f+F Vjq ] m
Whp ljla+ Whp dldq+ag f[t[ liW TT'dv mm
fPudl Vjhg hdi hi[ VjVw Vjq bq'v mm

eRpCg q^ q^ 5 \265|

duVg Vjqp drljdibj Whp wiq wqjrdh h'di mm


VjVw uqfpdi WZ[ qjigbdh duRpG l.Vg Rpfdi y'i m

lji>e rj^ q 3 1247

qhjaqj V[ dwhj ##wiq aJ wiVj hg f{Gsj ] yjh[ dwl[ rg


f+wji sj h'r[ m$$ bjf ug W'v[ ##w[rv dVLwjq wiVj ] m lF wpN
f+q[Lri Vdqa wiVj ] m$$
wiq wia h'r{ dVh wiq mm
dalp W{lV' wj dViqv Ziq mm
wjhp xv wg dHAj Vhg WjA{ mm
w[rv Feda wgiaV l.de ijy{ mm

eRpCg lp^ q^ 5

WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##s' f+wji s[ wiq hV@ dHw VdtZ


wiq@ sPuj wiV rjvj wiq m wiV rjv[ wiq rg yji dwlq
s[ hV m 1! dVa wiq m 2! V[qdaw wiq 3! wjqI wiq 4! f+Lya
wiq mm lF wiq dqvj w[ f>u WSs[ hV m$$ dHl } dryji w[ s[t'
dHh lF uVq s[S rjv[ hV@ fi dya sg LpZg rjla[ dVLwjq
95

wiq wi[ dxi aJ ngw ] u[ dHVJ wiqj } hg lF lqNw[ dHV%J


dr,y hg dsV ija vej ih[ aJ
w'dB wiq W.ZV wj qPvp mm

F{iRp q! 5@ 1249

w'dB wiq wi{ hRp Zji[ m l+qp fjr{ lev[ dWioji[ mm

eRpCg l! q! 5 \278|

ugr wiq wiw[ uVq qiV spt lpt } F'esj ] m

W.ZVJ dry x,dlbj idh>sj ] drdsbj a'G Fjr ] W+hq debjVg


W+hq sj W[aj h' ujS wiw[ wiqJ sj dabje wiw[@ dHh brloj
fj v{Gsj ] m
duRp uv qdh uvp bjdH tBjVj mm
daRp u'ag l.de u'da lqjVj mm
dqdB eH[ erV fjH[ dWl+jq mm
VjVw f+F w{ ls wpiWjV mm

eRpCg l!q!5

dxi sPlij ljZP W'dvbj ##ug dryji aJ bjf ug sg ngw


]@ q[i[ dryji dry aJ dHRpG ]@ ljZP w'v w'Hg Lwag dl,Zg h'r[
aJ spVgbJ rg lawji wisg ] y.ej lqNsg ]@ Vhk aJ w'Hg
firjh Vhk wisj@ I'e ljZVj bjdsw dWVJ di,Z dl,Zg sg f+jfag
Vhk hp.sg m$$ bjf ug V[ RpKai dr,y dwhj ##u[ f+q[Lri a[ Fi'lj
wiw[ Rpl s[ Vjq dr,y v,e ujH[@ bjfSg lF du>q[rjig Rpl Rpa[
lp,B A,Dc[ ba[ bjfSj bjf Rpl} bifS wi s[r[@ aJ lqio
rjdhepiP bjfS[ l[rw sg vju fa lF oJ a[@ bjf hg i,tsj ] m
u' diZgbJ-dl,ZgbJ a[ LwagbJ } f+jfa wiV dry v,ej idh>sj
] Rph Rpl r,Dv'G aJ sPi hg sPi yvj uJsj ] m dHV%J LwagbJ
dr,y hg xl uJsj ] m r,cg a'G r,cg ajwa hjlv wiw[ rg qV
dr,y lpt LJag Vhk bjRpGsg m$$
96

u[ w'Hg W.sj yqC[ rJe bwjL dr,y vf[B vr[@ h'i WCgbJ
ajwaJ f+jfa wi vr[@ Rph qpwa Vhk hp>sj m qpwag w[rv Vjq
dry ] m
hpS lqJ ] wvIpe sj
wv q{ qpwda Vjq a[ fjra epi Ih F[sp Wajr{ mm

dWvjrvp q!9-831

fdhij bedV dhr{ zip WjZj F'uVp ljip wijHg mm


lev[ spt fjSg wdi fgrj Ziag hjw yvjHg mm
Zdi ajijug b>Wip a'vg dfA{ B>wp yCjHg mm
H[rcp rZj qjrj Vjhg lFl{ Vdo yvjHg mm
H[aj ajSp h'r{ qV b>sdi wig dF bjdt wijHg mm
u[rcp ljdhWp a[rc sjag s[ s[ wi[ iujHg mm
VjVw Vsdi wi[ dulp Rpfdi ldy Vjdq rdcbjHg mm1mm

rji qj! q^ \147|

##dHh dlxaJ Vjq dr,y hg hV m Vjq dr,y dvr u'C w[ lsgr


wjv qV } bV.s hg bV.s ] m RKpndsbJ-Wdh>dsbJ Vjq ufS
dr,y vgV idhSj dHhg dZbjV ]@ ZjiSj ] ba[ lqjZg ] m$$ dVqt
qja+ rg \RpVj lqj duaVj dHw rji b,t t'vS } vesj ] Rpl}
dVqt dwhj ]| dHaVj dyi rg Vjq } Vhk drljiVj m$$
dsV ijag bijZhp dfbji' dVqt V wgu{ Tgvj mm

ep^ q^ 5-498

l' WjWj ug V[ dHl aiJ Vjq sj qh,ar s,l w[@ RpV%J s[ qV


s[ l.l[ sPi wga[ m Rph WC[ f+l.V h'H[ ba[ W'v[ ##qhjiju@ bjf s[
WyV Iojio hV m aplk blj} epiP zi sj dlZJa lqNjw[ ljc[
l.l[ sPi wi ds,a[ hV m$$

97

dHw duqksji a[ dwifj wiVg


dH,w dsV bjf dwa[ uj ih[ lV m dHw duqksji h,v u'C w[
bjfS[ t[a } uj dihj lg m ila[ dry WjWj ug Vjv dqvjf h'
debj m Rpl V[ Wvs i'w w[ Vqlwji wgag m bjf ug V[ fpdAbj
##dwRpG WHg f+[qgbJ@ aP. WCg s[i Vjv zi'G bjdHbj ]G m h'i v'w
aJ ws'G s[ bjfS[ t[a fhp.y yp,w[ hV m$$ Rph W'dvbj ##ug zi
dry wpN awvgx ] m dHw<vj W>sj hJ m w.q lji[ q{} hg wiV[ f{Gs[
hV m Fjr[G dwaVg rg wjhvg wi vrJ q,Dv'-qvg wpr[vj h' uJsj
] m$$ Rpls[ dHh e,v wis[ WjWj ug aJ dHw dWA+ sg AJ h[n uj
W{n[ m faj Vhk Rpl s[ dya wg dryji bjdHbj Rpl V[ WvsJ
s[ ev'G f>ujvg vjh ds,ag m RpV%J } A,c w[ WjWj ug w'v bj w[
W{n debj m bjf r[t w[ W'v[ ##aP. WHg uj w[ bjfVj w.q wi m dHo[
W{n w[ wg wi[Gej ($$ Rpl V[ h,o u'C[ ba[ Vqlwji wiw[
dwhj ##qhjiju ug@ q[ij dya aphjc[ w'v W{n w[ siLV wiV }
wisj ] m w.q aJ x[i rg hp>s[ idhSe[ m$$ dHl aiJ W[Vag wiw[
W{nj dihj m WjWj ug bc'v bjfS[ bjlS Rpa[ dWiju[ ih[ qhJfpit
s[ siLV sj f+Fjr ugr s[ qV Rpa[ Rps'G f{Gsj ] us'G w'Hg fpiWvj
fp>V ujesj ] m Vhk aJ wHg rji wHgbJ s[ qhJfpitJ w'v
idh>Ddsbj a'G rg q>V Rpa[ f+Fjr Vhk f{Gsj m u[ bli f{Gsj rg ]
aJ Whpa o'C%j m epiP w[ dHdahjl dry'G wHg f+l.e fC%w[ s[t' aJ
faj vesj ] m W[L,w l.ea wgag W[-bio Vhk uJsg m dqljv
s[ a'i a[ FjHg l'Fj ijq V"r[G fjaLjh sj huPig dl,t s[e riaj
dihj ] m dHw dl,t V[ f+Ljs q>Ddebj l'Fj ijq V[ dwhj dw ##ndhi
uj wjhvg Vj wi m$$ dl,t V[ W[Vag wgag dw ##q[ij e,cj v,Ddsbj
98

uj dihj ] m Vjv w'Hg Vhk m$$ lpS w[ l'Fj ijq } eplj bj debj m
dl,t r,v r[t w[ wdhS vej ##di,A rJe beJh } apisj bjRpGsj
] a{o'G ipwgsj Vhk m$$ dwRpGdw dl,t s[ qP>h Rpa[ ila[ sg ZPC fHg
h'Hg lg m l'Fj ijq f+Ljs riaj dihj lg m dHw dwSwj f+Ljs sj
uqgV RpKa[ dcKej dl,t sg dVe%j f{ eHg m Rpl V[ Rphg dwSwj
yp,w w[ qP>h dry fjdHbj ba[ W'dvbj ##WHg dfbjdibj@ epiP s[
siWji dry idhS rjv[[ epiP wj siLV wiV rjv[ s[ qV b>si
u[ dHhg FjrVj ] aJ a[ig dH,Aj fPig wi s[r[ej m u{lj liPf a[ij
bjfSj ] a{} Rphg dslSj ] m$$ WyV wiw[ dl,t yvj debj m
l'FJ ijq } dxi di,A sj uVq v{Sj dfbj m l'Fj ijq sg di,A
sg uPVg sj RpZji dxi l+g epiP e'dW>s dl>z ug V[ wgaj m qhJfpitJ
s[ epiP fgiJ s[@ yiVJ dry idh w[ rg qV dry w'Hg RpSajHg
idh ujS wiw[ LJag Vhk bjRpGsg m fi u[ y.e[ fp>V h'S aJ FjrVj
WS uJsg ] m dxi u{lg FjrVj h'r[ r{lj i.e rg v,e uJsj ] m
FerjV dw+LV V[ sdlbj ] dw #h[ biupV@ da>V f+wji s[ qVp,t
lsj sptg idh>s[ hV m
beIly bliZjVl l.LIjaqj drVLIda
njI v'w' dla Vj fi'V lpt> l>LIjaqj

Fjr dHw bdebjVg@ sPuj LiZj a'G hgS@ aguj l.l{ dW+ag
rjvj m
wiq bwiq Wgyjigb{ l.wj lpdV W[s fpijV mm
l.lj ls dhis{ Wl{ wRpVp dhi{ bdFqjV mm

eRpCg W{ijeS WjSg idrsjl ug

dHh da>V[ sptg idh>s[ hV ba[ fiqjio rv'G dF+LB h' uJs[
hV m l.lj bjaqj rjv[ }@ Vj v'w sj l,pt@ Vj fiv'w sj l,pt ] m
u[ W.s[ s[ fp>V h'rS aJ dqvsg ] qhJfpit sg l.ea m dxi b{lj
i.e yC%sj ] u' Rpaisj Vhk m RpV%J qhJfpitJ } u[ w'Hg dfbji
99

Vjv r[t[ aJ wg dqvsj ] m

f[ta hg fp>Vga h'dH F[Ba ufgb{ VjRp mm

lv'w wWgi w[

fpVga sj qavW ] qV fjfJ } A,c ds>sj ]@ fdra+ h'


uJsj ] m
eRp sg h,Ddabj wiV rjvj@ dHla+g sg h,Ddabj wiV rjvj
bdw+azV@ epiP dHla+g Vjv wpwiq wiV rjvj b{l[ b{l[ fjfg
q[i[ Fea s[ siLV ba[ lfiL Vjv Fjr RpVJ sg A'h veS
Vjv fdr,ai h' uJs[ hV m dHl aiJ Rph Whpa s[i a,w W{nj siLV
wisj dihj m dur[G siLV wisj dihj dya dry f+[q bjdHbj
a[ h,o u'C w[ W[Vag wiV v,ej ##qhjiju ) u[ hpwq dsRp aJ zi
uj w[ wpN f+Ljsj dabji wiw[ dvbjrJ m$$ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj
dw ##WHg a[ig qiug ] s[t v{ m$$ Rph W'dvbj ##ug q{} l[rj sj
q"wj dsY m ##WjWj ug V[ dwhj ##aP. bjfSj w.q b,u rg Vhk
wgaj m$$ Rph bjdebj v{ w[ zi yv debj m zi'G s' f+Ljs[ dq,Dl[
ba[ wpN q,tS v{ bjdHbj b,e[ i,t w[ W'dvbj ##vRp ug A,w' m$$
WjWj ug V[ dHw f+Ljsj ba[ wpN q,tS v{ w[@ A,wS a'G Wjbs
Rpl} W'v[ ##v{ dH,w aP. tj v{ m$$ RplV[ WyV q>V w[ b,Zj f+Ljsj
tj dvbj a[ W'dvbj ##b,Zj f+Ljsj zi v{ w[ ujRpGej m$$ WjWj ug
V[ fpKdAbj ##zi sj w.q aP. b,u Vhk wgaj m$$ Rph W'dvbj ##ug@
uqgV lp,wg fHg ] m dHl } rjh w[ wg wiJe[ ( qkh fr[ aJ rjhV
WguS sj xjHgsj ] hpS q{G zi } uJsj hJ m$$ Rph Wvs v{ w[
zi } bj debj m dfAv[ fdhi wpN sp,Z v{ w[ debj m WjWj ug
V[ fpKdAbj ##wg dvbJsj ] ($$ Rpl V[ dwhj ##ug sp,Z ]@ fg vr' m$$
WjWj ug sp,Z fgS a'G Wjs Rpl } W'v[ ##a[i[ zi wg vr[ij ] ($$
Rpl V[ dwhj ##ug s' q,NJ hV m dH,w sp,Z ds>sg ] m$$ WjWj ug V[
fp,DdAbj$$ fdirji Wjv W,yj wg ] m Rpl V[ dwhj ug vCwg ] m$$
100

WjWj ug V[ fp,dAbj ##a[i[ zi'G ($$ dHaVg e,v lpS w[ Rph i'S ve
dfbj m bjf V[ fp,DdAbj ##lpt aJ ] ($$ Rpl V[ i'Gs[ h'H[ V[ f,v[ Vjv
b,tJ fP>N w[ sdlbj ##ug Rph aJ dWqji ] m W,l b,u uj lr[i[ m$$
dHaVg e,v wiV sg s[i lg x[i i' dfbj m b{Vj i'dHbj dw W{n
rg Vj ldwbj m v.qj hg f{ debj m bjf V[ Zgiu ds,aj m
W'v[@ h,lw[ h"lvj wi FjHg@
dwhCg e,v a'G dy,a cpvj dvbj Hg m
Rplsj i'e hpS uvsg h,B ujH[@
ijug h'S sj lqJ dxi bj debj Hg m
i'Bg dHw u' dqvg lg apZ ajHk@
b,Zj dh,lj aP. bjf hg tj dvbj Hg m
Wjwg dihj u' Rpl} tprjv s[ aP.@
i'e lqN v{ N,B epbj dvbj Hg m
h,o u'C w[ x[i Rph biu wisj@
Rph aj h'L hrjl epbjHg W{ng m
rjuj qjigH[ x[i rg W'vsg Vj@
ujf[ q"a dli%jS[ bjHg W{ng m
W'v[ h,l w[ us'G aP. zi ujr[@
a{} bjfS[ w'v WpvjdHeg Yh m
ljc[ wdhS sg x[i fiaga bjr[@
a{o'G q>e w[ i'Bg rg tjdHeg Yh m
tpLg h'H[ a{} eqg V,l ujr[@
bjf h,Dl[eg a{} hljdHeg Rph m
e,v bevg slJe[ x[i a{}@
a[i[ Vjv us y,v w[ bjH[eg Rph m
hpS aP. ujh zi } H[o[ W{n Vjhg@
b,tk r[t uj w[ u' wpN bjdtbj H[ m
blk bjfS[ rv'G Vhk wpN dwhj@
101

h'Hg Zpi siejh a'G Fjdtbj H[ m


Rpo'G ydvbj bjdHbj IJ zi b>si@
be'G W,yg V[ tWi lpSj dsag m
WjfP W[W[ ug a{} WpvJrsg ]@
a{G Wjhi hg s[i vej dsag m
debj Fu w[ ujdHw[ w'v fhp>yj@
q>eg i'Bg a[ Rpl V[ xCj dsag m
i'Bg tjdHw[ bjtsg fag aJHg@
H[l i'Bg V[ du>s Wyj ds,ag m
dHw l.a V[ q{} AcjdHbj ]@
Lwv s,lsg s,lsg s,l eHg m
Rph V[ s,Ddlbj Rpl V[ WpN dvbj@
qV r,lsg r,lsg rl eHg m
lpW%j Rpn w[ h'H[ dabji s'r[G@
zi'G yv fH[ siLV wiV s[ vHg m
aV wqu'i lg Fjr[G dWqji idhw[@
qV dr,y dt,y ] lg filV yiV s[ vHg m
v{ w[ bjlij fag sj ihg apisg@
qpLdwv Whpa h'Hg f{i ZiV s[ vHg m
s'r[G bjf a[ W,yg lq[a da>V[@
bjH[ V[C[ Fjr ljei'G aiV s[ vHg m
sil r[tw[ RplV[ fAjS dvbj@
ngw Rphg ] q{} Wy"S rjvj m
dc,eg q"a s[ qP>h dry fHg lg q{G@
Rpo'G w,Tw[ b{o[ dvRpS rjvj m
us'G eH[ V[C[ bjf h,l fH[@
wdh>s[ hpS aJ dHaWji bjdHbj m
spt eH[ a[i[ lptJ vjH[ c[i[@
102

dtdCbj xpv s[ rJe fdirji bjdHbj


wia[ fpit sg a[i[ a[ h'Hg dwifj@
lsj q[hi wisj dliuV hji bjdHbj m
Fpv[ FBdwbj } ijh[ fjRpS tjai@
VjVw epiP sj Zi braji bjdHbj m
ujY zi W{n[ uf' Vjq Rplsj@
ue a[ w'Hg Vhk VjVw dVi>wji riej m
s[ w[ xv wigi sj wdhSj ve[@
fp,ai h'dHbj lirS wpqji riej m
H[o'G qpC w[ Rph duqksji wpN f+Ljs bjds v{ w[ debj m dul
r[v[ Rph Rpo[ fhp.dybj aJ bjf dHo'G dwa[ h'i ue%j yv[ eH[ lV m
zi dry bjH[ ljZP qhJfpit } f+Ljs A,w"Sj f+[q Vjv bjfSg
lq+oj qpajWw dHw Wpiwg b>V sg ba[ dHw zpB fjSg sg rg dfvj
s[Gr[ m fi dViAv dVLwfB h' w[ s[r[@ h{ aJ Vj ijt{@ bw[vj Vj
tjdH@ ahwgi dsvsjVg rhg dFla ujdH ( dul V[ zi dry bjH[
ljZP sj dtC[ q,Do[ lrjea wgaj RplV[ lPiu s[ra[ sj fPuV wi
dvbj m
w[rv uv dfv"S Vjv s[riju dH>s+ sj fPuS h' debj m u[
f{i Z' ds,a[ aJ dfa+ fPuj h' eHg m u[ F'uV tPbj ds,aj aJ W+hqj
sj fPuV h' debj mm1mm
bjfS[ zi ljZP } u' fpiL fgS rjla[ dHw ypvg fjSg sg
ds>sj ]@ Rpl qjV' lqp>si hg fp>V wisj ] m dHw Wpiwg F'uV rg
ds>sj ] aJ lqN' lpq[i fiWa lqjV hg Rpl V[ fp>V wi ds,aj ] m
fi u[ qhJfpit W+hq W[aj dwl[ Fje rjv[ zi'G f+Ljs sg dH,w Wpiwg
v{ vr[ aJ dHl a'G rg qhjV fp>V ] m
Ihg H[w'W+dhq dry Fp.wa[ uea da+fa bdtv> m

u[ dHw qhJfpit dHw rji dwl[ zi'G F'uV wi ujH[@ aJ Rpl


103

zi'G da>Vj v'w s[ ugr ba[ s[ra[ dlZ@ lF f+wji s[ v'wJ } F'uV
wirjRpS sj xv Rpl } dqv uJsj ] m dHh ] qhJfpit sg l[rj
sj xv m
f+F ug Wldh ljZ wg ilVj m

\l=g lptqVg ljdhW dr,y'G|

Rplsg ilVj a[ u' b>V vesj ] Rph rjdhepiP } dqvsj ]


ba[ rjdhepiP liW dWbjfg h'S wiw[ Rph fsjio lF } f+jfa
h' uJsj ] m
V'B ^ dHl f+l.e sj bevj dh,lj dwl[ h'i oJ dxi ds,aj
ujr[ej m

Fjig af,Ddlbj wiVg


dHl lq[G s"ijV bjf dwa[ uej dHwJa r[t w[ Rpo[ dBw eH[ m
bjf hg sls[ lV dw WCg fpijSg dNCg lg m Whpa v.qg ba[ y"Cg
lg m l.zS[ rS wigi ba[ h'i si,ta lV m dHo[ dHw ljv dBw[
ih[ m dryjv[ dHw fjSg sj A,fC lg m duhCj qkh s[ fjSg Vjv
Fi uJsj lg m wHg df>c Rpl s[ sPi sPi lV m us'G dwa[ dy,a q>V[@
dwl[ Vei ujS m u' Rpo'G dqv[ v'C bVplji v{ bjRpSj m dxi o'C%j
o'C%j Rpl dry'G i'u A,ws[ idhSj m dwVJ dyi dlix dHw Wpiwg
b>V sg Rpa'G zp,B fjSg sj fg v{Sj ba[ bjV.s dr,y idhSj m
dul V[ rg f+jfa wgag ] W?Lgl v{ w[ wqjHg wis[ hV m
fdhvj WjW[ fjIj W?lp si dfA' s[ dxi zjv wqjHg
i[ap b,wp bhjip wdi i'CJ wg epi wig drAjHg mm

rjiJ FjHg episjl ug

epiP bqisjl ug WjiJ ljv ejei T' w[ epiP WS eH[ m a[


104

dxi dw,vg xC w[ af,Ddlbj wgag ] m Rph dw,vg bu[ a,w q"uPs


] m dHl[ aiJ dulV[ rg wpN f+jfa wgaj ] af wiw[ hg m epiP
l[rj rg dHw af ] ##epi l[rj afJ dldi afp ljip m$$
dur[G rg dwl[ zjvSj zjvg@ Vjq udfbj a[ Rpl } x[i xv
dqdvbj@ Rpls[ qpajWw hg Rph fPuVgw h' debj m
spiej s[rg hujij ds,W ri[% af wiw[ dhqjyv fiWa dry
idhw[ fPuV u'e h' eHg m
lpilag e.Z qjsV fiWa a[ v,t ds,W ril a,w af wiw[
fPuV I'e h' eHg m vtIqg Ipela> dsWI[ afl afa:j y lir
l.fa f+sja+g y uja s[rgdV L[rSja 3 m vAqg fpLwi dry l"
ds,W ril a,w a,f wiw[ lF l.fa sjV wiV dr,y lqi,o h' eHg m
ldra+ s[rg q,v fiWa a[ l,n huji ri[ af wiw[ dZbjV
fPuVgw h' eHg m
dLr ug V[ l' qVr>a+ aw af wgaj ] l"q qVr.ai aw W+dhqj
V[ a,f wiw[ dL+LBg ljuS sg Lwag f+jfa wgag ] m

l" qV.:ai drL} V[ af wiw[ dHh fsrg f+jfa wgag ] m


l't f+sgf \V!h!Rp 596|

epip Hglip epip e'itp@ Wiqj epip@ fjiWag qjHg \ufp ug 2|


dul V[ rg wpN f+jfa wgaj Vjq uf w[ wgaj m lF
rdcbJHgbJ lF lp,t Vjq dr,y hV ^
epiqpdt f+dhvjds udf hdi eda fjHg m
epiqpdt uVdw hdi Vjdq dvrvjHg mm
epiqpdt WdlldB hdi Rpfs[lp lpSjHg m
dWV epi hdi Vjqp V dwV{ fjdHbj q[i[ FjHg m
epiqpdt hdi Feda hdi bjdf vhjHg m

\b>e 591|

dHl brloj dry dW+ag W+dhqjwji h'Hg hp.sg h{ m qV dW=ak


105

f=q[Lri fi{S h' uJsg ] m ligiw spt lpt sj lp,a[ dl,Z hg bFjr
h' uJsj h{ qV f=q[Lri fi{S wiVj hg blv I'e ] m dHo[ woV ] m

qV hg w[ Fiqa[ uea Ih s[tgba


qV hg w' Fiq eH[ uea dWvja ] qV hg w[ Fiq ur[ig q{ Rfua ljf
qV w[ dryji[ ljf ur[ig lqja ]qV hg w[ Fiq qigywj w' uv wh[
qV hg w[ Fiq lgf iPf' lj dstJa ] lev uea Ih s[t[ qV hg w' Fiq
qV w[ Fiq eH[ W+hq h'dH uja ] qV dw.Vj WvrjV ] m dwaV[ dwaV[ r,Dc[ qV V[ FiqjH[ m hi
r[v[ RpV%J } FBw"Gsj hg dihj m dVqt qja+ rg y{V Vj v{S dsaj m
qV w[ bZgV qpVg f>Ddca afgli b"
qV w[ bZgV u'eg uag W+dhq yjig ] qV w[ bZgV fgi qgi lpvajV tjV
qV w[ bZgV f{e.Wi yji Ijig ] qV w[ bZgV lPi Wvg b" dViWv
qV w[ bZgV ijRp i[w Vi Vjig ] h'i lF dl=LB H[w qV w[ bZgV ih[ debjVg wg u' eag l' a' qV a[ dVbjig ] l' qpdV du qV wg spdWZj qji[ mm
dHl vHg qV } duaS Vjv lF wpN f+jfa h' uJsj ] m

fCV ePSV dwA byiu Vjhg bciu Vjhg debjV wiV q'Vg h'dHbj byiu Vjhg byiu Vjhg WyV woV agio fidlb{ byiu Vjhg byiu Vjhg eRpS wiV siLV Vhk bjRpi wpA byiu byiu ] qV r,l wiV l' duVJ V[ qV } ljZ dvbj@ qV r,l wi dvbj lF wpN
106

RpV%J } f+jfa h' debj m


dHw ijuj lg m Rpl s[ s[l dry dHh q+Ijsj lg m iju f,pa
} iju Vhk lg ds,aj uJsj m dHw figdtbj i,tg h'Hg lg m Rph
figdtbj dry hi w'Hg Ljqv h' lwsj lg m iju fp,ai rg Ljqv
hp>s[ lV ba[ f+uj s[ v'w rg m Rph figdtbj H[h lg wg dHw q>uj
WdSbj lg m figdtbj s[S rjv[ RpKa[ W{ns[ lV m RpV%J s[ h,o dry
l'Bg hp>sg lg m q>u[ h[n dH,w wp,wC A,cs[ lV q>u[ RKpa[ W{n w[ wp,wC
qjis[ lV m wp,wC q>u[ s[ h[n'G Wjhi Vhk ujS s[Sj ba[ wp,wC
s[ l'Bg Vhk qjiVg m Rpl} q>u[ h[n Fuj Fuj w[ dV,lv wiw[ qjiVj
] m duhCj qpwii wga[ lq[G dr,y Rpl } qji s[r[@ Rpl} iju sj
qjdvw WSjdHbj uJsj lg m l' dHl aiJ ijuj ] f+q[lri m duaV[
qVp,t hV lF Rpls[ fp,ai hV m u' qVp,tg aV dqdvbj ]@ dHh ]
dHw q>uj m q>u[ h[n w,pwC lqjV ] qV m dHl qV } qjiVj ] m
l' fpit W{ijeg ijq mm

ligi iPfg q>u[ RKpa[ W{nj ] ugr m dHl s[ b>si ] qV iPfg


wp,wC m qV } ligi iPf q>u[ a'G Wjhi Vhk ujS s[Sj m qV w,pwC
} Vjq iPfg l'Bg Vjv z[i z[i w[ b>si hg i,tSj ] m
ijqy.s wg vldBwj m dudV qjdibj i'ep mm

dW^q^5@ b>e 817

lp,t s,pt iPfg WjS Vjv q>uj WpdSbj ] m bjLj-da+LVj dHl


sgbj s' WjhgbJ hV m hRpq{-qqaj s[ s' l[iP hV m
dHl q>u[ } spdWZj iPfg s"S fj w[ w,Ddlbj ] m h>wji iPfg
q,v dr,y Rph s"S fHg h'Hg ] m dHl ligi iPf q>u[ s[ yji fjr[
hV m RpKyg wpv sj bdFqjV@ ligi s[ Wv sj bdFqjV@ lp.siaj
sj bdFqjV@ ZV drdsbj sj bdFqjV m
s'hij-yji fjRp dHlw[ wi[ epVguV wia WtJV Rpy-wpv
dVu@ Wv-lp.siaj@ ZV@ drdsbj@ bdFqjV m
107

dHh hV ligi iPfg q>u[ s[ yji fjr[ m l' dHRpG qV iPf wp,wC
} qjiw[ f+q[Lri sg f+jfag wiVg ] m udebjlP dHRpG qV } qji
v{Gs[ hV m Rpl wp,wC } qjiw[ aJ iju dqv uJsj lg m f+>aP qV
} qji w[ wg dqdvbj m wWgi ug V[ woV wgaj ] ^
Fera Fgdi lwda dlqiV wg wBg wjv F{ xjlg mm
sjlp wqgip ydC%Y eC% RPfdi ijup vgY bdWVjlg mm
ijq wWgij H[w FH[ ] w'dH Vj lw{ fAjVg mm

F{^ wj!

ij! w! 969

dHw iPf h' eH[ m fAjS Vhk h' lwsg m h'r[ rg dwr[G (
duRp uvp uv qdh f{dl V dVwl{ daRp Tpdi dqdvY upvjh' mm
Z!w! 692

dHRpG zjvSj zjv w[ qhJfpit wia[ Vjv bF[s h' uJs[ hV m


dur[G dur[G wqjHg wis[ ih[ dar[G dar[G bV.sqHg brloj rZsg
eHg m dxi dHw iPf h' eH[ m fi wqjHg Vhk A,cg m wis[ ih[ m l'
dHRpG dHw ljv Waga wgaj m WjWjug w'v dul r[v[ w'Hg udebjlP
bjRpGsj lg a[ Rpl} l.WZ
' V wiV lq[G bjfSj w'Hg fpijSj WyV
s,lw[ wdhSj ##brloj dwa[ rSj NjCJ Vjv Vhk veg m dHh aJ
uVqJ uVqJ sg wqjHg h'r[ a[ dxi dwl[ lq[G dVi>wji sg dw+fj h'r[
aJ uj w[ dHh f+jfa hps
> g ] m Yh rg dwl[ driv[ } m$$
w'BV q{ VjVw w'RP VjijdHVp duh ygda mm24mm

w'dB qZ[ w' drivj l[rwp h'di lev[ dWRphjig m


dy>a bdy>aj l'y bl'yj l'ep v'Fp q'hp ojwj m

lv'w q! 9

eP;ig q!C!-495
Z!q! 671

dy>a@ bdy>a@ l'y@ bl'y dHh sP.s rjs sg brloj ] m


qavW dHo[ rg qV' v{ Vhk ] m dW+ag W+dhqj wji Vhk hp>sg m
108

uhj W'v ah bAi bjrj mm


uh bW'v ah qVp V ihjrj mm
W'v bW'v qdZ ] l'Hg mm
ul Rph ]al vt V w'Hg mm2mm

ije eRpCg@ 340

duo[ W'vSj ba[ ypf idhSj dHh lF qV s[ hg w.q hV m


bLBjrwi diLg V[ iju[ uVw } Rpfs[L s[ w[ debjV ds,aj aJ
Rpl s[ sdlbj lg m
V drbIf[ V[ H[wj e+I> Vjda W'Z[ W'Z[ V qpTaj m
V lpt> Vyrj spt> RpfLjalI I'deV 10

bio^ ugrV qpwag rjv[ } Vj drt[f ] m dW+ag dt>cg idhS


sj Vjq drt[f ] m Vj dHwjeiaj ]@ Vj debjV ]@ Vj bdebjV
]@ Vj lpt ]@ Vj spt ] m dHh qV Vjv hg lW.Z its[ hV m
w:Ziq w:yrjwjq w:yjiWj w:drr[wj m
dH>s dw+adqs> V[da s.: s{ qpw:lI l'deV m12m

bio^ H[l aiJ s.s rju sg brloj a'G idha I'eg uV ] m


Rpls[ Ziq bio wjq q't drr[w wiaW bwiaW dHh qV s[
w.q hV m
dw+aI[ dwqdf V{rdl Vwjdf dh+sg i>uVj m
Ioj ugrV H[rHgh ugrV qpwalI l'deV mm

bio^ Rplsj wiaW Fg w'Hg Vhk m Vj Rpl } w'Hg rjLVj


] m u' ligi sg y[LBj Fjr hjva h' eHg fi Rpl } w'Hg dy>aj
Vhk bLBj rw+ egaj b 18 V!h!Rp \340|
l+ijuI[ F[tI dr+ajRp y vjFj uV[ uV[ m
dVi drwvf l+FjrlI V drL[L bLda I'deV m

bio^ iju dqv ujH[ dFdtbj q>eSg fr[@ vjF h'r[@ VpwljV
h'r[@ dH,wvj ih[@ dHw,n dry ih[@ Rpl vHg dwl[ rlaP sg tjl
109

drL[LajHg Vhk m

duh zip WVp lqldi wgbj a[ fPi[ l.lji


u' ijup s[dh a wrV WcjHg m
u" Fgt q>ejrdh a dwbJ zdB ujHg m

e^q^2@ b>e 1103

ePuig Vjq s[r@ b>e 525

Wlaj aPBg NP.fCg@ ygi ldF dA>Vj mm


ujda V@ fda V@ bjsi'@ RpdsbjV F+dq>Vj mm
dqa+ V@ dHn ZV iPf hgS@ dwAP ljwp V dl>Vj mm
ijuj levg dl+ldB wj hdi Vjdq qVp dF>Vj mm
dal wg ZPdC qVp RpZi{ f+Fp h'dH lp f+l.Vj m

u{!r! f 707

qjV bdFqjV q>DZ[ l' l[rwp Vjhg mm

dlig q!f!51

u' qjV bdFqjV dry dihj@ Yh l[rw Vj WS ldwbj m i,W


s[ dfbjdibJ sg dwo'G a,w w'Hg Rplaag wi[ m lF Ljlai ba[
r[s lq[a brajiJ s[ RpV%J sg Rplaag wis[ hV m dw+LV ug
V[ biuV } Rpfs[L ds>dsbj h'dHbJ@ RpV%J sg oJ dlxa wgag ] m
IqI lir[ Lqji>Fj wjq l.wvf riduaj mm
eIjVj de+iZ wiqjSP aqjhP f>Ddca> WpZ mm

u' ljigbJ rjLVj a'G idha ]@ debjV beVg Vjv Flq


h' uJs[ Rpls[ wiq m b{l[ fpiL } f>Ddca dwhj ] ^
l' f>Ddcap u' qVp fiW'Z{ m

eRpCg l!q!f! b.e 274

bio ^ l' f>Ddcap u' da+hj epSj wg f>c Rpaji{ mm

qvji q^ 3@ zip 2@ b>e 1261

aIw:sj wiq xvj l.e. dVaI da+f' dVijq+I mm


wiqSg bdF f+dr+a'G bdf V{r da+f' dVijq+I mm
110

bio^ wiq wisj h'dHbj rg bdFqjV w' dabje w[ wiq


q[ f+dr,ai h'w[ rg Vj wiV lqjV hp>sj ] mFjr wiq wgaj dVLxv
h.sj ] m
wiq wia h'r{ dVhwiq mm dalp W{lV' wj dViqv Ziq mm
Ids+LjvjF l.apl'B s.:s:jag a'G drqali m
lq^ dl,Zjr dl,ZRP y dw+a:jdf V dVWZjIa[ mm

bio bjfS[ bjf u[ wpA dqv ujH[ Rpl dry hg f+l.V idhSj m
L'w bjds s.:s rjs a'G dViv[f idhSj qali a[ Hgitj a'G idha
diZgbJ dlZgbJ wiw[ Ij Vj wiw[ dxi rg bV.s wdhSj m u' wiq
wi[ aJ W.ZV rg w'Hg Vhk
AjsV F'uV wg bjl V wiHg@
bdy>ap dqv{ l' fjH[ m
qjiP q 1 \1014|
qjHg ig qVp q[i' qarji' mm
f[dt sdHbjv bVs lpt fPiV
hdi idl idfY tpqji' mm1mm ihjRp mm
dViqv FH[ RPuv ulp ejra Whpdi V h'ra wji' mm
yiV wqv dlRp c'ig ijyg F[dBY fpit bfji' mm1mm
wip edh vgV[ liWlp sgV[ sgfw FdHY Rpuji' mm
VjVw Vjdq idlw W{ijeg wpvh lqphj aji' mm

lji>e! q! f! \1225|

b{l[ lV qhJ fpit liW Rpfqj I'e L+g qjV 108 WjWj qhJ
hdiVjq dl>z ug m
\lr{Ij|

duh Vjq Rpyji aig eVwj@ duV Vjq bujqv fdaa RpZji[
duh Vjq dlqi ApdBY eu e+jh a[ ZiP f+dhvjs bl.t RpZji[
fjhV dl>Z q{G Vjq f+jfa a[ airi w[ fjhV lq aji[
#hdiVjqp hig$ hi Vjqp f+ajf a[ wv qdh ugr bV'wdh aji[ mm
111

duV%J V[ l.lji dry bj w[ b{Vg wnV wqjHg wiw[ a[ dxi


bjfS[ bjf } Apfj w[ idtbj@ dHh' duh[ oJ bjlS vjdHbj w'Hg
ujS hg Vhk ldwbj m duo[ dBw[ Rpo[ rg driv[ hg f+[qg siLV
wiV bjRpGs[ lV m dwl[ } tjl faj Vhk h'S ds,aj m fi hJ@ u'
WyV q>V w[ Wdh debj Rpl V[ lF wpN f+jfa rg wi dvbj m fi
l.lji dr,y dHRpG ih[ dur[G w'Hg lqN hg Vj lw[ m

Fea[ fhp.yVj

dHl oJ a[ dH,w ljv dBwS a'G Wjbs dHo'G yvs[ yvs[ Fea[
fhpy
> eH[ m Fea[ dry FjHg hgij dl>z ug@ FjHg y.yv dl>z ug
a[ FjHg ds,aj dl>z ug@ FjHg Wdhv' s[ tjVsjV dr,Dy'G lV m f,ag
l[vri%jdHbj s[ dr,y lV m da>V[ hg lw[ FjHg lV m fdhv' fdhv
df>c s[ V[C[ dHw A,fC lg m Rpl s[ dwVji[ a[ bjlS vjdHbj m wpN
dsVJ Wjbs FjHg hgij dl>z ug WjWj ug s[ siLV wiw[ uv fjSg
sg l[rj wiV vHg zi v{ bjH[ a[ bjf ug V[ wCjh f+Ljs sg
ils q>eg m RpVJ% V[ s[ ds,ag m WjWj ug V[ RpVJ% s[ zi hg wCjh
f+Ljs bjf[ WSj w[ b>si hg ljij A,w eH[ ba[ WiaV ljx wiw[
Wjhi } yv[ eH[ m Rpl a'G dfA'G spZ
, Aw"S sg l[rj wis[ ih[ m spZ
,
rg A,ws[ lV m dHhVj da>Vj FjHgbJ dr,Dy'G WjWj hgij dl>z dVa
f+ag spZ
, v{ w[ uJsj hps
. j lg m duaVj spZ
, FjHg hgij dl>z V[ v{
w[ ujSj WjWj ug V[ ljij hg A,w v{Sj m dHw dsV WjWj hgij dl>z
} xpiVj h'dHbj dw LjdHs WjWj ug spZ
, Vjv da+fa Vhk hps
. [ m dHh
l'y w[ RpVJ% V[ bjfS[ sPli[ FjHgbJ a'G spZ
, v{ w[ dHw B'wSg \dul}
rvB'hg rg wdh>s[ hV@ Rpl sj awigWV rgh wp l[i ruV h'He
[ j|
Fiw[ WjWj ug fjl fhpy
> eH[ m WjWj ug V[ Rpl s[ W{n[ W{n[ ljij
spZ
, A,w dvbj m WjWj hgij dl>z h{ijV h' eH[ m lF wpN r[t w[ W'v[
##ljZj@ a[i[ FPa rl wga[ hV b{Vj spZ
, fg debj ]G ($$ WjWj ug
V[ h,l w[ RpKai ds,aj ##hJ m wg aP. r[tSj yjhps
> j ]G ($$ WjWj hgij
112

dl>z V[ wpN epD, l[ s[ vdhu[ dry dwhj@ ##drtj s[Hk m$$ dHRpG wdhw[
WjWj hgij dl>z zi } bj eH[ m wpN dsVJ Wjbs WjWj hgij dl>z
h'ig u.ev@ q{sjV Wjhi eH[ m us'G WjWj hgij dl>z u.ev h' w[ Rpn[
aJ wg r[ts[ hV@ dH,w sl debjiJ ljv sg Rpqi sj vCwj dul
sgbJ dli a'G WjrigbJ tpvg% bJ hV a[ RpKyg-RpKyg i"vj fjRpGsj
WjWj hgij dl>z r,v F,u w[ bj dihj ba[ dwhj ##WyjHk@ WjWj m$$
Rpl V[ dHh lqN w[ dHl vCw[ } h'i qpc
> [ qjis[ h'Se[ bjfS[ w'v
Wpvj dvbj m Rpl qpc
> [ V[ bj w[ fdhvJ aJ v,w } u,xg fj vHg m
dxi dfAv[ fjl[ dHw ;'i sj f>uj qjdibj dul s[ dVLjV fPig ai%J
ligi a[ tv' eH[ ba[ lpZ
, WpZ
, Fpv
, eHg m dfAJh fia s[dtbj aJ
Rpo[ wpN Vhk lg m dHl[ hjva dr,y zi } bj eH[ m us'G zi rjdvbJ
V[ fpdAbj aJ w[rv dHaVj hg dwhj ##u' wpN h'Sj lg h' debj m
hpS q{G Wy Vhk lwsj m$$ o'C[ dsVJ Wjbs dHh WjWj hgij dl>z
ug lpierjl h' eH[ m dHl a'G Wjbs dHl figrji V[ WjWj ug sg
dHAj bVplji e,Dc[ a[ dWnj w[ WjWj qhj hdiVjq dl>z ug } dligH[
rjv[ A,c ds,aj m

dryji

qhJ fpit sg dWiag f+q[Lri dr,y vgV hp.sg ] m dwl[ lq[G


rg Rpl bV.s dry'G dWiag fpBs[ Vhk m ligiw dw+bj W'vS yjvS
lpa[ dlZ hg hp>sj idh>sj ] m u[ dwl[ f+[qg Vjv rg dwl[ dwlq sj
w'Hg WyV hp>sj ]@ Rph Rplsg FjrVj s[ bVplji hg h' uJsj ] m
ri ba[ lijf qV s[ w.q hV m ep,Dl[ dr,y bjw[ lijf tpLg dr,y
bj w[ ri m WjWj hgij dl>z ug s[ qV bVplji hg dHh e,v riag m
qhJ fpit sj siLV uJ l[rj wiV s[ q"wj dqv[ aJ wg q>egH[ m
ldaepi woV wis[ hV ^
fPARp l.a q[i' njwpip w{lj m

\lji>e A.^ q^ 5@ b>e 1237|

qhJfpitJ a'G FjrVj bVplji xv dqvsj ] m du>V%J w'v i,W


113

Vjv dqvjf wijRpS sg ldabj ]@ RpV%J vHg Fpa drtj s[S[ w'Hg
r,cg e,v Vhk m lpa[ dlZ hg wgaj WyV bB,v h' debj m a[ wpN
lqJ rg Vhk v,DDdebj m l' qhJ fpit sg l[rj wiV rjv[ s[ qV
$y u' xpiVj WdSbj@ qhJfpit s[ WyV bVplji a,awjv hg fPij
h' debj m l[rj wiV rjdvbJ@ Rpa[ l[rj dr,y v,Ddebj b{l[ wHg
q"w[ bjRpGs[ hV m dHw q"wj Rph rg bjRpGsj ] us'G qhJfpit
Rpfs[L wis[ hV m Rph Rpfs[L lpVS rjv[ s[ dhis[ a[ Rpwdibj
uJsj ] m lj} Rpl lq[G sj faj Vhk m f>+aP qhJ fpit ujSs[ hp>s[
hV Rpl rwa } m qhJ fpit Rpfs[L wis[ hV@ l.ea W[-Lw
dwaVg W{ng h'r[ m dul s[ fioJdH h'dHej Rpl s[ dhis[ dr,y hg
rl[ej m dH,w qV sg dHh rg brloj ] dw bjfS[ bjf hg w'Hg
dyarVg wi v{Sg a[ Rph Rpl[ rwa fPig h' ujSg m wHg rji l[rw
l[rj wiV rjv[ sg dyarVg dHh' WSsg ] a[ fPig h' uJsg ] m
dur[G ijuj uVw V[ bjfS[ l[rw } hpwq ds,aj ##dhqjv[ a'G fjSg
v{ w[ bj m$$ Rph yvj debj ila[ dr,y uJs[ h'H[ V[ l'dybj dw
q{G ijuj hp.sj aJ bjfSg dHAj bVplji duo'G dya wisj Rpo'G yg;
q>e v{Gsj m uVw b>aiIjqg ujS eH[ m dul rwa uv bjdHbj
uv A,w w[ uVw f+l.V h'dHbj m a[ l[rw } dwhj ##q{G a{} iju
Fje WtdLbj m$$ uVw ug W'v[ ##us'G a{} blk uv v{S F[dubj
lg duhCj aP. RpGs' xpiVj wgaj lg fdhvJ Yh fPij wiw[ dxi qpwag
dqv[eg ba[ qpwag s[S vHg a{} epiP VjVw sj dqvjf h'dHej
wvupe s[ lq[G dr,y m$$ l' dHr[G hg h'dHbj m s[t' VjVw f+l.e iju[
w.rv V{V s[ f+l.e dr,y lxj 612 b^ 56
b{lg brloj rg bjRpGsg ] u' xpiVj WS debj Rph fPij
h' debj m Rpl a'G Wjbs FjHg hgij dl>z ug s[ tjVsjV rjv[
WjWj ug fjl bjRpGs[ ih[ m RpV%J sj WjWj ug WCj qjV wis[ ih[
ba[ wdhSj aplk FjHg w[ h'@ WC[ r,Dc[ h' m
\dHh f+l.e WjWj Vi{S dl>z ug ba[ qjlBi wiV{v dl>z a'G dqdvbj m|
114

dligH[ rjv[ sg rjiaj


dligH[ rjv[ df>c s[ yC%s[ fjl[ Wjhi dHw W[ig lg m Rpl s[
h[n dVrjl wgaj m wHg f+[qg siLV wiV bjRpGs[ ih[ m dHo[ duV%J
f+[qgbJ V[ l[rj wgag Rph da>V W+jhqS Fij lV m s' ijq eC%gH[
\Fjr dqla+g lV| ipvgbj ijq@ hiVjq ba[ A'Bj apvlg dHh
W+jhqS lV m w.z[ zjCj wjhV dl>z r,cj@ xPvj dl>z wrgLi A'Bj m
dHVJ sj dfAj qjN[ sj h'S wiw[ qN{v wdh>s[ lV m VjVwg T[ig
a[ idh>s[ lV m dHo[ awigWV y[a s[ qhgV[ bjH[ m dTvrJ s[ t[a
dr,y ih[ m f+[qgbJ A,fig W.V ds,ag m Rpfi s,Dl[ h'H[ f+[qgbJ@ dry'G
w'Hg f+Ljs fjSg s[ uJsj lg m dHo[ WjWj ug w'v df,av sg WjBg
lg m lF dwlq s[ F'uV Rpl[ dr,y dH,wnj wiw[ A,w v{Gs[ lV ba[
hi rwa qP>h Rpa[ wf,Cj i,tSj@ dwl[ Vjv w'Hg tjl e,v Vhk
wiVg m h'i wHg Vei rjdvbJ V[ u' dwa[ w'Hg e,v wiVg@ dwa[
w'Hg RpKai s[Sj dwa[ y,pf wi ujSj m
i>de hldh i>de i'rdh ypf Fg wdi ujdh mm
firjh Vjhg dwl{ w[ig WjNp ly[ Vjh mm

bjlj rji@ b>e 473

W[f+rjh hg idh>s[ lV m dHo'G FjHg V.s vjv ljdhW s[ dHl


L[bi } WjWj ug sg brloj Vjv dqvsj r[tw[ bfSg lqN
bVplji dvtsj hJ ^
qji si q>Dduv ujVj hqj b{l' hqj Ljsg mm
uil W[-hPsi q[-Vjvs wPuj W.s[q qhdqvhj mm
q>uv dqa+ sg q{} tpLgbJ dHh ilaj qV Fjr[ Ljag bjr[
W-xjdHsj zdCbjv ru.sj v,sj dwo[ wyjr[[-NPn[ Zjr[ m
115

fpijS[ lq[G dHh dirju hp>sj lg m duhC[ v'wJ V[ dwa[ ujSj


hp.sj lg@ Rph dH,wn[ h' w[ apis[ lV m ija } duo[ dBwjSj wiVj@
Rpo[ lr[i[ apiV a'G wpN lqJ fdhvJ zdCbjv r,usj hp.sj lg m
dulsj qavW hp>sj lg dw wjxv[ s[ apiV sj lqJ h' debj m Rpl[
rwa lF qpljdxi bjf' bjfSj lqjV W.V% w[ apiV vHg dabji
h' uJs[ lV m l' FjHg ljdhW V[ woV wgaj ] m i,W s[ ila[ apiVj
hg q[ig d;>seg sj dVLjVj ]@ h'i spVgbJsjig w.q wiV@ qjdHw
rlgv[ q[i[ qV } dt,y Vhk fjRpGs[ m q[ij bjRpSj ujSj FiqSj
FBwVj lF taq h' debj ]m
bjrS ujSp idhY mm

qjiP q^ 5@ b>e 1002

bjra hit V ujra sPtj Vh dWbjf{ qV i'eVg mm


lsj bV.sp epip fPij fjdHbj aRp Rpaig lev dWYeVg

ijqwvg q^ 5

l' dHRpG lqJ Waga wgaj dligH[ rjv[ m WjWj ug w'v dH,w
qdhij fjSg v{ w[ bjRpGsj hp.sj lg m Rpl V[ dwa[ fjSg v{ w[ bjH[
V[ wg r[dtbj ##l.a ligi A,c eH[ m$$ blv dr,y bjf fH[ h'H[
hg lqjZg vgV lV m Rpl V[ r[t w[ df>c uj w[ e,v wgag m lpS
w[ h'i v'w rg bj eH[ r[t w[ dryji wiV v,e[ dw hpS wg wigH[ m
w'Hg wpA wh[ a[ w'Hg wpA m btgi RpV%J V[ lvjh wgag dw dHV%J
} q>u[ a[ fjw[ dwa[ sPi A,c bjY m dul rwa dHh drRpGa WSjHg
wpsiag WjWj ug V[ lqjZg t'v%g a[ Rpnw[ W{n eH[ m Rph r[t w[
h{ijV h' eH[ a[ h"vg h"vg Rpn w[ ziJ } yv[ eH[ m
dHh WyV l[q[ Vei s[ dHw dl>z V[ s,Ddlbj ] a[ wpN dsVJ
Wjbs dHw dsV bjf W{n[ lV m dfCj sj q"wj lg m wpN f>u l,a
qp>c[ dH,wn[ h' w[ bj eH[ m fdhvJ aJ W{n[ e,vJ wis[ ih[ dxi wdhS
v,e[ ##l.a ug aplk qP>h a'G wfCj vjh w[ lj} siLV dsY m aplk
hi rwa bjfSj qp,t T,w w[ dwRpG its[ h' ($$ WjWj ug V[ Rpai
116

ds,aj ##qP>h a'G w,fCj RpajiV sj lqJ Vhk bjdHbj m$$ RpV%J V[
dxi dwhj Vhk@ dHw r[iJ aJ vjh' m$$ WjWj ug V[ dxi dwhj ##qP>h
a'G w,fCj vjh ds,aj aJ yjVS h' uJsj ] m$$ qp>c[ qavW lqN
Vj lw[ dus f{ eH[ m dHw qp>c[ V[ uWislag qP>h a'G wfCj Rpaji
ds,aj m Rpl[ rwa hg ljq%S[ dfC fH[ lV m vJe[ dfC } b,e v,e
eHg m dwRpGdw WjWj ug sj qp,t dfCj r,v hg lg m b,e v,eS a'G
Wjbs qp>c[ aJ F,u eH[ ba[ uJs[-uJs[ dfCJ dr,y v'wJ } lF
s,l rg eH[ m wpN v'w aJ b,e WpNjRpS v,e[ m wpN WjWj ug fjl
bjH[ m W[Vag wgag dw ##qhjiju ) ljij df>c lC ujH[ej m qp>dcbj
V[ Whpa evag wgag ] m q[hi wi' b,e } LJa wi' m$$ Rpl[ rwa
hg f,Aq sg aix'G qkh hV[ig dHw sq hg bj debj m dHaV[ ;'i
sg qphv[Zji WjiL h'Hg dw u' wpN fdhv[ lC debj l' lC debj m
h'i lF wpN Wy debj m Rpl[ hV[ig dr,y bjf dHo'G byjVw hg
dwl[ fjl[ } yv[ eH[ m wHgbJ V[ v,FS sg w'dLL wgag fi dqv[
Vhk m Rpl a'G wHg ljv Wjbs Fpy' bjH[ a[ siLV wiw[ fAjS
wgag dw dHh aJ Yhg hV m
\dHh f+l.e l.a L+g ijq dl>z ug qvPw[ rjdvbJ a'G dqdvbj|

w'nj epiP s[ qvPw[ sg rjiaj


dHo'G y,v w[ wpN lqJ qvPw[ epujdibj m l.a L+g ijq dl>z ug
qvPw[ rjdvbJ } WjWj ug V[ dHh WyV bjf dvtjdHbj dWw+qg
l.qa 1982 f'h f+drLB[ 2 dsV q>evrji } Rpl s[ qpajWw hg
qvPw[ rjv[ fhp.y[ s' ijaJ dHo[ ih[ m
q>ev WpZ e+jq{ rjlj m dW+hlfag qhjiju w'ng rjlj
RPa+ dslj q{ wgV[ rjl m Lwa lqgf{ fiq f+wjL
bjdebj v{ dVu fjl dlZjHg m qvPw' e+jq fiq lptsjHg
117

lW hg qpit eH[ adh ljo l+g epiP hdiVjq dl>z s[ Rpyig ejo m
dHh y"fHg l.a L+g ijq dl>z ug qvPw[ rjdvbJ sg iyg h'Hg
] m FjV dl>z sj fp,ai dVZjV dl>z m Rpls[ zi'G qjvJ@ vCwj
dsbjv dl>z@ 1 qhgV[ sg dHw vCwg@ dulsj Vjq hi' lg m W{l
Fjr dl>z fBrjig aVtjh 12 iPf{ qhgVj m Rpl s[ zi'G dul sj
Vjq l'Fg m Rplsg dHw vCwg u.egi w"i m dHVJ } WyV h'dHbj
dw aphjc[ vCwj h'r[ej m WjWj hdiVjq dl>z ug s[ ri bVplji
ijq dw+LV ug sg ldabj ]@ dr,y slta hiVjq dl>z dw+V dl>z
sj@ qvPwj rjlg uVq ijq v.T[ w[ t'l[ fJc[ w[ fBrjig f'h f+drLB[
16 dsV rgirji l.qa 1972 }@ dHh WyV L+g ijq dl>z ug
V[ dvtjdHbj m WjWj ug qvPw[ 1 dsV ih[ ajiPbjS[ wpN dsV
dVrjl wgaj m \df>c w'nj epiP dr,y|
bjfS[ bV.s dr,y F+qS wis[ h'H[ L+g l.a qhjiju df>c Fpy'
sg aix bj ih[ lV m ila[ dr,y df>c w'nj epiP d;v%j Wdn.cj drt[
bjS siLV W?L[ m df>c s[ f,Aq \dAfs[| r,v \duo[ hpS q'BiJ
sj b,cj ]| l'Tg VijdHS dl>z sg uqgV dr,y vlPC[ s[ dWiA
h[n W{n eH[ m buVWg l.a } W{nj s[t w[ ;qgV sj qjvw l'Tg
VijdHS dl>z bjdHbj ba[ dWVJ dwl[ ldawji lVqjV s[ bfqjV
Vjv W'dvbj dw ##l.a ug dwl[ h'i oJ uj w[ W{n' m$$ WjWj ug V[
xpiqjdHbj@ ##FjHg yv[ ujrJe[ m$$ sPli[ dsV l'Tg x[i bjdHbj
ba[ Vij;eg Vjv W'dvbj ##aphj} q{G wv% dwhj lg dHo'G yv[ ujr' m
;qgV } epispbjij WSj A,Ddcbj h{ m y"x[diYG v'w bj w[ c.cgbJ
fj ih[ hV m$$ dHh wdh l+g WjWj ug qhjiju V[ bjfS[ bV.s dry
xpiqjdHbj ##f[+qgbJ dul ai%J FjrVj h{ Rpl[ ai%J hg h' ujr[ej m
;qgV rg epispbji[ sg WS ujr[eg ba[ c.cgbJ rg f{
118

ujSegbJ m$$ dHh xpiqj w[ bjf l+g WjWj ug qhjiju df>c r,v
} A,fC s[ dwVji[ dHw df,fv h[n W{n eH[ m
Fjr[G Whpa lji[ bjsqg dHh zBVj s[t ih[ lV@ fi l'Tg }
i'wS sj h"Glvj dwl[ rg VhgG wgaj m FjHg u{ dl>z l.ZP fp,ai iS
dl>z V[ bjfS[ r,c[ FjHg dwLV dl>z } ljig rjiaj lpSj w[ dwhj
dw ##l.a fPiV qhJfpiL f+aga hp.s[ hV m r{l[ rg hi bdaog sj
ldawji wiVj ljcj Ziq h{ m w'Hg lda fpiL df.c dry'G bfqjVa
h' w[ VhgG ujSj yjhgsj m dHl rjla[ l.a ug } wpN dsVG i,tS
sj IaV wigH[ ba[ f+Ljsj AwjHgH[ m$$ FjHg dwLV dl>z V[ dwhj
##dHh dwhCg fp,AS rjvg e,v h{ m A[ag yv w[ l[rj dry hj;i
h'HgH[ m$$ dHl ai%J s'V'G Fij sjv-i'Bg ba[ sp,Z sj eCrj v{ w[
WjWj ug s[ yiVJ dry fp,u[ m f+Ljsj A,wS sg W[Vag wgag m f+[qg
r[t w[ WjWj ug V[ f+Ljsj Adwbj m s'VJ FijrJ V[ qpC W[Vag wgag
##wpN dsV l[rj sj lpFje WtL' m$$ bdZwjig ujS w[ WjWj ug V[
f+rjVeg W?Lg m dHl ai%J wHg dsV df>c w'nj epiP drt[ idh w[
df>c dVrjlgbJ } dl,tg dlsw WtL w[ ls Rpfs[L s[ w[ Vjq
WjSg s[ vC vjdHbj m
bjfSg wiVg spbjij ljZP s[ bjyiV@ ldhS Lwag wiarI
} s,Ddlbj dw ljZP } ljei riej e.Fgi ba[ fhjC riej b,yvg
h'Sj yjhgsj h{ m Rplaa dV>sj@ hit@ L'w@ qjV@ bfqjV@ w.yV
qjBg } lqds=LBg Vjv r[tSj yjhgsj h{ m
l+g l.a ug qhjiju s[ Rpfs[L } dhis[ dry ZjiV wiw[ FjHg
u{ dl>z ug l.lji a'G Rpfijq h' eH[ m bn[ fdhi dlqiV wis[ h'H[
lqJ Waga wis[ m btgi df>c u.cj rjvj \d;v%J Wdn>cj| drt[
l+gqjV qh.a VijdHS dl>z s[ dLL WS eH[ m
119

c[i[ dry l[rj dlqiV ba[ drdsbj bdZb{V wis[ ih[ m r[sJ
LjlaiJ ba[ epiqda s[ qhjV drsrjV WS eH[ m drL[l wiw[
bjIPir{dsw dry f+dl,Zg ba[ lVqjV f+jfa wgaj m l+g qjV qh.a
VijdHS dl>z ug a'G qei'G c[ij u.cj rjvj s[ lojVfag WS[ m
c[i[ sg lp.si dHqjia WSjHg dibjla xigsw'B s[ iju siWji
dry RpKyj ldawji fjdHbj m wjxg ;qgV qhjiju V[ qpbjxg dry
F[GB wgag m dHl ai%J dViqv F[t dry f+dl,Z fpiL h'H[ m
df>c w'nj epiP sg Rph ;qgV dul dr,y'G l'Tg V[ uWiV Rpnj
ds,aj lg l'Tg VijdHS ug s[ lfp,ai l+gqjV WjWj biuV dl>z
l'Tg V[ l.V 1856 lg Rpfi'wa t[a ba[ h'i ;qgV dqvj w[ wpv
sl zpqj ;qgV epispbjij ep.e li ljdhW fj^ 10 rgG df>c w'nj
epiP } sjV wi ds,ag m u' l>V 1960 Hg^ dry qpi,Wj W.sg h'S
lq[G bWjsgbJ dry wBg eHg m dul Vjv lji[ t[a dry c.cgbJ
f{ eHgbJ ba[ evgbJ f{ eHgbJ m dHl ai%J WjWj ug qhjiju
sj woV d*bjaqw iPf dry fPiV h'dHbj m
\;WjVg FjHg a[uj dl>z ug #l.} w'njepiP$|

dHo[ dHw W;pie WjWj qdhajW dl>z lg m Rpl s[ Vjv Wjhi


dwa[ dqvjf h'dHbj m RplV[ r[t w[ l.a ujSw[ VqLwji wgag ba[
uv fjSg fpdAbj m WjWj ug V[ h,lw[ WyV wgaj ##w'Hg dlbjS
w[ hg uv fjSg fpA[ej m b{r[G w"S fp,A[($$ Rpl W;pie V[ W[Vag
wgag dw ##q{G hj;i hJ m hpwq wi' zi yv w[ Aw'e[@ dw b{o[
v{ w[ bjrJ($$ bjf V[ WyV wgaj ##b{o[ hg v{ bj m$$ Rph v{ w[
fhp.y debj m WjWj ug V[ Wjhi hg uv fjSg A,w w[ a[ Rpl Vjv
WyV wis[ ih[ m lpS w[ qV b{lj f+Fjra h'dHbj WjWj ug } W[Vag
wiw[ zi rg v{ bjdHbj ba[ zi dHw ypWji[ dry bjlS v,ej
ds,aj m l+g ijq dl>z ug qvPw[ rjdvbJ bVplji aJ d;bjsj dyi
120

ndhi[ m fi lpSV dry bjdHbj h{ awigWV l,a dsV ih[ m Rph


W;pie l[rj wisj dihj m Rpl Vjv WyV dWvjl rg wis[ ih[ m
Rpl sg FjrVj r[tw[ WyV wgaj dw a[ig b'vjs@ Whpa rZ[eg m
l' b{l rwa Rpl sj firji Whpa h{ m dHo'G yv w[ ila[ dry
bjMdsbJ dHw qplvqjV xwgi dqv dfbj m Rpl s[ Vjv f+qjio
s[ WyV hp.s[ ih[ m Rpl V[ f+LV wgaj dw l.a ug q{G lpdSbj h{
slr[G fjaLjh epiP e'dW>s dl>z ug V[ b"li N'Bg sj sp,Z ypbj
w[ fgaj lg wg dHh l,y h{($$ WjWj ug RpKai ds,aj ##hJ@ b,tib,ti l,y h{ m$$ WjWj ug V[ fp,DdAbj dHh e,v dwM fp,Ag($$ Rpl
V[ dwhj ##ug@ b{r[G hg m$$ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##VhgG a[i[ qV
dry w'Hg L.wj h{ aJ e,v wi m wijqjaJ aJ epiP w[ dl,tJ l[rwJ
dry rg Whpa hV m epiPbJ sg aJ e,v hg dwhCg h{($$ Rpl V[
dwhj ##dxi drtjY m$$ bjf W'v[ ##api bljc[ Vjv@ duo[ dwa[ q"wj
WdSbj r[t vrgG m$$ Rpl} Vjv v{ w[ us'G api fH[ dwa[ ila[ dry
w'Hg fLP yjisj dxisj lg m Rpl } h,o sj dHLjij wiw[ w'v
l,Ddsbj m Rpl V[ w'v bj w[ l.a lqN w[ VqLwji wgag m WjWj
ug Rpl } W'v[ ##bjfS[ fLPbJ dry'G dHw N'Bg v{ w[ bj m$$ Rph
WpLwji w[ dH,w N'Bg v{ bjdHbj m WjWj ug xwgi } W'v[ ##s,l WHg
blgG y'w[ drtjHgH[@ dw a[i[ h,ogG ypbjHgH[ m$$ Rpl V[ dwhj ##aplgG
y'r' m q{G r[tsj hJ m$$ WjWj ug Rpl fLP yjiV rjv[ } wdhS v,e[
dvbj a[i[ w'v duhCj WiaV h{@ Rpl dry sp,Z y' m$$ Rph h{ijV
h' w[ W'dvbj ##ug@ H[h aJ b"li N'Bg h{ m$$ WjWj ug h,l w[ W'v[
##aP. W{n uj A[ag wi m$$ WyV qV w[ Rph W{n debj m wvj riag
qhJ fpitJ sg@ N'Bg V[ sp,Z ds,aj m Rpl } WjWj ug wdhS v,e[
##v{ WHg@ fgY@ Vjv[ b,tgG r[t'@ dHh aj ap,A yg;J hV epiP w[
dl,tJ vHg m u[ ldaepiJ V[ dHh wpN wi ds,aj aJ RpV%J rjla[ aJ
121

w'Hg dHh r,cg e,v h{ hg VhgG m aP. L.wJ Vj wi@ h'i w'Hg e,v
h{ aJ s,l m$$ lpSs[ lji hg h,o u'C vH[ ba[ W'dvbj ##W,l ug@
W,l q[ig al,vg h' eHg m$$ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##xwgi lJHg
dwl[ rg epiP braji a[ ws[ dw>aP VhgG wiVj yjhgsj m bljcg
aJ dHh' hg qdibjsj h{@ aP. bjfS[ bjV.s dry ih' m u' a[i[ qpiLs
V[ a{} dldtbj ds,ag h{@ Rphg wiV dry hg a[ij Fvj h{ m Rplaa
dV>sj s'r[G dabje wiV[ f{Gs[ hV m$$
Rplada dV.sj s'RP dabje{ t'u{ fsp dViWjVj m
uV VjVw dHhp t[vp wnVp h{ dwVh.P epiqpdt ujVj
eRpCg q^ 9@ b>e 219

l' dHM dViWjV fs sg f+jfag hp.sg h{ fi dHh t[v wnV


h{ w'Hg driv[ epiqpt uV hg dHl } ujSs[ hV m
wdW,a
bjH[ w' Vj hit wi[ eH[ w' Vj l'e
FH[ dViv[f w{l[ qlNV[ wg Wja h{s[h l[ lW.Z VhgG qjIj l[dfbji VhgGqV h{ by,v whp. bjra Vj uja h{v'wJ yji iga VhgG rji VhgG f+ga VhgGVj hji h{ Vj uga h{ V riV h{ Vj uja h{b{l' uW debjV h'dH b{l' hg dZbjV h'dHf+oq[ dabjeg hRpq{ f+gda mm spagbj dabjeg v'ej igdamm
a+{epS dabjde spiuV qga lqjV[ mm
apigbj epS dqdv ljZ fAjV[
bjlj q^ 3-370
a=Hg epSI drLIj r[sj
dVqa+Hg epSI' Fr biuV
122

dVis.s[ dVaI llop dViI'e tI[q bjaqrjV


eg! b! 2@ 14

h[ biuV@ r[s rg da>VJ s[ iy[ h'H[ l.lji s[ WjWa woV


wis[ hV m b"i aP. da>V epS l[ idha h'@ aP. lpt@ spt@ qjV@ bfqjV@
hit l'e a'G idha h' m bdWVjlg fs q[G dWiju w[ dHldoa h'@
bjaqj fijdHS h'@ ligi sg fjvSj f'lSj a'G hg dViv[f h' uj m
da=hj epSj a[ ih{ dVijij l' epiqpdt l'Fj fjdHsj m
qjiP q^ 5 \1075|

ugrV qpwag s[ f>u xv hV m b>ai bjaq[ wg brloj hp.sg


h{ m RpV%J sg dur[G hi dHw xv sj lpbjs h{ dHl[ ai%J dHh rg hV m
1! debjV idtbj Fjr w'Hg dwaVj rg wji drhji wiV f+>aP
bjfS[ liPf s[ dZbjV dry'G dW+ag VhgG fp,Bs[ m
2! aglij xv h{ dWlqjs Fjr m h'i dwl[ rjs drrjs dry VhgG
bjMs[ m dur[G dwl[ V[ w'Hg wpN dwhj Fji lvjh ds,ag ba[
lpS vHg yp,f h' eH[ m l.ljig W.s[ lqNS W,l hpS q[ig whg
e,v l.a ws[ VhgG q'Cs[ m Rpl V[ dHh lqN w[ tpL h' ujSj m
dHl[ dry hg W.s[ sg hRpq{ rZsg h{ m dHh' yg; h{ duhCg
qhJfpit a'G ugr } wpN f+jfa h'S VhgG ds>sg m
hM dals[ yRpt>Vgb{ bjf nejH[ v'wJ FjS[ mm
Rph aJ VhgG ne[ uJs[
V Ydh qidh V nje[ ujdh mm duV w{ ijqp rl{ qV qjdh
ufpug ljdhW - 4

hJ ugr ;iPi n,Ddebj uJsj h{ wpN f+jfa VhgG wi lwsj m


Fj^ episjl ug
123

ugr tjvg idh uJsj h{ m


4! ugrV qpwag sj Fjr h{ sptJ sj Vjl dwl[ lq[G dwl[ ai%J
sj rg spt f+aga VhgG hp.sj m
jo nru duK mih duKu nhI mwnY ]
suK snyhu Aru BY nhI jw kY kMcn mwtI mwnY ]1]
\b>e 633|

5! f>urj h{ hi rwa lpt hg idhSj@ bV.s qeV idhSj m


sptp fihdi lptp zdi v{ ujdH
ufpug-2
duKu nwhI sBu suKu hI hY ry eykY eykI nyqY ]
burw nhI sBu Blw hI hY ry hwr nhI sB jyqY ]1]

\b>e 1302|

dHh h{ qhJfpitJ sg rdcbjHg@ dulsg lj} epiWjSg a'G


l'Ng f{Gsg ] ba[ h'i e+.o rg dHl[ ai%J erjhg ds>s[ hV m dHl
a'G Rpfi.a xwgi dwl[ h'i fjl[ } yvj debj m qhJfpit dwl[ h'i
fjl[ dryis[ ih[ m

dadV s[dtbj dulp bjdf dstjH[mm


u>cJ rjv[ sj dW+aJa
u.cJ rjv[ a[ ugGs[ s[ dra dry \wpvgrjvj| dHw A,fC lg m
Rpo[ dHw A'Bj duhj df,fv lg m dlix Rpl Rpa[ s' wp f,a[ lV m
h'i ljij lpdwbj h'dHbj lg m bjq W'v yjv dry Rpl } v'w df,fvg
bjts[ lV m Rpl ue%J Rpa[ dHw qhgVj ih[ m Rpl ue%j a[ dHw
W;pie dul sj Vjq qjv%j dl>z lg m dHl V[ dHw s' rji fdhvJ
siLV wga[ lV dHl[ oJ a[ hg m dHw dsV w'v bj w[ VqLwji
wgag ba[ W{n debj m W[Vag wiV v,ej ##ug q[i[ vjdHw w'Hg
l[rj s,l' m$$ b,e'G WjWj ug V[ lpFjrw hg dwhj dw ##l[rj aJ h{ m
124

u[ wi lwsj h{ aJ wi v{ m$$ RplV[ dwhj ##hpwq wi' m$$ WjWj ug


V[ dwhj ##blgG sp,Z A,ws[ hp.s[ hJ m$$ Rpl V[ dwhj dw sp,Z q[i[ zi
Whpa h{ duaVj v'C h'r[ hpwq wi'@ fhp.y ujdHbj wi[ej m$$ bjf
ug V[ v'C qpajWw s,l ds,aj m Rpl V[ dHh l[rj bjfS[ up.q[ v{
vHg a[ sp,Z hi i'; fp,usj dihj m ws[ ws[ w'v W{n w[ WyV rg
lpSV[ m qV dry wpN FjrVj rg h' eHg dwMdw WjWj ug } Rpl
V[ wHg rji dul ai%J fdhv[ W{n[ s[tSj m us'G sp,Z v{ w[ bjRpSj
dur[G fdhvJ W{n[ h'Sj@ ljij ljij dsV Rpl[ ai%J hg idhSj Rph
dsV eiqg s[ lV m dHl dHvjw[ dry eiqg rg bda ;'i sg f{Gsg
lg m fjSg ;qgV h[nJ cP.zj lg m i[avj dHvjwj lg m Zp,f Vjv
dHvjwj af uJsj lg m fi WjWj ug Rpl df,fv h[n'G dwa[ h'i oJ
uj w[ Vhk lV W{ns[ m uJ u[ dwa[ ligiw dw+bj l'ZVg hp.sg aJ
wpN lq[G vHg ujSj Vhk aJ duo[ fdhv[ dsV bj w[ driju[ Rpo'G
Vhk RpKn[ ljig dshjCg m dHl aiJ qlag dr,y W{dnbj V[ hg v.zj
v{Sg m qjvj dl>z V[ r[tSj ba[ h{ijV h' ujSj m dHV%J } eiqg
Vhk v,esg m ljij dsV W{dnbJ bws[ ows[ Vhk m dH,w dsV h"Glvj
wiw[ f,pA hg dvbj dw ##qhjiju )aplk ljij dsV eiqg dr,y hg
idh.s[ h' m dH,w oJ RpKa[ hg W{n[ idh.s[ h' m$$ b,e'G RpKai ds,aj dw
## qjv%J dlbJ@ eiqg lisg Vjv w'Hg l.W.Z Vhk m ligi Vjv rg
w'Hg l.W.Z Vhk m$$ dHh WyV lpS aJ dvbj fi lqN Vj bjHg@
yp,f dihj m fi WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj dw ##qjvj dl>bj@ w,v% }
ljc[ w'v bjHk ba[ ljij dsV a{} dHo[ hg i,tJe[ m hpS aP. ujm$$
bev[ dsV lr[i[ spZ v{ w[ bjdHbj aJ WjWj ug V[ sp,Z A,w dvbj
a[ W'v[ ##qjv%J dlbJ$$@ ##rjdhepiP@ rjdhepiP ufg yv$$ ba[ h,o
sj dHLjij wiw[ W'v[ ##Rpo[ W{n uj m$$ l,a WyV wdh w[ W{n debj
m Vjv hg dwhj ##us'G blk WpvjHgH[@ Rps'G W'vg@ Rps'G hg Rpo'G RpKng
125

m$$ W,l W{nS sg s[i lg m dxi Rps'G faj v,debj us'G WjWj ug
V[ w'v bj w[ bjrj; ds,ag aJ Rpl } faj v,ej dw lPiu dA,f
dihj h{ m h{ijV h' w[ W'dvbj ljij dsV v.z debj m WjWj ug V[
h,l w[ dwhj ##a{} eiqg VhgG v,eg( a[ij ljij dsV dwr[G
v.dzbj($$ qjv%J dl>z W'dvbj ##ug@ wpN faj VhgG v,debj m$$ WjWj
ug V[ dwhj dw ##w,v% u' a{} s,Ddlbj lg b,u drtj ds,aj m$$ lpS
w[ qjv%j dl>z sj dli Np,w debj m dli` dHaVg e,v hg qP>h'G dVwvg
##aphjcgbJ aplgG hg ujS' m$$ Rpl dsV a'G Fi'lj h'i rg f,wj h'
debj m l[rj h'i rg tpLg Vjv wisj dihj m
AwswVu suhMdw iqsu lgY ijsu min hir crx invws ]5]

\b>e 134|

dHh Rph brloj h{ dul} H[h f+jfa VhgG m Rpl vHg epiP
biuV ljdhW xpiqjMs[ hV m
AwswVu qpMdw iqsu lgY hir nwhu n ijMnw pwis ]

\b>e 134|

nh sIql cMdR dyvh nh sIql bwvn cMdnh ]


nh sIql sIq ruqyx nwnk sIql swD sjnh ]

\b>e 1357|

l' dHl ai%J wiw[ qjv%j dl>z } WjWj ug V[ q[hi wiw[ l'Ng
fjHg m

126

y'iJ a'G ljZ


WjWj ug u.cj rjv[ hg bu[ dBw[ h'H[ lV dw dHo[ dH,w f+q
[ g
bjdHbj m dHw s' dsV aJ sPiG' r[t w[ yvj ujdHbj wi[ m fi
dHw dsV w'v bjdHbj m Vqlwji wiw[ W{n debj m WjWj ug
Rpl rwa spZ
, A,w ih[ lV m qjv%J dl>z rg W{nj h'dHbj lg m
spZ
, A,wS a'G Wjbs WjWj ug V[ Rpl} fpdAbj ##wg Vjq h{@ dwo'G
bjdHbj h{G@ wg w.q wisj h{G($$ Rpl V[ l,y l,y s,l ds,aj m ##q[ij
Vjq hig dl>z h{@ df>c qjN[ dry h{@ u.Wi m dxi W'dvbj ug du>V[
qjC[ w.q lF wga[ hV m hpS btgi } zi A,cSj hg dfbj m
zi rjv[ df>c rjv[ lF V[ Z,w ds,aj m w'Hg oJ VhgG ihg m Wjhi
dxi apiw[ epujij wisj hJ m$$ WjWj ug lpS w[ W'v[ ##dHo'G yvj
uj m$$ Rpl dsV aJ Rph yvj debj m bev[ dsV dxi bj debj
WjWj ug r[t w[ wdhS v,e[ ##WHg aP. dxi bj debj h{ ($$ Rpl
V[ dwhj ##qhjiju m w,v% q{G duaVg s[i aphjc[ w'v W{n dihj hJ@
q[i[ qV } wpN LJag ihg m fi dul r[v[ yvj debj Rphg FBwS
dxwi dy>aj V[ z[ij fj dvbj m$$ q;WPi h' w[ dxi dHZi } bjRpS
dfbj m lpS w[ WjWj ug wdhS v,e[ ##aP. dHo[ idhSj VhgG m dHw
rji siLV wiw[ qpC ujdHbj wi m$$ wHg dsV aJ siLV wiw[
qpC uJsj dihj m h"vg-h"vg dur[G-dur[G siLV wisj dihj dar[Gdar[G qV wpN lpt qdhlPl wisj dihj m b?gi } dHw dsV siLV
wiV bjdHbj ba[ i'S v,e dfbj m W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju ) q[i[
a[ d*fj wi' qV } LJag WtL' m q[i[ spt sj dHvju aphjc[ fjl
h{ m du>VJ dyi q{G dHo[ idh>sj hJ ngw h{ m sPi uj w[ dxi Rphg
hjva hps
. g h{ m$$ dxi RplV[ bjfSg ljig du>seg duaVg df,A[
127

dur[G dur[G epujig@ u' u' wpN wgaj@ lF l,y' l,y s,l ds,aj m
btgi i'Gs[ h'H[ V[ W[Vag wgag ##ug hpS yjh[ qji'@ yjh[ A,c@'
q{G dwa[ VhgG ujSj($$ qhJfpitJ sj siLV hg b{lj h{ m us'G siLV
hps
. j h{ Rpl rwa qV Rph VhgG idh>sj h{@ u' fdhvJ hps
. j h{ m
qV Wsv uJsj h{ m dHhg dVLjVg h{ qhJfpitJ sg ^
##dulp dqdvb{ qdV h'dH bV.sp l' ldaepip whgb{ m$$

qV dViqv h' uJsj h{ m dxi qV bjfS[ wga[ fjfJ }


Ijs wiw[ fAajrj wisj h{ m bisjl dry upCsj h{@ dlqiV
wisj h{ m WpijHgbJ } A,csj h{ m Vjq uf uf w[ bjfS[ b>si'G
lji[ fjfJ } Z' lp,Bsj h{ m qhJfpit sg l.ea sg qdhqj dHh'
h{ m ldaepi woV wis[ hV^
ipgul prbq pwir pry Kl cqur bkIqw ]
AMDuly iqRBvx sUiJAw gur Byit punIqw ]1]
mihmw swDU sMg kI sunhu myry mIqw ]
mYlu KoeI koit AG hry inrml Bey cIqw ]
dHl a'G b,e[ Feag wiV sj xv sls[ hV ^
AYsI Bgiq goivMd kI kIit hsqI jIqw ]
jo jo kIno Awpno iqsu ABY dwnu dIqw ]2]
isGu iblweI hoie gieE iqRxu myru idKIqw ]
sRmu krqy dm AwF kau qy gnI DnIqw ]3]
kvn vfweI kih skau byAMq gunIqw ]
kir ikrpw moih nwmu dyhu nwnk dr srIqw ]
apvlg sjl ug V[ Fg woV wgaj h{ ^

dWvjrvp q^ 5-808

qps q>ev qI l.a lqjuP mm u' uC u.eq agio ijuP mm


quV xv s[tgH[ aawjvj mm wjw h'dH dfw Wwhpqijvj mm
lal.e iPf agio dry dHLVjV wiw[ aawjv hg xv dqvsj
h{ m wJ rJe w"C[ WyV rjv[@ w'dHv lqjV dq,n[ WyV wiV
128

v,e uJs[ hV m Wev[ lqjV ft>cg v'w dViqv qV@ h>lJ rie[
h' uJs[ hV m dur[G h.l q'ag ypesj h{ dHl[ ai%J Rph rg brepS
A,c w[ V[w WS uJs[ hV m
lpV byiu widh du Vj w'Hg mm
la l.eq qdhqj Vh e'Hg mm1

apvlg sjl ug

Wjvqgw Vjsi zB I'Vg m dVdu dVu qptV whg dVu h'Vg m


uv3 yi ov4 yi VF5 si VjVj m u[ uC y[aV ugr qhjVj mm
qa wgia edsa FPda FpvjHg m uW qdh IaV uhJ udh fjHg mm
u' ujVa lal.a f+FjRP m v"whp r[s Vj bjV RpfjRP mm
2

l' qhJ fpit sg l.ea sj f+Fjr h'dHbj m Rpl sj qV rg


Wsv debj m W[Vag wiV v,ej ##q{} WtL vRp m q{G WC[ fjf
wga[ hV m$$ wdh w[ h,o u'C w[ v.qj f{ debj m wdi ljZP b>upvg
fpVp rcj h[mmwdi c.cRpa fpVp rcj h{ m
adsdZ f+jdS fja[V fdi df+i f+L[V l[rIj mm

eRpCg q^ 4

Rpfs[dLI.da a[ debjV. eIdVV aa sidLV m


bio-h[ biuV duVJ l,a fpiLJ V[ dHl a,a } ujdSbj
] RphVJ } Fvg f+wji c.c"a f+Sjq wiw[ RpV%J b,e[ W[Vag
wiV Vjv@ Rph l.a uV f+l.V h' w[ debjV Rpfs[L wis[ hV m
dul s[ Vjv ugr } fiq a,a sg f+jfag hp.sg h{ m
ail bj debj wdhS v,e[ #wpA fdCbj h{G($ Rph W'dvbj
##ug@ qjCg q'Bg epiqptg bjMsg h{ m h'i wpA VhgG m$$ dxi Rpl
} fdhvg fRpCg sj fjn dltj w[ W'v[ ##dHl } udfbj wi
hi r[v[ m duV%J uf[Gej RpaVj hg qV } lpt dqv[ej m dHl[ dry
1! vpwg h'Hg m 2! bela qpVg m 3! uv dry idhS rjv[ m 4! tpLw oJ dry
idhS rjvj m 5! bwjL dry idhS rjv[ m
129

hg lF wpA h{ ba[ duhCg a[i[ qV sg FBwS h{ dHh rg qp,w


ujH[eg m Rpujvj h' ujr[ej@ fjf fp>V sg aqg; h' ujr[eg m duRGp
hg qV } dryji bjH[ej qV Wpi[ w.q A,c ujr[ej m$$
dHw aV sg q{v h{ m dHw qV sg q{v h{ m aV sg q{v
Rpaisg h{ m fjSg ba[ ljWS bjdsw Vjv m
BrIAY hQu pYru qnu dyh ] pwxI DoqY auqrsu Kyh ]
mUq plIqI kpVu hoie ] dy swbUxu leIAY Ehu Doie ]
(jpujI swihb)

u' qV sg q{v h{ Rpl} Vjq spbjij ljx wgaj uJsj h{ m


qV bag lPtq h{ a[ Vjq lPtq Wigw rg h{ bloPv q'Bj rg h{ m
Awpih sUKm Awpih AsQUlw ]
l' qV sg q{v Vjv Vjv Z'ag ujH[eg m
BrIAY miq pwpw kY sMig ] Ehu DopY nwvY kY rMig ]

\ufpug ljdhW|

Vjq ufg y,v dHl} VhgG FpvSj m duo[ qiug h'r[ ih' m
RplV[ fjl idhS sg W[Vag wgag m bjf W'v[ bu[ blgG dwa[
dBwSj VhgG m w'Hg lqJ bjdHbj aJ dxi q[v h' ujH[ej m q[v
h'H[ej ;iPi fi bu[ VhgG m dxi Rpl} tpLg Vjv a'i ds,aj m
dul lq[G WjWj bV.s dl>z ug Fp,Dy' bjRpS ujS v,e[ a[ qjN[
y,wi vjdHbj@ Rpl lq[G Rph f+[qg rg WjWj ug Vjv Fpy' siLV
wiV bjdHbj a[ dxi wpN lqJ dHo[ hg dihj m v.ei sg l[rj
wisj dihj m dHl sj bevj f+l.e Rpo[ hg ds,aj ujH[ej m

130

l[rwp wgV' lsj dVhjvp mm


u>cJ rjv[ a'G apiVj
l' qhJfpit dHw qhgVj dHo[ hg ih[ m us'G apiV sj lqJ bjdHbj
aJ qjv%J dl>z } W'v[ ##dl>z ljcg hpS dabjig h{ m$$ qjv%j dl>z
V[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju ) q{} aJ l[rj wiV sj@ l.ea wiV sj
faj hg hpS v,ej h{ m aplgG dabji rg h' eH[ m$$ WjWj ug V[ WyV
wgaj ##qjv%j dl>z@ a[ig l[rj qVuPi h{ m blgG a[i[ a[ f+lV
. hJ m u'
dH,Aj h{ q>e v{ m$$ Rpl V[ W[Vag wgag dy,a aJ l[rj wiV } hg
wisj h{ m$$ dwMdw l[rw ws[ drACSj VhgG yjhps
. j m b>aiIjqg
Rpls[ qV } lqN w[ wdhS v,e[ ##a[i[ fpa
, i w'Hg h{ dw VhgG($$ Rph
ypf
, dihj dwMdw r,cg Rpqi h'S wiw[ Liq wisj lg m WjWj ug
V[ bjf WyV wgaj a[i[ zi s' fpa
, i h'Se[ m dHw sj Vjq WyV
dl>z ba[ sPu[ sj Vjq iaV dl>z i,tgG m$$ dHh WyV l,a h'dHbj
s' hg fpa
, i h'H[ ba[ dHw vCwg dul sj Vjq dH>s w"i lg m
bBv WyV ljZP uVj lF qdh f+eBjdHbj mm \dWvjrvp q^ 5|
Vjv hg WyV wgaj ##duhCg aP. ljcg l[rj q>eg h{ dHh a[ig
}h ba[ f'aij f'aig wiVe[ m RpV%J } rwa dqv[ej ba[ a{}
u' rjdhepiP LWs s,Ddlbj h{ aP. Rplsj fjn FuV wisj ihgG m a[ij
v'w fiv'w dry epiP VjVw lhjHg h'r[ej m a{} lF wpN dqv debj
h{@ hpS w'Hg dxwi dy.aj Vj wi m$$ dHM WyV wiw[ bjfS[ qjvw
sg iuj dry dwl[ h'i dsLj } yv[ eH[ m

131

F'vP rjvj
dHo'G yv w[ sPlig ue%j u.cj rjv[ dtbjvg rjv[ fjl[ F'vb
P jSj
Vjq sj A,fC lg m Rpo[ u.c h[n dVrjl wgaj ba[ dHw dl>z dul
sj Vjq epidsbjv dl>z lg m Rph spZ
, bjdsw AwjRpS sg l[rj
wisj dihj m dHw dsV WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##epidsbjv dl>z@
dwl[ yg; sg dH,Aj h{ aJ q>e v{ m$$ Rpl V[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju
w'Hg dH,Aj VhgG h{ m q{G aJ aphjcj siLV wiw[ hg bV.s h' uJsj
hJ m wpN q>eS } dsv hg VhgG wisj m$$ l' dHl ai%J Rpl} wHg
rji WyV wgaj m fi RplV[ q>debj wpN VhgG m btgi } WjWj ug
wdhS v,e[ ##epidsbjv dl>z@ aP. Vjq udfbj wi m$$ Rph W'dvbj
##ug@ q{G fdC%bj wpN rg VhgG m$$ WyV h'dHbj dw ##Whpa[ fC[% h'H[
sg v'C VhgG m$$ Rpl } qPv q>ai sj Rpfs[L s[ w[ W'v[ ##dHl} udfbj
wi@ Rpnsj W{nsj@ l"Gsj@ ujesj@ lsj udfbj wi m dHh' Vjq h{@
ba[ dHl } ufS Vjv lF xv dqvs[ hV m dul rwa ugr s[
fpV
> ujes[ hV aJ qhJfpit sg l.ea dqvsg h{ m Rpl a'G rg r,Dc[
fpV
> h'rV aJ dxi qhJfpit a'G spdVbjrgG fsjio ugr VhgG q>esj m
dxi Rpl } f+jfag hps
. g h{ blvg Z.V sg m f+qL
[ ri sj Vjq dHh
r,c[ FjeJ rjv[ dwl[ driv[ } f+jfa hps
. j h{ m
ijup V yjhRp qpwda V yjhRp qdV f+gda yiV wqvji[

\s[re.Zjig q^5 534|

Fea W[Vag wisj h{ f+FP )


Vj q{} iju sg v'C h{ V dHla=g bjdsw lpt sg v'C h{ m

132

q{} w[rv a[ig Feag sg ;iPia h{ dul Vjv q[i[ W.ZV w,B[ ujS m
l' dHl ai%J wiw[ WjWj ug V[ Rpl s[ qV } r[t w[ Vjq ufS
dry vj ds,aj m Rpl sj uVq lxv h{ duV%J Vjq udfbj h{ m Vjq
a'G W[-qp,t fpiLJ V[ l.lji dry bj w[ wpN VhgG t,DdBbj m duV%J i,W
fAjaj Vjhg Yh b,tgbJ a'G b>V[ bjH[/exva dry r>NjHg Rpq+j
dWio[ ljl erjH[/i'Gs[ bjH[ dfBs[ q'H[ dqvsg daVj lujH[/bjfVGj
w.q Vj wgaj e'Ij bjH[ eH[ bujH[ m
\FjHg V.s vjv ug|

c[ij WjWj iPqg rjvj Fpy' wvJ


dHh blojV df>c Fpy' wvJ drt[ h{@ u' dw Fpy' q>cg a'G Fea[
rjvg lCw a[ Fpy' q>cg a'G da>V wp dwv'qgBi s[ xjlv[ a[ h{ m
df>c Fpy' wvJ Wdn>cj a'G sl dwv'qgBi s[ xjlv[ a[ h{ m Wdn>cj
WiVjvj lCw a[ Fpy' w{GygbJ a'G s' wp xivJe s[ xjlv[ a[ h[ m
duhCgbJ W,lJ q'e[ a'G Wdn>c[ } Fea[ dry sg uJsgbJ hV@ Rph
df.c Fpy' wvJ h' w[ uJsgbj hV m vpdZbjSj uJ fdBbjvj rv'G
W,lJ ijhgG bjRpS rjv[ IjaiP Fpy' w{GygbJ a[ Rpai w[@ l"t Vjv
hg c[ijiPqg rjvj Fpy' wvJ fhp.y lws[ hV m
du>V%J du>V%J drsrjVJ s[ e+.oJ dry'G ba[ RpV%J s[ dV,ug
ldhI'e Vjv lhjdHaj dqvg@ sjl RpV%J sj Z.Vrjsg h{ m

133

l>a WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug


q>si qphji VjVwli a'G FppKy' ljdhW a,w
l.a WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug sj uVq df>c qphji adhlgv ugij duv%j
dxi'ufpi drt[ qjaj l'qjr>ag w'i ba[ dfaj lisji ueaji dl>z s[ e+dh
drt[ 1 hjC \15 uPV 1954| } b.dq+a r[v[ h'dHbj m WjWj ug s[ dfaj ug
dHvjw[ dr,y fPi[ qjV ba[ ldawji rjv[ fpiL lV m bjf ug s[ dfaj ug
25 ljv bjfS[ df.c s[ lif>y ih[ m WjWj ug bjfS[ fdirji dr,y 6 Fij
ba[ 2 F{SJ dr,y lF a'G A'B[ hV m WjWj ug V[ f>u wvjlJ bjfS[ df>c s[
V[C[ liwjig f+dHqig lwPv q>si qphji dr,y fjl wgagbJ m dHl drywji
WjWj ug bjfS[ sjsj vjF dl>z \WjfP ug| Vjv uJ dHw,v[ hg WjWj lp.si
sjl ug fjl ujdHbj wis[ lV m dHV%J sj c[ij df>c a'G 6 dwv'qgBi sg
sPig $a[ w'B Hgl[ tJ drt[ ldoa ] m WjWj lp.si sjl ug WjWj l+g y.s sg
fPuj wis[ hV ba[ Vjq ufjMs[ hV m WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug sj A"Bg Rpqi
dr,y hg episbji[ uj w[ lal.e dr,y hg qV vej idh.sj lg m WjWj lp>si
sjl ug V[ dHV%J sg veV $a[ dyhij fCw[ WjfP vjF dl>z ug } wdh
dsaj lg m dHh aJ l>a qhJ fpiL hV m WjWj ug f>urg wvjl s[ bjtig
f[fi a'G Wjbs sPli[ dsV hg WjWj wp>sV dl>z ug s[ wdhS qpajWw
VjVwli ueijRG bj eH[ m 12 ljv sg Rpqi dr<y WjWj wp>sV dl>z ug V[
dHV%J sg dcRPBg lptqVg ljdhW sj fjn wiV ba[ u'Cg a[ hiq'Vgbq sg
drdsbj dltS dr<y vej ds,ag m wgiaV sg drdsbj a'G Wjbs WjWj ug
sg dcRPBg wiVfpi njn \e>ejVei| dHvjw[ dr,y vej ds,ag m 14 ljv
sg RpKqi dr,y 2 ljv aw bjf V[ dHo[ l[rj wgag m us dw w'Hg h'i
Wdh>eq dHo[ ujS vHg dabji Vhk lg m 16 ljv sg Rpqi dr,y bjf ug
sg dcRPBg WjWj ug V[ epispbjij VjVwli vpdZbjS[ \Vdhi s[ w>T[ vjHg|
Rpl njn dr,y wjxg ljv l[rj wgag m WjWj ug V[ dHo[ idh w[ vpdZbjSj
VjVwli njn $a[ WjWj HgLi dl>z fWdvw lwPv FjHg iSZgi dl>z Vei
} qpw>qv wijdHbj m dHl a'G Wjbs WjWj ug V[ bjfS[ df>c 15 H[wC
;qgV dr,y epispbjij VjVwli q>si qphji ba[ fWdvw lwPv q>si
134

qphji sg dabjig wijHg ba[ wHg ljv dHo[ l[rj wgag m dHl a'G Wjbs
l>a WjWj wp>sV dl>z ug bjf ug sg dcRPBg duo[ w>q ipwSj uJ Vrg l[rj
wijRpSg h'r[@ WjWj ug bjf ug sg dcRPBg vejMs[ m bjf ug V[ A'Bg
RPqi dr,y hg wji l[rjrJ LpiP wijRpS Vjv wHg l[rj fPigbJ wgagbJ
wjxg bu[ yv ihgbJ hV duV%J dr,y'G lwPv a[ wjvu rg hV m duV%J dr,y
f>ujW@ IP!fg! ijulojV@ qhjijLBi qsijl h''i rg wHg lB[BJ Ljdqv
hV m awigWV w'Hg 60-70 blojVJ sgbJ l[rjrJ wirjHgbJ a[ h'i rg
l[rjrJ y,v ihgbJ hV m
WjWj wp>sV dl>z ug duo[ bjf ug sg dcRPBg vejMs[ lV m bjf ug
l[rj fPig wiw[ wlr,Bg $a[ fPi[ Rpais[ lV m l.a WjWJ wp.sV dl>z ug fjl
us'G rg Wjhivg l>ea bjRpSg uJ w'Hg W[Vag wiVg aJ WjWj ug V[
wdhSJ ljij wpN lptg w'v ] Fdibj dfbj ] u' qiug v{ vr' m duo[ WjWj
wp>sV dl>z ug V[ l[rj sj bjtSj WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug V[ dHvjw[ dr,y'G
l>ea dvbj w[ l[rj wijrjRpSg m FpKy' ljdhW li'ri sg l[rj bji>F h'Hg
WjWj wp>sV dl>z ug Wdh>eqj ba[ l>eaj lq[a WjWj t[q dl>z ug w'v FpKy'
ljdhW fhp>y[ ba[ bjtS v,e[ lptj dl>z bjf ug } l"Gf ds,aj ] m dHl a'G
Wjbs l.a WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug sj l.a WjWj t[q dl>z ug fjl bjRpSJ
ujSj LpiP h' debj a[ V[Caj r,Z eHg m WjWj t[q dl>z ug s[ hpwq Vjv
qjvj@ epBw[ s[L s[ w'V[ w'V[ dr,y r>cS uJs[ bt>c fjn@ l.fB fjn@ apw2 rjv[ qhJ l.fB fjn VjVw li sgbJ njnJ dr,y wirjH[ ba[ l>eaJ }
b>dq+a A,wS vHg f[+iVj wgag ba[ f+yji dha wHg i[v Ijaij@ W,l
Ijaij@ uhju Ijaij@ ljdHwv IjaijrJ wgagbJ m l.a WjWj wp>sV
dl>z ug s[ lrierjl h'S a'G Wjbs l.a WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug V[ l.a
WjWj t[q dl>z ug sg[ idhVqjHg dr,y 250 wqi[ h;Pi ljdhW \liJrj| 5
epispbji[ ljdhW wHg v.ei yvjH[ a[ l>a WjWj t[q dl>z bjtig BjdHq a[
bjf ug sg dcRPBg uf af $a[ vejHg duhCg bjf ug V[ W[tPWg dVFjHg
dHl a'G tpL h' w[ l.a WjWj t[q dl>z ug V[ x'V a[ bjf ug } tpLgbJ
WtLgbJ dw blk s,l Vhk lws[ dw blk a[i[ $a[ dw.V[ tpL hj m
l.a WjWj t[q dl>z ug V[ ljigbJ fjri bjx bBiiVg WjWj ug s[
Vjq wgagbJ lV m 3 fjri bjx bBjiVg h;Pi ljdhW@ 2 VojV[ a[
uiVv fjri bjx bBjiVg WjWj ug s[ Vjq wgagbJ lV m

135

l.a WjWj t[q dl>z ug s[ lrierjl h'S a'G Wjbs slqg s[ q'w[
5-02-2010 } s[L drs[L a'G@ dViqv[@ l>fisjdH@ sqsqg Bwljv@
uo[W>sgbJ dHvjw[ s[ ljigbJ f>yjdHaJ r,v'G dvta wiw[ c[i[ s[ f>ur[
qp,tg l[rjsji rKv'G slaji W.sg wgag eHg ba[ c[ij WjWj iP.qg rjvj Fp,Dy'
wvj sj qp,tg ojdfbj debj m l.a WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug rKv'G 14 dsVJ
dr,y iP>qg ljdhW df>c l[qJ dr,y aJW[ sgbJ f"CgbJ rjvj li'ri l.eaJ s[
ldhI'e Vjv dabji wirjdHbj dHl l[rj lW>Zg 4 dsV Wjbs WjWj
qhJhiVjq dl>z sgbJ fpijaV dvtaJ dr,y'G li'ri Wji[ dvta dqvg m
li'ri fPij dvta qpajWw hg WdSbj lg m hpS WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug F,Dy'
ljdhW drt[ v.ei hjv sg l[rj@ sgrjV hjv ba[ e,sg ljdhW sg l[rj
wirj ih[ hV m

136

137

138