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dr,y'G W[Vag wgag dw qhjiju hrj uqJ hg W>s h{ m wpN dw+fj
12

wi' aJ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##hV[ig yvj s[HgH[ m$$ Rpl f+[qg
V[ W[Vag wgag qhjiju dHl epq Vjv'G aJ hV%[ig y>eg h{ m h;Pi
V[ hpwq wgaj ##dxi dHRpG wi' bjh duhCg v'Bg dB,v[ RpKa[ fHg
h{ dHl sj qP>h fhjC r,v wi dsRp$$ m hpwq bVplji wiV sg
s[i lg dw wpN dq>BJ s[ b>si b>si dHaVg ;'isji hrj y,vg
a[ Vjv n>T h' eHg m duo[ b,e[ ligi RpKfi w,fCj VhgG lg
i,Ddtbj uJsj@ n>Tg hrj y,vS wiw[ v'wJ V[ yJsij sgbJ
WpwvJ qjigbJ m Rpl lq[G WjWj Wp,Z dl>z dTv'G h;Pi s[ yiVJ
dr,y W{nj lg m RplV[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju hpS Wl wi' m Whpa
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sj q>Ph duhCj hpwq bVplji fhjC } wgaj h{ m Rplsj q>Ph
sPu[ fjl[ wi dsbJ($$ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##Wp,Z dlbJ dHV%J
v'Bj uJ WjlJ dr,y wpN VhgG m u' wpN h{@ hpwq dr,y h{ m hpwq
Vjv hg hrj y,vg h{@ hpwq Vjv hg W>s hp>sg h{ m dwl[ lq[G
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1| WjWj WpZ
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dH,o[ dH,w rS sj si?a hps
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13

2| duo[ dHVljV sg l'y ba[ lqN w>q VhgG wisg m ws[


WjWj ug V[ hpwq wiVj ##y>ej u[ hrj sg v'C h{ aJ bvx[
} bjt ds>s[ hJ f,tj yvj dsRPej m$$ Vjv hg hpwq Vjv ##bvxj$$
hrj sg v'C h{@ ftj yvj s[ m zpeP V[ W'vSj LpiP wi s[Sj m
hrj yv f{GSg m duaVg s[i hrj yvSg zpeP V[ W'vs[ idhSj m
us'G hpwq s[ w[ zpeP } ypf wijRpSj a[ hrj rg W>s h' ujSg m
wHg rji dHRpG rg hp>sj lg m W[-b>a t[c lg WjWj qhJ hdiVjq
dl>z ug qhjiju sg m wia[ fpit Vjv bF[s h' w[ lji[ t>cJ
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VjVwp wha lpVhp i[ v'ej l>a ilV w' WlhgbRp mm
\b>e 700|

borj
f+F ug Wldh ljZ wg ilVj mm
\b>e 263|

dHh f+l>e epvr>a dl>z fjl'G dqdvbj

dWtp b>dq+ap wiajdi RpfjH[ m


l>lji dWit wRp spdH xv vjH[ m
\b>e 1172|

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xpv
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xpiqjS h{ m
wWgi l>ap V Ajc{ l>aHg uRp w'dBw dqvdh bl>a mm
14

qdvbjeip FpI>eq W[dTRp a lgavaj V au>a mm


\b>e 1373|

dHl[ hg Vei dr,y dH,w d;qgGsji lg dul sj Vjq qhJ


dl>z lg m Rph y>eg ujdHsjs sj qjvw a[ V>Wisji rg lg m
dHlsj drhji lal>egbJ rjvj VhgG lg m dHl fpiL V[ i'; LijW
fg w[ WjWj ug s[ blojV r,v bjRpSj@ vvwji[ qjiV[ wdhSj@
##q{G qhJ dl>z u,B m$$ dul lq[G WjWj ug s[ blojV s[ V[C[ bjRpSj
ba[ W'vSj WjWj ug V[ dHl} ws[ s' ipfH[ a[ ws[ dH,w ipdfbj
s[ w[ q'C s[Sj m u[ l[rjsjiJ V[ W[Vag wiVg dw qhjiju blgG
wpN wp W>s[ v{ w[ V>Wisji } lqNjHgH[ m dHh LijW fg w[ i';
dHl ai%J dwRpG wisj h{ m aJ hpwq wiVj ##dHl } u' wisj
h{ wiV dsY u' wdh>sj h{@ wdhS dsY m hBjRpSj VhgG m$$ dHh
drhji Rplsj wHg ljv y,vsj dihj m dH,w rji FjHg Vgvj dl>z
V[ W[Vag wgag dw qhjiju dHl qhJ dl>z V>Wisji w'v ;qgV
rg h{ a[ dxi V>Wisjig rg wisj h{ m aplgG dHl} hBjRpS s[
oJ w'v' ipfHgbJ ds>s[ h' m Rpfi>a WjWj ug V[ Vjv hg bjfS[
h,o R,pa[ xPw qjig a[ WyV wgaj ##lF ;qgV a[ V>Wisjig RpKc
ujr[eg m
dHh WyV b,u aw f+a,t hV ria yp,w[ hV m

F[tjig a[ iju wijr{ ijuj a[ F[tjig


\b>e 1252|

lF a'G r,cj l>ljig fsjio hwPqa hg hp>sg h{ m A'B[ siu[


sg QigWg@ Fp,t dVijsig h{ m dulV[ hwPqa wgag h'r[ m Rpl rjla[
dVijsig lhjiVg Whpa qpLdwv hp>sg h{ m f+i>aP hpwq bB,v h{ m
dHh ria w[ idh>sj h{ m epirjw h{ m
15

hpwqp V ujHg q[dBbj u' dvdtbj l' Vjdv mm


\b>e 1091|

fi>aP qhJfpit lsj sdHbj s[ zi dr,y rias[ hV m dwl[


Vj dwl[ ai%J q'h qjdHbj dr,y ve[ ugr Fv[ w>qJ dr,y v,eS m
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hB' m dH,w lq[G l+g h;Pi WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug V[ qpVLg
hids,a dl>z ba[ f>dca l+g ijq dl>z } hpwq ds,aj ##dh>splajV
dr,y dw>VgbJ dibjlaJ hV m lF sg deSag wi'$$ m dHV%J V[
deSag wiw[ WjWj ug b,e[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju@ hpS wg
hpwq h{ m$$ dxi WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj ##dHV%J dibjlaJ s[
ijdubj } dy,ngbJ dvt' ba[ bljc[ rv'G s,l' dw aphjcgbJ
dibjlaJ uj ihgbJ hV m aplgG dsV ija qjC[ w>qJ RpKa[ v,w
W>dVbj h{ m$$ aplgG bljc[ w'v bjRp m epiP VjVw ljdhW sg dw+fj
Vjv aphj} dl,Z[ ijh fjHgH[ ba[ aphjcj iju Fje Wy ujr[ej m
dw u[ WyjRpSj h{ aJ hpS q"wj h{ m ljc[ w'v fhp>y'$$ m Rpfi>a
qpVLg hids,a dl>z ba[ f>dca l+g ijq dl>z l'yJ dr,y f{
eH[ dw WjWj ug aJ W[-firjh hV m b>ei[; sg hwPqa h{ m
a[ dxi iju[ dibjlaJ s[ qjvw dwa[ w'Hg h'i hg RpKfsi V
tCj wi s[Sj m WjWj ug V[ wHg rji WyV wgaj m ##ciV sg
v'C VhgG m aplgG dH,w rji dy,ng dvt' m dul} v'C h'r[eg bj
ujr[ej m Vj bjRp aJ Vj lhg@ aplgG ci' Vj dvt dsY m$$ Rpfi>a
WyV q>V w[ lF } t,a dvt ds,a[ m fi bjdHbj w'Hg VhgG m
xigsj wPw[dsbJ yJe[dsbJ qag s[dsbJ dVa mm
u' l{ajdV r>EjdHbj l[ dwa x[idh dya mm
\L[t xigs ug@ b>e 1378|

16

bjdf vgH[ vdC vjdH sdi sir[l l[ mm


\b>e 488|

qjdHbj Vjq Fpv[t[ sj h{ m w'Hg fp,aiJ s[ q'h dr,y bj w[


Fp,v uJsj h{ m w'Hg q'h bjdsw dr,y f{ w[ Fp,v uJsj h{@ u[
ljZP l>a h{ aJ spVgbJ sg qjS rdcbjHg dr,y bj w[ Fp,v
uJsj h{ m b{l[ driv[ RpKaq udebjlP rg hp>s[ hV@ duV%J }
dVi>wji w'Hg Vj w'Hg spt wLB s[ w[ spt dr,y'G w,T w[ dl,Z[
ila[ Rpfi v{ bjRpGsj h{ m dHl[ ai%J s[ wHg f+l>eJ dr,y'G dH,w
f+l>e wijyg s[ l[nJ sj h{@ dHh s' lw[ Fij wijyg hpS fjdwlajV
dr,y ldhuZjig dl>Zg l[n lV m dHV%J sg Rpl lq[G hgdibJ sg
spwjV lg m u"hig lV hgi[ r[ys[ ba[ tigss[ lV m e+dhlag
lV@ dHV%J sj fdirji rg lg m dH,w rji dHV%J sg spwjV RpKa[
dH,w b>ei[; ba[ Rplsg q[q bjH[ m q[q V[ w'Hg hgij tigsSj
lg m Rpl V[ wHg hgi[ r[t[ ba[ Rpls[ fl>s w'Hg Vj bjdHbj m
btgi RpKa[ dH,w u"hig s[ Fij V[ iaj wp Qp,l[ dr,y bj w[ bjt
ds,aj wpN tigsSj h{ aJ tigs' VhgG aJ bljcj rwa ?ijW
Vj wi' m b,e'G b>ei[; ba[ q[q ep,l[ dr,y bj eH[ m q[q V[ rg
ep,l[ rjvg e,v wdh ds,ag ba[ h,o dr,y xdCbj h'dHbj hgij
q'C ds,aj m b>ei[; s[ q>V dr,y ep,lj aJ h{ lg m Rpfi'G spwjV
dr,y'G RpaiV v,DdebJ q[q s[ f{i } n[cj v,e w[ b{lg dc,eg
dw Rpl s[ dli dr,y l,B v,e eHg m f"CgbJ dr,y'G diCsg lCw
a[ bj eHg m q[q s[ dli a[ l,B lg m ?PV Whpaj dVwvS wiw[
17

hlfajv uj w[ Rplsg q"a h' eHg m Rpfi>a fCajv h'Hg a[


dHV%J s'hJ l[nJ RpKfi wav sj w[l WS debj m spwjV W>s
h' eHg m s'r[G Fij u[v% dr,y W>s h' eH[ m bqgi W>s[ RpKa[ u[v
sg fjW>sg m dH,w rji aJ qplgWaJ s[ fhjC dHV%J RpKfi bj
dc,e[ m fi bqgi hp>s[ h'H[ rg WCg wdnV qdiIjsj Vjv dVaV[q
wiVj bji>F wi ds,aj m dVaV[qg WC[ awC[ lV m f>ujh-f>ujh
fjn ufpug ljdhW s[ s'r[G FjHg i'; wis[ lV m us'G ;[v% b>si
W>s h'H[@ s'hJ V[ dqvw[ dryji wgag m dHl wav Vjv ljcj
lW>Z w'Hg VhgG m dxi dHh ljc[ up>q[ dwRpG v,ej fi u[ w'Hg ljcj
dfAvj wgaj h'dHbj wiq h{ @ dHh aJ epiP VjVw hg ujSsj
h{ m Rpfi>a s'hJ FijrJ V[ u[v% s[ dr,y hg bisjl wiw[ dVaV[q
r,Z wiVj bji>F wi ds,aj m f>ujh-f>ujh fjn b,e[ hg lV
dxi f>Ng-f>Ng h'i rZj ds,a[ m i'; bisjl wiVg m f>Nai-f>Nai
fjn ufpug ljdhW s[ wiV[ m
uj wRp qplwvp bda WS{ T'Hg w'dH V s[dH mm
vjeP h'H[ splqVj ljw dF Fdu tv[ mm
lF' Fu{ bjlij yPw[ lFp blijRp mm
dyda bjr{ Ylp fjiW+hq ve{ Vj aag rjRp mm
\dligijep qhvj 5 b.e 71|

Rpfi>a wpN dsVJ dr,y hg dH,w dsV b>dq+a r[v[ ;[v% s[


dr,y hg epiP VjVw ljdhW s[ siLV h'H[ a[ hpwq h'dHbj ##aplgG
Wig h' ujYe[$$ m Wig h'S a'G Wjbs aplgG Fpy' d;v%j Wdn>cj
dr,y dH,w Vei h{ Rpo[ fhp>y' m dHl a'G bevg e,v Yh wiVe[
ba[ Vjv hg Fp,yG' rjv[ WjWj ug sj liPf siLV wirj w[ fAjS
rg f,wg h' eHg m dxi ldaepip bv'f h' eH[ m
18

2| Rpfi>a qpwsqj y,vsj dihj m dul rwa x{lvj h'S sj


lqJ V[C[ bjdHbj l+g epiP VjVw ljdhW V[ wijyg dr,y v,e[
h'H[ l{LV u,u } dul w'v qpwsqj lg } rg dwl[ iPf dr,y
siLV s[ w[ dHV%J } Wig wiV sj hpwq ds,aj m fdhvJ aJ
RplV[ dHl ds+LBJa } dH,w rdhq lqdNbj m sPug rji dHl}
lta iPf dr,y siLV s[ w[ dxi ajCVj wgag@ dul wiw[ l{LV
u,u wpN l'yS RpKa[ q;WPi h' debj m btgi RpKa[ w[l s[ x{lv[
sj dsV bj debj@ b>ei[; l{LV u,u wpN ciV v,ej m fi>aP
qV bu[ spdy,ag dr,y lg m dwl ai%J wgaj ujr[ m RpV%J l[nJ
sj dVaV[q ba[ bisjl bu[ rg Rpl[ ai%J hg ujig lg m fi>aP
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h'dHbj ##dHo'G Wig h'S Rpfi>a aplgG lF a'G fdhv[ Fp,y'G fhp>ySj
h{ m h'i w>q dxi wiVj m$$
x{lvj wiV lq[G b>ei[; l{LV u,u V[ dHV%J } luj s[S
Wji[ wpN l'y w[ dvta wiV v,ej m dxi Rpl lq[G f+a,t iPf dr,y
w'Hg e{Wg brj; lpSjHg ds,ag ##dHV%J } w'Hg luj VhgG s[Sg m
W[-wlPi hV dryji[ m dHV%J } Wig wi s[ m$$ dHh w'Hg WCg
wCwrg brj; lg ba[ Rpl sg wvq hg Vj yv lwg m Rpfi>a
q;WPi h' w[ Wig wiV sj hpwq s[ w[ Wj-dH,;a Wig wi ds,a[
a[ dwhj aphjc[ dli s[ RpKa[ w'Hg r,cg ajwa h{ m aphj} Rph
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dul w[ dli Rpfdi a.P lpbjqg l' sptp w{lj fjr{ mm
W'dv V ujS{ qjdHbj qds qjaj qiSj ygda V bjr{ mm
q[i[ ijqijdH a>P l>aj wj l>a a[i{ mm
a[i[ l[rw wRp FRp dwAp Vjhg uqp Vhg bjr{ V[i[ mm
\lPhg q! 5 b>e 750|

19

hpwq bVplji s'r[G FiJ Rpl lq[G hg Fp,y'G r,v } irjVj


h' eH[ m wijyg a'G yvw[ Wdn>c[ fhp>y eH[ m
3| dHZi c[ij iP.qg rjvj drt[ WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug
bjfS[ bjlS RpKa[ dWijuqjV lV m byjVw hg hpwq wgaj
##Vgvj dl>z ba[ iaV dl>z ci'vg } hj;i wi' m Vgvj dl>z
ba[ iaV ci'vg } hpwq h'dHbj$$ ##aplgG s'r[G Wdn>c[ ujY m
Rpo[ s' epiP VjVw ljdhW s[ Fea bjH[ hV m RV%J } v{ w[
bjY$$ m Rpfi>a dHV%J s'hJ s[ fdhyjS wiV sgbJ dVLjVgbJ
s,l w[ drsjb wi ds,a[ m hpwq bVplji s'r[G Wdn>c[ fhp>y eH[
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WjWj ug sg h;Pig dr,y fhp>y[ a[ dxi s'hJ V[ h[n dvdtbj LWs
fdC%bJ_
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q{G bjlj itg dyda qdh q[ij lF' sptp erjdH ugRp mm
\b>e 763 lPhg qhvj 5 epSr.ag|

dHh f>eagbJ dHV%J V[ dwl[ i>e dr,y bjw[ wHg rji fC%gbJ
duV%J } lpSw[ l+g WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug Whpa hg f+l>V
h'dH m Rpfi>a s'hJ FeaJ sg iaV dl>z ci'vg s' rwa uv
fjSg sg l[rj wis[ m dfaj ug s,ls[ lV Rpl lq[G dHV%J s'hJ
sg br,loj WCg qlajVg lg m hi r[v[ us'G wpN lpVS dr,y
bjRpSj uJ aJ ufpug ljdhW s[ fjn sg brj; lpVSg m uJ
Z>V epiP VjVw sg dHl a'G dWVJ w'Hg spdVbjrgG e,v dHV%J a'G
VhgG lg lpSg m dwl[ rwa dHV%J s'hJ } WjWj ug V[ ws[ Vj
ws[ bjfS[ w'v WpvjRpSj@ aJ dHV%J V[ bjf Wgag w'Hg e,v
wiVg@ VhgG aJ yp,f idhSj m
20

whp wWgi eP>e{ epCp tjdHbj fpA{ a[ dwbj whgb{ m


\b>e 334|

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hpwq wgaj ##bjfSg ljig whjSg lpSjY m$$ dHh dHLjij Rpl
hwgwa r,v lg dul WhjV[ Fp,y' bjRpSj h'dHbj m dHo[ u' f+l>e
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Vjv F[u[ m

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uVq lxv q{G wiV w' f+F a[ig Rplaa wig mm
fiq fpiajV qhJfpit fiq u'a fiq[lig mm

21

dfAv[ epVh ldaepip Wtdl vH[


lda l>eda Vjdv ivjr{ mm
\b>e 855|

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b>aiujqg h;Pi V[ dHl } l>WZ
' V wiw[ WyV wgaj m ##ljcg idhSg
WdhSg r,v Vj r[t m a>P bjfS[ qavW sg e,v wi m$$ dul lq[G
dHlV[ WyV lpdSbj a[ lqdNbj brj; rg Rphg h{ duhCg dw
lpfV[ dr,y ba[ f+at
, lpSg lg m qV } IwgV bj debj m Rpfi>a
dli dVrjw[ q,oj B[dwbj m WCg dVqiaj Vjv bjfSg dfAvg evag
sg F,v
p q>eg m Rpfi>a b"vjs sg q>e wgag WjWj ug V[ fpD, dAbj
##LijW fgGsj h{ m qjl tJsj h{ m dHh lF wpN A,c w[ f+qL
[ i sg
22

W>seg wdibj wi u'i ;pvq Vj wdibj wi m a[i[ b'vjs rg


h' ujr[eg m RpVJ% dl>Zg FeaJ sg l>ea wdibj wi$$ m Rpfi>a
wHg h'i rg WyV wiw[ Rpl} a'dibj m
dHh f+l>e qjaj dfaj fjl'G lpdSbJ m

hdi wg Feda qpwda Whp wi[ mm


VjVw uV l>de w[a[ ai[$$
\b>e 265|

WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug sg l>ea ba[ l[rj dulV[ rg


wgag lF sj W[Cj fji h' debj m
u' u' lidS fi{ ljZP wg l' fjieijqg wgbJ$$
\b>e 610|

ZV"v[ Vei s[ idhS rjvj epiqpt FjHg dwLV dl>z lg m


dHl s[ dfaj sj Vjq sv dl>z lg m s' r,c[ Fij q,lj dl>z
ba[ u,lj dl>z lV m dHh s'r[G Fij l>ljiw w>qJ dr,y ipyg i,ts[
lV m A'Bj FjHg dwLV dl>z ljZP lpFjb rjvj W>sj lg m dur[G
WjSg dr,y ljdhW V[ xpiqjdHbj h{!
Feaj a{ l{ljigbj u'Cp ws[ V bjdHbj mm

\b>e 145|

dHl WyV bVplji FjHg dwLV dl>z sg rg r,c[ FijrJ


Vjv WSsg VhgG lg m dH,w dsV FjHg dwLV dl>z zi'G Rpfijq
h' w[ Vei ap>erjvg bj debj m dHo[ dHV%J sg FPbj lg m Rpfi>a
dul qjvj sj qSwj lg Rpl qjvj dr,y fi'dHbj debj m
dHo'G WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug sgbJ dlxaJ lpS lpS
w[ WjWj ug fjl Fp,y'G bj debj dxi wg lg WjWj ug sg l[rj
V[ i>e vjdHbj m wHg ljv zjvSj zjvg m dH,w dsV WjWj ug
23

dwLV dl>z } v{ w[ c[i[ a'G wpN sPi eH[ m ila[ dr,y dH,w si,ta
w'v dwLV dl>z } hpwq Vjv tCj wiw[ WjWj ug b,e[ v>z
eH[ m b,e[ } eH[ aJ WjWj ug lV m fi dwLV dl>z wg r[tsj
h{ dw b,e[ dy,B[ i>e sj L[i FWwj qjisj bj dihj h{ m dwLV
dl>z ci w[ Rpl sit,a a[ dul s[ w'v WjWj ug dHl} tCj
wi eH[ lV m RpKfi yC%V v,ej hg lg m dw RpZi'G WjWj ug bj
eH[ a[ hlw[ WyV wgaj ##dwLV dl>z wg h' debj@ b,e'G dwLV
dl>z V[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju L[i bj debj lg q{} aJ RplV[
qji hg s[Sj lg m a[ qhjiju aphjc[ bjRpS sg s[i lg hpS
aJ dHo[ wpN rg VhgG h{ m$$ b,e'G WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj dHh
aJ Vi dl>z braji sj iPf lg duV%J V[ a{} siLV s[ w[
ajwaJ WtL ds,agbJ hV m$$ Rpfi>a dwLV dl>z V[ WjWj ug
s[ yiVJ RpKfi q,oj B[dwbj WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##a[ig wqjHg
lxv h' eHg m zjv oJ f{ eHg h{ m

bjf[ bjdf lev qdh bjdf mm


bdVw upeda idy ojdf Rpojdf mm
\b>e 282|

slJ fjaLjhgbJ sj dHdahjl fC%gH[ aJ faj v,esj h{


dw dul rg dl,t RpKa[ ldaepiJ V[ dw+fj ds+LBg wgag Rpl[ }
hg dwl[ Wjhiv[ dHvjw[ dr,y epiP dl,tg sj f+yjiw WSj w[ F[dubj@
FjHg q>N spbjW[ dry@ FjHg Wdhv'G ba[ FjHg FeaP qjvr[ dr,y
ljigbJ WtLgLJ s[ w[ b,c' b,c blojVJ RpKa[ dWnjH[@ epiP
bqisjl ug V[ WjHg q>ugbJ wjdHq wgagbJ m wpN dsVJ dr,y
24

dH,w f+[qg dWbjlj s[ dHvjw[ dr,y'G WjWj ug s[ siLV wiV bjdHbj


ba[ b,e[ rg LiZjvP h'S wiw[ siLV wiV bj uJsj lg m
Rpl V[ dH,w rji WjWj ug fjl b"vjs rjla[ W[Vag wgag dw
qhjiju dw+fj wi' q[i[ zi fp,ai h' ujH[ m Rpfi>a l+g WjWj qhJ
hdiVjq dl>z ug V[ dwLV dl>z r,v dHLjij wiw[ WyV wgaj
##dHl} bjfS[ df>c v{ ujY dHlsg l[rj wi' m dH,w fp,ai wg
wHg h' ujSe[ m dHl WyV } dwLV dl>z ba[ bjRpS rjv[
f+[qg V[ ##lda WyV ljZP Rpfs[L@ la wiw[ q>dVbj@ ujS lq[G
dwLV dl>z } WyV wgaj qjV@ q'h@ q[ij-a[ij s[ NeC[ dr,y
VhgG bjRpSj m ljigbJ WiwaJ epiP VjVw sg dw+fj Vjv a[i[
w'v idhSegbJ m Rpfi>a l>a dwLV dl>z ug dHls[ Vjv Rpl
f+[qg s[ Vei eH[ m Rpo[ blojV RpKa[ bjlS vjdHbj m Rpl f+[qg
s[ zi b"vjs rg h' eHg dwl[ lq[G l>a dwLV dl>z sj Fij
q,lj dl>z RpV%J } dqvS debj Rpfi>a l>a dwLV dl>z sj
njn Wjn r[tw[ h{ijV rg h'dHbj ba[ ?pL rg m dxi dwl[ lq[G
q,lj dl>z V[ l>a dwLV dl>z fjl'G wpN qjdHbj sg q>e wgag m
b,e'G dwLV dl>z V[ dwhj duhCg qjdHbj q[i[ w'v h{ uJ bj
ihg h{ dHh aJ l+g WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug sg q[hi s[ lsw[
h{ a[ l>eaJ sg l[rj rjla[ h{ m RpV%J V[ ds,ag h{ m dHh Vj aphjcg
h{@ Vj q[ig h{ m Vj q{G aphj} s[ lwsj hJ u[ aplgG q>eSj hg
h{ aJ WjWj ug a'G RpV%J sg q[hi q>e'G Rpfi>a l>a dwLV dl>z
V[ q,lj dl>z FjHg } q'C ds,aj dxi rg q[vj e[vj WdSbj dihj m
qjdHbj qdh dulp it{ Rpsjlp m
wdh wWgi hRp aj w' sjlp mm
\b>e 1157|

25

b>Zpv[ dBw dViZV ZVp fjdHY


f+F VjVw bdVw epVg mm
qhJ fpitJ w'v idhSj ba[ RpV%J s[ siLV wiV[ hg qhjV
fp>V hV m r,cg dlxa hpwq q>VS rjvg ] m hpwq q>VS rjvj
hg firjV hp>sj h{ m epirjw ##hpwdq q>dVb{ h'r{ firjSp aj tlq{ wj qhvp fjdHlg$$
dHl[ ai%J dHh WyV Fjeg rJsi rjv[ lji[ l,a FijrJ
RpKfi u,ysj h{ m duV%J lqJ WjWj ug ligi wiw[ l>lji dr,y
ih[ lji[ FijrJ dr,y'G dH,w } ;iPi bjfS[ w'v i,Ddtbj m dH,w
rji hjCg s[ q"lq lq[G dH,w Fij sPu[ } v{S bjdHbj m bjRpS
lq[G bjfSj RPn Vjv v{ bjdHbj dw uvsg qpC bjrJe[ m dxi
hjCg rTJe[ m dul lq[G WjWj ug w'v'G bjfS[ Fij } Vjv v{
ujS sg bjdebj q>eg h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj ##dwl lrjig RpKa[
yC% w[ bjdHbj b,e'G W[Vag wgag dw ug Rph aJ RPn a[ yC%
w[ q{} v{S bjdHbj h{ m b,e'G f{l[ xCj w[ WyV wgaj ##dHw
ipfHgH[ sg RPn } w>c fj w[ rS h[n W>V dsY m sPu[ rS
h[n aplgG W{n ujY m$$ hpwq bVplji RpV%J V[ dHr[G hg wgaj m
wpN dsV Rpfi>a aguj Fij bj debj m dHl ai%J h"vg-h"vg
lji[ Fij hg dHo[ dHw,n[ wi vH[ dHl lq[G hjCg r,T w[ sjS[
w,T rg v{S[ lg m awigWV yjvg dsV WgaS Rpfi>a dxi rg
dH,w Fij } w'v i,t w[ sPu[ ljdibj } bjdebj ds,ag dHh
epiqpt fdirji rg b{lj ldaWyV sj bdZwjig lg ws[ hpwq
VhgG lg q'Cs[ m
2| b{lj hg dH,w epiqp,t fdirji Vei ap>erjvg a'G lg m
26

dHl W;pie sj Vjq FjHg q>ev dl>z lg m fdhvJ q>ev dl>z


V[ bj ujSj@ s' wp dsVJ Wjbs dHls[ zi rjvg V[ bj ujSj@
dfA'G vCwj dxi sPuj@ dxi lF a'G A'Bj qpw>s dl>z dulsj Vjq
lg Rpl V[ bj ujSj m Rpfi>a WjWj ug V[ WC[ f+l>V h'Sj ba[
WyV wiVj dHh q>ev dl>z dfAv[ uVq a[+a[ up,e dr,y Wjvg
sj fp,ai b>es lg m Rps'G ljc[ Vjv h' w[ ijrS Vjv vdCbj m
Rpl lq[G a'G ljc[ Vjv bj dihj h{ m Vj A[ag q>ev dl.z ug
bjdebj q>es[ lV@ Vj WjWj ug a'is[ lV m
dHh f+l>e qjaj dfaj a'G dqdvbj m

VjVw sgV lidS bjH[ edv vjH[


dVbjldibJ sj bjlij epiP VjVw sj zi ] m dwl rg[
qa qaJai } q>VS rjvj u[ dWfaj s[ lq[G epiP VjVw s[ zi
sg YB awsj h{ aJ Rplsg aawjv hg lhjdHaj hp>sg h{ m epiP
zi dr,y b{l[ bV[w hg f+l>e hV m Rpl[ ai%J epiP VjVw ljdhW
s[ s,l liPf Rpfi>a dl,t f>o dr,y qhJfpit lsj hg epiP zi
sg qdiIjsj bVplji wis[ wijRpGs[ ih[ b{lj hg dH,w f+l>e
V[fjv s[ qhjiju[ sj h{ dH,w lq[G V[fjv s[ qhjiju[ s[ q>si
dr,y dLr ug s[ qpwB sj hgij y'ig h' debj m dHl q>si dr,y
fpujig uJ q";Psj qhjijuj hg uj lwsj lg m h'i dwl[ sj ujSj
W>s lg m hgij y'ig h' debj@ Rpfi>a V[fjv rjv[ qhjiju[ V[
fCajv wgag m hgij Vj dqvS wiw[ wHg W[wlPi[ ljZP@ f>dca
bjdsw xC[ eH[ m Rpfi>a wHg qaJ s[ ljZP dqv w[ Rpsjl h'
wi w[ V[fjv a'G f>ujW } yv fH[ m fdhvj fCjRp e'it fpi@
dxi qopij@ b,IpdZbj@ bjdsw ue%j RpKa[ fhp>y[ m lF } bjfSg
awvgx s,lg m Vjv hg dHlsj Rpfjb fp,DdAbj dw dwr[G dHh
27

sp,t Vdria h'r[ m lF V[ urjW s[ ds,aj a[ dwhj dw iju[ Vjv


w"S q,oj vjr[ m Rpfi>a wpN lqJ dHo[ epuji w[ apiV sg dabjig
wiV v,e[ m byjVw dHo[ f>ujW sg l>a q>cvg fhp>yg m dH,w
whjra h{ dw ##u[ dwl[ } spt h'r[ aJ Rph w'n[ R,pa[ yC% w[
spt s,l[ m Fjr dw spt } vp,wj w[ Vj it[ dul rwa V[fjv
rjv[ ljZPbJ V[ f>ujWg l>aJ w'v awvgx s,lg aJ b,e[ f>ujW
rjdvbJ l>aJ V[ WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug s,l fj w[ dwhj
dw Rpl s[ si a'G w'Hg wsg tjvg VhgG qpdCbj m Rpf>ia liW,a
l>a WjWj ug r,v } y,v fH[ m dHV%J dsVJ dr,y wpN lq[G h;Pi
a'G bjdebj v{ f>dca l+g ijq dl>z ug qvPw[ bjH[ h'dH lV m
v[tw s[ dfaj ba[ qjaj Rpl lq[G hj;i lV Rph sls[ hV
dw byjVw WjWj ug V[ L[i dl>z Fjeg rJsi rjvj dul}
h;Pi w"cj ijwL dwhj wis[ lV dHl s[ Vjv dH,w h'i l[rjsji
F[u w[ l>a l+g ijq dl>z ug } A[ag v{ bjRpS rjla[ hpwq
wiw[ qvPw[ F[u ds,aj m lr[i[ api w[ Ljq } hpwq bVplji f>dca
l+g ijq dl>z ug } v{ bjH[ f>dca ug V[ h;Pi fjl fhp>y w[
Vqlwji wgag m aawjv hg WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj ##dHl[ r[v[
hg Wdn>c[ fhp>y' m Rpo[ V[fjv a'G ljZP bj ih[ hV m RpV%J } v{
bjY l+g ijq dl>z ug V[ la WyV wdh w[ dabjig wi vHg
apiV lq[G WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj RpV%J sj bjeP wqjv sjl
VJ sj ljZP h{ m dHl[ Vjq a[ brj; s[Sg@ hpwq bVplji f>dca
ug Wdn>c[ fhp>y eH[ m e,cg bjRpS Rpfi>a ljZP Rpai[ duV%J sg
deSag 30-35 s[ wigW lg m dxi WjWj ug s[ hpwq bVplji
f>dca ug V[ wqjv sjl sj Vjq v{ w[ brj; ds,ag m ljZP wqjv
sjl s[ V[C[ bjRpS a[ f>dca ug V[ s,Ddlbj dw blgG WjWj qhJ
hdiVjq dl>z ug s[ F[u[ h'H[ hJ m aphj} v{S bjH[ hJ aplgG
dxwi Vj wi' m Rpfi>a lji[ ljZP hjug iaV epispbji[ fhp>y[ m
q,oj B[wS a'G Wjbs Wdn>c[ a'G y,v w[ lF ljZP WjWj ug sg
28

h;Pig dr,y fh>py[ ba[ Vqlwji wgag m Rpfi>a WjWj ug V[ wqjv


sjl ljZP } fp,DdAbj ##aphjc[ V[fjv s[L sj wg hjv h{( b,e'G
ljZP wqjv sjl V[ ##h,o u'C w[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju@ aplgG
b>aiujqg lF wpN ujSs[ h' m$$
zB zB w[ b>ai wg ujVa mm Fv[ Wpi[ wg fgi fAjVa mm
aplgG fp,A hg vdHbj h{ aJ W[Vag wisj hJ ijuj Whpa
sp,t s[ dihj h{ m fdhvg e,v dHh wdh>sj h{ dw w'Hg wijqja
dstjY m uJ dxi dul q,a } q{G q>Vsj hJ Rpl q,a dr,y bjY m
u[ w'Hg rg RpfivgbJ s'hJ e,vJ a'G dHVwji wi s[r[ aJ w{s
wi ds>sj h{ m Rpfi>a RplV[ W[-b>a ljZP w{s wga[ h'H[ hV m
blgG WCg qpLdwv Vjv F,u w[ bjH[ hJ hpS dw+fj wi' m
##lidV a[ig idt v[hp q[ig liW q{G dVi>uVj$$
\b>e 587@ dWhjeCj q ^ 5 A>a|

Rpfi>a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##dHl w>q sg d;>q[rjig


epiP VjVw ug V[ ljcg vjHg h{ m lji[ l>aJ } ;[v% dr,y'G wT'G m
duh' duhg wijqja ijuj yjh[ drtj s[rJe[ m dHh w>q aJ
bljcj l[rjsji hg wi s[r[ej m dHl e,v sj aj dHh WhjVj
hg h{@ ljc[ l[rjsji sj Rpo[ ujS sj@ Rpfi>a WjWj ug V[ WyV
wgaj ##dfAv[ dH,w ujq[ dr,y blgG V[fjv dr,y idh w[ af,Ddlbj
wis[ lg m hpS rjvj V[fjv sj ijuj ba[ ijSg bljc[ l[rjsji
lV m dHh s'V'G l[rw dH,w f+gdtbj lq[G x[v% h' eH[ lV m u[wi
Vj x[v% hp>s[ aJ dHV%J sj iju dh>splajV a'G v{ w[ ygV aw
h'Sj lg m hpS w[rv dH,w A'Bj duhj hg BpwCj dqdvbj h{$$ m
Rpfi>a f>dca l+g ijq dl>z ug } hpwq h'dHbj m ##aplgG ujS
sg dabjig wi' m w'Hg dxwi Vj wi' m Rpo[ uj w[ duhCj rg
WyV wi'e[ fPij h'r[ej m lji[ ljZPbJ sg W>s tvjlg wijRp m
a[ iju[ a'G ips+jtL sj dH,w qp,tg qSwj rg v{ w[ bjRpSj$$ m
29

Vjv hg qplwij w[ WyV wgaj@ ##b,u a{} iju epiP WSj ds,aj
h{ m a>P Fi[ siWji dr,y iju e,sg a[ W{nSj h{ a[ iju siWji[
a[ig alrgi v,eSg h{ m dfaj ug u' dHl lq[G l>ea dr,y W{n[
lV m s,ls[ lV dHh WyV wiV lq[G WjWj ug s[ y[hi[ RpKa[
uvjv hg b{lj lg dw wdhS lpVS a'G Wjhi h{ m epiWjSg bVplji
##wdhW{ wRp l'Fj VhgG s[tj hg firjV$$ rjvg e,v lg m dHaVj
WyV wiw[ lF } bijq wiV sj hpwq h'dHbj m dwl[ lq[G dHwJa
dr,y f>dca ug } W{n[ r[tw[ Fjeg rJsi rjv[ L[i dl>z V[
dwhj dw dxwi Vj wi' m u[ q{} qhjiju xJlg a'G ApCj lws[
hV aJ aplgG rg W[-dxwi h' w[ ujY m
dHh WyV l+g ijq dl>z ug V[ l>ea dr,y lpSjH[ a[ l>a
Wvdr>si dl>z ug ijhg dqdvbj m

H[wp aP h'di r[l Whp a[i[ mm VjVwp ujS{ y'u V a[i[ mm


\b>e 356|

dtV qdh brip dtV{ qdh brij byiu yva apqji[ mm


\b>e 613|

duV%J epiqpt uVJ V[ WjWj ug s[ f+a,t siLV wga[ hV m


RpV%J lFVj V[ dHh' WyV s,Ddlbj h{ dw w'Hg rwa b{lj hp>sj
lg@ lr[i[ fdhi WjWj ug sj dyhV y,w+ iPf i>e h'i hp>sj lg@
Ljq } h'i m fi>aP dyhi[ sj uvjv ba[ bV>s dr,y idh>s[ lV m
ujSs[ lV ##liWg i>eg iPfg a>P h{ dalp Wtl[ dulp Vsdi wi[$$ m
WjWj ug s[ lq[G c[i[ dr,y sgrj VhgG lg WjvS sj hpwq m lF
w>q hV%[i[ dr,y hg hp>sj lg m w'v W{nS lq[G dul ai%J WjWj ug
sj siLV dsV[ wis[@ ija } rg Rpl[ ai%J hg hp>sj lg m l[rj
wiV lq[G l[rw ws[ b,wSj o,wSj VhgG lg ujSs[ m l"S sg
bjdebj dqvS lq[G dul rwa lr[i[ siLV wiV[ dHRpG v,eSj
30

q>V } dt,y idhSg dur[G dw fdhvg rji siLV wi ih[ hJ m


siLV rgyji dVa Vr[ hg v,es[ lV m
##l,y f+q[li dVa VrJ$$
hg rjvj epi WyV riasj lg m

\b>e |

ugrV fsrg hdi w[ sjl m


duV dqdvbj bjaq fiejlp mm
fPiW uVq w' v[tp V dqBHg
uVdq qi{ wj wRp s'lp Zi[ mm
\b>e 1014|

16
dHw lisji WjWj ug fjl bjdHbj m Fp,y' Vei dHls[ lhpi[
lV m h;Pi s[ siLV wiV lq[G Vei dr,y'G bjfS[ diLa[sji
a[ FjHg rdibjq dl>z } Vjv v{ w[ Rpls[ ijhgG W[Vag wgag
dw l,y[ fjaLjh@ dHl lisji s[ zi W,yj \vCwj| f{sj h'dHbj
h{ mu' dw dHl lq[G lta Wgqji h{ m dw+fj wi' W,y[ sg d;>seg
Vjv hg qjaj dfaj sg d;>seg h{ m b,e[ bjf lF wpN ujSs[
h' m lpVS Rpf>ia WjWj ug V[ WyV wga[ dw u[ aplk Vj q>V[
aJ dxi Rph W,yj bjfS[ RpKa[ hg tiy wij w[ yvj ujr[ej$$ m
FjHg rdibjq dl>z V[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju@ u' hpwq wi'e[
h' ujH[ej m$$ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##rdibjq dl>z dHV%J V[
wiVj VhgG m FjHg ug V[ dxi Rphg e,v sphijHg m Rpf>ia h;Pi
V[ WyV wgaj ##z,B' z,B dH,w l" ipfHgbj f>pV sjV wi' m lisji
V[ api>a hj wi ds,ag m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##u[ dHh e,v
ngw h{ aJ hpS[ zi fhp>y ba[ Wyj V" Wi V'G h{ ba[ bjfSg
qJ sj sp,Z fg dihj h{ m bjfSg b,tgG r[t v{$$ Rpfi>a lqJ Wga
31

debj m W,yj l'vJ ljv sj urjV h' debj fi WjWj ug sj


WyV Vj q>dVbj debj Rpfi>a W,yj wpN dsV Wgqji idh w[
yvjSj wi debj m
fpiW uVq w' v[tp V dqBHg uVdq
qi{ wj wRp s'lp Zi[ mm
\b>e 1014|

dHh WyV rg qjaj dfaj fjl'G dqdvbj m

dtV qdh ojdf dVrju[ njwpi


Vgy wgB a[ widh iju>ej m
\b>e 824|

dHw dryjij bag eigW dVbjlij FBwsj h'dHbj ba[


ligi a'G i'eg@ Vjv hg qjVdlw i'eJ Vjv fgCa Whpa hg Wpi[
hjv dr,y WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug s[ yiVJ dr,y hj;i
h'dHbj m dHl } bag sp,tg r[t w[ qV dr,y ail bj debj m
hpwq wgaj ##dHl} dHLVjV wij w[ dvbjY m$$ hpwq Rpfi>a
l[rw dHLVjV wij w[ v{ bjH[ m dHl } bjfS[ fjl W{nj w[
ljig qdiIjsj Fjr dw Lij wirjHg m Vjv hg hpwq ds,aj dHl
sg Lij wiV ba[ wijRpS lq[G rjdhepiP-rjdhepiP ufs[ ufjRpGs[
ih' m hpwq bVplji lF V[ dHl[ ai%J hg wgaj m Rpfi>a WjWj
ug sg h;Pig dr,y v{ bjH[ m h;Pi V[ q[hi Fig ds+LBg Vjv
r[t w[ hpwq wgaj ##LpZ h{ m$$ Rpfi>a Rpl} l[rj dr,y i,t dvbj m
tjl l[rj rg w'Hg VhgG@ hpwq bVplji duo[ W{nS sj hpwq wiV@
dxi ljij dsV Rpo[ hg W{n[ idhSj m ija } duo[ f{S sj hpwq
wiVj Rpo[ uj w[ Rpl[ T>e Vjv ija } l'Sj m hpwq bVplji
RpnS W{nS lq[G rjdhepiP-rjdhepiP ufs[ idhSj m r,Z a'G r,Z
32

dH,w ljv sj lqJ v>dzbj h'r[ej m dH,w dsV w'v l,s w[ fp,DdAbj m
##dwRpG WHg a[ig q>e wg h{@ Fjr bjfS[ qV sg dH,Aj s,l m
Rpl V[ W[Vag wgag qhjiju q{G si-W-si ipvsj@ aV qV sj
i'eg us'G sj c[i[ dr,y bjdHbj hJ q{G Whpa lptg hJ m fdhvJ
aJ q{G q>eaJ hg lg q[i[ qV sg rjLVjrJ ws[ qpwsgbJ hg
VhgG lV ba[ hpS q{} w'Hg dH,Aj VhgG h{ m WjWj ug V[ dxi
WyV wgaj ##a[ig Rpl r[v[ u' rg dH,Aj hp>sg lg hpS a{} slSg
hg fr[eg$$ m Rpfi>a Rpl V[ o'C%g uhg Liq q>V w[ sWg uhg
;pWjV dr,y W'dvbj qhjiju q[ig dH,Aj hp>sg lg u[ yji f{l[ w'v
hp>s[ wpN ;qgV ujdHsjs hp>sg aJ drbjh wirj w[ q"uJ wis[ m
qhjiju hpS aJ q[ig Rpqi l,n ljv a'G Rpfi h' eHg h{ m w'Hg
e,v WS VhgG lwsg$$ m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##lF wpN WS
lwsj h{ m a{} ligi rg VrJ dqv ujr[ej m u[ a{} dwl[ dibjla
sj qjvw WSj s[HgH[ dxi aJ ngw h{ Vj$$ m dHl a'G Wjbs
RplV[ w'Hg RpKai VhgG ds,aj m Rpls[ qV sg e,v lqN w[ WjWj
ug V[ bjf hg WyV wgaj ##Lp,Z h{$$ m dxi qpVLg hids,a dl>z
} fp,DdAbj ##dwhCg dibjla y>eg h{ uJ r,cg h{>$$ljigbJ dibjlaJ
s[ Vjq vH[ m dulsj Vjq WjWj ug } s,lS@ h;Pi dHVwji wi
s[S m lF a'G Wjbs ##erjvgbi## sj Vjq dvbj m WjWj ug
V[ api>a hg hJ wi ds,ag m Rpf>ia s' yji dsV h'i Wga[ m dHh
bjRpS rjvj wpN Wgqji h' debj m WjWj ug w'v W[Vag wgag
eHg a[ h;Pi rv'G hpwq h'dHbj ##dHl} lptqVg ljdhW s[ fjn
lpSjY$$ m FjHg wfPi dl>z idhijlgbJ a[ FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg
s'hJ V[ rjig rjig fjn lpSjH[ m lr[i a'G v{ w[ Ljq h' eHgbJ m
lPiu dAfS sj lqJ lg m wpN l>ea WjWj ug sg h;Pig dr,y
W{ng lg m Rpl lq[G WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##erjvgbi@ erjvgbi@
erjvgbi$$ m Rpfi>a Rplsj ligi LJa h' debj m dHl lq[G FjHg
33

wfPi dl>z V[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju@ Rph aJ bjwdCbj dfbj


h{$$ m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##Rph aJ erjvgbi b,fC debj
h{$$ m uVq wjv u'C hpwq u' h'dH lp q>V{$$ m dHl a'G Rpfi>a
Rpls[ ligi sj b>aq l>lwji wiV sj hpwq wi ds,aj debj m
wpN lq[G Wjbs Rplsg dH,w F{S WjWj ug w'v bj w[ i'S v,eg m
h;Pi V[ fp,DdAbj aJ dHl WgWg V[ Rpl } bjfSj Fij s,Ddlbj
a[ Vjv hg Rpl V[ W[Vag wgag dw qhjiju wHgbJ ljvJ sj
sp,tJ sj qjdibj zi'G dVwv debj lg m
lj} w'Hg faj VhgG lg v,ej m Rpf>ia WjWj ug V[ WyV
wgaj dw ##Yh aJ lji[ sp,tJ a'G ApBwjij fj w[$$ erjvgbi
sg dibjla sj qjvw WS debj h{ m WgWg a[i[ i'S sj Rpl
RpKa[ w'Hg bli VhgG$$ m dHaVj WyV lpS w[ Yh vCwg rjfl
yvg eHg m
dHh WyV qjaj dfaj fjl'G dqdvbj m

H[w{ H[w{ aP ijdHbj mm


aRp dwifj a[ lptp fjdHbj mm
\b>e 884|

l[rw l[rj wisj h{ m fi>aP bjfS[ l>egbJ } rg f+[i w[


l[rj dr,y v{Gsj h{ m dur[G WjSg dr,y hpwq h{ _
bjf aidh l>eg aijdh lF wpB>Wp aijr{ mm
uVp VjVwp dalp Wdv hjiS{ u' q[i[ hdi f+F Fjr{ mm
WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug sg l[rj dr,y l>a l+g ijq dl>z
ug qvPw[ rjv[ bjH[ m bjf rg l[rj wgag m duaVg l>ea qvPw[
Vei sg lg@ lF } f+i[ w[ l[rj dr,y vjdHbj m dH,w f+l>e h'i
34

dHl Wji[ lirS wi' ba[ fC%' m dH,w rji l,a b,n qjHg FjHg
qvPw[ Vei a'G WjWj ug s[ siLV wiV bjH[ m Vjv sp,Z sg
rvB'hg Fi w[ v{ bjH[ m WjWj ug V[ sp,Z sg Lij wiV sj hpwq
ds,aj m Vjv hg hpwq bVplji lF V[ i,u w[ Adwbj m da>Vyji l[i sp,Z dxi rg r,Z debj m h'i l>ea aJ siLV wiw[
rjfl qvPw[ df>c } yvg eHg fi dHV%J dr,y'G s' f+[qg hjwq
dl>z ba[ epiqpt dl>z dHo[ idh eH[ m wpN lq[G Wjbs h;Pi
V[ WyV wgaj dw ##duhCj sp,Z r,Z debj h{ Yh aplgG qvPw[
rjv[ hg A,w' m dwl[ h'i } VhgG s[Sj$$ m Rpl lq[G ip,a eiqg
sg lg a[ sp,Z tijW h' debj lg fi hjwq dl>z ba[ epiqpt
dl>z dul lq[G sp,Z fgS v,e[ aJ fg Vj lw[ m dxi s'hJ hjwq
dl>z a[ epiqpt dl>z V[ W[Vag wgag qhjiju sp,Z tijW h' debj
h{ m ljo'G fgaj VhgG uJsj m WjWj ug V[ dHV%J s'hJ } hpwq wgaj
##u' aplgG sp,Z A,w v{Gs[ aJ dHh WCj epSwji sp,Z lg$$ m fi>aP
dHh s'r[G Wji-Wji WjWj ug s[ wdhS a[ rg Vj q>V[ m WjWj
ug V[ WyV wgaj ##u[ aplgG VhgG fgSj aJ dwl[ bjfS[ df>c
s[ } dfbj dsY m dxi WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##aplgG dwl[ bjfS[
df>c s[ W>s[ } Ijs wi'$$ m dxi s'hJ V[ f>u l,a W>dsbJ s[
Vjq vH[ fi RpV%J dr,y'G w'Hg rg dHo[ q";Ps VhgG lg@ a[ Vj
api>a bj lws[ lV m dH,w dsV h'i v>z debj m bev[ dsV
h;Pi V[ fp,DdAbj ##dwY WHg aphjc[ df>c'G w'Hg W>sj VhgG bjdHbj$$
aJ hjwq dl>z a[ epiqpt dl>z V[ W[Vag wgag$$ w'Hg VhgG m
o'C%[ duh[ dyi dfA'G dH,w qvPw[ Vei sg qjHg dulsj Vjq y>sg
lg dHls[ fag sj Vjq dWLV dl>z lg@ bjfSg vCwg } Vjv
v{ w[ yji s'ha[ a[ yji s'hagbJ lq[a siLV wiV vHg bj
fh>pyg m h[n'G l[rjsji V[ W[Vag wgag qhjiju qvPw[ a'G dH,w qjHg
siLV wiV vHg bjHg h{ WjWj ug V[ api>a hg qjHg } RpKfi
l,s dvbj m qjHg sj df>c lpS w[ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##qjHg
35

dHw,vg bjHg h{$$ RplV[ dwhj ##ug VhgG@ dH,w q[ig Zg q[i[ Vjv
h{ m yji s'ha[ s'hagbJ hV m blgG aphjc[ siLV wiV[ hV m$$
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##Lp,Z h{$$ m Vjv hg hjwq dl>z a[ epiqpt
dl>z } WyV wgaj$$ dHl qjHg s[ fdirji } sp,Z AwjY@ s'
wp,u[ dql+g s[ f+ag ugb sp,Z dr,y dqvjY$$ m hpwq bVplji RpaV[
wp,u[ dql+g s[ Ve sp,Z dr,y dqvj ds,a[ m dHh fdirji ljij hg
sp,Z A,w debj m Rpfi>a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##FjHg dHh
sp,Z WC[ epS rjvj lg$$ m dHV%J s'hJ V[ fp,DdAbj ##qhjiju wg
epS lg$$ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##dHl sp,Z dr,y epS aJ WC[
lV m fi da>V epS Whpa r,c[ lV m
1| dHw epS duhCj dHh sp,Z fg v{Gsj ljig Rpqi Rpls[ s>s
sjC VhgG dhvs[ uJ spts[ m
2| sPuj epS e'c[ deB[ sis VhgG wis[ m
3| aguj epS dVe%j duRpG wg daRpG ih[eg m
Rpl lq[G qjHg y>sg w'v hg W{ng lg m RplV[ W[Vag wgag
##qhjiju@ q{} i'; Vijaj h' uJsj h{ Fjr dw ija } ds,lsj
VhgG m$$ Rpfi>a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##qjHg a[ij Vijaj b,u
a'G hg qp,w debj m a[ig wpv dr,y RpfivgbJ WgqjigbJ VhgG
hp>sgbJ m Rpfi>a qjHg WCg r,cg Rpqi sg h' w[ qig m btgi
a,w Rplsg dVe%j wjdHq-s>s ujC rg ngw ih[ ba[ u'CJ dr,y
w'Hg awvgx VhgG h'Hg m fi>aP epiqpt dl>z a[ hjwq dl>z Wjbs
dr,y Whpa fAajH[ m
epirjw h{_
dudV i>de w>ap V ijdrbj lj fA' i[ ajSg mm
hjo fA'C{ dlip ZpS{ uW i{dS drhjSg mm
36

fA'ajrj Vj dqv{ uW yPw{eg ljig mm


\b>e 725|

dHh f+l>e qvPwj dVrjlg FjHg epiqpt dl>z V[ lpSjdHbj m


dxi iaV dl>z dTv'G V[ Fg s,Ddlbj a[ dvtjdHbj m

fRpSp fjSg W{l>aip cif{


cif{ dH>s+ dWyjij mm
qhJfpitJ s[ w"aw spdVbjrgG drdsbj s[ z[i[ dr,y idhS
rjvj W>sj lqN VhgG lwsj m dxi Yh q>Vsj rg VhgG m f+i>aP
duVj s[ ljhqS[ lF wpN ridabj h'r[ Yh dHVwji VhgG wi
lws[ m dHo[ aJ wWgi ljdhW sj WyV ngw Tp,wsj h{wdh wWgi bW ujdVbj mm uW ujdVbj aRp qVp qjdVbj mm
qV qjV{ v'ep V fagu{ mm Vj fagu{ aRp dwbj wgu{ mm
\b>e 656|

l>a l+g ijq dl>z qvPw[ rjv[ hjwq dl>z ba[ epiqpt dl>z
da>V[ hg WjWj ug fjl W{n[ lV m W,sv rjHg qjCg q'Bg uhg
lg m fi>aP eiqg W[-b>a lg m hjwq dl>z V[ WjWj ug fjl W[Vag
wgag ##qhjiju@ eiqg Whpa h{@ RpnSj W{nSj qpLdwv h{ m l+g
ijq dl>z l[rj wiw[ flgV'G flgVg h'H[ fH[ hV m ba[ qhjiju
b,Wv aJ qgGh fr[ aJ y>ej h{ VhgG aJ z,B'G z,B n>Tg hrj
yvj dsY m$$ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##hjwq dl>z@ b{l v'B[
sj q.Ph t'v dsY aJ n>Tg hrj yv fr[eg m bjfS[ dBv[ s[
dfAv[ fjl[ fpijS[ r>N ba[ q>u[ fH[ hV m dHV%J } tC[ wiw[
tCwjY m dHh dH>si s[ra[ s[ lju hV m Yh lpSw[ ?pL h'r[ej m
37

dxi qgGh rg f{ ujr[ej$$ m Rpfi>a hpwq bVplji s'r[G w>q hg


wi ds,a[ m n>Tg hrj rg W[-b>a y,vg a[ qgGh rg W[-b>a bj
debj duhC[ l[rjsji b,e[ eiqg q>Vs[ lV Yh n>T rg Whpa
q>VS v,e[ m dxi W[Vag wgag$$ ##qhjiju n>T rg Whpa h' eHg
h{ ba[ qgGh rg W[-b>a h' debj h{ m W,l wi'$$ m dxi WyV wgaj
##v'B[ sj q>Ph W>s wi dsY m duhC[ r>N ba[ q>u[ tC[ wga[ hV m
Yh v>q[ fj dsY m hpwq bVplji dHr[G hg wgaj m hrj ba[ qgGh
s'V'G hg W>s h' eH[ m Rpfi>a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##dHV%J
v'BJ ba[ q>dubJ rjlJ dr,y wpN VhgG aplgG dwl[ q"w[ a[ rg
dHV%J dfA[ NeCj Vj wdiY m Vjq uf'@ ljZ l>ea sg l[rj wi' m
dHh u' wpN h{ epiP VjVw sg dwifj h{ m Rpl Vjv hg lF wpN
h' dihj h{ m
h'dV Vugdw tpsjdH s{ F[ap V dwl{ s[dV mm
\b>e 1384|

dHh f+l>e FjHg epiqpt dl>z qvPwj dVrjlg V[ dvtjdHbj

wp>cvgbJ
l+g l>a qhJ hdiVjq dl>z yiV wqv Vqlwjiwjiu lF lxv[ wi' v'w fiv'w lpZjiv'w fiv'w lpZji q{ bjdHbj si a[i[WtL' brepS uVq uVq w[ dVqt Vj vjr' s[i[apq h' WC[ Wtdl>s Viw dVrjiS Vihigfiq fijri Vjo f+q u'a f+q[Lig-

38

wjBg W[ig feh a[


epdi wgVg W>ds tvjlp$$
FjHg L[i dl>z dul} WjWj ug w"cj ijtL dwhj wis[ lV
vCjHg NeC[ wisj idh>sj lg m dH,w rji dwl[ vCjHg dr,y
W>sj VpwljdVbj debj dul dr,y dHl} s' ljv sg w{s h' eHg m
dwl[ lq[G L[i dl>z sj FS'Hgbj dWLV dl>z@ dH,w L[i dl>z s[
zirjvg Vjq aJ dHlsj V>s w"i lg@ fi>aP WjWj dHl} VBSg
wdh>s[ hp>s[ lV m dWLV dl>z a[ V>s w'i qvPw[ Vei } ujS
lq[G F,pDy' siLV wiV bjH[@ q,oj B[dwbj m h;Pi V[ fp,DdAbj@ w"S
h{ a[ dwo'G bjH[ >$$ dHV%J V[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju@ q{ dWLV
dl>z qjSwtjV[ a'G hJ m dHh q[i[ Vjv L[i dl>z Fjeg rJsi
rjv[ s[ zi'G V>s w'i h{ m Rpfi>a dr,y h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj ##w'c[
ijtL s[ zirjvg VBSg h{$$ Vjv hg WyV wgaj ##VBSgH[ w'c[
ijtL } hpS w{s dr,y'G Wjhi dvbjRpSj h{ dw VhgG>$$ Rpfi>a
V>s w"i V[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju@ w'cj ijtL aphjcj h{ a[ aplgG
Rpls[ m aphjcg iuj h{ aJ w{s dr,y'G Wjhi v{ bjY m Rpfi>a
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj dw duhCj blgG Rpl} dVaV[q wiV
vHg dwhj h{ Yh aJ ;[v% dr,y rg wig uJsj h{ m wv% VhgG
fil'G } bj ujr[ej$$ m Rpfi>a dWLV dl>z ba[ V>s w"i aJ
qvPw[ } yv[ eH[ m Rpfi>a L[i dl>z w{s dr,y'G dwl[ ai%J Wjhi
bjdHbj m dHh f+l>e dHl ai%J h'dHbj dw vejaji qhjijuj
fdBbjvj Fpdf>si dl>z fdhvg ija WCj cdibj ba[ sPug ija
39

Rpla'G rg@ h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj ##Fjeg rJsi sj L[i dl>z b,u
dHl[ r[v[ hg ;[v% dr,y'G Wjhi w,T s[ m$$ s' dsV s[ ci[ h'H[ qhjiju[
V[ Rpl[ rwa hg ;[v% s[ si'e[ } b,Zg ija } B{vgx'V wgaj
##Fjeg rJsi s[ L[i dl>z } dHl[ rwa hg ;[v% dr,y'G Wjhi
wT'G m Rpfi>a dr,y ;[v% s[ dH>yjiu V[ qhjiju[ } s,Ddlbj dw
liwji Rplsg aJ bu[ w{s Wjwg idh>sg h{ m RpKai dr,y iju[
V[ dwhj ##VhgG@ Rpl} hpS[ Wjhi wT' a[ q{} faj dsY w,DdTbj
h{ dw VhgG$$ m Rpl[ rwa hg ;[v% s[ dH>yjiu V[ L[i dl>z }
uj s,Ddlbj dw L[i dl>z q{} qhjiju[ V[ hpwq wgaj h{ a{}
hpS[ ;[v% dr,y'G Wjhi ujSj fr[ej m Rpfi>a L[i dl>z cisj ;[v%
y'G Wjhi Vj dVwv[ m wh[ b,Zg ija q{G dwZi } ujrJ m ;[v%
dH>yjiu wdhS v,ej q{} aJ qhjiju[ rv'G hpwq h'dHbj h{ m
q{G a{} i,t VhgG lwsj m a>P ;[v% dr,y'G Wjhi h' w[ W[-L,w ;[v%
sg w>Z Vjv v,e w[ Wjwg ija w,B v{ m t{i Rpl[ lq[G hg L[i
dl>z } Wjhi dVwvSj dfbj m
bfpV[ l[rw wg bjf[ ijt{ bjf[ Vjqp ufjr{
uh uh wju dwida l[rw wg
ahj ahj Rpdn Zjr{ mm mm
l[rw wRp dVwBg h'dH dstjr{
u' u' wh{ njwpi fdh l[rwp aawjv h'dH bjr{ mm1 mm
\b>e 403|

rjvj WyV f+a,t ridabj wisj lF wpN rjdhepiP hg h{


fi>aP f+a,t dwl[ qhJ fpit ijhgG hp>sj h{ m
dHh f+l>e L[i dl>z w"cj ijwL s[ Fagu[ q[hi dl>z s[
fp,ai q,v dl>z Fjeg rJsi rjv[ V[ dvtjdHbj m
40

ldaepi dlt wg wi{ f+dafjv mm


\b>e 286|

u' uV fjiW+hdq bfV[ wgV[ daV


wj Wjhpdi wAp Vj Wgyji-ije B'cg q! mm
qhJ fpit l[rw sj epS brepS VhgG r[ts[ hi r[v[ dqhi
s[ zi dr,y idh w[ spdVbjrgG fsjioJ rv'G zjBj VhgG bjRpS
ds>s[ m Fjeg rJsi rjv[ lji[ FijrJ } WjWj ug V[ lsj bjfSg
h;Pig dr,y i,Ddtbj m u[ dH,w Fij Ap,Bg v{ w[ zi debj aJ sPu[
} l[rj dr,y hj;i wiw[ fdhv[ } Ap,Bg s[ ds,ag m dHh lji[
f+[q rjv[ lV m duhCj rg WjWj ug dVaV[q W?Ls[ lV@ lji[
hpwq q>V w[ WjSg fC%s[ idh.s[ lV m dH,w dsV FjHg lirS
dl>z sg dH,w q,N spZ s[S a'G hB eHg Rpl} qvPw[ a'G v{
w[ Fjeg rJsi A,cS uj dihj lg m ila[ dr,y Fpy' i.Pqg rjv[
c[i[ WjWj ug s[ siLV wiV vHg ipdwbj m Rpfi>a WjWj ug
s[ fp,AS a[ lirS dl>z V[ s,Ddlbj dw qhjiju q[ig q,N sp,Z
s[S a'G hB eHg h{@ dHl} Fjeg rJsi A,cS uj dihj hJ m
Rpfi>a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##dHl q{Gh } fjSg s[ dA,B[ qji
w[ y' dvbj wi'$$ m dul q,N } b,e[ wp,B w[ uj i,lJ f{iJ }
fj w[ WC[ IaV wga[ dxi rg sp,Z VhgG lg ds>sg WyV bVplji
Fjeg rJsi Vei uj w[ fjSg s[ dA,B[ qji w[ awigWV da>V
qhgV[ fPij sp,Z ds,aj m Vjej VhgG fjdHbj m dHh lg WjWj hdiVjq
dl>z ug s[ dH,w lZjiV a"i a[ wga[ WyV sj f+a,t f+Fjr m
lda WyV ljZP Rpfs[L mm lda a[ uV uj w{ dis{ f+r[l mm
\eRpCg lptqVg q! 5@ b>e 284|

dHh f+l>e q[hi dl>z s[ fp,ai q,v dl>z Fjeg rJsi rjv[
fjl'G dqdvbj m
41

qji{ ijt{ H[w' bjdf mm


qjVpt w{ dwAp Vjhg hjdo mm
\b>e 281|

vCjHg@ NeCj@ wav ws[ dH,w V[ wgaj m dxi sPu[ V[ fdhv[


dZi sj wav wgaj m dxi dHl vCjHg dr,y wHg df>c ba[ tjVsjV
aWjh h' yp,w[ hV ba[ h' ih[ hV m WjWj ug dwl[ l[rw Rpfi
b{lj lqJ bjRpS WS[ a'G dwr[G i,Ddtbj wis[ ih[ hV m ##bdVw
dWzV a[ ljZP ijt{$$ sg f+a,t dqljv l{GwC[ h;jiJ dr,y'G dH,w
f+l>e h{ m Fjeg rJsi rjv[ A[ Fij L[i dl>z@ W,ej dl>z@ dV,wj
dl>z@ lirS dl>z@ l,sj dl>z@ Vi{S dl>z@ bjdsw lV m Vi{S
dl>z Fjeg rJsi df>c dr,y idh>sj lg m df>c dr,y dwl[ Vjv
dHV%J sg Vijueg lg m Yh fjiBg dVwj dl>z h'iJ s[ zi b,e[
bjw[ vvwji[ qjiV v,e fHg m b,e'G dHh rg dabji h' eH[ m
fi>aP dHV%J dVwj dl>z h'iJ w'v dH,w s' Vjvg W>sPw lg m dHV%J
dr,y'G dH,w FjHg W>sPw v{ w[ w'n[ Rpfi yC% debj m dulsj Vjq
Vi{S dl>z lg m s,l@ dHls[ fjl wjiaPl lV m Vi{S dl>z w'n[
Rpfi'G s' wp wjiaPl fjw[ xjdHi wiV sg w'dLL wi[ m V[a dVi>wji
sg b{lg h'Hg sl[ hg wjiaPl dql h' eH[ m i"vj e'vj Whpa dfbj m
btgi Vi{S dl>z s[ qV dr,y WCg h{ijVg h'Hg dw spLqS zi
b,e[ bj w[ lp,wj hg dVwv debj m dH,w rji aJ hBj ds,a[ eH[
fi>aP Vi{S dl>z h'iJ s[ qV dr,y Wsv[ sg b,e qysg ihg m
qV dr,y l'dybj dHh s,l wjiaPl aJ qjC[ hV i"s dvbj w[
42

dHV%J sj qpwjWvj wigH[ m Wsvj vHgH[ m dHl dtbjv bVplji


wpN wjiaPl h'i dwa'G vH[ m qpCw[ rjfl bjRpS lq[G WjWj qhJ
hdiVjq dl>z ug fjl Fpy'G q,oj B[wS eH[ m dHV%J s[ Rpo[ ujS
lq[G aawjv WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj dw ##aplg b{r[G hg F,u[
dxis[ h'> aphjc[ wjiaPlJ } wpN VhgG h'dHbj m Yh aJ blgG
aphj} l>eg ujS w[ Wvsg b,e dr,y'G i,Ddtbj h{$$ m
qjVl uaV wia Whp Fjda m
dalw[ wiaW dWio[ ujda m
aphjc[ fdirji sg i,Ddtbj wgag h{ m aphjc[ wjiaPlJ } wpN
VhgG h'dHbj m hpS yvj w[ s[t' m hpwq bVplji Wjhi b{r[G hg
yvjH[G aJ y,v eH[ m bjdti } WjWj ug V[ dqhi sg dVeJh
wiw[ dHV%J s[ wi'Z } LJa wgaj a[ dxi dHh bijq Vjv rl[ m
wv wv[L epi LWs dVrji[ mm dHl ai%J l>egbJ l[rwJ sg i,Ddtbj
wis[ lV m Z>V WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug qhjiju m
dHh f+l>e rg q[hi dl>z s[ fp,ai q,v dl>z Fjeg rJsi
rjv[ V[ dvtjdHbj m

aRp u[rcp sjajip V w'Hg


ujywp lsj ujy'r{
\b>e 964|

v{Sj@ s[Sj@ u>qSj@ qiVj rjdhepiP s[ h,o h{ m fi>aP qhJ


fpit sg l[rj ba[ dlqiV d;>seg dr,y hi fjl[ a'G dVijL h'H[
W>s[ sgbJ bjlJ fPiV wiV dr,y wqjV' Bp,Bg h'Hg } dxi a'G
ugrV WtL ds>s[ hV m Fp,y'G Vei sj dH,w si;g dl,t lg dulsj
Vjq s[rj dl>z lg m dHV%J sg vCwg qvPw[ Vei drbjhg h'Hg
43

lg m Rpl W;pie sj Vjq l+! Wp,Z dl>z lg m Rpls[ fdhv[ s' fp,ai
y>VS dl>z a[ xp>qS dl>z b,n ljv a[ f>uj ljv sg Rpqi dr,y
b,n dsV s[ xiw Vjv epui eH[ m l+! Wp,Z dl>z qV dr,y Rpsjl
h'dHbj dH,w rji F,py' Vei bjfS[ lhpi[ zi bjdHbj m lhpdibJ
sg f+[iVj Vjv WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug s[ siLV wiV
bjdHbj m FjHg Wp,Z dl>z s[ fdirji V[ lF wpN s,l w[ a'dibj
lg m dw u' wdhS a>P ##l,a WyV wig uJHg$$ m wHg rji Rpnj
w[ dWnj w[ Lij wirjHg Vjq rg fp,A[ dvtjH[ m ngw dHl lq[G
l>a Whjv sjl u,lg f" rjv[ bj eH[ m l>a Whjv sjl ug }
Rpl lq[G hg y>sj dl>z s[ zi uj w[ dHLVjV wiV sj hpwq
h'dHbj m hpwq bVplji Whjv sjl ug FjHg y>sj dl>z dl,t s[
zi yv[ eH[ m dfA'G hg qvPw[ rjv[ Wp,Z dl>z } rg Whjv sjl
ug s[ df,A[ ujS sj hpwq h'dHbj m api>a hg Wp,Z dl>z FjHg
y>sj dl>z s[ zi uj w[ fhp>dybj m b,e[ Whjv sjl ug dHLVjV
wiV v,e[ lV m Wp,Z dl>z V[ rg uj q,oj B[dwbj m api>a hg Whjv
sjl ug V[ WyV wgaj FjHg u' wpN wiVj h{ WjWj ug V[ wiVj
h{ m ljcj aJ dH,w WhjVj hg h{ m Rpfi>a Wp,Z dl>z WjWj ug fjl
c[i[ fhp>dybj m dxi Wp,Z dl>z } zi yv[ ujS sj hpwq h'dHbj m
Rpfi>a Wp,Z dl>z s[ zi yji vCwgbJ Wl>a w"i@ f>ujW w"i@
FerjV w"i@ epiVjq w"i h'HgbJ m dxi qV dr,y h'i rg Rpsjlg
bj eHg m dHl sg l,l qhJ w"i V[ f+[i w[ dxi WjWj ug fjl
F[dubj m h;Pi V[ ljig qdiIjsj wijHg m eiqg sj q"lq Zp,f
WCg v,eg fi qV VhgG c'dvbj m o'C%j duhj dsV tC[ w[ dHl
Wp,Z dl>z } hpwq wgaj ##a>P dHl[ rwa hg qvPw[ fhp>y uj a[
qvPw[ a'G hjwq dl>z de,v } api>a hg ljc[ w'v F[u s[HgG$$ m
Wp,Z dl>z V[ W[Vag wgag qhjiju q[ig l'Bg a[ yjsi s[rj dl>z
44

s[ zi fHg h{ m Rpfi>a WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj ##bjfSg l'Bg


a[ yjsi rg svgu dr,y tC% w[ zi'G Wjhi hg q>e v{Sg m a[
a>P fjSg rg zi'G Wjhi tC% w[ fgSj h{ m ija qvPw[ uj w[ idhSj
h{ m$$ la WyV wdh w[ Wp,Z dl>z zi'G Wjhi yjsi l'Bg v{ w[
qvPw[ api w[ fhp>dybj m hpwq bVplji bjfS[ zi ujS a'G fdhvJ
hjwq dl>z de,v s[ zi uj w[ Rpl} WjWj ug sj lpV[hj ds,aj
dw a{} WjWj ug V[ Fp,y' Ijs wgaj h{ m b,e[ hjwq dl>z i'Bg
tjS hg v,ej lg m fdhvg Wpiwg qP>h dr,y rg VhgG lg fjHg m
WjWj ug sj lpV[hj dqvS lji hg i'Bg A,c w[ api dfbj m wpN
lq[G Wjbs WjWj ug V[ l+g ijq dl>z a[ y>sj dl>z zpdqbji
Wp,Z dl>z s[ zi F[u[ m dHV%J w'v WjWj ug sg dH,w t,si sg
yjsi tiWPu[ rieg e'v tp,s[ duhg WSjHg h'Hg lg m us'G Wp,Z
dl>z V[ Rph t'v%g aJ dr,y'G dH,w ipfHgbj dVwdvbj m Rpfi>a
Wp,Z dl>z s[ zi vCwj h'dHbj dulsj Vjq urjhi dl>z i,Ddtbj m
vCwj h'S a'G wpN lqJ Wjbs Wp,Z dl>z WjWj ug fjl Fp,y' siLV
wiV bjdHbj m Vjv hg dH,w ipfHgbj ba[ t,si sg Yhg yjsi
q'CV vHg v{ bjdHbj m Rpfi>a WjWj ug V[ t,si sg yjsi aJ
i,t vHg@ ipfHgbj Wp,Z dl>z } q'C ds,aj a[ hpwq wgaj ##dHl}
zi tujV[ dr,y i,t' m$$ dHl lq[G Wp,Z dl>z s[ qV dr,y dryji
bjdHbj m dH,w fp,ai h'i h' ujH[ m Rpls[ qV sg FjrVj s[t w[
b>aiujqg WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##dHw fp,ai hg Whpa h{@ Whpaj
vjvy VhgG wigsj$$
dHl lq[G rg dHh ipfHgbj Wp,Z dl>z s[ fdirji w'v h{ m
dHh WyV Wp,Z dl>z s[ fp,ai urjhi dl>z qvPwj dVrjlg
V[ dvtjdHbj m
45

VRp dVdZ a[i{ lev dVZjV mm


dHAj fPiwp it{ dVsjV mm
\b>e 376|

WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug fjl spdVbjrgG fsjioJ s[S


v{S rjdvbJ sg hi lq[G FgC v,eg hp>sg lg m dHl si a'G w'Hg
tjvg Vhk qpdCbj m
dfAv[ f+l>e Vjv dqvsj dH,w h'i f+l>e fC' m df>c ft'G
wvJ a'G dH,w epiqpt lg dulsj Vjq e>ej dl>z lg m dHls[ f>u
vCw[ lV m duV%J dr,y'G yji byjVw hg o'C%[ lq[G dr,y qi eH[ m
Fp,y'G a'G hdiVjq dl>z qjV dHV%J sj diLa[sji lg dwl[ rwa
e>ej dl>z Fp,y'G hdiVjq dl>z w'v bjdHbj Rpfi>a yji W,y[
qi ujS sj WCj L"w q>dVbj m wdhbj dw yji qp>c[ qi eH[
hV m dH,w hg Wdybj h{ m dHlsj rg q[i[ qV dr,y WCj dxwi
h{ dw wg WS[ej m dHh e,v lpVS a'G Wjbs e>ej dl>z } hdiVjq
dl>z qjV w[ dwhj@ b{o[ ljc[ df>c l>a WjWj ug hV m lF v'w
Rpo[ uJs[ hV a[ bjfJ rg RpV%J w'v y,vgH[ m dHl ai%J dryji
wiw[ hdiVjq dl>z qjV ba[ e>ej dl>z@ dH,w e>ej dl>z sj
vCwj@ epiWyV dl>z Rpqi s,l uJ WjiJ ljv Rph rg Vjv
lg m dqvw[ da>V uS[ WjWj ug fjl iP.qg rjv[ c[i[ fhp>y[ m l[rjsji
s[ ijhgG bjdebj v{ w[ b>si bjH[ m Rpfi>a hpwq bVplji dH,w
l[rw V[ fdhvJ dHV%J s[ h,o ZpbjH[ m dxi dB,v[ RpKfi uj q,oj
B[dwbj m dHo[ W{nS lji hg e>ej dl>z s[ fp,ai epiWyV dl>z
V[ op,w ds,aj m hdiVjq dl>z qjV V[ W,y[ } zPi w[ dwhj dw
46

dHo[ VhgG op,wSj m fi>aP WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##w'Hg e,v VhgG
Wjv } t[cS dsY m$$ dHh dHLjij Rpl W,y[ epiWyV dl>z r,v
lg m Vjv hg WjWj ug V[ fp,DdAbj ##dwr[G bjH[ >$$ Rpfi>a hdiVjq
dl>z qjV V[ W[Vag wgag m e>ej dl>z r,v dHLjij wiw[ dwhj
qhjiju@ dHh q[i[ qjq[ sj fp,a e>ej dl>z f,t'G wvJ a'G h{ m dHls[
yji vCw[ byjVw hg qi eH[ hV m dw+fj wi' m Rpfi>a WjWj
ug V[ WyV wgaj ##Lp,Z h{ m w'Hg dxwi Vj wi' m$$ dxi WjWj
ug V[ bjfS[ yiV uv dr,y Z'w[ dr,y fajl[ fj w[ fgS vHg
ds,aj u' e>ej dl>z V[ bjfS[ fp,ai epiWyV dl>z } dfbj ds,aj m
dH,w ipfHgbj e>ej dl>z V[ q,oj B[dwbj m Yhg ipfHgbj dH,w
Bjwg dr,y W>V w[ e>ej dl>z } q'C w[ hpwq wgaj m ##dHh qjdHbj
tujV[ dr,y i,tSg m ZV sj rjZj h'r[ej m$$ dxi epiWyV dl>z
} ojfg s[ w[ WyV wgaj ##rZs[ xpvs[ ih' m$$ Yh fdirji b,u
Whpa rdZbj m qhJ fpitJ sg q[hi sg Vsdi lswj bV.s f+l>V
hV m dHl a'G Wjbs e>ej dl>z sj vCwj epiWyV dl>z wHg
rji c[i[ bj w[ WjWj ug Vjv t[csj idh>sj m WjWj ug Rpl}
Whpa dfbji wis[ lV m
dHh f+l>e e>ej dl>z s[ lfp,ai epiWyV dl>z f,t'G wvJ
V[ dvtjdHbj m

f+Fp VjijdHS eiW f+hjig m


\b>e 224|

l[rw l[rj wisj h{ dul lq[G l[rj wiV sj qjS wi vr[@


q{G l[rj Whpa wisj hJ m uJ q[i[ ligi dr,y WCg ajwa h{ m
h>wji dwl[ rg Lwv dr,y h'r[ qhJ fpitJ } y>ej VhgG v,esj
47

h{ m hi ug bh>wjip Vj FjrHg r[s wPw lpSjrdh-epirjw h{ m


dHl ai%J dH,w l[rw epui dl>z Vjq sj qdhij dl,t w,yg Fp,y'
sj WjWj ug vHg sp,Z v{ w[ bjRpGsj hp>sj lg m yji sp,Z sgbJ
FigbJ B'wSgbJ rdh>eg RpKa[ i,t w[ i[a s[ dBdWbJ Rpa'G sg
v>z uJsj a[ owsj VhgG lg m dH,w rji yji sp,Z sgbJ FigbJ
B'wSgbJ v{ w[ WjWj ug fjl bj dihj lg m b,Z ila[ dr,y bj
w[ dHl} W[b>a Fji v,ej m dH,w Wu'bjSj Vjq sg ue%j RpKa[
fhp>y w[ dHl} apiVj hg qpLdwv h' debj m Rpfi>a B'wVg dr,y
b,Zj wp sp,Z dHlV[ c'v ds,aj a[ b,e[ } y,v dfbj m Rpfi>a
sp,Z v{ w[ WjWj ug fjl fhp>y debj m dul lq[G epui dl>z V[
B'wSgbJ sj qP>h t'v w[ WjWj ug b,e[ i,Ddtbj m yji[ B'wSgbJ
FigbJ h'HgbJ lV m ep,ui dl>z s[ qV dr,y h{ijVg h'Hg m
b>aiujqg WjWj ug h,l w[ wdhS v,e[ epui dl>z@ duhCj a>P
c'dvbj lg Rph ljcj VhgG lg m ljcj sp,Z aJ Fdibj FijdHbj
dHo[ fhp>y debj h{ m a{} faj h{ Yh aJ Rpo[ bdWea iPhJ
idh>sgbJ hV m A[ dr,y'G yji aJ fg eHgbJ s' Fp,tgbJ W{ngbJ
hV m Yh a{} tjSegbJ m Rpfi>a epui dl>z V[ Fp,v q>V vHg m
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##epui dl>z a>P rjdhepiP rjdhepiP ufSj
Fp,v debj h{ aJ a[i[ a[ dHh rjfig h{ m$$ Rpfi>a epui dl>z
V[ W[Vag wgag dw+fj wi' m q[i[ WyV sj w'Hg Rpfjb s,l' m q{o'G
Fp,v h' eHg m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##a>P df>c qpCS lq[G ilaj
Wsv v{ m$$ epui dl>z V[ fp,DdAbj ##ug@ dwr[G WsvJ$$ aJ WjWj
ug V[ s,Ddlbj ##b{o'G Fp,y'G q>cg } uj w[@ dxi wjhV dl>z rjvj@
dxi ap>erjvg@ b,e[ FjeP dr,y'G h' w[ w,yg Fp,y'G ujrgG m$$ hpwq
bVplji dHr[G hg wgaj m epui dl>z dHl a'G Rpfi>a rg l[rj
wisj dihj m
dHh WyV vAqS dl>z Fv[igH[ a'G dqdvbj m
48

u' f+dF bfVg l[rj vjdHbj mm


VjVw l' l[rwp shdsl f+eBjdHbj mm
\b>e 285|

dHZi dur[G l+g ijq dl>z ug qvPw[ rjdvbJ RpKfi WtdLL


hp>sg eHg m dar[G dar[G RpV%J sg q>V dWiag bc'v hp>sg eHg m
Vjv sg Vjv RpV%J sg dV>dsbJ LpiP h' eHg m fi>aP f>dca ug
l[rj qeV h' w[ wis[ ih[ m dHh rg dH,w WjWj ug r,v'G f+gdtbj
sj lqJ lg m
##dV>sj uV wRp tig dfbjig mm
dV>sj Wjfp dV>sj qdhajig mm
epirjw h{ m$$ wsg WjWj ug V[ w[li dl>z } fp,AS@ w[li
wlaPig@ a[ig Feag h' eHg fPig m wpN q>e v{ m$$ Rpfi>a w[li
dl>z V[ dHh' hg urjW s[Sj qhjiju@ sjsj ug f>dca l+g ijq
dl>z tjvg Vj ujr[ m u' wpN q>esj h{ dHl} dsRp m wHg rji
dHh WyV h'dHbj dHZi WjWj ug V[ l+g ijq dl>z } V[fjv ujS
sj hpwq wgaj Vjv WyV wgaj ##V[fjv uj w[ duh' duhg wijqja
ijuj q>e[ drtjY@ ciVj VhgG m a{} iju epiP WVjRpSj h{ m
bIp,DdZbj a,w dHw,v[ hg ujY m Rpl a'G b,e[ s' l[rjsji a[i[
Vjv V[fjv a,w ujSe[ m bIp,DdZbj a'G bjl[ fjl[ dwa[ VhgG
ujSj m$$ Rpfi>a l+g ijq dl>z ug V[ q,oj B[dwbj ba[ WjWj ug
V[ ##Lp,Z h{@ Lp,Z h{@ da>V rji WyV wgaj m$$

49

eHg Wh'Cp W>sg A'Cp dVi>wjip sptsjig mm


\b>e 624|

Fjeg rJsi rjvj liWS dl>z a[ Rpls[ zi rjvg Fjeg


rJsi a'G qvPw[ ujS lq[G ila[ dr,y'G v>zs[ h'H[ Fp,y' siLV
wiV bjH[ m dul lq[G liWS dl>z ba[ Rpls[ zirjvg V[ q,oj
B[dwbj m Rpfi>a zirjvg i'S v,e fHg m WjWj ug V[ fp,DdAbj
##dHh vCwg dwRpG i'Gsg h{{$$ aJ liWS dl>z V[ W[Vag wgag
##qhjiju$$ dH,w hg vCwj lg Yh qi debj h{ m dHl wiw[
dHh i' ihg h{ m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##qiV rjv[ qp>c[ sj
wg Vjq lg m$$ RpKai dr,y liWS dl>z V[ W[Vag wgag ug Rplsj
Vjq ##Bdhvj$$ lg m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##Yhg Bdhvj qpC
w[ bjr[ej a[ Bdhvj hg Rplsj Vjq i,tSj a[ hpS i'Sj VhgG m$$
Rpfi>a liWS dl>z s[ zi fp,ai h'dHbj m u' b,u aw ugRPGsj
h{ m dHh f+l>e rg Rpl[ Bdhvj dl>z V[ dvtjdHbj m

duVj epip dfbjij qdV dyda


daVj FjRp epiP s[rjHgbj mm
\b>e 648|

w'S dl,Z[ qV Vjv siLV wiV bj dihj h{@ dwlsj qV


dlsw a'G tjvg h{@ dHl e,v } qhJfpit ujSs[ hV m
vdhi[ tjV[ sj dH,w dl>z Vjq dsbjv dl>z lg m dHh WjWj
ug s[ siLV wiV rjla[ i'; aJ VhgG@ fi>aP bjRpGsj ;iPi
50

lg@ ba[ y>ej dlsw rjvj W>sj lg m dH,w rji dHh dsbjv
dl>z siLV wiV vHg Fp,y'G } bj dihj lg m dH,w ydqbji dl,t
dulsj Vjq zgvj dl>z lg@ dsbjv dl>z } ila[ dr,y dqdvbj
ba[ fp,AS v,ej ##dsbjv dl>z dw,o[ uj dihj h{>$$ dsbjv dl>z
V[ RpKai ds,aj Fp,y' l>aJ s[ siLV wiV uj dihj hJ m dxi
zgvj dl>z V[ dwhj q{G rg a[i[ Vjv y,vsj hJ m dHl ai%J wdh
w[ zgvj dl>z rg Vjv h' apdibj m Rpfi>a vdhi[tjV[ a'G dHw,n[
apis[ Fp,y'G fhp>y eH[ m FjHg dsbjv sjl ug lqjZ w'v'G fhp>y
w[ zgvj dl>z dfLjW wiV v,e dfbj dsbjv dl>z b,e[ apisj
h'dHbj WjWj ug fjl fhp>y debj m b>aiujqg WjWj ug h,l w[
W'v[ ##dsbjv dlbJ a[i[ Vjv sj dwo[ h{>$$ dsbjv dl>z V[ W[Vag
wgag qhjiju@ ##Yh df,A[ idh debj h{ m$$ WjWj ug V[ WyV
wgaj ##Rpl } df,A[ hg idhS s[ Yh aJ ijtL h{ m$$ dHl a'G
Rpfi>a dsbjv dl>z wjxg lqJ WjWj ug fjl W{nj dihj@ fi>aP
zgvj dl>z siLV wiV rjla[ VhgG bjdHbj m
dHh f+l>e Rpujei dl>z vdhi[tjV[ rjv[ V[ dvtjdHbj m
l+g l>a qhJ hdiVjq dl>z W>s' Wji' Wji m
lgl dVrjr' yiV fi yiV ZPi dli Zji m
yiV ZPi dliZji wi q>V a>V dViqv h'dH m
bjZ@ dWbjZ@ RpfjZ lF dAV qdh s[r{ t'dH m
u' a[ig liSjeag da>V wg spiqa fi hig m
u{ u{ u{ h' fpiL fpit fiq u'a f+q[Lig m

51

hpwqp fAjV{ lp H[w' ujV{ W>sj whgb{ l'Hg


\b>e 1350|

Lwag bj ujSg uJ wijqjaJ sj ZVg WS ujSj h'i e,v


h{ m fi>aP hpwq q>V w[ idhSj@ hpwq } fAjVSj r,cg e,v h{ m
WjWj b,Bv ijdH ug sj q'hV } ugMsj wi s[Sj@ WjWj epids,aj
ug sj eRP ugRPGsg wi s[Sg@ dHl s[ Wsv[ bB,v ijdH ug
sj ba[ WjWj epids,aj ug sj ligi dabjeSj dHl F[a }
ldaepiP bjf hg ujSs[ hV m dH,w rji WjWj qhj hdiVjq dl>z
V[ l>a Z>VJ dl>z ug } bjfS[ w'v l,s w[ hpwq wgaj ##dw
a>P b>dq+ali uj w[ dHwr>uj ipf{ sg s[e wij w[ bj m$$ Vjv
WyV wgaj ##bjRpGdsbJ ljrZjV h' w[ idhSj m$$ dHRpG WyV
wiw[ dHwr>uj ipf{ s[ w[ b>dq+ali } a'i ds,aj m Rpfi>a l>a
Z>Vj dl>z ug b>dq+ali } yv[ eH[ m dHl a'G yji wp dsV Wjbs
byjVw hg WjWj ug V[ WyV wiVj LpiP wi ds,aj m ##Vgvj
dlbJ Z>Vj dl>z ljrZjV VhgG dihj m$$ wHg dsV dHh'G hg WyV
wis[ ih[ m sl dsV Wjbs WjWj ug V[ dH,w dsV Vgvj dl>z
} q>si w'v fdhij s[S vHg hpwq wgaj dw ljc[ hpwq a'G
dWVJ dwl[ } c[i[ dr,y VhgG bjRpS s[Sj m$$ wpN dsVJ Rpfi>a
l>a Z>Vj dl>z ug qpC w[ WjWj ug s[ siLV wiV b>dq+ali
a'G dl,Z[ Fp,y'G fhp>y[ m fdhi[sji ijhgG dul lq[G b>si bj w[ siLV
wiV sg bjdebj q>eg aJ WjWj ug V[ wCwsg brj; dr,y
WyV wgaj ##Rpl} wh' dw du,o[ tCj h{ Rpo[ hg ih[ m b>si
52

bjRpS sg v'C VhgG m$$ hpwq bVplji l>a ug Rpo[ hg tC[ h'
eH[ m lr[i a'G v{ w[ Ljq h' eHg m Rpfi>a Ljq } W[Vag wgag
dxi hpwq wgaj ##VhgG ba[ Rpo[ hg ih[ m$$ hV%[ij h'H[ a'G hpwq
wgaj ##dHw i'Bg@ dH,w evjl fjSg sj s[ bjY$$ b,n dsV
dHl[ ai%J hg v>z[ m btgi ljig l>ea rg h{ijV h' eHg m dul
lq[G l>ea V[ cidsbJ cidsbJ WjWj ug w'v W[Vag wgag dw
##qhjiju@ Z>VJ dl>z } WtL'$$ aJ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##ujY
Z>VJ dl>z } fp,A' RplV[ hig w[ f,aS RpKa[ wg w>q wgaj h{ m
i,W sj Ligw WdSbj lg m$$ Rpfi>a l>a Z>Vj dl>z fjl'G l>ea
V[ fp,DdAbj a[ Yh rg q>V eH[ dw duhCj Rpl r[v[ Rpo[ qvjh
lg Rplsj qp>cj sis Vjv aCx dihj lg m q{} r[t w[ ail
bj debj m Rpfi>a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##RplV[ qvjh s[
zi'G qi w[ dH,w iju[ s[ zi uVq v{Sj lg m lp,t F'eV[ lV m
a>P Rpl} Fp,t V>e dr,y W>V w[ dWnj bjdHbj h{ m$$ Rpfi>a Z>Vj
dl>z V[ l>ea s[ ijhgG Fp,v q>Vg m dxi WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj
##dHl rji a{} WtL ds,aj m Vjv[ a{} s,l w[ a'dibj lg dw
ljrZjV h' w[ ihgG m b,e[ a'G a>P duo[ tCj h{ dHo'G hg q,oj B[w
w[ qpC ujdHbj wi m$$ Rpfi>a l>a Z>Vj dl>z ug wHg ljv dHl
ai%J hg wis[ ih[ m wHg ljv Rpfi>a qjxg dqvg
qjxg rjvj f+l>e b,e[ bjr[ej m
dHh WyV qjaj-dfaj fjl'G dqdvbj m

53

lptp V fjdHdV qpeZ Vi l>a Vjdv th>s[ mm


\b>e 316|

qhJ fpit Vjq ufs[ ba[ ufjRpGs[ hV m liW,a sj Fvj


wis[ ba[ yjhp>s[ hV m fi>aP qjdHbjZjig W>s[ qjdHbj s[ qs
dr,y bj w[ qhJfpitJ sg W[-bsWg wi uJs[ hV m wpsia rv'G
W[-bsWg wiV rjdvbJ } b{lj hg xv dqv uJsj h{ m
l>a Whjv sjl ug u,lg f" rjvg idh>s[ lV m dHl blojV
s[ bjl[ fjl[ l+! s[ fdirji sg ;qgV W[-bWjs fHg lg m dH,Do[
dH,w ue%j } a'dabJ rjvg bjts[ lV m l>a Whjv sjl ug
V[ hpwq s[ w[ dH,Do[ dH,w oCj dabji wirjdHbj lg m Rpl oC[
RpKfi f>AgbJ } y'ej fj w[ dHo[ dHwJa dr,y bj dBwSj m
dwaVj lqJ dHwJa idh w[ ##Wdvhjig wpsia rdlbj$$ sj V;jij
r[t w[ bV>s dr,y idh>s[ lV m dHl s[ Vjv sg ;qgV sj qjvw
l+! ijq uei dl>z lg m dHls[ yji fp,ai lV m dH>uV dl>z@ xp>qS
dl>z@ u,ei dl>z@ siWjij dl>z ba[ B,vg f>urgG vCwg lg m
dwl[ lq[G dHh ;qgV rjhpS vHg dabji wis[ lV m dW+A WPB[
NjC bjdsw fp,Bs[ lV m a'dabJrjvg qdhi[ sg ue%j l>a Whjv
sjl ug s[ wdhS RpKa[ q;sPi V[ tjvg A,c ds,ag m ija }
dul lq[G q;sPiJ w>q wiw[ zi eH[ aJ RpV%J V[ s,Ddlbj wpN
;qgV a'dabJ rjv[ qdhi[ sg u,lg f" rjv[ l>aJ s[ hpwq Vjv
A,c ds,ag h{ m l+! dH>uS dl>z V[ dwhj Yh ;qgV rg rjhg
wi vr' m Rpfi>a q;sPiJ V[ urjW s[ ds,aj dw l>aj s[ wh[
54

a'G RpvB blgG VhgG wiVj m l++! dH>uV dl>z V[ dwhj lr[i[ q{G
Vjv uj w[ bjf h,o Vjv lF wpN wiJej m l' bev[ dsV dH>uV
dl>z lF q;sPiJ lq[a bj w[ bjf w>q wiV wirjRpS v,e
dfbj m ngw Rpl lq[G l>a Whjv sjl ug rg Rpo[ hj;i lV m
Rpfi>a bev[ dsV rg l>aJ V[ i'dwbj a[ dwhj dw b{awg ue%j
} Vj A[C' m dHh WyV epq>Bg rjv[ FjHg qpw>s dl>z a[ h'iJ
V[ rg s,Ddlbj h{ dw Rpl r[v[ l+! dH>uS dl>z wpN W[-bsWg
s[ WyV W'dvbj m whg qjiV vHg rg dabji h' debj m l>a
Whjv sjl ug dWVJ wpN W'v[ Rpo'G yv[ bjH[ m Rpfi>a ija }
b{lj FjSj ridabj dw l+! dH>uS dl>z ija } yCjHg wi
debj m bev[ dsV lr[i[ dwl[ f+[qg V[ bj w[ s,Ddlbj dw qhjiju
dH>uS dl>z api debj m l>a Whjv sjl ug V[ WyV wgaj ##dH>uS
s[ qei c,DW[ rg ujSe[ m$$ dxi h'i Fij xp>qS dl>z@ u,ei dl>z
a[ B,vg bjdsw qi eH[ m awigWV ljij fdirji hg ?aq h'
debj m dH,w siWjij dl>z vCwj dulsg Rpqi Rpl lq[G c[T
wp ljv sg h'r[eg m Rpl W,y[ siWjij dl>z } v{ w[ qjHg ljdhW
w"i u' dw l+! Ljq dl>z s[ zirjvg lg m \l+! siWji dl>z bu[
a,w q"uPs h{| l>a Whjv sjl ug s[ yiVg uj fjdHbj ba[
dtqj q>eg m Rpf>ia l>a Whjv sjl ug V[ W,y[ \siWjij dl>z|
s[ dli a[ h,o i,t w[ WyV wgaj dHh L[i awCj h'r[ej m l+!
siWjij dl>z sg Rpqi dHl lq[G b,nai ljv sg h{ m
dHaVgbJ LwagbJ s[ tujV[ lV m l+g WjWj qhJ hdiVjq
dl>z ug s[ l[rwJ w'v m dHh l>a Whjv sjl ug s[ blojV
RpKa[ l>a@ h>l qpVg ug a[ ba[ h'i l>ea fjl'G f+jfa h'dHbj m

55

wdW,a
fgC Vj idhV ds>s[ uJsg dHw fv dry
Zgiu WV%"s[ qV FJHg ds>s[ Zgi h{ m
fgC f>u sPaJ rjvg ws[ Vj idhS ds>s[@
wjq w'+Z rjvj y'vj wgaj vgi' vgi h{ m
qV sg wp,CaV a[ afL dqBjdH ds>s[@
n>Tj nji dsv dq,nj h'r[ dur[G r,c[ Lgi h{ m
l+g qhJ hdiVjq dl>z b{l[ r,c[ fgi h'H[@
duV%J s[ qpigs h'dH fgiV w[ fgi h{ m

hpwq{ b>sdi lFp w' Wjhdi hpwq V w'dH mm


\b>e 1|

bfS[ l[rw l>a l+g ijq dl>z ug } hpwq s[ w[ V[fjv


} a'iV a'G fdhvJ l+g WjWj hdiVjq dl>z ug V[ dH,w lq[G byjVw
hg hpwq wgaj ##vCjHg v,e yp,wg h{@ W>s[ Whpa qi ih[ hV
ba[ lj} bjfSj bjlS yp,wS sj hpwq bj debj h{ m$$ dHaVj
WyV wiw[ WjWj ug \duo[ hpS l>ea q,oj B[wsg h{| dHl blojV
RpKa[ bj w[ dWiju eH[ m dxi qpC w[ dB,v[ RpKfi VhgG eH[ m wpN
lqJ bjf ug V[ bjfSj t;jVj dB,v[ ljdhW RpKa[ i,Ddtbj m dxi
hpwq bVplji Yh bjfS[ bjlS w'v l,u[ h,o r,v ue%j R,pa[
dvbj w[ i,t dvbj m dH,w dsV l+g ijq dl>z ug } hpwq wgaj
##sjsj ug dB,v[ RpKfi ujRp m Rpo[ w'nCg rjvj lagi Bp,B yp,wj
h{ m Yh hpwq sj W,Zj tCj h{ m Rpl} wh' dw blgG dB,v[ a'G
h[n y,v[ eH[ hJ m a>P hpS ;qgV a[ dc,e fRp m aplgG ljcj hpwq
lpSjRpS r[v[ Wjhi hg idhSj m$$ dHl hpwq a[ f>dca l+g ijq
dl>z ug dB,v[ Rpfi eH[ m Wjhi tC[ h' w[ WjWj ug sj hpwq
56

b,ti b,ti uj W'v[ m qjaj dfaj s,ls[ lV Rpl r[v[ dH,w r,cj
;'isji tCwj h'dHbj ba[ lagi Bp,B debj Rpfi>a f>dca l+g
ijq dl>z ug dB,v[ a'G h[n RpKai bjH[ f>dca l+g ijq dl>z ug
} WjWj ug l>ldw+a s[ e+>o rg l.dobJ Vjv fC%jdHbJ wis[
lV m dH,w rji f>dca l+g ijq dl>z ug bjfS[ bjf hg e+>o
v{ bjH[ m Rpfi>a WjWj ug } l.dobj s[S vHg W[Vag wgag m
WjWj ug V[ b,e'G h,l w[ WyV wgaj ##a{} sjsj ug wg faj
h{ blgG b{l r[v[ dwo[ W{n[ hJ aplgG e+>o v{ bjH[ h' fC%j ds>s[
hJ m b,e[ rjla[ us'G blgG bjf whgH[ Rps'G e+>o v{ w[ bjRpSj
h'r[ej m$$ Rpfi>a l+g ijq dl>z ug V[ la WyV wgaj m
dHh WyV l+g ijq dl>z ug s[ FjSu[ Ljla+g ug V[ dvtjdHbj m
Fp,Dy'G Vei s[ idhS rjvj dH,w f>dca h>l iju lg Rpl
} rg WjWj ug V[ epiqptg sj RpCj@ bjCj sg f{Gag ba[ qphjiVg
dltjHg lg m Vjv WyV lg blgG dwl[ } dHl a'G b,e[ VhgG fCjRpGs[ m
b,e[ bjf dqhVa wiw[ fC% v{@ dHh WyV sj qavW spdVbjrgG
fC%jHg a'G WQ{i f+qjio rg h' lwsj h{ m b,e[ blvg e,v WjWj
ug bjf ujVS m
bfVg eda bjdf ujV{ mm lpdS lpdS bri rtjV{

bjdf Fvj wiaPda bda Vgwg m


bjf[ ujV{ bfV[ ug wg
\b>e 294|

qhJfpit dwl[ sj Fvj dwr[G wis[ hV@ dHh wpN r[tw[ ba[
lpS w[ dHVljVg Wp,Z h{ijV h' uJsg h{ m
57

Fp,y'G Vei s[ idhS rjvj dH,w qplvqjV q'yg dul sj Vjq


u{aj@ s,ls[ hV m WjWj ug s[ hpwq bVplji f>siJ dsVJ uJ
qhgV[ dr,y sp-tp,vj V'wsji u'Cj dlRpGw[ dvbjRpGsj hp>sj lg m
Rpfi>a WjWj ug V[ dHl} Rpl lq[G dqhVa rg s[Sg u' ws[
dHlV[ v{S a'G dHVwji wiVj aJ dHl} fp,ASj ##a>P wg yjhp>sj
h{ ($$ Rpfi>a dHh e,v wHg ljv yvsg ihg ba[ dHh q'yg
u'Cj dlRpGw[ v{ bjRpGsj dihj m dH,w rji dHh u'Cj dlRpGw[ v{
bjdHbj WjWj ug dqhVa s[S v,e[ aJ dHlV[ W[Vag wgag qhjiju
aplgG dHc[ r,c[ h' w[ q{} u'C[ sg dqhVa s[ w[ Bjv ds>s[ h' m
w'Hg r,cg WtdLL dsY Rpfi>a WjWj ug V[ fp,DdAbj ##a>P bjf[
s,l a{} r,cg yg; dwhCg yjhgsg h{$$ Rpfi>a dHlV[ W[Vag
wgag q{} Viw sg b,e a'G WyjY m lpSw[ WjWj ug V[ WyV
wgaj ##Vgvj dlbJ@ dHlsg Lij wij w[ dvbjRp$$ hpwq bVplji
Lij wgag eHg h;Pi v{ bjRpGsj aJ WjWj ug V[ dHl} wvqj
fCj% w[ dH,w qjvj bjfS[ w'v'G s[ w[ hpwq wgaj ##apisj dxisj
dHl} x[isj dihj wi a[ a>P Viw VhgG ujH[ej m a[ij dhljW
qp,w debj h{ m a[i[ Wjwg dsV o'C%[ hg hV m$$ Rpfi>a wpN dsVJ
Wjbs byjVw hg dH,w T,n[ sg x[B v,eS Vjv dHlsg q"a
h' eHg m dul rwa WjWj ug fjl u{a[ sg q"a sj d;wi h'dHbj
b,e'G WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj Rplsj dhljW h' debj h{ ba[
u>qS qiV a'G idha h' debj h{ m
dHh f+l>e qjaj-dfaj fjl'G dqdvbj m
Ziq ijdH sdi wjes xji[ uV VjVw v[tj lqNj m
\b>e 698| \u{alig q !4|

58

a[ig wpsida aP h{ ujSdh


bRpip V sPuj ujS{ mm
\b>e 1185|

WjWj ug s[ be>qg w"aw w'Hg Vj w'Hg WyV b{lj wiVj


dul} lpS w[ l>ea ba[ h'i lpVS rjv[ h{ijV h' uJs[ lV
dur[G epirjw h{ dw ##w[dabj w[ Wjf w[dabj w[ W[B[ w[a[ epi
y[v[ hPH[ m$$ dHh rg f+a,t h' uJsj lg m dHl[ hg Fp,y' Vei sj
dH,w a[vg qplvqjV hp>sj lg dulsj Vjq ##xuv sgV$$ lg m dHls[
ligi RpKa[ wHg ai%J s[ i'eJ s[ dVLjV lV m r[tS rjv[ }
WCg Vxia bjRpGsg lg m dsqjeg a"i RpKa[ rg xuv sgV fPij
ngw VhgG lg m sl f>siJ dsV Wjbs dHl} wHg rji l[rjsji
z,vw[ l,sSj dxi sp,Z dfvjRpSj@ wHg rji dHlV[ A[ag bj ujSj
wHg rji bjwC ujSj m wHg rji l[rjsji F[uS[ fi>aP dHl}
l,ss[ ;iPi lV dH,w rji xuv sgV } l,Ddsbj m dHh bjr[
Vj m btgi RpKa[ dHl xuv sgV } l,s hg dvbj m bjRpS lji
hg dHlV[ WjWj ug } W[Vag wi ds,ag W'dvbj qhjiju@ q{}
l,s w[ sp,Z dfvjRpGs[ h' m wHg wHg lpV[h[ F[us[ h' q[i[ ligi
r,v r[t' m q[ij sp,t aJ hBjY m Rpfi>a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj
a{} l,s w[ sp,Z rg dfvjRpSj h{ ba[ a{} ijug rg VhgG wiVj m
RplV[ fp,DdAbj dwRpG@ ijug dwRpG VhgG wiVj> dHh wg e,v h'Hg m
aJ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##a>P dfAv[ uVq dr,y WCj Fjig
drsrjV lg m a[i[ w'v fC%V rjv[ Whpa lV m duV%J dr,y blgG
59

rg lg m fi a{ dwl[ } drdsbj VhgG lg ds,ag m hpS Rphg drdsbj


a{} lijf s[ ihg h{ m Rphg a{} i'e h{ m$$ aJ x;vsgV V[ W[Vag
wgag ##q{} ijug ws' wi'e[$$ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj us'G blgG
dxi ligi ZjiV wiw[ bjH[ Rps'G ljig e,v WS[eg ba[ hpS
a[ij b>a l>Fjv vrJe[@ RplV[ dxi Yhg e,v sphijHg Rpfi>a
h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj ##w'Hg lqJ bjH[ej dHo'G qplvqjV dVwv
ujSe[ Ys'G a{} l>Fjv vrJe[ m$$ dHh Fdr,ta WyV fjdwlajV
ba[ dh>splajV s[ WBrji[ r,v lg m dHl WyV bVplji xuvsgV
sj b>a rg dHl c[i[ dr,y h'dHbj m l>a Vi{S dl>z ug qdhdSbj
rjdvbJ V[ WjWj ug a'G Wjbs dHlsg l>Fjv wgag m
dHh WyV rg qjaj-dfaj fjl'G dqdvbj m

wp>cvgbJ
l+g l>a qhJ hdiVjq dl>z yiVV lgl dVrjdH mm
spt sdvs+ fi hi' sdHbj wi' lptsjdH mm
sdHbj wi' lptsjdH q[hi s[ zi dry bjRp mm
sjl ujV wi sjl } f+FP Vjq ufjRp
wh[ sjl ldaVjq dl>z wjB[ f+F Fiq Fig
apq h' VjoV w[ Vjo f+q u'a f+q[Lig mm

zdi Wjhdi a[ij Firjlj aP uV w{ h{ l>de


\b>e 677|

f>dca l+g ijq dl>z ug WjWj ug s[ hpwq bVplji V[fjv


} yv[ eH[ m Rpo[ uj w[ dwVJ hjvaJ dr,y'G bjf ug } v>zSj
dfbj m wiV wjiV lq+o aJ bjf WjWj ug lV m fi>aP epirjw
60

bVplji dli Rpfdi njcj epiP lPij m VjVw ajw[ wjiu fPij mm
lF wjiu ijl hp>s[ ih[ m wjnq>cP fh>pyw[ q>si s[ fpujig ijhg
iju[ aw fh>py wgag eHg m fdhvg rji iju[ V[ dqvS lq[G u'
f+LV wga[ Rpl r[v[ ijuj bjfS[ bjlS RpKa[ bv,e W{nj lg m
l+g ijq dl>z ug bv,e W{n[ lV m dul r[v[ iju[ V[ fdhvJ f+LV
wgaj m Rpfi>a l+g ijq dl>z ug V[ WyV wgaj ##ijuj@ duaV[
rg a>P f+LV l'y[ hV RpV%J ljdibJ sj urjW a[i[ bjlS s[
h[n fdhvJ hg dvdtbj dfbj h{ m a>P bjfSj bjlS y,pw w[ ljdibJ
sj urjW fC% v{ m dul r[v[ iju[ V[ bjfS[ h[nvj w,fCj yp,Ddwbj
bjfS[ dHw,v[-dHw,v[ f+LV sj R,pai fdCbj aJ iju[ sg al,vg
h' eHg m Rpf>ia ijuj yiVJ RpKa[ Tdh dfbj m Rpf>ia iju[ V[
l[rj fp,Ag aJ l+g ijq dl>z ug V[ WjWj ug s[ hpwq bVplji
dH,w qptg ips+jtL sj qSwj ba[ Flq wCj q>e[ m Vjv hg lji[
w{s wga[ ljZP A,cS sj hpwq wgaj m hpwq bVplji lji[ ljZP
api>a hg u[v% dr,y'G Wjhi w,T ds,a[ eH[ m ba[ b,e[ rjla[ iju[
} hpwq h'dHbj w'Hg ljZP dwl[ rg q,a sj h{ Rpl} bjfS[ qa
bVplji dHLB RpfjLVj fPuj fjn wiV a'G i'wSj VhgG m ba[
hi dH,w l>a w'v'G wijqa VhgG q>eSg m iju[ } hpwq h'dHbj
a>P bjfSg dHLB RpfjLVj dr,y f,wj ih' m l+g ijq dl>z ug V[
WjWj ug s[ hpwq bVplji V[fjv rjv[ iju[ } dl,Ddtbj ds,ag m
iju[ V[ fPi[ bjsi ldawji Vjv l+g ijq dl>z ug } bjfS[
fjl i,Ddtbj m

61

FH[ sdHbjv dw+fjv l>a uV


aW dHh Wja WajHg mm
\ijqwvg qhvj 9|

fjnw uV df,A[ fC% yp,w[ hV FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg ba[


Rplsg lpfaVg u{ w"i WjWj ug sg l[rj dr,y hj;i h'H[ m s'
ljv l[rj VhgG ds,ag ba[ Vj hg zi } ujS ds,aj m yji f>u
qhgV[ Wjbs@ w'v'G dwijdHbj s[ w[ hpwq wiVj ##ujY zi e[Cj
qjiw[ bjY m$$ FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg ba[ u{ w"i V[ hpwq bVplji
dHl ai%J hg wiVj m dH,w rji FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg ba[ u{
w"i zi'G h' w[ dul rwa Fp,y' fhp>y[ aJ wpN dsVJ Wjbs WjWj
ug V[ iaV dl>z ci'vg ba[ u{ w"i } fp,DdAbj ##us'G aplgG hpwq
bVplji zi uJs[ h' zi wg wis[ h'$$ RpKai dr,y FjHg iaV
dl>z ci'vg V[ W[Vag wgag ##blgG us'G zi uJs[ hJ aJ zi
I'erdLLB e+>o$$ fC%s[ hJ m$$ lpS w[ WjWj ug V[ h,l w[ WyV
wgaj ##I'erdLLB dr,y wg i,Ddtbj h{$$ dHaVj WyV wiw[ h;Pi
yp,f h' eH[ m Rpfi>a wpN dsV h'i Waga h'H[ m
wpN dsVJ Rpfi>a l>a Whjv sjl ug u,lg f" rjv[ WjWj
ug s[ siLV wiV bjH[ m dxi l>a Whjv sjl ug V[ ba[ WjWj
ug V[ wpN WyV wga[ duV%J sg iaV dl>z ci'vg } vt IaV
wiV Vjv rg lqN Vj bjHg m dHl a'G Wjbs l>a Whjv sjl
ug y,v[ eH[ m wpN h'i lqJ WgaS df,A'G WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z
ug bjf sp,Z A,wS a'G Rpfi>a wHgbJ l[rwJ } Vjq v{ w[ sp,Z
62

AwjdHbj wis[ lV m dH,w rji dHV%J s[ lq[G dHh sp,Z AwjRpS


sj dW+aJa h'dHbj m Vjq v{ v{ w[ lF } sp,Z AwjdHbj m fi>aP
iaV dl>z ci'vg ba[ u{ w"i } Vj sp,Z AwjdHbj m dHh s'
e,vJ WgaS Rpfi>a FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg s[ qV dr,y dryji
bjHg m FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg V[ WjWj ug qhJ hdiVjq dl>z
ug b,e[ W[Vag wgag dw ##qhjiju@ dfAvg dsVg l>a Whjv
sjl ug bjH[ lV m RpV%J Vjv bjf ug V[ u' WyV wga[ q{}
lqN VhgG bjHg m sPlij b,u lF } Vjq v{ v{ w[ bjf ug
V[ sp,Z AwjdHbj h{ a[ l,y[ fjaLjh q{} sp,Z rg VhgG
AwjdHbj m$$lpVS Rpfi>a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##a{} brj;
qji w[ sp,Z dwr[G dqv[$$ ba[ Whjv sjl Vjv h'H[ WyVJ sg
dwr[G lqN bjr[ Rpfi>a FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg V[ W[Vag wgag
l,y[ fjaLjh@ q{o'G lr[i[ Rpdnbj Vhk uJsj m dxi WjWj ug V[
WyV wgaj ##aplgG s'r[ ug awC[ h'r[ a[ dVaV[q wi' dHLVjV
wi'@ lF wpN bjf[ hg h'r[ej m$$ dHl a'G Wjbs v>ei sg l[rj
dqvg lF a'G fdhvJ WyV h'dHbj a[ fp,DdAbj ##aphjcg q>e wg
h{ $$ FjHg iaV dlz ci'vg a[ u{ w"i V[ W[Vag wgag Vjq
sjV WtL' WjWj ug V[ h,l w[ WyV wgaj zi'G aJ fp,a v{S
bjH[ lg m$$ Rpfi>a FjHg iaV dl>z ci"vg a[ u{ w"i V[ W[Vag
wgag m ##l,y[ fjaLjh@ hpS fp,a sg w'Hg q>e VhgG m$$ Rpfi>a
WyV h'dHbj ##fp,a rg h'r[ej a[ dxi Vjq sjV rg dqv[ej m$$

hpwq dHh lg
1| v>ei dabji wiV r[v[ bjBj e.pVSj ba[ AjVSj m hi
lq[G qP>h b,e[ w,fCj i,tSj ba[ ufpug ljdhW s[ fjn RpndsbJ@
Wdh>dsbJ hi lq[G wis[ idhSj m v>ei sg l[rj a'G hBw[ rg
fjn wis[ idhSj m dHh VhgG Fp,vSj m
63

2| v>ei s[ f+Ljs[ Vj w,y[ idhS m Vj RpV%J } lCS s[Sj m


dwl[ rg xpvw[ } b,e sj sjij VhgG v,eS s[Sj m
3| duhCg l[rj aphj} ds,ag h{ dHh' hg wiVg m h'i dwl[
l[rj wiV rjv[ Vjv Hgitj dV>dsbj ypevg VhgG wiVg m dwl[
} i,tgH[ dwl[ } a'igH[ dwl[ sg dlxjdiL VhgG wiVg m u[ dwl[
sg dlxjdiL wi'e[ aphjcj w>q df,A[ h' ujr[ej m dHl a'G Wjbs
dur[G WjWj ug sg qdiIjsj lg VjVw[@ sjsw[@ lhpdibJ a[ h'i
bJTg-epbJTgbJ s[ Vjq dvtjH[ m Rpfi>a Lij u' dw lF sg
wis[ hV FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg ba[ u{ w"i s'hJ sg Lij wijHg
eHg m dul lq[G FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg sg bjfS[ h,oJ Vjv
Lij wiV v,e[ aJ dwhj FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg s[ sjs[ sj
dH,w Fij lg ##f[+q dl>z$$@ a[ij dfAvj uVq Rpl sj lg m dxi
WyV wgaj dw ##dwl[ dfAv[ uVq dr,y ijuj u>e Ldhi dr,y
aplgG s'r[G ugb ijuj a[ ijSg lg aphjc[ iju dr,y blgG a,f
wgaj lg ba[ aphjcj uVq ljc[ Vjv hg h{ m blgG ljZP iPf
dry@ aplgG e+dhlag ih[ dHw,n[ hg hJ m fPiW uVq hq apqi[
l[rw bW aRp dqdBbj V ujHg mm borj Rdi vjehp lpbjqg
f+F q[i[ fPiW f+gda e'dW>s Wgyjihp m$$
btgi a[ WyV wgaj lrj v,t ipfHgbj v{ vY m ujY zi
} l[rj A,c dsY m wHg dsV dHh WyV wis[ ih[ m btgi RpKa[
l[rj hg q>eg m
l[rj q>e{ l[rw' vjHgbj bfVg l[r mm
\b>e 43|

dxi l[rj dqv eHg m

64

qghp fdHbj fiq[ldi fjdHbj mm


ugb u>a ldF lptg rljdHbj mm
dH,w WCg Fjig b"C v,e eHg m xlvJ lp,w ihgbJ lV m
ugb@ u>a ba[ ljig WVjlfag b,a sg eiqg dr,y lp,w lC
ihg lg m A,fCJ dr,y'G fjSg qp,w debj lg m WjWj ug s[ LiZjvP
vdhij tjVj a[ Fp,y'G wvJ a'G dqvw[ WjWj ug fjl W[Vag wiV
v,e[ dw ##l,y[ fjaLjh@ qgGh fjRp m$$ WC[ sp,tg h'H[ hJ m WjWj
ug V[ WyV wgaj ##lji[ df>cj sg f>yjdHa dHw,ng h' w[ A,fC
fp,B' m qgGh f{ ujr[ej m$$ hpwq bVplji lF Vei-F,py'G Vei sg@
vdhi[ tjV[ sg@ l[q[ sg ljig l>ea V[ dqv w[ A,fC fp,DdBbj m
lr[i[ w>q bji>F wgaj m spfdhi r[v[ a'G wpN dfA'G A,fC fp,B
w[ qp>wqv wi ds,aj m dHl lq[G a,w WjWj ug rg bjfS[ bjlS
a'G Rpn w[ Wjhi bj eH[ m A,fC fp,BS rjvg l>ea dr,y'G V"urjVJ
} hpwq wgaj ##bjY bjfJ dHw,n[ h' w[ W'vgbJ fjHgH[ m$$ hpwq
bVplji dHr[G hg wgaj debj m wpN lq[G Wjbs lPiu s[ w'v
dH,w dV,wg duhg Wsvg drtjHg ds,ag m Rpf>ia WjWj ug V[ WyV
wgaj ##vY WHg whgbJ v{ w[ bjf' bjfS[ t[aJ sgbJ r,Bj
W>V vRp m dH>si qp>cj bj debj h{ m$$ dHl WyV } lpVS lji
hg wHg f+[qg aJ dHo'G } F,u eH[ m wHg Rpo[ hg tC[ ih[ m Rpfi>a
o'C%[ hg lq[G dr,y dHaVg ;Wisla WjiL h'Hg lF t[aJ dr,y
uv hg uv h' debj m A,fC rg Fi eH[ m
uv a[ ov wdi ov a[ wPbj wPf a[ q[ip wijr{ mm
65

borj
ijuj l+q dqda VhgG ujVg a[ig mm
a[i[ l>aV wg hRpp y[ig mm
dHl f+l>e lq[G lPW[sji hidsbjv dl>z a[ Vjui dl>z vdhij
tjVj rjv[ Vjv lV m
dHh WyV dqdvbj l+! Rpujei dl>z vdhi[ tjV[ rjv[ fjl'G m

lF[ dHAj fPigbj vde f+F w{ fjr{ mm


rjdhepiP sjaj s[ dihj h{@ lF } s[ dihj m dwl[ } fdhv'G
ba[ dwl[ } wpN lqJ df,A'G m WjSg dr,y xpiqjV h{ ugr{ sjaj s[rShjip mm
borj
##ugr{ sjaj qi{ V w'dH$$
dwl[ drsrjV sj woV h{ m lq[G a'G fdhvJ wpN VhgG dqvsj
ba[ dxi duaVj wp dqvSj h{@ Rpla'G r,Z VhgG dqvsj m dH,w
epiqpt df>c FvjHgbjS[ a'G Vi{S dl>z Vjq lg m dHlsg fdhvg
Ljsg ijRpw[ h'Hg m Rplsj Vjq bai w"i lg m Ljsg a'G l'vJ
ljv Wjbs w'Hg l>ajV VhgG h'Hg m Rpfi>a bai w"i ep;i eHg m
Vi{S dl>z sj qV Rpsjl h' debj m dHl s"ijV Vi{S dl>z zi'G
Wjhi ljZP l>aJ sg l>ea wiV v,e dfbj m Vi{S dl>z s[ s'
Fij h'i lV@ W,ej dl>z a[ FerjV dl>z m W,ej dl>z V[ r,c[
Fij Vi{S dl>z sj qV Rpsjl r[t w[ Vi{S dl>z } dH,w Faguj
hgij dl>z Vjqg s[ ds,aj ba[ wdh ds,aj dHl} bjfSj fp,ai
WSj vY m Rpfi>a hgij dl>z upbjV h' w[ bjfSg qV qi;g
66

wiV v,e dfbj m dwl[ rwa Vi{S dl>z V[ hgij dl>z } dwl[
e,v'G ajdCbj m dxi hgij dl>z sg qjHg V[ Vi{S dl>z } bjdtbj
dw dHh fp,ai a{} zPiV rjla[ VhgG ds,aj m uJ aJ bjfSg
;qgV dHls[ Vjq wij s[ m VhgG aJ dHl} zPiVj VhgG m Rpfi>a
Vi{S dl>z s[ qV RpKa[ dHl e,v sg WCg l,B r,ug m wpN dsVJ
Wjbs Vi{S dl>z sj dH,w f>dca Vjv dqvjf h'dHbj m Vi{S
dl>z V[ Rpl f>dca } bjfS[ qV sj sp,t s,l w[ dHl sp,t }
hBjRpS sj w'Hg Rpfjb fp,DdAbj m RpKai dr,y f>dca V[ WjWj
qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug sj Vjq dvbj m dxi s,Ddlbj dw a>P Rpo[
fh>py m a[i[ lF sp,t sPi h' ujSe[ ##liW lp,tJ s[ sja[$$ qhJfpit
Fp,y'G W{n[ hV m Rpo[ fh>py m Vjv f>dca V[ s,Ddlbj dHh qhJfpit
sp,Z hg f+l>V h' w[ rias[ hV m dHl a'G Wjbs lr[i[ Vi{S dl>z
V[ Rpn w[ s' qhgbJ sj sp,Z y' w[ WiaV dr,y fj w[ WjvPbjS[
lB[LV a'G e,cg yC% w[ Fp,y'G q>cg lB[LV a[ bj fh>pdybj m Rpfi>a
dul rwa Vi{S dl>z Fp,y'G fhp>dybj l>ea rg W{ng lg u' l[rjsji
Rpl r[v[ hj;i lV-WjWj HgLi dl>z ug i'Cg rjv[@ FjHg iaV
dl>z ci'vg@ FuV dl>z qdhij vJeig@ FjHg Vgvj dl>z q"w[
RpKa[ hj;i lV m dHl a'G Wjbs Vi{S dl>z awigWV c[T ljv
l[rj dr,y dihj m dxi dHl s"ijV wHg rji Vi{S dl>z s[ zi
Rpls[ Fij bjH[ m fi>aP dwl[ Vjv w'Hg e,v VhgG wiVg m Vi{S
dl>z V[ zi ujSj m dxi qpC w[ l[rj dr,y hj;i h' ujSj m dH,w
rji Vi{S dl>z zi bjdHbj m wg r[dtbj dHV%J s[ Vei sj
y>eg ujdHsjs sj qjvw ;qgV Fagdubj s[ Vjq wirj w[
bjf i'Bg dHV%J s[ zi' tj dihj h{ m Vi{S dl>z V[ bjfSg qjaj
a'G ljig e,v fp,Ag aJ qjaj V[ s,Ddlbj dHh i'Bg v'wJ s[ zi
67

hg ws[ dwa[ ws[ dwa[ tJsj h{ m dxi Vi{S dl>z s[ qV dr,y


bjHg dw q[i[ Vjv rg dHr[G hg h'Sg lg m bev[ dsV Vi{S dl>z
dxi Fp,y' fhp>y debj m q,oj B[wS lji hg h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj
##a[ij dH>a;jq wiJe[ m$$ fi Vi{S dl>z dHl e,v } lqN VJ
ldwbj m wpN dsVJ Rpfi>a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##Vi{S dl>z
a[i[ s' fp,ai hV$$ Rpfi>a Vi{S dl>z V[ W[Vag wgag ##l,y[ fjaLjh@
q[i[ zirjvg aJ qi eHg m l'vJ ljv aw Rpls[ zi b"vjs
VhgG h'Hg m$$ wpN dsVJ Wjbs hg WjWj ug V[ WCg eiurgG brj;
dr,y b>si W{dnbj brj; ds,ag ##Vi{S dl>z a{} WCj ;iPig
w>q h{ m a>P zi fhp>y m$$ dHl WyV bVplji bjdebj v{ w[ Vi{S
dl>z zi bjdHbj aJ be'G Vi{S dl>z sg qjaj w'v Vi{S sg
dH,w FiujHg W{ng lg m Rph Vi{S dl>z s[ ujSlji hg W'vg
##v{ dulsg e,v wisgbJ lg Rph rg bj debj h{ m$$ a[ dxi
RplV[ bjfSg Fagug sj diLaj v{ bjRpS sg e,v wgag m Vjv
hg Vi{S dl>z } dwhj ##blgG a[i[ r,v b,u W>sj F[u ih[ lg m$$
Rpfi>a Vi{S dl>z V[ lqdNbj FiujHg qt'v wi ihg h{ m dHZi
Vi{S dl>z V[ dwhj ##q[ig Rpqi drbjh wijRpS sg VhgG m$$
btgi e,v l,yg dVwvg m dxi diLaj f,wj h' debj b>aiujqg
WjWj ug s[ ##lev li>uq wi[ f+F bjf[$$ s[ rjw bVplji lF
wjiu h' eH[ m drbjh rg h' debj m drbjh a'G Wjbs Vi{S
dl>z a[ dHlsg sPug zirjvg sjV w"i q,oj B[wS bjH[ m Rpfi>a
WjWj ug s[ hpwq bVplji s' vCw[ rg h' eH[@ epiVjq dl>z
a[ hdiVjq dl>z@ u' b,u a,w q"uPs hV m
1| l+g l>a qhJ hdiVjq dl>z a>P l>q+o sjaji
sjajiJ dli sjaji a[i[ siLV a'G Wdvhji
68

silV a'G Wdvhji h[ lF zB w[ sjaji


qV sg drdobj ujSsj lisjea f+afji
lev FrV w[ VjdHwj silV Wtl' dHw zig
fiq u' iPf fPiV fiq[li fiq u'a fiq[lig
dHh f+l.e hdiVjq dl>z fp,ai Vi{S dl>z FvjHgbjS[ V[
dvtjdHbj m

ijq ijdH h'dh W{s WVrjig mm


bfV[ l>ah v[hp RpWjig mm
dHw WgWg dul sj VJ WyV w"i lg m sPi' V[C[ diLa[sjig
dr,y duRPS[ q"C sg FiujHg v,esg lg m dHlsg diL[asjig w,yg
Fp,y'G lg m ugRpSj q"C Fe"Cj h'S wiw[ qei fpdvl v,eg lg m
lji[ diLa[sjiJ dr,y ci ba[ ldhq AjdHbj h'dHbj lg m dHl
qjHg WyV w'i } bduhj vj-dHvju i'e v,ej@ v,t IaV wiV
Vjv rg i'e Vj hB[ dwl[ } Wgqjig lqN Vj bjr[ m i'e i'u
sg i'u r,Zsj ujr[ m btgi WyV w"i qjHg Ljq w"i } Vjv
v{ w[ WjWj ug fjl fhp>yg ba[ bjfSg awvgx s,lg m lpS w[
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##Vgvj dlbJ@ dHl qjHg } fjSg dr,y
epC z'v w[@ dr,y wSw sj bjBj fj w[ dfvj dsY m$$ hpwq
bVplji dHr[G hg wgaj debj m Rpfi>a duhCg WyV w"i b,e[
Whpa a>e lg hpwq Vjv fjSg fgS lji hg bi'e h' eHg m
lr[i[ a'G v{ w[ Ljq aw W{ngbJ ihgbJ Ljq } WjWj ug V[
zi ujS sg bjdebj ds,ag m dHh lg qhJfpit s[ siLV sg
dlxa ba[ WyV bjB[ sg ypBwg epC sg i'Cg uJ fjSg m WjSg
dr,y xpiqjV h{ !
69

bRpts bjH[ ijdl drdy bjdf tv'dHbj


dHh f+l>e vA,qS dl>z Fv'igbj w,yg F,py' rjlg fjl'G
dqdvbj m

wjB[ wlB fPi[ epis[r


df,A[ fjnw FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg a[ RpV%J sg Ziq faVg
u{ w"i } l[rj dqvS sj f+l>e fC% yp,w[ hV m dHV%J dsVJ dr,y
u{ w"i V[ byjVw lpfV[ dr,y dH,w qpisj bjfS[ ligi Vjv
v,ej r[dtbj ba[ Rpl dr,y'G WCg WpsWP bj ihg lg m dxi sPug
ba[ agug ija rg dHh' wpN r[dtbj m dur[G-dur[G dsV Wgas[
eH[ dHh i'u ija } dsl[ ba[ y'o[ ba[ f>ur[G dsV aJ dHh
f+a,t h' debj m ligi RpKa[ Fji rg dfbj v,e[ ba[ WsWP duhCg
lpfV[ dr,y bjRpGsg lg m y"o[ dsV f+a,t ujeS lq[G rg bjr[
i'Bg tjS lq[G i'Bg dry@ a[ fjSg fgS lq[G fjSg dr,y'G WsWP
bjr[ m bjdti u{ w"i V[ WjWj ug } dfAvj ljij f+l>e s,l
w[ W[Vag wgag dw ##l,y[ fjaLjh q{} dHh wLB h{ m$$ Rpfi>a
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##s[rg@ dHh a[ij dhljW dwajW dVWC
dihj h{ m duhCj a{} qpisj y>WdCbj ba[ WsWP bj ihg h{ dHh
a{} l,a uVq wh'C h'Sj lg a[ij l,a uVq sj w'hC l,a dsV
ija lpfV[ dr,y Fpea ujr[ej m h"lvj i,t dVaV[q wiVj VhgG
A,cSj m l[rj wig ujY m dHla'G dWVJ u' aphj} ds+LBJa dsl[
ljc[ a'G urjW vY m$$
dHl a'G Rpfi>a bjfSg f+l>Vaj WtL w[ qV } yCsg wvj
WtLg m
dHh WyV dvtjig } qjaj u{ w"i V[ s,Ddlbj m
70

uVq Fr>a[ Vidw fC>a[ daV w[ wpv RpZji[ mm


dHw dsV WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug V[ hpwq s[ w[ fdhi[
RpKa[ FjHg Vgvj dl>z tC%j wgaj h'dHbj lg m Rpfi>a Vgvj dl>z
V[ WjWj ug fjl fhp>y w[ W[Vag wgag dw qhjiju Wjhi w'Hg
siLV wiV bjdHbj h{ m WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj ##Rpl} Wjh'G
xC w[ hj;i wi' m$$ hpwq bVplji WJh a'G xC% w[ v{ bJsj
debj m ljhqS[ bjRpS lji hg h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj ##Fi vHgbj
N'vgbJ drL[ F'e w[ m a[ hpS bjfSg hjva r[t bu[ rg r[vj
h{ l>Fv uj m$$ Rpfi>a RplV[ yiVJ dr,y Vqlwji wgag dxi
hpwq h'dHbj ##dHl} dHLVjV wijY m dHLVjV wijRpS a'G Wjbs
rjfl yiVJ dr,y hj;i wgaj m dxi hpwq bVplji Lij wijHg
a[ qPv q>ai sj ujf wijw[ dH,w qjvj WtL w[ hpwq wgaj
##w'ng s[ WiJc[ dr,y dWnj dsY m bevg e,v x[i wiJe[ m$$
hpwq bVplji dHr[G hg wgaj debj m v>ei s[ lq[G RpKa[ v>ei
AwjRpS sj hpwq FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg } h'dHbj dul lq[G
FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg f+Ljsj AwjRpS rjla[ debj Rpfi>a
RplV[ lqjZg hg VJ t'v%g m qpC w[ WjWj ug fjl W[Vag wgag m
lpS w[ h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj ##x[i lhg m dryji[ } qlj qlj bjV>s
f+jfa h'dHbj h{ m W{nj idhS dsY m$$ Rpfi>a Rph dsV ljij
Waga h' debj m dsV dAfS s[ lq[G WjWj ug V[ hpwq Vjv
lqjZg tpv%jHg m wpN o'C%j duhj f+Ljs AwjdHbj m Rpfi>a WjWj
ug V[ WyV wgaj ##dwRpG WHg duo[ b,e[ N,t qjisj dihj h{G
71

Rpo[ bV>s lg dw b{o[ h{ m$$ Rpfi>a RplV[ ljigbJ Fp,vJ sg dtqj


q>eg u' dqv eHg lg m a[ dxi hpwq h'dHbj ##hpS z,B'-z,B dH,w
ljv Rpo[ ih' duo[ w'Hg brj; Vj lpS[ m Vj w'Hg dsl[ m$$Rpfi>a
ljig qdiIjsj wij w[ ujS sg bjdebj dqvg m ujS lq[G Rpl
f+[qg V[ tjS sg WjWa bjdebj q>eg aJ hpwq h'dHbj ##dudV
ugRp sgbj l-diuw b>Wijr{ lF zB Fgadi hjBp yvjr{ m a>P
W[dxwi h' w[ Vjq ufp m$$
dHh f+l>e qjaj dfaj fjl'G dqdvbj m

bfVg l[rj bjdf wijHg


epi qda b>adi ujeg mm
W>sj lqNsj h{ q{G bjfSg ajwa Vjv l[rj dlqiV wisj
hJ m fi>aP WjSg sj xpiqjV h{ ##bjfhp wAP V h'dH f+F Vsdi
dVhjvgb{ m$$ u' a>P wijRpSj h{@ Rphg h'Sj h{ m a[ig dqhi dr,y
hg lF wpN h{ m dH,w rji WjWj ug qhjiju V[ FjHg iaV dl>z
ci'vg } hpwq wgaj ##b,u ija } f,t[ sg l[rj a>P wiVg h{ m$$
hpwq bVplji ljig ija hg dH,w l[rjsji f,tj wisj lg m dxi
hpwq bVplji hg dHw' ue%j tC[ h'Sj vj;qg lg m fdhvJ aJ
qV _dr,y dtbjv bjdHbj dw ljig ija dwl ai%J ep;i[eg m
hpwq bVplji f>u dHLVjV wiw[ q>Ph b,e[ w,fCj wiw[ ija
} f,t[ sg l[rj bji>F wi ds,ag m Rpfi>a l[rj dr,y b{lg dWiag
v,eg ba[ bV>s bjdHbj u' wdhS woV a'G Wjhi h{ m ija
Wgasg qvPq hg Vj h'Hg m Rpl rwa hg faj v,ej dul r[v[
fhp xpBS sj lqJ h' debj m Wjhi'G dyCgbJ sg brj; bjRpS
72

v,e fHg m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##dwRpG ija uJsg sj faj


v,ej h{ aJ iaV dl>z ci'vg V[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju@ w'Hg
faj VhgG v,ej m$$Rpfi>a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##dHl br,loj
dr,y l[rw } v{ w[ ujw[ l[rj wijHgsg h{ m$$
lV m

dHl br,loj dr,y hg fpijS[ ditg hujiJ ljv lqjZg vjRpGs[

uj w{ qpladw Fje dl l[rj vjdHbj mm


ngw dHl[ lq[G hg V>Wisji HgLi dl>z qvPwj dVrjlg }
l[rj wiV sj lpFje f+jfa h'dHbj m Vjq@ e'a VjVw[@ lhpi[@
ljw-lW>Zgbj lF s[ Vjq fp,A[ ba[ dvtjH[ m bjfSg qdiIjsj
lqNj w[ l[rj WtL ds,ag duV%J V[ l[rj wgag@ siLV wga[@
RpV%J epiqtJ s[ FjeJ sg dlxa s[ra[ rg VhgG wi lws[ m
dryjij qVp,t w"S h{ u' RpV%J sg dlxa wi lw[ m awigWV s'
ljv vejaji dHl epiqpt V[ l[rj wgag m dHls[ lq[G duV%J sj
dVlajij wgaj hpS RpV%J s[ f+l>e lpS' m VjF[ sj dH,w f>dca
lg wJLg a'G drdsbj fC% w[ y>ej drsrjV WS debj lg m fi>aP
dHls[ b"vjs VhgG lg m fPhv[ Vei dHlsg diLa[sjig h'S wiw[
bjRpSj ujSj WdSbj lg m dH,w rji fPhv[ Vei a'G WjWj ug
sg dlxa lpS w[ siLV wiV bj debj m ba[ fPhv[ rjv[ rg
lV m dul lq[G WjWj ug sg h;Pig dr,y hj;i h'H[ m Vqlwji
wiV Rpfi>a W{n eH[ m drsrjV s[ qV dr,y drdsbj sj qjS
h'Sj wpsiag h{ m WjWj ug b>aiujqg lF wpN ujSs[ lV m bjf
hg fp,A dvbj ##bjY f>dca ug@ Vjv[ fp,a q>es[ h' Vjv[ lrjv
73

urjW wiVj yjh>s[ h'$$ f>dca V[ dH,w rji dxi Vqlwji wgag m
Rpfi>a l>ldw+a sj dH,w lv'w f+LV s[ iPf dr,y fdC%bj m WjWj
ug V[ RpKai s[ iPf rg l>ldw+a sj lv'w W'dvbj m aJ f>dca
ug V[ sPuj lv'w W'dvbj m h;Pi V[ dxi urjW ds,aj m us aglij
lv'w f>dca V[ Rpyjdibj aJ RpKai dr,y WjWj ug V[ agli[
lv'w s[ w[ Vjv hg WyV wgaj ##WjuJ Vjv WB[ig tdh>sg dxisg
t>F thjRpS } m$$
aawjv hg f>dca ug V[ Vqlwji wiw[ Fp,v WtLjHg m W[Vag
wgag ##eigW dVrj;@ dw+fj wi'@ u[ dHh WB[ig w>q bj ujr[
aJ h'i wg yjhgsj h{ m$$ Vjv b,tJ Fi bjHgbJ a[ dxi WjWj
ug V[ bjfSg qdiIjsj wijHg m WyV wgaj dw ##Lp,Z h{$$ a[
dxi f>dca ug V[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju dw+fj wi' q[i[ fp,ai
VhgG m$$ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##dHw yjhgsj h{ dw s'$$ f>dca
ug V[ h,o u'C w[ dwhj ug s' m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##Lp,Z
h{ m s' h'Se[ m s'hJ sgbJ dVLjVgbJ s,l w[ WyV wgaj ##u[
dHh dVLjVgbJ h'S aJ ljc[ ds,a[ lqN[ m$$ wpN lq[G Wjbs ngw
RpV%J dVLjVgbJ lq[a s' hg fp,ai h'H[ m Rpfi>a f>dca siLV
wiV bjdHbj ba[ dVLjVgbJ rg s,lgbJ a[ LpwijVj wgaj m
dxi ljig Rpqi siLV wiV bjRpGsj dihj m
dHh f+l>e iaV dl>z dT,v'G V[ qvPwj dVrjlg HgLi dl>z
a'G lpdSbj a[ dvtjdHbj m

74

u{lg FPt a{lg wj fPiw


lev zBj wj lpbjqg mm
fhPv[ df>c sg qjHg dulsj Vjq hdiVjq w"i lg@ WjWj ug
s[ siLV ba[ l[rj wisg h>psg lg m i'u l[rj wiV bjRpSj@
df>c } ujSj@ bev[ dsV dxi bjRpSj Rplsj i'u sj V[q lg m
dH,w dsV WjWj ug V[ tpLg dr,y bj w[ f,pdAbj ##WgWg@ a>P wg
yjhp>sg h{ u' a[ig dH,Aj h{ s,l m$$ aJ RplV[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju@
q[i[ f'a[ f'ag w'Hg VhgG m dw+fj wi' m$$ WjWj ug V[ fp,DdAbj ##w'Hg
vCwj drbjdhbj h{{$$ RplV[ W[Vag wgag ##ug s'r[G vCw[ hg
drbjh[ h'H[ hV m s'r[G V.PhJ tjvg W{ngbJ hV m$$WjWj ug V[ WyV
wgaj ##lr[i[ s'hJ V.PhJ } Vjv v{ w[ bjHg m Rpfi>a Rph qjHg
yvg eHg m bev[ dsV s'r[G V.PhJ Vjv dvbjHg a[ ila[ dr,y
s'hJ } dl,Ddtbj s[ w[ dvbjHg dw WjWj ug Lij wiV wijRpSe[ m
aplgG qV dr,y Vxia uJ dziSj VhgG@ lda WyV whg ujSj m
bjfS[ r,v'G y>eg ai%J dltj ds,agbJ m hp>sj Yhg h{ u' qjvw
} qV;Pi h{ m Rpfi>a da>Vj V[ bj q,oj B[dwbj m W{nS lji hg
WjWj ug V[ fp,DdAbj m ##qjHg a[ig r,cg V.Ph dwhCg h{ WyV q>V
w[ RplV[ r,cg V.Ph b,e[ wi ds,ag a[ dxi hpwq bVplji Rplsg
Lij wgag m dxi WyV wgaj ##Lp,Z h{ m$$ us'G sPlig VP.h sg Lij
wiV v,e[ Yh df,A[ hB eHg m qjHg V[ Whpa lqNjdHbj fi
Rph VJ q>Vg m RplV[ Lij Vj wijHg dH,w rji rg WjWj ug s[
hpwq bVplji rjdhepiP-rjdhepiP Vj wdhbj m rji-rji wdhS
75

a[ rg RplV[ dH,w rji rg rjdhepiP Vj udfbj m aJ WjWj ug


V[ qdiIjsj W>s wij ds,ag m qjHg V[ W[VagbJ wgagbJ ##qhjiju@
dHl a[ rg dw+fj wi' m q{G aJ Whpa f,wgbJ wgagbJ lV m$$ WjWj
ug V[ WyV wgaj ##dHh tjvg ih[eg m$$ Rpfi>a qjHg s[ Whpa
W[Vag wiV a[ WyV wgaj ##r,cg s[ s' h' ujSe[ m dH,w A'Bg
sg N'vg fj s[Sj m$$ dHh WyV l,a h'dHbj m r,cg a'G dH,w qp>cj
v{ w[ Rplsg N'vg fjdHbj m
dHh f+l>e h>l iju f>dca fjl'G dqdvbj m

silVp s[ta s't Vl[ mm


dHw rji Fp,y'G Vei s[ idhS rjvj f>dca dulsj Vjq
ijq ug sjl lg m dHl sgbJ ujhCJ sis wisgbJ lV m dHh
WjWj ug fjl bjdHbj m Vqlwji wiV Rpfi>a W{n debj m h;Pi
V[ f,pdAbj ##s[raj@ dwr[G b"S[ h'H[>$$ aJ f>dca V[ W[Vag wgag
ug q[igbJ ujhCJ sptsgbJ hV m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##a[
blgG wg wigH[ aJ dxi f>dca V[ dwhj ug duaVj dyi q{}
bijq VhgG wis[@ q{G VhgG ujSj m Rpl lq[G WjWj ug dH,w dw,wi
sg AJr[ W{n[ lV a[ ijq ug sjl dHRpG wdhw[ ljhqS[ h' w[
W{n debj m f>siJ rgh dq>B Wjbs WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj
##w[li dl>z@ dvbj dHh aJ VhgG uJsj m$$ dxi w[li dl>z V[
ijq ug sjl } WjWj ug s[ V[C[ wi ds,aj a[ Rph W{n debj m
aJ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##dur[ blgG W'vJe[ ljc[ qei W'vg
ujHg m$$ aJ ijq ug sjl V[ l,a WyV dwhj m Rpfi>a WjWj ug
b,e[-b,e[ fCg eH[ ba[ f>dca df,A[-df,A[ W'vsj dihj m l,a rji
76

fC%V Rpfi>a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##v{ s[raj@ hpS a{} Ijs
h' debj h{ m hpS v'wJ sj Fvj wigG a[ vjvy Vj wig m$$ b,u
aw Yh WyV bVplji Fvj wisj h{@ fi s,lsj VhgG m

wha VjVwp aP ljyj ljdhWp


wRpSp ujS{ a[i[ wjqj mm
qhJfpit lF sj Fvj v'ys[ hV a[ wis[ hV m l>ljig W>dsbJ
sg lqN a'G Wjhi h'S wiw[ Fvj wij VhgG lws[ m dHl lq[G
qvPw[ Vei sj y>sj dl>z Vjq sj dl,t siLV wiV bjdHbj m
dHls[ Vjv hdiVjq dl>z dT,v'G rg lg m hdiVjq dl>z w,yg Fp,y'G
drbjdhbj lg m l[rjsji ijhgG bjdebj dqvS a[ Wjhi RPn
W>V% w[@ b>si uj w[ dH,w ipfHgbj b,e[ i,t w[ q,oj B[dwbj m
Rpfi>a WjWj ug Vjq fp,Ag eH[ m y>sj dl>z dTv'G dvtjHg debj m
btgi a[ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##dw a{o'G f,yg ipf{ v{S[ hV m$$
dHl lq[G y>s dl>z w'v f,yg ipfH[ hg lji[ lV a[ dH,w q,oj
B[w ds,aj lg a[ Wjwg y'rg hg lV m f,yg fPi[ h' VhgG lg lws[ m
WjWj ug w'v W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju@ q[i[ w'v aJ z,B ipfHgH[
hV m$$ aJ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##uJ f,yg ipfH[ fPi[ wi@ VhgG
A,Wg q;WgbJ s[ Vjq dvt m$$ dxi y>sj dl>z l'y-l''y dvtjRpS
v,e dfbj dxi bnjiJ qlJ fPi[ h'H[ ba[ dwhj ##ug@ q{} aJ
dHaV[ hg Ijs hV m$$ dH,w aJ Rpl lq[G bWjsg rg z,B lg m
sPuj y>sj dl>z fdC%bj rg VhgG lg ba[ dHh rg VrgG e,v
lg Vjq dvtjRpS[ m
t{i dxi rg l'y-l'y w[ WCg qpLdwv Vjv dvtjH[ a[ Rpfi>a
77

WjWj ug V[ bjdebj ds,ag a[ df>c y,Ddvbj debj m awigWV


s' qhgV[ Wjbs WjWj ug V[ dH,w l[rw } l,s w[ dwhj ##a>P
f,yg ipf{ qvPw[ uj w[ y>sj dl>z dT,v'G } s[ w[ bj m$$ dxi l[rjsji
y>sj dl>z dT,v'G } ipfH[ uj ds,a[ m y>sj dl>z Rpl lq[G zi q>u[
a[ W{nj lg m fdhvJ aJ f{l[ v{S a'G dHVwji wgaj m fi>aP l[rjsji
V[ dwhj ##q{} aJ s[S sj hpwq h{@ u[ q'CV[ hV aJ bjf uj
w[ q'C s[ m$$ fdhvJ Vjv bjRpS } dabji h' debj dxi bjf[
hg wdhS v,ej ##fdhvJ A,Wg aJ qlJ fPi[ wga[ lV hpS tWi
VhgG wg fp,ASe[ m$$ dHRpG wdhw[ W{n debj a[ VhgG bjdHbj m
a[ fdirji hpS aw l[rj wi dihj h{ m
dHh WyV iaV dl>z dTv'G y>sj dl>z s[ f'ai[ V[ dvtjdHbj m

bjdf FpvjdH bjf[ qda s[r{


dHw rji qjN[ a'G dH,w qjHg bjHg a[ RplV[ fp,ai rjla[
W[Vag wiVg lg m dul lq[G Rph Vqlwji wiV v,eg h;Pi
V[ i'w ds,ag dw ##b,e[ VhgG bjRpSj Vj hg q,oj B[wSj h{ m$$
fi>aP qjHg dlsw FjrVj rjvg lg hpwq bVplji Rpo[ hg W{n
eHg ba[ i'S v,e fHg m whg ujr[ ##q{G N'vg b,c w[ W{ng hJ@
tjvg VhgG qpCVj m$$ Rpl lq[G FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg l[rj dr,y
hj;i lg m l[rj wi ih[ lV m WjWj ug s[ hpwq bVplji RpV%J
V[ uj w[ fp,DdAbj ##qjHg a>P wg yjhp>sg h{>$$ qjHg V[ W[Vag wgag
##ug@ dH,w fp,ai yjhgsj h{ m$$ iaV dl>z ci'vg V[ WjWj ug
fjl Yhg W[Vag wi ds,ag ##ug@ qjHg fp,a q>esg h{ m$$ h;Pi
s[ hpwq bVplji qjHg } WjWj ug s[ w'v WpvjdHbj a[ RplV[
dxi rg fp,a sg q>e wgag m b,e'G WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##a[i[
78

FjeJ dr,y h{ VhgG m dwo'G s[HgH[>$$ Rpfi>a qjHg V[ WV[ag wgag


##qhjiju@ aplgG FjeJ dr,y WSj dsY m q{G aJ a[i[ si a[ N'vg
b,cg h{ m$$ WjWj ug V[ dwhj ##u[ fp,a h'dHbj aJ cJe xC[ej m$$
dxi qjHg V[ N'vg b,c w[ dwhj@ $$duhCj h{ s[ dsY m$$ dxi
qjHg hpwq bVplji zi } yvg eHg m lqJ fj w[ qjHg s[ zi
fp,ai h'dHbj ba[ r,cj h' w[ lF a'G fdhvJ qJ dfRp Vjv hg
vC[ m sptg h' WjWj ug fjl bjH[ ba[ ljig drdobj lpSj w[
W[Vag wgag dw aphjcj ds,aj h{ a[ aplgG hg ngw wiVj h{ m
lpVS Rpfi>a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##dHl} ljc[ w'v A[ qhgV[
A,c dsY m$$ hpwq bVplji A[ qhgV[ l[rj dr,y dihj m A[ qhgV[
Wjbs qJ dfRp dxi bjH[ m RpV%J s[ ljhqS[ WjWj ug V[ qp>c[
} l,s w[ dwhj ##bjh cJe yp,w w[ q'T[ RpKa[ i,t v{ m$$ RplV[
dHr[G hg wgaj m dxi WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj ##hpS qji m$$ RplV[
dli VgrJ wi dvbj dxi hpwq wgaj ##hpS cJe dl,B s[ m$$
RplV[ cJe lp,B ds,ag m aJ WyV wgaj ##hpwq bVplji cJe
xCg lg@ hpwq Vjv dl,B ds,ag h{ m hpS VhgG qjisj m v{ ujY
zi } m$$ dxi bjdebj s[ w[ a'i ds,a[ m Rpfi>a dxi rg Rph
LiZjvP WS[ ih[ m
dHh WyV qjaj dfaj fjl'G dqdvbj m

sjda wi{ VhgG fA'ajr{ mm


H[wj Wtl dxdi Whpdi V Wpvjr{ mm
dHw lq[G WjWj ug fjl WgwjV[i a'G l[n bjdHbj aJ RplV[
bjRpS lji hg h,o u'C w[ bjfSg uWjV dr,y W'dvbj ##Tqw
T{ m$$ dulsj qavW ##q,oj B[wsj hJ m$$ b,e'G WjWj ug V[ WyV
wgaj ##vjWC fPAC fPa lfPai dW+Z zlJ zl z>ql z{L$$ bioja
79

a[ig v>qgbJ fPAJ rjvgbJ ejHgbJ h'S@ fp,a f'a[ r,cg Rpqi
h'r[ m Rpfi>a hpwq h'dHbj dw ##a[ij f+LV wg h{>$$ RplV[ fp,ai
sg wjqVj s,lg aJ dxi WyV wgaj ##a[ig ujdHsjs dr,y'G b,Z
vrJe[$$ Rpfi>a RplV[ l,a WyV wgaj m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj
##b{o[ beP>nj vj s[$$ RplV[ dwhj ##ug@ q[i[ w'v wje; w'Hg
VhgG m$$ aJ dxi WyV wgaj ##;qgV RpKa[ hg vj s[ m$$ b>ePnj
vj w[ Rpl} ujS sg bjdebj dqv eHg m fi dHl r[v[ dV,wj
ijq WjSgbJ rg q";Ps lg m wpN dsVJ Wjbs dV,wj ijq rg
Rpl l[n w'v fhp>dybj a[ wdhS v,ej ##q{} WjWj ug V[ F[dubj
h{ m sl h;ji ipfH[ s[ dsY m$$ RplV[ fdhvJ aJ dwhj dw ##qp>cj
h'H[a'G dsRpGej m fi Wjbs dr,y wdhS v,ej fdhvJ wg a[ dfA'G
wg@ s[Sj aJ h{ hg@ a>P v{ hg uj m$$ RplV[ sl huji ipfHgbj
s[ ds,aj m fi>aP dHls[ zi fp,ai Vj h'dHbj m dxi RplV[ WjWj
ug fjl bj w[ W[Vag wi ds,ag ##ug@ q{G sl h;ji ipfHgbj
rg aphjc[ l[rw } s[ ds,aj fi q[i[ qp>cj VhgG h'dHbj m$$ lpS
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##blgG w'Hg l[rjsji a[i[ w'v ipfHgbj
v{S VhgG F[dubj m$$ Rpfi>a RplV[ dV,wj ijq sj Vjq dvbj m
WjWj ug V[ l[rjsji F[u w[ dV,wj ijq } l,s dvbj a[ Rpl}
dwhj ##a>P ljcj Vjq v{ w[ f{l[ dwRpG q>e[$$ a[ dxi Whpa ajdCbj
ba[ ljij ipdfbj bjfS[ w'v'G lS[ drbju q'C w[ WyV wgaj
##uj@ fp,ai rg WtdLbj m$$ Rpfi>a dHh l[n WgwjV[i a'G dqLig
v{ w[ bjRpGsj dihj m
dHh WyV qjaj-dfaj fjl'G dqdvbj m
V"rJ dh,lj lqjfa q>evj yiV wp>cvgbJ
l+g l>a qhJ hdiVjq dl>z a>P WjSg Vjv bF[s
A[ Ljla+ dl>q+a fpijV b>a Vj ujVdh W[s
80

b>a Vj ujS{ W[s F[s W+hqj VhgG fjr{


Vjis dWL} dLr eS[L lF apv[ dZbjr{
e>ej uqVj liplag yiVV ZPi fpVga wig
Ziq fpijaV qhJ fpit fiq u'a f+q[lig mm

l>a WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug


q>si qphji VjVwli a'G FppKy' ljdhW a,w
l.a WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug sj uVq df>c qphji adhlgv
ugij d;v%j dxi';fpi drt[ qjaj l'qjr>ag w"i ba[ dfaj lisji
ueaji dl>z s[ e+dh drt[ 1 hjC \15 uPV 1954| } b>dq+a
r[v[ h'dHbj m WjWj ug s[ dfaj ug dHvjw[ dr,y fPi[ qjV ba[
ldawji rjv[ fpiL lV m bjf ug s[ dfaj ug 25 ljv bjfS[
df>c s[ lif>y ih[ m WjWj ug bjfS[ fdirji dr,y 6 Fij ba[
2 F{SJ dr,y lF a'G A'B[ hV m WjWj ug V[ f>u wvjlJ bjfS[
df>c s[ V[C[ liwjig f+dHqig lwPv q>si qphji dr,y fjl wgagbJ m
dHl drywji WjWj ug bjfS[ sjsj vjF dl>z \WjfP ug| Vjv
uJ dHw,v[ hg WjWj lp.si sjl ug fjl ujdHbj wis[ lV m dHV%J
sj c[ij df>c a'G 6 dwv'qgBi sg sPig $a[ w'B Hgl[ tJ drt[
ldoa ] m WjWj lp.si sjl ug WjWj l+g y.s sg fPuj wis[ hV
ba[ Vjq ufjMs[ hV m WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug sj A'Bg Rpqi
dr,y hg episbji[ uj w[ lal.e dr,y hg qV vej idh>sj lg m
WjWj lp>si sjl ug V[ dHV%J sg veV $a[ dyhij fCw[ WjfP
vjF dl>z ug } wdh ds,aj lg m dHh aJ l>a qhJ fpiL hV m
WjWj ug f>urg wvjl s[ bjtig f[fi a'G Wjbs sPli[ dsV
81

hg WjWj wp>sV dl>z ug s[ wdhS qpajWw VjVwli ueijRG


bj eH[ m 12 ljv sg Rpqi dr,y WjWj wp>sV dl>z ug V[ dHV%J
sg dcRPBg lptqVg ljdhW sj fjn wiV ba[ u'Cg a[ hiq'Vgbq
sg drdsbj dl,tS dr,y vej ds,ag m wgiaV sg drdsbj a'G
Wjbs WjWj ug sg dcRPBg wiVfpi njn \e>ejVei| dHvjw[
dr,y vej ds,ag m 14 ljv sg RpKqi dr,y 2 ljv aw bjf
V[ dHo[ l[rj wgag m us dw w'Hg h'i Wdh>eq dHo[ ujS vHg
dabji Vhk lg m 16 ljv sg Rpqi dr,y bjf ug sg dcRPBg
WjWj ug V[ epispbjij VjVwli vpdZbjS[ \Vdhi s[ w>T[ vjHg|
Rpl njn dr,y wjxg ljv l[rj wgag m WjWj ug V[ dHo[ idh
w[ vpdZbjSj VjVwli njn $a[ WjWj HgLi dl>z fWdvw lwPv
FjHg iSZgi dl>z Vei } qpw>qv wijdHbj m dHl a'G Wjbs
WjWj ug V[ bjfS[ df>c 15 H[wC ;qgV dr,y epispbjij VjVwli
q>si qphji ba[ fWdvw lwPv q>si qphji sg dabjig wijHg
ba[ wHg ljv dHo[ l[rj wgag m dHl a'G Wjbs l>a WjWj wp>sV
dl>z ug bjf ug sg dcRPBg duo[ w>q ipwSj uJ VrgG l[rj
wijRpSg h'r[@ WjWj ug bjf ug sg dcRPBg vejMs[ m bjf
ug V[ A'Bg RPqi dr,y hg wji l[rjrJ LpiP wijRpS Vjv wHg
l[rjrJ fPigbJ wgagbJ wjxg bu[ y,v ihgbJ hV duV%J dr,y'G
lwPv a[ wjvu rg hV m duV%J dr,y f>ujW@ IP!fg! ijulojV@
qhjijLBi qsijl h''i rg wHg lB[BJ Ljdqv hV m awigWV
w'Hg 60-70 blojVJ sgbJ l[rjrJ wirjHgbJ a[ h'i rg l[rjrJ
y,v ihgbJ hV m
WjWj wp>sV dl>z ug duo[ bjf ug sg dcRPBg vejMs[
lV m bjf ug l[rj fPig wiw[ wlr,Bg $a[ fPi[ Rpais[ lV m l.a
82

WjWj wp.sV dl>z ug fjl us'G rg Wjhivg l>ea bjRpSg uJ


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