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Density currents and siltation

with particular reference to


Cochin P.V. Chandramohan
February 1989

.~}~i

TU Delft
Delft University of Technology

Faculty of Civil Engineering


Hydraulic and Geotechnical Engineering Division
Hydraulic Engineering Group

INTERNA TIONAL

INSTITUTE

AND . ENVIRONMENTAL

FOR HYDRAULIC
ENGINEERING

DELFT I THE NETHERLANDS

MASTER OF SCIENCE THESIS

DENSITY CURRENTS AND SIL TA TION


-WITH

PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO COCHIN

P. V. CHANDRAMOHAN

Adv .,

. Gul-

Dr.lr.G.ABRAHAM

Prot .Ir H. VELSINK

F.bruary. 1889

.l

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DICHTHEIDSSTROMING

EN SEDIMENT A TIE

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TEPAS~SING COCHIN

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. P: v. CHNDRAMOHAN
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INTERNATIONAL

INSTITUTE
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FOR HYDRAULIC

AND
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TIE TtE81. ON

DENSITY CURRENTS AND SIL TATION


-WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO COCHIN
.

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" " 'P.Y. CHANDRAMOHAN


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EXECUTIYE:' ENGM=FR. COCHIN; PoRT TRUlT


COCHII

INDIA

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WA. IUBIIITTED IN PARTIAL FULFIUENT

, >FoR"THE'IiE_

OF TtE IEQUlREMFNTa

OF-

MASTER OF' SCIENCE IN HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING


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INTERNATIONAL

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DELFT HYDRAULIC LABORATORY


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Acc.ptH by

The.I. Adv.....

DIrector. DE

CONTENTS

1.0.

2.0.

3.0.

Page

Contents

( i)

Synopsis

(iv)

BACKGROUND OF TBB PROBLEK

1.1

1.1.

History

l.l

1.2.

Saga of Cochin

1.1

1.3.

Tidal storage area

1.2

1.4.

Tides and tidal prism

1.2

l.S.

Currents

1.7

1.6.

Rainfall

1.8

1. 7.

Freshet discharge

1.8

1.8.

Salinity

1.10

1.9.

Vind

1.10

1.10.

Vaves

1. 13

1.11.

Mud banks

1.12.

Bed material

1. 13
1. 14

1.13.

General mechanism of siltation

1. 14

1.14.

Evolution to the present shape

1. 15

1.15.

Present problem

1.18

AVAILABLE DATA AND TBBIR

DETAILS

2. I

2.1.

C.V. & P.R.S. - 1940

2. I

2.2.

C.V. & P.R.S. - 1953

2. I

2.3.

C.V. & P.R.S. - 1967 - 1968

2.2

2.4.

N.l.O.

- 1975 - 1976

2.3

2.5.

C.v. & P.R.S. - 1980

2.5

2.6.

C.V. & P.R.S. - 1985

2.6

2.7.

NESA - 1988

2.7

2.8.

Data on dredging

2.7

HYDRODYNAHICS OF DENSITY

3.1.

CURRENT

Relevanee of theory

3. I
3. I

(ii)
3.2.

Critical

flow concept

(open channel flow)

Page
3.6

3.3.

Critical

flow concept

(two layer flow)

3.7

3.4.

Application

of 'critical flow concept' to two

3.9,

layer flows

4.0.

5.0.

6.0.

7.0.

3.5.

Density induced return currents

3.13

3.6.

Density induced exchange

3.18

flow

A KETHOD TO QUANTIFY DENSITY CURRENTS

4.1

4.1.

Rigter's graphs

4.2.

Procedure

4.3.

Practical

4.4.

Density current equation

4.5.

Limitations

4.6.

Physical characteristics

of density current

4.6

4.7.

The complete qualitative

density current graph

4.13

4.1
4.3

problems

4.5
4'.6

of the method

SCHEKATIZATION OF TIDES AND DISCHARGES

5.1

5.1.

Tidal flow

5. 1

5.2.

Fresh water discharge

5.8

5.3.

Cross section of gut

5.9

CORRELATION OF COCHIN DATA VITO THEORY

6. 1

6.1.

Discussion

6. 1

6.2.

Stratification

6.3.

Computational

6.4.

Analy~ls of data from 1980

s , 17

6.5.

Salient features at Cochin

6.24

6.6.

Future deepening

on available

data
for Cochin

parameters

quantification

of density current

of the channel

SEDIKENTATION

6.5

6.30
7.1

7.l.

Introduction

7.2.

Transport

7.3.

Sedimentation

7.4.
7.5.

Computations
Inferences

6.3

to problem

processes

of

7.1

cohesive sediments

during salinity
on sedimentation

from the exercise

intrusion

7.4

7.10
7.14
7.21

(iii)
Page

8.0.

CONCLUSIONS

AND RECOKHENDATIONS

8. 1

8.1.

Purpose of study

8.1

8.2.

Schematization

8. 1

8.3.

Conclusions

8.2

8.4.

Recommendations

8.6

List of figures
List of tables

(i)
(v)

Notations

(vi)

Reference

(viii)

Acknowledgements

(xiii)

SYNOPSIS
In

an

estuary,

the

confluence

of

fresh water of upland

rivers with salt water from the sea gives rise to a

complex

regime of flow pattern due to the difference in densities of


the

two

liquids

stratified,

of

the

about

2.5%.

Vhen

the

estuary

is

heavier salt water which dives underneath

the lighter fresh water extends as a long wedge far into the
upstream.

The

amount

of

saline

water

brought in by the

density current into an estuary can be much larger than the


when the freshet dis charges are high
filling,
tidal
compared to the tidal prism. Density currents play a major
role in the hydrodynamics of a harbour basin located at the
mouth of an estuary
The

Port

of

Cochin

inside a natural
passing

on the west coast of India is located

lagoon

with

large

monsoon

discharge

through its channels. The saline water which enters

the deep navigation channels brings in

large

amount

of

silt from the sea resulting in heavy siltation.


This thesis deals with the density currents

at

presents

made

the

results

of

desk

study

Cochin

and

with

the

objectives
1. to

analyse

the

hydrodynamics

of

density

currents in

general with particular reference to the local situation.


2. to

derive the siltation pattern from it and make a first

order estimate and


3.to

suggest solutions and make recommendations

study.

for furhter

(v)

In

the

study,

hydrodynamics

more

of

sedimentation

emphasis

the

has

density

part.

The

currents

research

currents and salt wedge is more


could

be

been

rather

done

general

on
in

on

the

than

the

the

density

character

and

applied universally; including to situations like

those at Cochin. A method to quantify


being

put

agree

reasonably

forward.

observations.

The

weIl

density

its

currents

is

results of the computations made,


with

those

obtained

from

actual

This method, it is feIt, would prove to be of

valuable assistance to future studies


within

placed

on

density

currents

limitations. The thesis analyses the physics of

density currents rather than the mathematics.


Since

the density current phenomenon is stronger inside the

harbour basin than in the


stronger

there,

the

sea,

as

thesis

density

concentrates

difference
more

on

is
the

processes inside the Cochin gut.


The

study

on

siltation

has

been

based on the following

assumptions:
1.Most of the siltation inside the harbour occurs during the
wet monsoon when silt concentration at sea is high due

to

prevailing wind and wave conditions.


2.The material for siltation is brought about from

the

sea

rather than by rivers from inland.


Information about the required
primary

assessment

So quantification
matter

was

made

sediment

parameters

for

of siltation was not available readily.

could only be based on assumed values. The


more

complicated as the silt material is

cohesive in nature. The deposition and erosion

of

sediments

flocculating

are

characteristics.

complex
However

due
a

sedimentation has been attempted.

to
rough

the

estimate

cohesive
of

the

(vi)
The work for the thesis
density

currents

included

study

of

literature

and the transport of cohesive sedidments,

subjects which were new to the author. The findings


literature

on

survey

have

been

included

only

of

the

in so far as

relevant for the purpose of the desk-study,


Chapters 1 and 2 give only background information and define
the problem. The actual thesis work begins with

chapter

3.

'Queen

of

The chapter wise contents are given below.


The Port of Cochin, over the ages, known as

the

the Arabian sea' is located at the mouth of an estuary where


a large tidal prism meets a larger

freshet

discharge.

The

interaction between the heavier salt water and lighter fresh


water paves the way for highly stratified flow patterns. The
thesis

begins

by

giving

an

orientation of Cochin in the

above context.
The

second

chapter

glances

back

at

the

hydraulic data

collected from the area. A primary evaluation of the data is


made and interpretation

is attempted.

Chapter 3 brushes up the theoretical


current.

The

mechanism

of

part

of

the

arrested saline wedge, density

induced return flow and density exchange flow are


as

far

density
described

as they are relevant to the Cochin situation and an

attempt has been made to answer the questions posed

by

the

data.
A method to quantify density
chapter

4. Rigter's

graphs

explained. A new density


This

currents
are

current

is

put

given and the


equation

is

forward

in

method is
introduced.

is followed by enumeration of some interesting physics

of density current

and

then

an

all

inclusive

graph

of

density currents along with salt outflow, height of salt and


oscillation of saline wedge is given.

(vii)
For

quantification

schematized

tidal

schematization

of

the

density

discharge

curves

currents
are

at

Cochin,

required.

The

of tide and freshet discharges are attempted

in the fifth chapter.


Chapter

is entirely devoted to apply the above theory to

Cochin situation. The density currents at Cochin


quantified,

not

the

density

been

alone for the present draught but also for

the past and future draughts (two cases).


of

have

current

and

Salient

features

the arrested saline wedge at

Cochin were gone into in depth.


An

attempt

to

quantify

siltation

have

been

made

in

chapter 7. The transport processes of cohesive sediments are


mentioned and the mechanism of deposition and erosion in the
presence of a saline

wedge

is

explained.

Computation

of

siltation with a calibrated and verified model was attempted


and inferences given.
The last chapter draws out the conclusions and recommends
streamline
reclamation

the
for

flow

in

the

increasing

erosion

screen at the gut to minimise


mentioned,

however,

that

channels
and

by

additional

to instal a silt

transport of silt. It must

determining

be

the consequences of

these measures and the structural difficulties involved


beyond the scope of this desk study.

to

was

CHAPTER 1

BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM

1.1.

Hl STORY
Hailed as the 'Queen of the Arabian Sea' from ancient times,
the Port of Cochin is situated in one of the best
waters

in

the world. The port is located on the Vest coast

of India geographically
and

harboured

7616'

East.

coordinated at lattitude 958' North

The

port

facilities

are located on an

artificial island reclaimed by dredged spoil. The island


very

near

the opening of the backwaters to the sea.

Since

a knowledge of the hydrography of the area is essential


understanding

the

hydrodynamic

factors

at

is
for

play, a broad

outline is given below.


The backwaters are a special feature of Kerala, the southern
state of India. They are huge narrow lagoons

which

receive

the freshwater discharges of many rivers and are open to the


sea at a few places. In
Cochin

backwaters

fact,

into

sea

the
was

major

opening

of

about 30 km nor th of the

present position. In olden days there was a prosperous


there

Muziris

silted up and in
norhtern

But
the

14th

as

the
port

time passed, this opening got


century

flood

waters

of

the

river forced its way through the present opening -

the Cochin Gu t.
1.2.

SAGA OF COCHIN

a deepwater port were


th
century. The bar at the
started only in the wake of the 20
entrance to the harbour was the main obstacle for ships to
Sincere attempts

to

make

Cochin

come inside. This bar along with an approach channel was cut

1.2

open in 1928. Inside the basin, two channels were also


The

dredged

spoil was utilised to reclaim an island in the

middle - Villingdon Island.


was

put

up

on

the

Initially

port

infrastructure

Vestern side of the island facing the

Mattanchery channel and later on, on the other


the

Ernakulam

side

up

facing

channel. Vith all the facilities, Cochin was

declared a major port in 1936. Initially Cochin


vessels

cut.

to

9.14

catered

to

draught. As time passed, Ernakulam

channel was deepened to accommondate vessels up

to

10.7

draught.
The tiny

island which

backwaters

60

years

was

raised

is

connected

the

bed

of

the

back, has now become the nerve centre

of the whole state with bustling


island

from

to

commercial

activity.

The

the mainland by two bridges and a

third one is being completed Fig. 1.1., 1.2. and 1.3.


1.3.

TIDAL STORAGE AREA


Cochin backwaters extend 30 km to the north and 80 km to the
south

of Cochin. Though the length of the lagoon is 110 km,

the width ranges from 1 km to a maximum of 10


many

places

km

only.

In

the flow of water is obstructed by a number of

islands

apart

itself.

The

from

the

irregular

shape

of

the

lagoon

total water area of the lagoon is 300 sq. km.

Fig. 1.1.

1.4.

TIDES AND TIDAL PRISH


The tides at Cochin
inequality.

are

semidiurnal

marked

diurnal

The maximum spring tidal range is 1 m while the

neap tides do not exeed 0.5 m. The


through

with

Cochin

tides

enter

the

basin

gut, 430 m wide and propagate southwards

80 km and northwards to 30 km.

Tides

lose

most

of

to

their

energy as they travel farther from the gut. The tidal range,
for a 0.9 m tide at
southern

extremity

the
of

gut
the

reduces
lagoon.

to

0.20

at

Consequently,

the
the

1.3

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.... _ "0.01

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. FIG:1.1.
GENERAL . PLAN OF COCHIN:BACKWA TERS SHOWING
VARIOUS RIV"ERS

1.4

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168.

(ht's)

252.

z 60.~------------------------T_------------------------~
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(hrs)

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FIG:1.4.TIDAl

CURVES AT COCHIHrN-

TIME

(hrs)

1.7

contribution of these areas at the southern extremity to the


tidal

prism

also limited. The tidal prism has been


assessed as 90 x 106 m3 for a 1.0 m tide. Out of this, 75%
goes

to

explain

is

the
the

considered

south
fact

while 25% goes to the north. This will


that

the

southern

water

areas

were

vital for maintaining adequate velocities in the

navigation channels. In fact, this was the reason for siting


the

port

facilities

south

of Cochin Gut. A typical tidal

curve at Cochin is given in Fig. 1.4.


1.5.

CURRENTS

The tidal flow towards south


Yillingdon
both

in

is

and

Mattanchery

different

at

flows

around

velocities

are

channels

but

their

different locations inside the

harbour. In the shallow natural


side,

and

island giving rise to maximum current velocities


Ernakulam

magnitude

bifurcates

channels

on

the

northern

lower as can be expected. Yhile, the

velocities follow a defenite pattern during dry season,


monsoon

the

bringing in flood waters from upland areas makes it

difficult to predict the nature, period and occurance of the


maximum

veloeities.

As

can

be

expected, peak velocities

occur at the gut. Maximum velocity during the dry season


the

gut

had

been

found

to

be 1.6 mis while that during

monsoon was recorded as 2.0 mis during


velocities

were

recorded

at

at

the

ebbing.

bottom

due

Max.

flood

to density

currents. Max. velocities observed in the channels are given


below.
Ernakulam

Mattanchery

Vypeen

channel

channel

channel

Premonsoon

0.96 mis

0.85 mis

Monsoon

1.42 mis

1.12 mis

1.01 mis

Post monsoon

1. 32 mis

1.18 mis

1.01 mis

1.8

Tidal currents outside in the

sea

nor th

spring

to

south

during

the

are

predominantly
tides,

crossing

approach channel with a velocity of about 0.5


out

the

tidal

from

mis,

through

cycle as indicated by the available data of

hydraulic observations. The current direction however


to

reverse

during

the

neap

tides,

to

the

west

of

the

tends

the maximum velocity

decreasing to about 0.2 mis. The flow


immediately

the

pattern
gut

in

the

sea

is charaterized by

funnelling action during the flood and jetting action during


the ebb.
1.6.

RAINFALL

The climate is characterized by the dry and wet seasons. The


wet season starts in late Hay and ends in
this

period,

November.

During

two monsoons pass by one af ter the other. The

major monsoon is the south west

monsoon

which

lasts

till

September. This period is usually characterized by the heavy


downpour and strong westerly winds. The details of
at

Cochin

rainfall

during the past 10 years are given in Table 1.1.

The average rainfall per year

is

3260

mm

while

major

portion of this falls down during sou th west monsoon.


1. 7.

FRESHET DISCHARGE

The

Cochin backwaters receive freshwater through six rivers

discharging into it at various points. Four rivers Achankoil,

Manimala

and

Meenachil

enter

the lake at the

southern extremity while Muvattupuzha river joins


downstream.

The

discharge

into

the

northern

Periyar.

The

ave rage

dominated

by

the

river

discharge

of

the

southern

m3/s with a peak

value

of

Pampa,

little
part

is

monsoon

rivers is estimated to be 1700


3400

m3/s.

The

corresponding

northern discharges are 450 m3/s and 900 m3/s respectively.

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M

CO

0\

......

..j'
,.....

..j'

......

\0

..j'

o
C"'I

o
o

..j'

lI'l

o
o

U"I
CO

,.....

C"'I

CO
M

o
o

U"I

lI'l

..j'

o
o

o
,.....

o
N

o
o

..j'

U"I
CO
0\

o
o
o
,.....
C'"l
C"'I

o
o
o

o
o

U"I
C'"l

o
o
U"I
N
U"I
..j'

CO

CO

..j'

,.....

.....

CO
\0

\0
N

C'"l

CO

o
o

N
N

\0
CO
M

..j'

I-i
CU

..0

4-1

CO

o
\0

o
o
o
I-i
CU

CU
U
CU

Cl

Cl]

!-t

1. 10

1.8.

SALINITY

1.November to May
During November and December, the surface salinities are low
inside.

sudden

increase is noted af ter December. During

January to March, the surface salinity is found to


high.
By

Maximum

late

May,

salinity
Except

very

salinity is observed during March and April.


salinity

during
for

be

the

this

begins
season

period

to
is

decrease.
found

January

to

But

bottom

to be quite high.

April,

the

salinity

gradient is found to be steep.


2.June to October
As regards the distribution

of surface salinity, the pattern

presents features that are fairly obvious and which


expected

during
of

low

be

this season especially with such influence

of fresh water. The surface layer consists of


Tongues

can

fresh

water.

salinity extending seawards at the surface

are observed in July to early August and September. Although


tidal influence tends to bring much volume of sea water into
the estuary and brings
fresh

about

water influx superpasses

considerable

mixing,

the saline water and surface

salinity conditions, continue to be low whereas, the


from

the

influx

the sea remains as a distinct layer in the backwaters.

Yith the high salinities at the bottom and almost freshwater


at

the

surface, there is a very sharp gradient of salinity


during

resulting from the stratification


layer

of

dense

bot tom

water

associated

with

the

monsoon,

season.

The

the backwaters is not a

in

spite

change of phenomena and in

the

of

turbulent
there

resistance to the mixing of the bottom water

is

conditions
considerable

with

that

at

surface.
1.9.

Vind

at

Cochin

is

highly

influenced by the land and sea

breezes. The analysis of the data from 1930

to

1960

shows

I. 11

3S~

~:~E

.r0
en

~
~

Cv

?
~

........
Cl

'"

0..

VI.

Cl

If)

...

.j

Cl)

2:

::;)

2:.

'Z

2:

~
0(

l'
(1)'"

1.

u,

z
0
=

>
a:

.....
u

I.J

or::

11)

a
-4
-::

CD

0
At....,

....

. ..f.~~

1:1

3:
0

cr

Cl

,,~t

~$.1

~,.,
~
~
''S:

IX
L::J

In

....
VI
0
IX

....

Cl

::

:z

I
~

..
..~
"t",

'"

j j
"" ...::

I:;

iI

...iI
3

!!I

~
...~
~.

...
:Ii

6 !Ii

ti
~
w

!.

.'"

0I

~
6
~

1. 12

JNtJMT
.

~IUI.

=lW
~U

THAIIu.

-u.

_z-u.

molt - 1.4
C'iOiiSu - J.I
~THAIIJ"

.~

,_"._____~~~

rJ~----=-...::::::
f[IIRUAliT

~T
.110'1(111(11

FIG:1.7. WAVE ROSE - HEIGHT

~~~...."'<,:,,~
<:,,: , ...~.

:.: :.....

__..._._.--

.:.:.:;:-

..,.....

'"

.-:;'>

.;.'

.
- ....

.au

FIG:1.8 WA VE ROSE - PERIOD

: (OOM

MI '
750(

I ,OH
77"(

1. 13

that

the

wind

direction

changes

from

north east during

morning hours to west during evening, for the period October


to

May.

During

peak of south west monsoon especially from

July to September, predominant wind direction remains


west

both

during

south

morning and evening hours. Due to strong

monsoon winds, the effect of

land

winds

is

not

dominant

during south west monsoon. The estimated annual ave rage wind
rose is shown in Fig. 1.5. and direction of max. wind speeds
has been illustrated in Fig. 1.6.
1.10.

VAVES

Yave

action

is strong during the monsoon months of June to

September which is primarily responsible for disturbing


bed

the

material in the sea. The predominant direction of waves

from June to September is from the west, with south-west and


west-south-west,

being

months June and July.


north

west

contributory

During

component

factors

September

and

during

the

October,

the

acquires prominence. The analysis of

waves in the open sea outside the harbour is given


diagrams

in

1.7.

Fig.

as

and Fig. 1.8. In the breaker zone,

littoral wave currents are set up which result in


of

material

However

between

this

consequence

the

transport
in

the

rose

shoreline
of

and

material

siltation

of

is

the

transport

-3.6 m contour.
of

not

much

channel.

approach

Ref .1.18.
Inside

the

harbour,

through out the year

generally,
as

it

is

calm
weIl

conditions
protected

prevail
from

the

outside waves by the Fort Cochin and Vypeen coasts.


1.11.

MUD BANKS

The

mud banks along the coast of the Kerala form one of the

special features of the coast line.


known

about

the

Yhile

very

little

is

origin and causes of formation of the mud

banks, its most impressive effect is

its

wave

attenuation

1.14

capacity.

Occasionally,

occasion in 1937, when

these banks migrate and on one such


the

mud bank

crossed

the

approach

channel, very heavy siltation was reported.


1.12.

BED HATERIAL

The bed material on the sea bed upto -3.6 m contour consists
of very fine sand. The sea bed in the deeper contours
silty clay having a median diameter of about 2
microns in the dispersed state and 100 microns in the
of

consists

flocculated

state.

In the inner channels, the bed material

is mainly fine silt and clay.


1.13.

GENBRAL HECHANISH OF SILTATION


It has been observed
channels

occur

during

monsoon. During this


discharge

that

through

70%

the

period,

of

the

months
there

siltation
of

is

the

high

in

south west
fresh

be only natural to jump to the conclusion

It

would

that the siltation

is caused by river borne sediments. But this is not

so.

velocities

are

strong

winds

and

lagoon

itself,

where

low resulting in shoaling up there. On

the other hand, south west monsoon is

also

accompanied

them

in

suspension.

It

is

the

gut,

currents.

point
the
In

(T.P.)(Fig.2.1)
siltation
the

as the predominant

west

of

which is about 2 km west of


tidal

cross

earlier days, this was aggravated

by the

dumping of dredged spoil

is

and

this silt which creates

shoaling in the channels. In the approach channel,


turning

by

consequently wave action in the sea. The

resulting high shear stresses churn up lot of sediments


keep

It

true that the rivers bring in lot of sediments but these

settle down in the wider part of the


the

water

the channels. The rivers which discharge

into the lagoon carry lot of sediments with them.

is

the

caused

by

the

on the north side of

the

channel

cross currents is from north to south.

1. 15

In the inner channels and in the


channel

east

of

portion

of

the

approach

the T.P., the siltation occurs due to the

action of the saline wedge. This would be dealt with more in


detail

in

the coming chapters but a brief outline is drawn

out below. There is a

large

tidal

prism

entering

Cochin

backwaters and spreading out to north and south. The size of


the prism varies with the amplitude of the tide.
earlier,

stated

spring tidal range of 1 m, the total tidal


prism (northern + southern) is equal to 90 x 106 m3. The
fresh

for

As

water

discharge through the gut is also sizable. The


3
ave rage monsoon discharge of all the rivers is 2150 m /s.
3
Out of this, Thottapally spillway is discharging 280 m /s
into the sea at the south. So the net discharge through the
6 3
gut is 1870 m3/s. This works out to 83.59 x 10 m per tidal
cycle. But this is only an average figure.
tide,

the

freshwater

discharge

is

For

more

an

than

average
the tidal

volume. So conditions are favourable for the formation of


saline

wedge.

high

degree

of

stratification

is also

noticed. The effect is that the saline water comes into

the

basin as a distinct wedge. The saline water also brings in a


lot of cohesive sediments which are available at
bed.

the

ocean

These sediments would be in a flocculated condition

saline water and would set tIe down in the


seen from observations

channels.

It

in
is

that not alone the inner channels but

the approach channel east of the

T.P.

also

comes

in

the

density current zone.


1.14.

EVOLUTION TQ THE PRESENT SHAPE


Figures

1.9.

to

1.12.

present

a panorama of the Cochin

backwaters during the last seventy years. Fig. 1.9. shows


the shape of the original Vendurently island before cutting
open the Cochin gut. It was

desired

that

when

the

tidal

currents start flowing, the island should have a streamlined


shape. So a nosing was provided in the front
the

to

streamline

flood tide. This was completed in the twenties. At that

I. 17

-:

...,',

.:

"'...
."'.

1'1\

ut

....
""
0::
Loot
I-

"'-

-c

....

~
~

l. 18

time, Mattanchery was the main centre of activity and

there

was no siltation problem in that channel.


But in 1953, a tail was added on
later
the

on

acted

Ernakulam

the

southern

side

which

as a guide to divert sizable ebb flow into


channel

(fig.

1.11.).

Thus

started

the

siltation problem of Mattanchery channel. Thereafter wharves


were put up on the Ernakulam side and Ernakulam channel
improved.

was

The centre of gravety of the port shifted to that

side. The siltation figures were also low. Out of a total


6 3
annual siltation of 2.7 x 106 m3, 2 x 10 m was in the
approach channel, 0.5 x 106 m3 was in the Mattanchery
channel

while

only

0.2

106

m3

was

in the Ernakulam

channel. To improve the flow conditions in


channel,

the

Mattanchery

reclamation on the southern side has been taken

up. This is

supposed

to

streamline

the

flow

into

that

channel.
1.15.

PRESENT

There

PROBLEM

was

drastic

change

in the channel hydraulics of

Cochin in 1983. Till then, from the date it was


major

port,

Cochin

was

catering

to

declared

vessels

of

9.14 m

draught. But in 1983 as part of the facilities to

bring

deeper

Ernakulam

draughted

vessels,

the

approach

channels were deepened and widened.


shelf

at

approach
channel,

Cochin

the

continental

has only a mild slope, the length of the

channel
the

Since

and

in

was

also

widening

and

increased.
deepening

In

the

Ernakulam

reduced

the

ebb

velocities considerably resulting in reduction in the bottom


shear

stresses

to

erode

Consequently siltation figures


annual

maintainance

up from 0.2 x 10

the

deposited

shot

up

particles.

considerably.

The

dredging in the Ernakulan channel went


to 2.2 x 10

The approach channel


6 3
6 3
also experienced an increase from 2 x 10 m to 2.6 x 10 m .

The port is now poised for an


second

phase

deepening

of

m.

expansion

which

involves

channels by another 1.5 m. The

1. 19

study about the hydro-dynamics of the


affecting
context.

siltation

assumes

greater

channel

and

importance

factors
in

this

CHAPTER 2
AVAILABLE DATA AND TBEIR

2.1.

c.v. & P.R.S.

DETAILS

- 1940(Ref.1.10.)

Even though the port of Cochin has a long history dating back
to the twenties and though the port facilities are located in
a

basin whose hydrodynamics

is complex and depends on a wide

range of factors, there are no records of frequent


observations.

The

earliest

observations

hydraulic

were seen to have

been taken in 1940. The velocities were measured in


section

cross

across the Cochin gut to assess the tidal prism. The

cumulative
be

4,400

tidal prism of two floods was then estimated


to
6
6
3
x 10 cft (125 x 10 m ). This value is valid even

today.
2.2.

C.V. & P.R.S. - 1953(Ref.1.5.)


The

necessity

for further observation was felt in 1953 when

the state government wanted to go

ahead

with

the

development

which

is

known

scheme.

Kuttanad

"Netherlands of Kerala" is the low lying

deltaic

Kuttanad
as

the

reg;i.on of

the southern rivers and is located close to the tidal storage


area of Cochin. To prevent
area,

salt

water

intrusion

the

in order to save paddy crops, the government wanted to

put up a salt water regulator which would have cut


of

into

the

tidal

prism.

Since

it

off

part

was feared that this would

affect the channel hydraulics of Cochin, a physical model

of

the whole area involved, was constructed at Central Yater and


Power Research Station, Pune. The model was proved, based
data

obtained

from prototype observations.

Tidal levels and

velocities were observed all along the lagoon.


volume

at

various

con trol

stations

all

on

Tidal

influx

along the lagoon

2.2

southwards

was

computed.

The

freshwater

discharges

were

computed based on the rainfall and run off. These values were
used in the model at Pune. Peak monsoon discharges agree with
those observed in 1980.
2.3.

C.V. & P.R.S. : 1967 - 1968(Ref.1.18)


These observations were taken during the peak monsoon
of

July

in

1968.

on

the

flow

characteristics

in the approach channel. These are

the

only

valuable

on

data

Attention
approach

was

focussed

season

channel available even now. The

data collected from five stations beyond

the

are

analysis. Continous

available

for

interpretation

and

Turning

point

velocity, salinity and silt profile are available. Please see


fig. 2.1. for locations of stations.

10

~CALE
2

:t~4~OOO

.IND.EX

PLAN

fOR LOCATIONS Of STATIONS

fOR HyDRAULIC C8SERVAli N

FI G:2.1. OBSERVATIONS - 1968


Eventhough
gradient

the stations are outside the gut, a sharp salinity


is visible. The presence of the surface fresh layer

is stronger in stations nearer the gut


strong

tendency

(3

and

stratified

in stations 3 and 4. The silt content also followed the

same pattern in the same locations.


taken

while

for mixing is seen towards far outside. The

velocity distribution is found to be typical of a


flow

4)

at

vertical

the

gut

velocity

and
and

at

certain
salinity

Observations

were

also

locations

inside. The

profile

establishes

2.3

stratisfied

flow

and

shows

complete

flushing out of salt

wedge into the sea during monsoon. See Fig.3.5.

2.4.

N.l.O.: 1975 - 1976


Extensive hydraulic observations

over the entire harbour area

for a whole year round was taken by the National Institute of


The data were
April,1976.
Oceangraphy during May,1975
from a total of 30 stations. The period of
collected
observations

were so adjusted that the details of premonsoon,

monsoon and postmonsoon were obtained distinctly.


data were collected for different

Again these

tidal conditions

spring

l..1.

I-sr

\,.
o
~k?-,S;;Z:::5 ..

..
lOOO

..
1000

1000

dd;;:==~==dl,...Iru
sc AlE r : "000

-~

...
c

..J

FIG:2.2. OBSERVATIONS - 1975-76

2.4

and

neap.

currents
eight

The

details

of

temperature, salinity, density,

and suspended load across seven cross sections

separate

locations

in

various

shipping and natural

channels were collected. These locations of


positions

are

given

in

fig.

and

the

observation

2.2. The maximum and minimum

values of temperature, sediment cocentration and salinity


the

Ernakulam,

Hattanchery,

Bolghatty East, Bolghatty Vest

and Vypeen channels have been recorded. The


velocities

during

the

in

maximum

current

pre, post and monsoon periods in the

above channels are also given. Extensive details at the cross


section

of

the

gut

are

recorded.

The

maximum

velocity at the gut is recorded as 1.74 mis


This

in

observed

postmonsoon.

appears to be .on the lower side compared to the 2.0 mis

observed by C.V. & P.R.S.


The

saline

wedge is seen to intrude into the basin starting

from the bottom at first and extends to


the

later

part

of

the

the

surface

tidal cycle. One important feature

which was consistently observed is the phenomena of


out

during
flushing

of the salt into the sea during higher tidal and freshet

discharges.

The

definite

conditions

during

change

monsoon

to

from

highly

vertically

stratified
homogeneous

conditions during premonsoon was very much evident.


during the dry season has been
6
calculated to be 31.5 x 10 m3 which is very much on the
6 3
lower side compared to the value of about 90 x 10 m

The

average

tidal

prism

indicated by C.V. & P.R.S. for alm

tidal

tide. However the

range for this particular volume has not been specified.


Sediment concentrations
during

have been found to

be

much

higher

post and premonsoon periods than during monsoon. This

was explained to be due to the

dredging

outer channel during this period.

operations

in

the

2.5

2.5.

...;_C_.ll_o_..;...&_P_._R_.-,-S_.
__ 19:....;8~O(Ref.1.
11)
Extensive
were

data on vertical velocity-salinity

collected

channels

from

the

gut,

Ernakulam

and silt profile


and

Mattanchery

during the peak - monsoon season of July 1980. From

table 1.1., it can be seen that this was a period when


was

excessive

continuous

rainfall.

observations

The
at

freshet discharges
1

hour

time

and

there

were high.
2

depth

intervals were taken to collect data on salinity and velocity


for a continuous
data

shows

seven days from 20th to 27th

sharply

stratified

inside. Step by step advance


virtually

followed

of

conditions
the

of
at

saline

July.

The

the gut and

wedge

can

be

in the profiles. The data also gives the

time lag of advance/retreat

of the saline wedge

between

gut

and specific points in the channels.

L.I.

-wr

f.IG:2.3 .. OBSERVA TIONS .-1980


Analysis

of the data in respect of

salt

inflow,

net

density current and salt out flow has been presented

flow,

later in

2.6

chapter 6. The data from these observations


relied on for correlation
The observation
2.6.

e.v.

with the theory.

locations are shown in fig. 2.3.

& P.R.S. - 1985(Ref.1.6.)

These were the first observations


and

have been heavily

deepening

af ter

the

widening

of the channel to -11.9 m. The location of the

are given in fig. 2.4. There were three pairs of

observations
locations

taken

in

all,

all inside the basin. The purpose was to

study the extent of mixing. Out of two stations,

one

and

channel. Two

the

other

locations were

was on the flank of Mattanchery


in

the

widened

portion

,.....- .... CKAIIIIUDI."'ilO~


t.__
._~.. 0 OUI'hl.i

""111 IlllIDiaIIl
. .'

U)'777J CII..... "" DIMhilO.,


~
.. 11 OU;'hlllli .
. ..QC.JI~, 11' '1'''0 D'"

"'8U'IIIIIOi.I.'

"

... ..IIC.IIII,.'

8f

.. 1111'" DAIA

F;:G~...2 .4

e-

of

the

was

in

Ernakulam

"""'' 111'

OBSERVATIONS-1985
channel.

Two

more stations were fixed near the Naval jetty.

Velocity and salinity profiles during the monsoon season


observed.

In

the Mattanchery

channel, stratified

was

conditions

2.7

were visible while on the flank weIl

mixed

conditions

were

seen.
One important feature was that in the widened portion of
Ernakulam

the

channel, there was variation in the advance of the

saline wedge. The wedge advanced quicker at the

centre

than

at the widened portion.


2.7.

NESA - 1988
This is the most recent survey carried out at Cochin. But the
timing

of

the

observations.

survey

was

not

proper

for

The observations were carried out during early

May. Normally, this would have been a premonsoon


untimely

rains

results. The
salini ty

hydraulic

just

before

freshwater

distributions.

by
the
affected
bathymetric details

the

affected

turbidity

dredging

But

observations coloured the

discharge
The

phase.
velocity

values

operations.

were

But

and
also

valuable

were recorded. However, this survey was

of not much use for this desk study.


2.8.

DATA ON DREDGING
The data on maintainance dredging

quantities

are

given

table 2.1. and 2.2. below.


Quantity to

Quantity

be removed
106 m3

removed
106 m3

1984-1985

4.608

3.187

1985-1986

2.322

1.851

1986-1987

2.795

2.804

1987-1988

3.654

2.519

Year

Table 2.1. Approach channel dredging.

in

2.8

Quantity

Quantity

to be removed
106 m3

removed
3
106 m

1984-1985

2.128

1.659

1985-1986

2.883

2.980

1986-1987

2.064

1.969

1987-1988

2.643

2.693

Year

Table 2.2. Ernakulam channel dredging.

CHAPTER 3
HYDRODYNAKICS OF DENSITY CURRENT

3.1.

RELEVANCE OF TBBORY

It

is

proposed

to

bring out some basics of the theory of

density currents in this chapter. Before going into that, it


was

feIt pertinant that the relevance of that theory to the

Cochin conditions should be established.


3.1.1.

The

flow through the Cochin gut held the facination of all,

ever af ter it was dredged deep for entry of ocean vessels.


The tidal storage area accomodates a large prism and induces
the

high velocities at its only opening to

sea,

gut.

the

This is apart from the fact that there are six rivers, whose
annual
catchment areas receive more than 3000 mm of
rainfall, discharge into the basin.
Fig. 3.1. gives the schematised sinuzoidal
induced

by

the

discharge

curve

tide, the steady freshet discharge and the

resultant flow. Let us call this the net flow.


3.1.2.

The

above

flow is a simple case where the complication due

to the difference in densities of fresh and river


not

considered.

The

water

is

sea water at Cochin has a salinity of

The mass densities of fresh and sea water at 28C


3
are 997 kg/m3 and 1023 kg/m respectively. The difference in
3
This net difference provides a
densities is 26 kg/m
36

/00.

pressure

difference

which

acts as a driving force for the

salt water to advance into the

fresh

water

bottom. This phenomenon is schematized

front

at

the

in fig. 3.2. At slack

tide, when the net flow is zero as at points d and f in fig.


3.1.,

the

salt

goes

inside

with

velocity

c and the

3.2
I
C1l
;>-.
"0
.-1

C1l ........
:;>0-0
"00-

~-c

C1l

Q)

C1l

c;~ @
,_.

>4

~
0
~

111

,_.
Qj

~
~

lt-4

'-'

. ~-

.-<y-

.. ":

I-~-_.,..~I..
i J
1-) ~
I

~
Qj
~

:l
'0

""

ITT ~ j !l!

I . I-- ~; i

(-4

til
H

~
(-4

I_ ...... ~~

ttt1ttt1

u
~
o ....

~
....

cu

111
'-'

....
0'

-...
U

.c

lt-4

0
11

(-4

....
0
I

....

~
~

(.!I

....

0'

[c ,..;

111
Qj

Ic

:l

H
til

cri

:l
0
0
I~

....

lt-4
'-'

""~
j;Q

~
0
~

Ig

~
~

""

H
(-4

:s
til

0'

.....

-""
'-'
Q)

....o

..

'0

o
....
~.
u

I-.l

'-'
Q)

.......
o

I,
.....

cri

w..J .

.1l

3.3

freshwater comes out on top at the same


the

maximum

discharge

velocity.

This

is

of density current. The net flow in

this case is zero.


ebbing,

During

the

ebb

velocity is superimposed

density current and the latter is reduced

to

over the

that

extent.

a ou -t a.ln is the net flow, say at point c.


Here, the lower value of ain is the density current which
will be less than the a. in the previous case.
ln

The

ebb

net

of

The situation reverses when there is a net flood


at point e.Then
3.1.3.

a ou t

The above schematised


occuring

at

the

situations are identical

gut,

the

one

to

according tQ field data. Please see


profiles

show

there is an inflow at the bot tom and an outflow at the

top as seen in the schematization


flow

by

subtracting

itself.

period

of

about

30

get

the

net

in

fig.

3.4.

over

hours. The lowest value, as mentioned

earlier is the density current and


bottom.

Ve

one from the other giving either flood

or ebb as resultant. This is ploted

it

is

plotted

at

the

The height of salt at gut is also given above that.

One interesting
of

say

is the density current.

fig. 3.3. The vertical velocity and salinity


that

flow,

feature noticed was that there is an outflow

salt itself over the inflowing saline water. This is due

to the shear at the interface. Please see velocity verticals


from

0500

hrs to 0900 hrs and from 1200 hrs to 1800 hrs in

fig. 3.3. , 6.28 and


outflow

of

salt

6.29.

water

is

This

phenomenon

also

accompanied

pronounced salt outflow over the entire


ebb

dep th

of

continous
by

more

during

high

discharges of both larger and smaller tides. Please see

velocity verticals at 1100 hrs, 2100 hrs

and

2200

hrs

in

fig.6.28 and 6.29.


3.14.

In fig.3.3., at 0.000 hrs. there is no salt water seen. This


means

that

the

salt wedge has been completely driven out.

Fig. 3.5. gives the longitudinal

profile of the saline wedge

3.4

_
....
_.

S131\31 WOU
_. .... _ ..._

...;

-I

-.

_
00

...

CO

..

....

.;

..:!-

HJ.d30

..

...S131\31

Wa.J.

00

00

....;

...

00

z:_

..

...

'0

...
lil

>

....

.t::.
0
0

....

....
00

"" t.......
0

:ii
i1i

..

00

1;

,~

0
0
N
0

....

s:

t.-

~
~

....

Ol

&.

...
co

> _

~
111

0-

~
~

0
00
0-

Vl
0
.op

0
N

...

~
I

..

:3
VI

LU

...J

u,

~~
~It

Cl::

>
>I-

;t:

<t
I-

=
Q.
n,

.-J
U

...

110

....

Q.

...

2-,

..~-

~
;_
>

Q.

111

t:

:i
;;

111

1/1

.... ,

00

.-J
LU

::::t-

lil
lil

...

00

:!

lil
lil

....

..

...

:g...
1/1

s:

_..

'1i

>

....

.2!

0
0

......

>

t:

Q.

Q.

...

2-

~----==~====~-

........

i1i

111

~...
111

..
-....

-..

.-:!...

"-

'0

o
o
o
o

'.

u.

00

2-

...
s:

f-

on

1/1

rrt
rrt
t.:I

<,

Ir

10

r-V~

-"_~r ........

....

_
..:

.. .. ...

.;

...

H.1d30

....

.;

51]1\31 1ym.1

_ .......
$!
J

__..

:sO'

-;;

>

&.

_
-I

t:

Q.

.......
:~
;;
es

-I

VI

elf

"

-ct

_.... Hl.dlO...
0

S1]1\]1

lVu.

..

-----1
.0

3.5

.-.-.-r-----.._-

22.7.1980

.8

Q_.Q .. 0

~6

..s

HET

fLOW

TaTAL OUTflOW

I....a

~8
4:

:r:

910

Cl

12
14
16
18

tDiHT Qf SAlT wflKif AT lilT

I..
.J

:112

t--------_;:.--....c....---

----_.--...__ .

..

li"Lr'OUTFLOW

#0.0

.0 _0..

0_0

~
-'0

".

0-

0_...

..

"0

fIG:3.4.DfNSITY

CURRfNT - 1980

0
0..
. .

3.6

on ce when it is completely inside and on ce when it is driven


out during low tide. It has been established
goes

out

on ce

every

day,

thereby

that the

confirming

the

salt

balance. The salt water which is coming

in

completely

of salt over a long

and there is no accumulation

is

wedge

driven

out

periode Here we have two natural questions:


(i)

Vhy is flushing once a day ?

(ii) Vhat is the quantity of salt water coming inside ?


These questions would be answered in subsequent sections. To
answer question
considered

(i), the theory of an arrested salt wedge is

putting emphasis on the flow rate needed to make

the length of arrested salt wedge, zero. To answer


(ii), gut is schematized
3.1.5.

The

gut

is

separating

schematized

of

.
as

channel

of

finite

width

a fresh reservoir (backwater) and salt reservoir

(sea). This schematization


theory

question

density

justified

induced

the application

return

currents

over

of

a sill

separating a fresh reservoir from a salt reservoir. For


theory

the
the

to hold good, the fresh reservoir has to stay fresh.

That means there should not be

any

there

the density current would be

is

salt

accumulation,

reduced considerably.
is

salt

accumulation.

If

The assumption of no salt accumulation

justified just af ter the salt water starts to flow in as

a density current.

3.2.

CRITICAL FLOll CONCEPT (OPEN CHANNEL FLOll)


Ve can treat the density current similar
flow

and

apply

the

densimetric

to

concept

homogeneous

to it. This may

perhaps be the simplest way to study stratified flow.


For open channel flow, the velocity of propagation
wave at the water surface, is given by

of a long

3.7

......

c = u Igh
where,

3.1

velocity of propogation of long surface wave

velocity

water over the surface of which

of

the long wave is propagating


g

acceleration

water depth

due to gravity

Defining the Froude number as,


2

Fr =

gn

.....

where,

Fr

Froude

number

of

open

channel

flow,

accordance with Eq. 3.1., depending on the magnitude of


Froude number, the following distinction
For

Fr

<

propagating

in
the

can be made:

1, the flow is referred to as being subcritical.

Iu I <

Then,

3.2

I/gh
in

the

I, meaning

that

there

is

one

wave

direction of u and one in the opposite

direction.
For Fr

>

1, the flow is cal led supercritical.

Then,lul<l/ghl

and both waves propagate in the direction of u.


For Fr = 1, ie,

3.3.

for critical flow, lul = I/gh I. This means

that one wave is propagating

in the direction of u and

the other wave is stationary

(c=o)

CRITICAL

For

FLOV CONCEPT (NO

that

LAYER FLOV)

two layer flow, the velocity of propagation of the long

internal wave, at the interface, is


Schonfeld,1953)

given

by

(Schijf

and

3.8

u1a1+u2a2

c.

a1+a2

where,

(u1-u2)

(). a1a2
[~--p
a1+a2
:veloci ty

c.

a1a2 1/2
......
2
]

3.3

(a1+a2)
of long internal

propagation

of

wave
a1,a2 :Thickness
lower layer

of

upper

the
below

the

layer

above and

interface

between

which the long internal wave is propogating


u , u :Velocity of upper and lower layers
1
2
{).p
:Difference
in
densities between

both

layers
Vhen

the absolute value of the first term at the right hand

side of Eq. 3.3. is smaller than that of


one

wave

the

term,

velocity is positive and the other negative. This

means that there


directions.

are

Both

two

waves

propagating

in

opposite

wave velocities have the same sign as the

first term at the right hand side, when its


is

second

absolute

value

larger than the absolute value of the second term at the

right hand side. Then both waves propagate in the


indicated

by

the

direction

sign of the first term at the right hand

side.
Therefore, defining internal Froude numbers as,

.....

where, Fr1, Fr2:

densimetric

Froude

3.4

number of upper and

lower layers,
in

accordance

with

the

magnitude

of

(Fr1+

Fr2),

the

following distinction can be made:


(Fr + Fr ) < 1, the two layer flow is subcritical. Then
1
2
the absolute value of the first term on the right hand side

For

3.9

of

Eq.

3.3. is smaller than that of the second term. Hence

there are two waves


opposite directions.
For

(Fr1+

>

Fr2)

propagating

over

the

interface

1, the two layer flow is supercritical.

Then the absolute value of the first term at the right


side

in

hand

of Eq. 3.3. is larger than that of the second term and

both interfacial waves propagate in the direction

indicated

by the sign of the first term.


For (Fr1+ Fr2) = 1, the absolute value of the first term at
the right hand side of Eq. 3.3. is equal to that of the
second term. Then one wave is propagating over the interface
in the direction indicated by the sign of the first term and
the other wave is stationary (c.= 0).
1

3.4.

APPLICATION OF 'CRITICAL

3.4.1.

ARRESTED SALINE WEDGE


Yhen

river

discharges fresh water into a saline sea for

which the tidal


results.

As

FLOV CONCEPT' Tb NO LATER FLOVS:

range

the

is

zero,

an

arrested

salt

wedge

name indicates, the resultant velocity of

salt water inside a saline wedge is zero

FIG.3.6. ARRESTED SALINE WEDGE


Assuming

the

freshwater

flow

to

direction, for an arrested salt wedge,

be

in

the

positive

3.10

.....

3.5

.....

3.6

and

fresh water flow rate per unit width.

where, qfr

Substituting Eq 3.5. and 3.6. into Eqs 3.3. and

3.4.

gives

that for an arrested salt wedge,


2

qfr
--3

....

3.7

~l
p

and
of

that
Eq.

the sign of the first term at the right hand side


3.3.

is

stratified

flow

positive.
is

This

means

supercritical,

that

both

when

this

internal

waves

propagate in the direction of the river flow, ie, out of the


estuary.

Only

interfacial
opposite

when

wave

the

which

flow is subcritical,
can

to that of the river

propagate

in

there is one

the

direction

flow and hence can penetrate

into the river.


On

the

basis

of

the

above

information,

the

following

experiment can be performed. Assume that a river issues into


a fresh water sea, ie, a sea
which

the

filled

with

fresh

salt

flow

at

in

range of tide is zero. Assume further that, from

one moment to the next , all water in the sea is


Then

water

water
the

penetrates

mouth

of

the

made

salt.

into the river as long as the


river

is

subcritical

and

consequently an internal wave is capable to intrude into the


river.
The

larger the quantity of salt which has intruded into the

river, the smaller is the thickness of the upper

layer,

al

at the mouth of the river. Once at a given moment, the value

3. 11

of al may become sufficiently small to make (Fr1+ Fr2) equal


to one at the mouth of the river. (See eq. 3.7.). Reducing
al further, requires more salt to penetrate into the

river.

This is impossible, however as reducing al further makes the


flow super critical, which for the arrested salt wedge means
that internal waves can penetrate only out of the river.
This means that salt stops to penetrate into the river, when
at its mouth,
2

qfr
--3

.... 3.8

= 1

~
p

Knowing the value of al at the mouth


length

of

the

estuary,

the

of the arrested salt wedge can be computed using the

back water curve equation for stratified flow, which relates


the

slope

of upper

of the interface with the velocity and thickness


and

lower

layers.

discussion

of

two

layer

backwater curves is given by Rigter (1970) ref. 1.15. Schijf


and Schonfeld (1953) ref. 1.16.

found

the

length

of

the

arrested salt wedge to be given by


L.= a~ [_!__2 - 2 + 3F 2/3 - 5~F 4/3
0
0
1
'+Ki 5F

.... 3.9

in which, FO

qfr
--3

....

3.10

~
p

Yhere, L.

Length of the arrested

salt

wedge(see

fig.

3.6.)
FO

densimetric Froude number based on river flow

depth of river

k.

The

river

interfacial shear stress coefficient


flow

may be so large that there are no internal

waves which can penetrate into the river even when

a2

3.12

and

a.

therefore

In

accordance with Eq 3.7., this

condition arises when


.....3.11
Hence salt
arrested
rate is

cannot

penetrate

into

the

river

and

so

no

salt wedge can be formed when the fresh water flow


sufficiently

represents

the

large

condition

eq. 3.11. from Cochin is

to

satisfy

eq.

3.11.

which

of flushing. The significanee of


discussed

in

6.5.5.

Comparision

with data is also made.


In both layers of an arrested salt wedge,

the

pressure

is

hydrostatic. For the upper layer,


....

3.12.

and for the lower layer,


....3.13.
hydrostatic pressure

where, p
x,y:

P1

and

horizontal

vertical

co-ordinates

(fig.3.6.)
density of upper layer

For the upper layer, the

horizontal

pressure

gradient

is

given by:

....

3.14

and for the lower, layer by

....3.15

3. 13

In eqs. 3.14. and 3.15., a (al + a2)/ax represents the slope


of the water surface and aa2/3x, the slope of the interface.
In

an

arrested

salt

wedge,

the

fresh

water

accelerated

as al decreases with decreasing

the

The

sea.

pres su re

gradient

distance

(Eq.

the

shear stress, the pressure

gradient

3.14.).

The

acting

the
on

lower layer is zero. In accordance with Eq. 3.15., this

implies that for the lower layer, the pressure gradient


to

from
this

lower layer velocity is zero. This means that neglecting


interfacial

is

for

required

is due to the surface slope

acceleration

flow

the

surface

slope is balanced by the pressure gradient

due to the slope of


requires

the

due

the

interface.

As

6p

p,

this

slope of the interface to be much larger than

that of the water surface.


DENSITY INDUCED RETURN CURRENTS

3.5.

For an arrested salt wedge, the slope of the interface is so


large that the lower layer velocity is zero. If the slope of
the interface could be made larger, this would cause a
of

the lower layer in the direction opposite to that of the

upper

layer

freshwater

Fresh wat:r
reserVOlr

flow

flow.

Consider

reservoir

with

long

another

weir,
with

connecting

salt water, over

FIG.3.7. ARRESTED SALT WEDGE ON LONG WIER

which there is a net flow qfr from the fresh water reservoir
to

the

salt water reservoir. The length of the weir may be

3.14

so large that above the weir, an arrested salt wedge can

be

formed. fig.3.7. Then the flow above the weir corresponds

to

the flow described in the preceding section.


A different situation arises wh en the length of the weir

is

smaller than that of the arrested salt wedge. Then the slope

CJ'rr
I

-- .......
T

UI

L
Of

:
FIG.3.8. DENSITY INDUCED RETURN CURRENT
OVER SHORT WEIR
of the interface may become so large that there is
layer

flow

of

lower

salt water from the salt water reservoir

to

the freshwater reservoir, the direction of which is opposite


to that of net flow over the weir. fig. 3.8.
The larger the slope of the interface,
above

density

connection,
interface

return

larger

current,

an experiment can be performed by


separating

water underneath,
fresh

induced

the

water

the

fresh

continuously

is

q.
In
r
bringing

the
this
the

water above from the salt

at a lower

position

in

the

reservoir and at a higher position in the salt

water reservoir, keeping the netflow over the weir constant.


This will lead to an increase of q

as long as the resulting


r
two layer flow remains subcriticalover
the entire length of

the weir.
This stops to be true when the flow at x
becomes

critical.

The

flow

being

and

critical at both these

3.15

locations, at x

0 the sign of the first term at the

right

of Eq. 3.3. is that of u2,(1 u2a1 1 > 1 u1a2 I),


while at x = L it is that of u1, (I u1a2 1 > 1 u2a1 I). This
means that internal waves cannot any longer penetrate into
hand

side

the area above the wier as both at x = 0 and x = L,


the

one

of

internal waves is stationary while the other propagates

in a direction away from the

weir.

the

the

interface

further

in

Consequently,
freshwater

lowering

reservoir

or

bringing it up at a still higher level in the salt reservoir


has no effect on the flow over the weir.
The above considerations
qf ' the return flow q
r

imply that for

given

value

of

has its maximum value when both at

x = 0 and at x = L, the flow

is

critical.

These

critical

flow

conditions cannot be selected arbitrarily as the value

of a

at x = 0 is linked to that at x = L by the back

2
curve

equation

mathematically

for

stratified

flow.

This

link

water
can

be

expressed as

= a2,O

.. 3.16

Yhere a2,O,a2,L: value of a2 at x = 0 and x = L


The problem of how to
x

and

select

the

critical

for the maximum value of q


relates

the

velocities

at

L so that Eq. 3.16. is satisfied has been

solved by Rigter (1970)(ref. 1.15) who gives


of the weir and

conditions

the

shear
between

design

graphs

as a function of qf ' the length

interfacial

shear

coefficient

which

at the interface with the difference


the

layers

over

it.

Rigter

in

further

derives formally that qr has its maximum value when the flow
is critical at both x = 0 and x = L,
physical
as

reasoning.

confirming

the

above

For this purpose, Eq. 3.16. is written

3.16

....

3.17

The integral of Eq. 3.17 is a function of its limits a2,Oand


a2,L. Further it is a function of qr' as for constant qfr'
the slope of the interface

determines

q.

Therefore,

the

integral may be represented as

....

3.18

where

A: functional relationship of a2,0,a2,L,and qr.


As A= Land L is constant, differentiating A with respect to
a2,oand a2,Lgives
--+

aA
aa2,0

aA
aYe

aA
aa2,L

aA
aq

--+

aq

aa2~= 0
.

.. 3.19

aq

r
0
aa2,L =

..3.20

The condition at x = 0 and x = L is selected so that qr

has

its maximum value ie,

....3.21

or in accordance with Eqs. 3.19 - 3.21, when


aA
0
aa2,0 =

aA
aa2,L = 0

... 3.22

Substituting Eq. 3.18 into Eq. 3.22, qr is found to have its


maximum value when

o and at x

....

3.23

3.18

As 3a /3x is propotional to (Fr + Fr


_1)-1 (Rigter1970),
2
1
2
this means that maximum values of qr are found when the flow
is critical at both x = 0 and x = L,
3.6.

(Fr1 + Fr2 = 1)

DENSrTY INDUCED EXCHANGE FLOli

For qfr = 0 (no net flow over


density

induced

exchange

the

flow

weir),
over

the

there

occurs

weir

which

is

considered in section 3.5. For such exchange flows,


.....
where, q
The

ex

3.24.

: density induced exchange flow rate

magitude

of

is equal to the maximum value of qr'


ex
given by Rigter (1970) for qf r = o. The maximum value of q ex
occurs when L = o. Then, from Rigter's design graphs one,
finds

qex

1
(~
7+ a p

ga

)1/2

.... 3.25

Experiments summarized by Yih (1965) give a value

of

about

0.22 instead of the factor 1/4 of Eq. 3.25.


The curves given by Rigter have wide application on
conditions

various

of density currents. In the following chapter, a

method to quantify density currents through

the

gut,

from

the net flow, using Rigters graphs is explained in detail.

CHAPTER 4
A KETHOD TO QUANTIFY DENSITY CURRENT

4.1.

RIGTER' S GRAPHS

Rigter (1970) gives a graph 1inking the interna1 Froude


numbers of the two 1ayers and the interfacia1 shear. Froude
numbers are defined as

....4.1

where,e:
F and F :for upper and 10wer 1ayers respective1y. See
1
2
fig. 4.1. In the graph, F1 is p10tted against F2 and 1ines
of equa1 k.L have been drawn. k. is the interfacia1 shear
1

coefficient

and L is the ratio of the 1ength of the si11 to

the water depth. See fig. 4.2 .

... -U, (- q,)

+x

Fig .4.J.

Oefi nition sketch

4. 2

,.::0
ij"

::::J

,.

. C"'

~
,.

,.

::::J

. Fig.4.4Relation

betweenkl, ,F1,Fi

Data

O~igin~l
E.9

- solid

ApP~oxiMation

'.'

.. '~.

. 149

~
.
.

o.

::

r:

,:,

0,

"

+ .
i
~
:
:
.
:
:
:'
"1' i' '1' t
ooi
o .. 'j'
'l'
j
i
q::i':}f:;::::
j

ol,
;

.969

:.......

'.

;.
:

;:

'.' ,. '.'

,.

:.

'1'

-1-

,:

: : r

.:
:

:.

I .

:
:
~
:

t:

-1.~

:
:
:
:

":

'. :

'

:.

.... .

.189

~.dotted

;'

~.

, r::::

.929

o~

.~

'.'

'

.969
.....

_._-- ..

E 9
'.-

.
FIG:4.1 I~ -

F.J

vs .~

4.3

4.2.

PROCEDURE
The starting point is the tidal
fresh
mind

water
that

discharge
the

indicates

curve

including

the gut. It may be kept in

through

schematised

the

discharge

discharge

(Fig.3.1. )

curve

'net flow' through the cross section without

separating the density currnt. This

in effect is q1 -

q2'

From Eq. 4.1. we have,


.... 4.2.
or

.....
the

net

flow

per

4.3

unit width directly

read out from the discharge curves


depth of flow

6p/ p

depends on the salinity of the sea. So all the parameters

on the left hand side of Eq. 4.3.

are

known

to

calculate

F - F From fig. 4.2., values of F2 and F1 can be read out


2
1
along any curve of interfacial shear in such a way that the
difference

between the va lues of F1 and F2 on each axis, is


equal to the (F - F ) as calculated by Eq.4.3. Once F1 and
2
1
F are known, Eq. 4.1. can be used to compute q2 and q1' The
2
lowest of the two values is the density current. See fig.
3.2.

Vhat

is

obtained

that particular point of


discharge

curve

are

is the value of density current at


time.

Several

points

along

the

to be put through the above procedure

for getting the density current graph for the

entire

tidal

cycle. The computed graphs are given in figs. 6.1. to 6.20.


4.3.

PRACTICAL PROBLEMS

4.3.1.

As

mentioned

the schematized

earlier, the first thing which is required is


tidal

discharge

curve

with

fresh

water

4.4

sort of tidal
Some
it.
on
superimposed
discharge
computations will have to be carried out to obtain this. The
tidal

schematization

attempted

for

this particular case

will be described in detail in the next chapter.


4.3.2.

Another

important

point

is

to

calibrate the theoretical

values with the actual observations.


of

velocities

required

draw

to

distribution
estuary mouth are
As

discharge.

density

of

graph

the

the

at

salini ties

and

Vertical

earlier and as evident from fig. 3.2. , the lowest


of the two, either ebb or flood may be plotted as density
explained
current

(q2)'

At

the

same

instance

from

the net flow,

(ql - Q2)' (F2 - F1) can be read out from the graph for
various values of kiL.
F2a/ga or F1a/ga
whichever
value represents density current as given by Rigters curves
may

be

computed.

For each value of k.L, there is a set of


1

values of Fl and F2. The kiL value which is more fitting to


the density current plotted from the prototype data of the
vlocity distribution
calculation.

For

graph

example

may
a

be

value

adopted

for

further

of k.L = 0.05 has been


1

found fitting in the case of Cochin. The fitness may be seen


for a number of values, at one hour intervals. The graph may
be drawn for the entire tidal cycle.
k. is the interfacial friction coefficient which has a value
1

of 0.001.
I/a

L is dimensionless length

where

is the length of

the sill
4.3.3.

In

the

case

of a place like Cochin where the tides show a

marked daily inequality, the schematization has to

be

done

for two consecutive tides and the graphs should be drawn for
one larger and one smaller
particular

combination

of

tide.
tides

This
and

means

that

for

for a certain fresh

water discharge the calculations will have to be repeated at


least

25

times

if

values

are to be obtained every hour.

4.5

Doing these calculations

further, for other combinations

of

tides and freshet discharges could be labourious.


4.4.

DENSITY CURRENT EQUATION


To

overcome

the

above

difficulty

and

to avoid the long

procedure, a short cut is also put forward.

Since,

case

found

of

Cochin,

kiL

0.05

curve

was

in

the

fitting,

attention was focussed on the same. For all the va lues of


(F

- F ), the lowest values of Flor F2 were taken from the


2
1
graph and a curve was fitted to the points.Please
see fig.
4.3. and fig. 4.4.
.....

4.4.

Yhere F2 is the lowest of Fl and F2


Since, q2 = F

a/ga,
4.5.
2
Substituting for (F - F1) from Eq. 4.3. and for F2 from Eq.
2
4.4. into Eq. 4.5., we have,
2
q2

0.174 a/e,ga

4.6

- 0.483 q + 0.274 q
aJe,ga

density current

where,q2
a

h+ ncos rot = dep th of flow

mean water dep th and

tidal amplitude

tidal + freshwater discharge

per

unit

width

or net flow (q2 - q1)


Eq.4.6. can
because,

be

now

termed
the

as

the

procedure

density

is

simply

current

equation

to substitute

the

variables directly in the equation and get the density flow.


On

examination,

we

can

find

that

variabIe is the time 't' during the


rest

are

procedure.

all

dependent

the
tidal

only independent
period

and

the

variables making it a far simpIer

4.6

4.5.

LIKITATIONS

As

OF TUE KETBOD

explained

theory,

in

section

3.1.5.,

for

applying

Rigter's

the gut is schematised as a channel of finite width

seperating a fresh water reservoir (backwaters) from a

salt

water

reservoir

accumulation.

(sea),

neglecting

This assumption is

the

effect

of

salt

when

the

salt

justified

water starts to flow in as a density current, just af ter the


period of flushing. However, as the field measurements
are

described

in

chapter

show

through the gut is influenced by the


water

inside

eventually,

which

the flow

accumulation

of

salt

the gut as an extended saline wedge. Then the

density current equation overestimates

the density currents.

Please see Fig.6.22 to 6.26.

4.6.

PHYSICAL

CHARACTERISTICS

Vhile evaluating

OF DENSITY

CURRENT

the density currents for the Cochin estuary

and while analysing field data, certain general features


density

currents

of

through tidal inlets like the gut came to

light. It would be easier to explain these features with the


help

of

theoretical

density

current

particular case. Such a graph is produced


graph

contains the schematised

water flow of 6 m 2/s.

graph made for a


in

fig.4.4.

The

tidal discharge with a fresh

The dep th of flow is 12 m. The

range

of the first tide is 0.75 m while that of the second tide is


0.30 m. Neglecting
high

water

and

friction, a 90

phase

lag

between

the

the maximum discharge has been assumed, an

assumption elaborated upon in section 5.1.2.


4.6.1.

Following

the

procedure

mentioned

earlier,

the density

current graph has been plotted. As indicated in Eq. 4.6. the


driving

force

for

density

constant for a particular


solely

depends

on

la.

current is proportional
estuary,

current

estuary.

is
So

Iga. and gare


the

driving

force

Since the dep th of flow of density


to the total depth of

flow

the total density discharge is proportional

of

the

to a/a

4.7
Ti,j.:: 0.75111, 2nd Tide: u.30&\,
fl'~::tl.:t, dc.t~l'\J~: G. u bl::./:.

bt

u.7,-----------------~-----------------r-----------------r----------------~
U.+------------------+------------------+-----~-----------+------------------~
O.5+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------~
0.4 '

0.3

r-,

0.2

-7\~
,

O. 'I

0
.[

-0. 'I

i
>-

.!!

...= -o.~
ii

-0.3

,I

I
/

-0.4
I

.....
Ol

....

ii

oi

r<:
5+-~------~---~~--~----~--~-------------+------------~
-;
~

:
/I.

c:
~.
1_.
,,'(1
~ 0 , ......

......
Ol

l'";

cl

~(
~q_!~

""
.~,

I
, .! i) ,,(0 ,. \ ' ..

..~ G
.., ~~,
,

.'.

..

v-u- .\ -t~,
t :,,.
' ~,

,..: r:
10.,.,':

: '

'. t ':.'
....

..
," '. ," .-J)..-Er

..

'Oi
e:
Cl

-5+----------------~------------~---~~-----------------4-----------------~
o

~ltllOl

FIG:4,4. DENSITY CURRENT GRAPH

4.8

Eq. 4.6. The opposing factor is the freshet and tidal

(net)

discharge.
4.6.2.

MAXIMUM VALUE OF OENSITY CURRENT


It

can be easily deducted from the above reasoning that the

maximum value of density current occurs


factor

is

when

the

opposing

minimum ie, when the net discharge is zero. In a

tidal cycle, this may happen two times ie, at instances when
the tidal flood becomes equal to the freshet flow. As can be
seen from Fig.4.4.,
H

the density current is maximum at E

and

when the discharge q is zero. But both maximum values are

not equal. Now, it is time to take a look at the


of

tidal

levels which determines

top

graph

the value of 'a'. The net

di scharge q being zero, the density current

at

will

be

at E because the tidal elevation at H is


higher. So H gives the maximum value of density current.
There is also a third maximum at J, during the second
smaller tide when the discharge is the minimum but not equal
larger

then

that

to zero. But this will be lower than the other two values.
4.6.3.

MINIMUM VALUE OF OENSITY CURRENT


As

we have seen, when the net discharge q is zero the value

of density current is
certain

maximum,

and

goes

beyond

value, the density current becomes zero as q is the


0 are the points of zero

opposing force. Here Band

density

This happens during the lowering phase of the tide

current.

point

as against the previous case; so at


current

when

is zero even at a lower discharge

of a lower water depth and

hence

lower

0,

the

density

than at B because
driving

force.

Please note the upward slope of line KL. From Eq. 4.6.,
q2 = 0

for

va lues

of

q/a/ga

equal

to

(Negative values of q2 are not considered).

or

same.

0.5.

For a particular

discharge q and water depth 'a' this condition


the

above
will

remain

If the estuary is deepened 'a' increases and the

4.9

points Band

D will come closer reducing the period of

zero

density current.
4.6.4.

CONDITION FOR COMPLETE FLUSHING


Complete

flushing

is

said to have occured when the entire


of

saline wedge is driven out


this

happens

when

the

the

Froude number given by Eq. 3 10 is


practice.

one. But flushing occurs much before that in


mechanism

Theoretically

estuary.

is that af ter the density current has gone to zero

there would be

an

outflow of salt. From B to C,


,a'
decreases
so that conditions

and
increases
favourable for the salt to be driven out. It has been
from

data

that

at

FO= O.7.see 6.5.2.


or

zero

The

Cochin,

flushing

It is not necessary

takes

'q'
are
found

place

when

that either flushing

density current should occur during a tidal cycle.

Both or neither can occur depending on the

balance

between

net flow q and water depth 'a'.


4.6.5.

VARIATION OF DENSITY

CURRENT

YITH

FRESHET

DISCHARGE

AND

TIDAL FILLING
In the above schematisation,
becomes

more

interesting

the physics of density currents


than ever. The above property of

density current is closely interlinked


with

tidal

filling

with

its

current. Please see the portion of the

curve EGH. The tidal filling starts at E and goes


maximum

variation

value at F. Correspondingly

on

to

density current has its

minimum value at G. It may be noted that the same salt water


comes in as density current and tidal filling current in the
form of a wedge. But as is evident from fig. 3.2. , the
tendency

of

tidal

filling

current

current. Please see fig. 6,1 to 6.5. As


increases
minimum.

to

is

to reduce density
the

tidal

current

a maximum, the density current decreases

to a

4.10

The direct tendency of increase in fresh water discharge, is


to reduce density current. But another property is to reduce
the

tidal

filling.

If

we

start

from

higher freshet

discharge and go on reducing it, the density


go

on

increasing;

but

the

tidal

current.

So

there

to

current.

On

reduce
a

maximum

both sides of this point, the density

current would be on the decrease. But at the same time,


total

quantity

the

would be an optimum freshwater

discharge when the balance between the two gives


density

would

filling would increase

faster than that and so its effect would be


density

current

of salt water

the

which is density current and

tidal filling, would be always on the increase.

Of

course,

...

...
";.
.......
Ol

~~

'0
VI

...
0

,~

Ol

;;..

Fresh water di~charge

FIG:4.S. VARIATION Of fRESH WITH SALT

when

freshet

discharge

becomes zero, density current also

suddenly drops to zero. Please see fig. 4.5. This is on


assumption that stratification is still present.

the

4. 11

4.6.6.

QUANTUM OF SALINE YATER


Sometimes

it

is required to find out the total quantity of

saline water entering inside.This is either for


the

amount

of

salt

calculating

coming inside or to quantify the silt

brought in by the sea water. The inflow is given by the area


of

the density current graph for a tidal cycle. This can be

obtained by integrating the density current


within

the

time

limits

equation

4.6.,

of the tidal cycle. Tidal filling

should be added to this to get

the

total

inflow

of

salt

water.
4.6.7.

LACUNAE NOTICED
During

the preparation of density current graphs for Cochin

with varying tidal and freshet parameters,


that

it

was

there was a large quantity of salt water coming inside

due to density current. But there was no negative


the

curve

whereby

inflow,

phase

in

the salt which had come inside would go

out. In the absence of a regular outflow to


the

noticed

there

would

basin. This was not true

be

compensate

of salt in the

accumulation

since

the

showed

data

for

complete

flushing out of the salt wedge.


Another interesting fact which came
about

the

to

the

was

found

the saline wedge


discharge.
this figure

was

quantity of salt water which had gone inside the

basin according to 1980 data in the form of


quantity

attention

For
was

to be

itself,
the
8.

wedge.

This

more than 4 times the volume of


even

ave rage
This

for

peak

fresh

water

freshet discharge conditions,


disproportionality

had

to

be

explained.
4.6.8.

EXPLANATION TO LACUNAE
Part of the explanation to both this lacunae is given by the
experimental

results

put

forward

by

Keulegan

(1966).

4.12

..

. ..
..,E

c:

e
';;

,..:i

... eu

2...

.... :5- -~-... ~


>
'.)

::J

Q.

>-

iii
c

):
0
Q

)I
0
Q

IJ)

U .;: iii
c:
0

'ij

.. ...
0

.:;J

u iii
Q.

..t

Ah
. (Oc.an

fig.

4.G ..

2.5

fully

En',anc.)

stratiffed

estuary.

Waler Surface ..r--o-+


0
J>

2.0

0
0

1.5

JI.

Fresh Water

0
--'l

1.0

y/hz

0.5

0""

.
Interface_:)
o ...

o
05
10

03

ffg.

peP
,.Qc

00

o_o

oorP

lf-

00

Solt ...,edge

u/

o
4.'L

0.3

0.6.

1,2

09

Veloc1ty profl1e in str'atff1ed


af ter Keulegan .(1966), .

_ .f1_0w..

Keulegan established

that there is a large scale circulation

within the saline wedge giving rise


Please

to

salt

see fig. 4.6. and 4.7. The difference

underflow.

in pressure at

the same elevation between the downstream and upstream

side

4.13

of

saline

the

wedge

and

the

interfacial

responsible for the salt underflow below the


line and the salt overflow above this

shear

zero

days

4.6., when Q
outflow,

the

also

>

saline

and

for

seven

the above fact. In fig.

ie, the salt inflow is greater than salt

Yhen the inflow is


arrested

established

velocity

line. The analysis of

vertical velocity distribution at the Cochin gut


continuous

are

is advancing into the estuary.

wedge

equal

to

,
Q <
s

when

the

outflow,

that

Q,

means

the

wedge

is

the

wedge

is

retreating.
This

fact

also

stratification

gives

rise

to the concept that

velocity

is different from the density stratification,

though the former is a consequence of the latter. Due to the


factors mentioned above and also as established by prototype
observations,

velocity

stratification

occurs

at

level than the density stratification. Accurate


the

data

about

salt outflow at the interface is still not available as

the prototype
intervals.

data

So

velocity and

give

velocities

only

salinity
is

observations,

noticed

as

out

stratification
picture

of

depth

at

closer

is pinpointed.

salt

out

soon

as

density

at a particular water depth (in

the form of higher salinity), velocity


carried

at

it is suggested that in future, while taking

stratification
be

a lower

flow

intervals
Then
which

we

observations

should

till

the

velocity

will

get

clear

is highly essential for

establishing salt balance in an estuary.


The

explanation

to

the

above phenomena would be complete

only af ter further studies.

4.7.

TBR COMPLETE QUALITATlVE DENSITY CURRENT GRAPH.


Putting together the data obtained from theory and
of

prototype

observations,

conceptual

graph

analysis
on

hydrodynamics of density currents is presented in fig.

the
4.8.

The graph includes curves of net flow, density current, salt


outflow, height of saline wedge and

schematic

oscillations

4.14

T _..,.

,.

,
C-

,
J

>-

!:::.
VlO

,
I

Z ......
LoJuCI~

0
~

.....
0

............

a.

<U-

VIS

.....
-e
VI

....J

Hf1GHT 0

U0

.I

::t:

.....

(.

0..

LoJ
Q

l -,

I:
- l.

fI

CJ

:.
.....
_,
4(

VI
u,
(;)

l
CJ

::

VI
J

_,
u...

OS

110H OF WEDGE fRO T

j!:

ffi_,
FIG:4.8. COMPLETE Q.UALJTA TIVE DENSITY CURRfNT GRAPH

4. 15

of

the wedge front during the entire twin tidal period. The

graph has been drawn to indicate the phenomena taking


during

twin

tidal cycle

place

with a marked daily inequality

and a high fresh water discharge.


At

F , the salt inflow and consequently the outflow at the


2
interface starts. The inflow increases to Band then - added

by

the tidal filling - to C. The length of the saline wedge

would be on the increase at this stage,


very

the

outflow

being

small. At point C, the salt inflow starts reducing but

is still much more than the outflow. In other words, 0's > 0 s
(para 4.5.8.). Af ter point D, the ebb discharge of the 2nd
tide increases and start driving out the density current. So
salt outflow increases and at Al' 0' = 0 . This is the first
s
s
point of arresting. From Al to A2, there is a larger salt

(0' < 0) and so the salt wedge starts retreating


s
s
untill at A , (0' = 0 ) when it is arrested for a second
2
s
s
time at a shorter length. From A2 to A3 the salt inflow
outflow

outbalances
There

is

the outflow (0' > 0 ) and the wedge goes in.


s
s
a brief moment of arresting at A3 for the third

time and then the larger tidal +


increases

(=net)

discharge

the salt outflow sharply. Af ter the point of zero

density current 0, there


entire

freshet

water

depth

would

until

at

be

salt

outflow

for

the

Fl

when

complete flushing

occurs.
It

can be seen from the foregoing that for a twin tide, the

saline wedge
lengths.

gets

arrested

at

three

points

various

These points and the various lengths of the saline

wedge can be determined only when we are in


schematise

at

quantitatively,

the

position

to

salt outflow which has two

components - salt overflow and outflow over the whole depth.


This

should

be

the

topic

for

further

conjunction with the effects of accumulation.

research,

in

CHAPTER 5

SCHEKATISATION OF TIDES AND DISCHARGES


5.1.

TIDAL FLOV
The tidal flow through the gut is due to the tidally induced
variations of the water level at sea. It
the

is

controlled

by

tidal response of the area behind the gut. This area is

characterized
depth,

by a net work of channels of varying width and

flanked

by

shallow

areas. A first estimate of the

tidal response can be obtained by schematising

the area as a

network. More accurate results can be obtained by performing


two dimensional numerical
computations,

however,

tidal computations.

These types of

were outside the scope of this desk

study.
Because

of

the

above

reasons, the tidal component of the

present study has been limited to


tidal

response

of

distinguishing

the area behind the gut

that

the

depends on the

length of its separate channels. For this purpose, the tidal


flow

through

channel

of rectangular

cross section with

constant width and dep th has been considered.


5.1.1.

CHANNEL OF CONSTANT DEPTH AND VIDTH


A computational
of

constant

method for the tidal flow through a

dep th

From the literature,


The

considered

and

channel

width has been developed by Ippen.

the following physical feature emerges.

channel has a length L. At one end (x = 0),

it is in open connection with a sea basin. At its other end,


it is closed. In the sea basin, the water level varies, with
time, in accordance with

5.2

11

11

Sln

2n
T

.... 5.1

vertical position of water level with respect

where,11

to time mean sea level


t

time

duration of tidal cycle


Symbol

denoting

parameters

of

amplitude

involved.
Vhen in the basin,
channel,

water

level

rises

or

falls,

in

the

water level tends to do the same. This is effected

by tidal waves entering the

channel.

water

waves

level

rises,

tidal

positive. Vhen in the basin,

water

Vhen

in

the

basin,

entering the channel are


level

falls,

negative

tidal waves enter the channel.


Over a period of time,
tidal wave which enters

t, the height Zo

of

an

individual

the channel is given by


.... 5.2

Consequently,
.....

5.3.

and
..... 5.4.
Vhere,zo (t ): height of tidal wave entering
the
O
at t = to
Zo (t + ~ T), Zo (to + T): the same at ~ Tand T

The

channel
later.

velocity of propagation of tidal waves and the velocity

and flow rate which the waves induce are given by:
c

Igh

.....

5.5.

5.3

ic

......

5.6

Bzc

5. 7

and
q

velocity of propogation

where,c
z

height of tidal wave at any instant

acceleration

depth of channel

velocity of flow induced by tidal wave

width of channel

flow rate induced by wave (q = Buh)

due to gravity

For deriving Eq. 5.5., the assumption is made that


Further,

the

velocity

of

h.

flow induced by tidal action is

assumed small compared with Igh.


At

the closed end of the channel, the velocity of flow must

be zero under all conditions. Consequently,


end

of

the

incoming

the

closed

channel an incoming tidal wave gets reflected.

This reflection
an

at

is positive meaning that

positive

travelling back to the

after

reflection,

tidal

wave

remains

positive

when

basin.

An

incoming

negative

wave

assuming

that

remains negative af ter reflection.


The positive reflection may be explained

by

the incoming tidal wave passes through the closed end of the
channel. In doing so, at x
wave

L, it must be met

of equal height propogating

Then at x =L the condition u

by

tidal

in the opposite direction.

0 is satisfied as, because of

Eq. 5.6., the net velocity induced by both waves is zero.


The water level variations
depend

in the large

sea

basin

do

not

on the flow in the channel. This leads to a negative

reflection, meaning that a wave which returns trom x = L to

5.4

x = 0 as a positive wave, reenters the channel as a negative


wave. A wave which returns to x = 0 as a

negative

wave

re

enters the channel as a positive wave.


The tidal wave which returns from x = L to x = 0

dx ..

de

[..t +t

o 2L

....

.....

@'

.,,-

.,,-

'"

t;to+[4L

tgh

:positive wave
:negative wave

CD

damping factor

damping factor .. e-2Jl-L

~:

""

its

Jb"

- - - ... - ..

.... .....

loses

a=

e-foL

damping factor e-~L


etc.

[-[0+[6L

....

..... ....

....
6);

,. '" "" ""


""

[;[0+[8L

FIG:5.J. FATE OF POSITIVE WAVE ENTERING


CHANNEL AT t a
height when it propagates into the sea basin as the width of
the sea basin is much larger than the width of
(eq.

5.7.).

It

does

when at x = 0, it is

the

channel

not affect the water level at x = 0;


met

by

wave

propagating

in

the

5.5

opposite

direction,

with equal absolute height and opposite

sign. This explains why at x = 0 the reflection


The

flow

is negative.

induced by the tidal waves is counteracted

shear. Therefore

by bed

the wave height decreases with the distance

covered by the wave in accordance with


..... 5.8.
distance covered by tidal wave

Vhere,x

damping coefficient

lJ
The

above

phenomena

(Ippen 1966 Ref.1.9.)

are represented

schematically

in fig.

5.1., which shows a positive wave entering the channel at


t = to. It arrives at x = L with a damping factor e-lJL At
x = L, the reflection

is positive. The reflected wave

which

remains positive, arrives at x = 0 with a damping factor


e -2lJL At x = 0, the reflection is negative etc.
The

negative reflection at x = 0 occurs at time t = tO+t2L,


where t
represents the time needed for the tidal wave to
2L
cover a distance 2L. This time and corrensponding times t4L,
t6L etc. are given by
2L

.. 5.9

etc

19h

The length of the channel may be expressed


length of the tidal wave L
L

in terms

of

the

given by
.... 5.10.

T/gh

Vhen L= ~Lw' t2L = ~ T. The individual wave which enters the


channel from the sea basin at to + ~ T has the same absolute
height

as

the

wave which entered at t = to' with opposite

sign (Eq. 5.3.). Hence for this length of the

channel,

the

negative wave entering at t = to + t2L and the negative wave


induced by the negative reflection of the wave which entered

5.6

at

to

reinforce

each

other. In a similar way, each

individual wave which enters into the channel from


basin

is

the

sea

reinforeed by its predecessors in such a way that

its effective height tz

is given by,

where tz

:combined height of all waves which at given

time

t propogate from x = 0 into a channel ~ L

w long.

Vhen L = ~ Lw ,t2L = T. The individual wave which enters the


channel from the sea basin at t = to + T has the same height
and sign as the positive wave which entered at t =

to

(Eq.

5.4.) Hence for this length of the channel the positive wave
entering at t= to + t2L and the negative wave induced by the
negative wave which entered at t = to counteract each
other. In a similar way, each individual wave
the

channel

from

predecessors.

the

sea

basin

is

which

enters

couteracted

by its

lts effective height tzo is given by

The above considerations


amplification

of

corresponds

to a

Neglecting

shear,

the

imply

that

there

is

maximum

tidal motion when the channel length

quarter

of

(~

0),

the

tidal

wave

leng th

of

resonance,

the

for this channel length, the

effective wave height becomes infinite (Eq. 5.11.). In


condition

L.

bed

shear

stress

must

this
be

accounted for as it keeps the effective wave heights finite.


There

is

a minimum amplification

the channel length corresponds

of the tidal motions when

to half

of

the

tidal

wave

length.
Neglecting shear (~ = 0), at any station along the
maximum

tidal

veloeities

estuary,

occur when the water level is at

its highest or lowest level. Maximum veloeities are found to

5.7

occur

at a later point of time when the effect of bed shear

is taken into account. The above processes are described

in

mathematical

of

terms

by

Ippen(Ref.1.9).

The

phenomena

resonance is discussed in detail by Pugh.


The above schematisation
because

of

the

could

irregular

not

did

not

give

applied

and

other

Cochin

obstructions.

any reasonable va lues for velocities.

became evident that these values could be


reasonable

to

shape of the Cochin backwaters

like varying length, width, depth


It

be

obtained

to

It
any

accuracy only by a mathematical modelling. Since

this was not within the scope of this

desk

study,

it

was

considered necessary to depend on other simpIer methods.


5.1.2.

SCHEMATISATION

FROM TIDAL PRISM

It was decided to depend on the tidal prism to arrive at the


tidal discharges. The tidal prism computed by C.V.&P.R.S
in
6
3
the case of Cochin is around 90x10 m for a spring tide of
1 m. Since the area of cross section of the

gut

is

known,

the tidal discharges could be schematised equating the tidal


prism to the product of the area

and

the

depth

averaged,

time integrated velocities. This schematisation was done for


four tides of various ranges and the values have

been

used

in the computation of density currents in Chapter 6.


5.1.3

PHASE LAG
As mentioned in 5.1.2., the velocities
schematized

using

the

simple

through the gut

method

of

tidal

assuming a phase lag of plus or minus 90 between


water

level

and

the

maximum

discharges.

This

reproduced in the discharge curves, see fig. 6.1.


The

analysis

at a later
performed

prism
high

has been
to

6.20.

of the extended data which was made available

stage

of

the

showed,however,

simultanously

the

were

study

af ter

computations

were

that maximum ebb discharges occur

with the low water. see fig.

6.22.

to

6.26.

5.8

For

a rectangular channel of constant width and depth, this

can happen only when the length of the channel is

equal

to

the resonance length of L/4. The direct length of the Cochin


backwaters is much too small for
tide

at

that.

The

phenomenon

Cochin is thus identified as the effect of storage

areas. For mathematical modelling of a tide,


can

of

the

situation

be schematized as an estuary containing embayments. The

water

in

the

longitudinal

embayments
tidal

does

transport.

not

participate

in

the

However the water fills the

empties with the change of water surface elevation.

So

the

embayment acts as a storage and in Cochin, since the surface


area of such embayments is a significant percentage
total surface area, the schematization
storage action. But
achieved

only

should

of

the

represent the

as

mentioned

earlier

this

through

elaborate

computations

could
which

be
was

outside the scope of this study. So the 90 phase difference


is retained, fig. 6.1. to 6.20.
This was done because the density currents depend
on

the

history

net
of

computations

discharge
the

through

discharges

remains

to

the gut and since the time

used
be

primarily

as

of

the

an

input
correct

into

the

order

of

magnitude. In addition, depth variations due to water


fluctuations

are

smalle

performed using as input,

level

Eventually computations are to be


tidal

discharges

obtained

from

more elaborate tidal computations.


5.2.

FRESH VATER DISCHARGE

It

is

estimated

that

during the south west monsoon (SYM)

period of 4 months, June, July, August

and

September,

the

freshwater discharge from all the five rivers from the south
of Cochin increases rapidly. The peak monsoon discharge
is
recorded as 3400 m3/s. Out of this, Thottappally spillway
3
discharges a peak of 560 m3/s at an ave rage of 280 m /s into
the

sea. The river Periyar has peak and average discharges


of 900 m3/s and 450 m3/s respectively from the northern side

5.9

of

the

gut.

Except

for a shallow silted up opening 30 km

north of Cochin, all the above water has to find its way out
through Cochin gut. This quantity comes to 3740 m3/s and
1870 m3/s for the peak and ave rage discharges. Varying
va lues

of

freshwater

discharges

we re superimposed on the

tidal velocities for density current computations.


5.3.

CROSS SEC'rION OF GUT

As can be seen from fig. 6.31., the


cross

gut

has

an

irregular

section. The southern side is deeper. For computation

purposes the following section was adopted.

--

+0

tNt

430m

')

--

-12.0

FIG.5.2.SCHEMATISED SECTION OF GUT


The

schematized

discharge

curves

for

various

freshet

discharges and tidal amplitudes are given in figures 6.1. to


6.20.

CBAPTER 6

CORRELATION OF COCHIN DATA VITB

6.1

DISCUSSION

6.1.1

C.V. & P.R.S. :1967-1968

TBEORY

ON AVAILABLE DATA

As discussed earl ier in 2.3, valuable data


and

inside

the

gut

on

flow

outside

were collected during 1967-68. But the

data as such were not available for analysis for the


of

this

study.

Vertical

velocity

profiles

at

purpose
a certain

instant of time for certain locations in the approach channel


have

been given. Tarapore et al (1977) Ref.1.18. The data at

two stations near the gut show marked


on

stratification.

Based

a detailed analysis of the above data, Gole and Vaidraman

(1969)

Ref.1.8 give the longitudinal salinity profile at the

surface

and

gradient

at

profile

at bottom. Fig.3.5. It shows sharp longitudinal


the

surface

suggesting

stratification.

at low water clearly shows that

pushed out and


remembered

the

basin

is

clear

The

the saline wedge is

of

salt.

It

may

be

that the observations were taken during July when

high freshet discharges were expected.


6.1. 2

NIO : 1975-76
As discussed earlier in 2.4, these were
observations

covering

all

inside the Cochin basin.


values

of

analysed

report

for

monsoon. Hean salinity profiles


been

arrived

at.

first

complete

the seasons, tides and locations

The

data

the
mainly

contains

three seasons: pre, post and


at

various

locations

and

channels

have

The mean values of monsoon season clearly

show stratified conditions. This is evident not alone at


gut

mean

the

navigation channels but also in the shallow natural


on

downstream

the
graph'

northern

side.

The

'percentage

flow

also indicates that at the surface, there

is continuous ebbing during monsoon with a

sharp

change

at

the bottom. The phenomenon undergoes a change during the post


and pre monsoon seasons. Vertical salinity
gut

during

day

in

gradient

at

the

July (monsoon) have been shown as an

6.2.

example in the report.Ref.1.13. The values have been recorded


at

close

advance

depth
and

completely

and

time

retreat
flushed

stratification

intervals.

of

the

saline

out.

The

salinity

also.

Vertical

It clearly shows the


wedge

until

it

is

profile shows sharp

distribution

of

current

velocities during one day in July (monsoon) and February (pre


monsoon) have been given by V.S. Rama Raju et al; 1979
1.14).The

data

(Ref.

in July show a clear velocity stratification

while the one during

February

presents

normal

vertical

gradient.
6.1.3

e.v.
As

& P.R.S.
earlier

:1980
mentioned,

data had been


collected
in

made

from

Ernakulam

observations

for

use

the purpose of this study, this

of

for

analysis.

The

data

were

a location in the gut and two locations each


and

Mattanchery

was

between

channels.

20th

The

period

and 27th, July, 1980.

of
From

Table 1.1, it can be seen that during this month, there was a
rainfall of 749.40 mm compared to an average for the month of
614 mmo The previous month of June
rainfall

of

888.90

(average

844

also

registered

mm).

high

This has certainly

resulted in a more than average freshwater discharge. At


locations,

all

vertical profiles of velocity and salinity at one

.hour time intervals and 2 m. depth intervals were taken. So a


continuous

data

for

seven

days

is available. The data at

hourly intervals at the gut were available


Data

collected

pattern

salinity

verticals

the

study.

showed

for all the seven days. On all the seven

days, the salt wedge was flushed out during


of

this

from the channels were not available in full

for analysis.The velocity and


consistent

for

high

discharges

larger tide. Af ter the brief moment of flushing, the

wedge starts to come inside and starts

oscilating

with

the

increase in discharge of the second tide. This is followed by


the quick retreat of the wedge and subsequent flushing.

6.3.

6.1.4

C.V. & P.R.S. :1985


These observations were important because they were the first
observations

taken

af ter

the

channmel

was

widened. There was no observation at the gut.


side

by

deepened
Two

and

locations

in Mattanchory and Ernakulam Channels and two

side

near the naval jetty were subjected to observations. The data


were

collected

similar

to

1980. In Mattanchery

of

those

channel, stratified conditions were observed while outside in


the

flank

of

the

channel

fully

mixed

conditions

were

prevailing. In the Ernakulam channel, at the widened portion,


a

lateral

variation

observed.

in the advance of the saline wedge was

Stratified

conditions

were

observed

also

at

stations near the naval jetty


6.1.5

NE SA

:1988

Eventhough

these

sophisticated

equipments and by expert personnel, the results

could

not

observations

were

taken

with

be used for the purpose of this desk study. These

being the latest observations would have been much useful


carried

out

at

the

had

channels

been
were

discharge.
discrepancy

This

some

untimely

subjected
had

noticed

if

right time. The observations were made

during May early which was supposed to be


there

most

to

affected
was

the

rain

some

pre

monsoon.

during

amount

But

April and the


of

freshwater

the data collected, badly. A


excessively

high

velocities

throughout the depth without a sizable freshwater discharge.

6.2

STRATIPICATION PARAMETERS POR COCHIN


From

the

analysis

of

the above data two valid conclusions

could be arrived at.


1.

There

is

a sharp stratification. in the estuary during

the monsoon season.

6.4.

2.

The

freshet

discharges

were

so high compared to the

tidal filling that at a certain stage of the tide,

the

saline wedge is pushed completely out of the estuary


To check these facts

with

the

theory,

the

stratification

parameters were computed.


6.2.1

SIMMON'S RATIO (Simmons, 1955)

.....

6.1

river flow rate

where Of

duration of tidal cycle

volume

of sea water entering

the estuary on the

flood tide

For

3
a peak monsoon discharge of 3,740 m Is and for a maximum

range of 1 m tide, Simmon's ratio was found to be 2.48, while


for an ave rage monsoon discharge of 1,870 m3/s and a moderate
tide of 0.75 m, the Simmon's ratio works out to 1.24 which is
more than the required 1 for stratification.
6.2.2

ESTUARY NUMBER (Harleman & Abraham, 1966)

F 2

..... 6.2

ex

U 2

~h

F~ : Froude number =
Uo :Maximum
profile averaged

where,

value of velocity

at mouth
h

:time mean value of depth of estuary at mouth

As in the earlier case, the estuary number E worked out to be


7.90

10

-4for

peak

discharge

and

1.9 x 10

-3for ave rage

6.5.

10 -3 ,the

discharge which is less than 5 x

upper

for

limit

stratification.
6.2.3

INTERNAL ESTUARY NUHBER (Thatcher & Harleman, 1972)


F~

Ot

.....

/1p/ p

EO was computed to be 0.031 and 0.074 for


discharges

respectively

which

were

limit of 0.2 for stratification


6.2.4

peak

less

and

6.4

average

than the maximum

to be present.

RICHARDSON NUHBER (Fisher,1972)


~

..... 6.4

b U3
t

:rms tidal velosity averaged over profile.

where,

:width of the gut


The

Richardson

number

discharge for alm

worked

out

to

be

2.91

for

peak

tide and 2.25 for ave rage discharge for a

0.75 m tide both of which is more than the lower limit of 0.8
for highly stratified conditions.
The

above

parameter

values

are

compatible

with

observation made from the field data that Cochin is


case

of

stratified

proceed to make a

estuary

the
clear

during monsoon. Ye will now

quantitative and qualitative

study

about

the resulting density currents.

6.3

COKPUTATIONAL QUANTIFICATION OF DENSITY CURRENT THROUGH GUT


This

section

gives

theoretical

estimate of the density

currents through the gut using the density


(Eq.4.6.),

schematisng

the

net

flow

current
through

indicated in section 5.1.2. Those values would be

equation
the gut as
used

here

for computing density currents. Because of the marked diurnal

6.6.

inequality,
following

twin
tidal

tides

with

combinations

The

together.

considered

were

five varying freshwater

discharges were used for the computation


2nd Tide range

lst Tide range


(1)

0,75 m

0,30 m

(2)

0.75 m

0.15 m

(3)

0.50 m

0.30 m

(4)

0.50 m

0.15 m

Freshet Discharges
(1)

8.16 m3/s/m width

(2)

6.00 m3/s/m width

(3)

4.08 m3/s/m width

(4)

2.33 m3/s/m width

(5)

1.00 m3/s/m width

Following the procedure


current

graphs

were

laid

down

in

Chapter

given

in

Fig.

density

prepared f~r each combination of tides

and for varying fresh water discharges. The


are

4,

sets

of

graphs

6.1. to 6.20. The variation of density

current with the decreasing freshet discharges can be clearly


seen

from the graphs for all the four combinations of tides.

The tidal filling (salt water) is also seen

increasing

with

decreasing freshet discharge. The results of the computations


are given in Table 6.1. For the 0.75 m
that

for

freshet

discharge

current was maximum. The density


reducing
salt water
filling,

for

higher

coming
which

was

of

6.00

current

it
2

mis,
was

was

found

the density
found

to

be

and lower values of qfr. But the total

inside

is

density

current

plus

tidal

always on the increase (Fig. 6.21). For

tides of lower range, the optimum qfr


6.00 m2ls.

tide,

was

much

lower

than

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From the point of view of siltation, the total


(saline)

water

coming

inside

the

harbour

important. At Cochin, the silt charge in


appreciable only during the SVM

the

silt

charged

basin

is very

sea

water

is

months of June, July, August

and September. Using the ave rage conditions, the total volume
of

salt

inside during this period has been


9
computed to be 11.18 x10 m3. This is done by integrating the

density

water

coming

current

and tidal current over the tidal cycle. The

density current was found to be 3.54 times the tidal fi1ling.


This

is

measure of the importance of density current for

siltation. The values of density current given in table


represent

an

upper

limit

6.1.

for reasons explained in section

6.4.
6.4

ANALYSIS OF DATA FROK 1980


This section gives the magnitude of
density

currents

through

the

net

flow

and

the

the gut as obtained from the 1980

TABLE 6.1

DENSITY

CURRENT AND TIDAL

FILLING

PRESENT SITUATION:Draught: -11.9 m

Densitl current
lst
qfr
m 2/s Tide

2nd

Total

Tide

Tidal fillins:
lst

2nd

Tide

Tide

Total

Total

Ratio:
densitf
curren

HitI~;

Saline
water

1.lst Tide 0.75 m, 2nd Tide 0.30 m


118,484
175,209
233,708
295;689
348,211

6.77
3.29
2.32
1.49
1.08

11,061

15,257 115.058
40,851 173,015
70,028 231,560
101,432 292,912
139,213 345,162

6.54
3.24
2.31
1.89
1.48

3. lst Tide 0.50 mz 2nd Tide 0.30 m


8.16 53,643 40,872
94,516
0
0
6.00 73,656 69,379 143.035
5,254
0
4.08 82,418 102,376 163,348
70,028 332
2.33 87,556 115,340 202,896
53,334
17,266
1.00 88,675 120,235 208,910
78,549 39,276

94,516
5,254 148,239
70,360 233,708
70,650 273,546
117,825 326,735

8.16
6.00
4.08
2.33
1.00

60,704 42,523
62,737 71,621
60,972 102,376
59,141 111,827
58,026 122,757

103,227
134,358
163,348
176,968
180,783

15,257
0
40,851
0
70,028 332
101,432
17,289
128,152 39,270

2. lst Tide 0.75 m, 2nd Tide 0.15 m


8.16 60,704 39,097
99,801
15,257
6.00 62,737 69,427 132,164 40,851
4.08 60,972 100,560 161.532
70,028
2.33 59,124 132,357 191,480 101,432
1.00 58,026 147.923 205,949 128,152

15,257
40,851
70,360
118,721
167,428

CD

27.22
2.32
2.87
1.77

6J9

TABLE 6.1 (cont.)

PRESENT SITUATION.
Tidal filling

Density current
qfr
2
m /s

1st

2nd

Total

Tide

Tide

1st

2nd

Tide

Tide

Total

densitv
curren1:

Total

il~tI~;

Saline
llater

1st Tide 0,50 m, 2nd Tide 0.15 m

8.16

53,643

37,031

90,674

6.00

73,656

67,120

140,776

4.08

82,418

98,100

180,517

26,104

2.33

8.7,556 129,909

217,364

.53,334

1.00

88,675 145,339

234,014

78,549

11 ,061

It

further

field data (section 2.5).


estimate
above

of

net

the
flows

5,254

GO

5,254

146,030

26.79

26,104

206,621

6,92

53,334

210,698

4,08

89,610

323,624

2.61

gives

theoretical

density currents through the gut using the


as

an

input

into

the

density

current

equation.(Eq.4.6.).
The velocity verticals at one hour
for

density

currents.

The

curves

intervals
of

were

Tidal

analysed

levels,

Net

Discharge, Density current and Height of salt at gut has been


plotted

on

the same sheet. Sinc the data is continuous for

seven days, the plots also could be made continuously.


field

data

are presented in Fig. 6.22 to 6.26. The vertical

distribution of velocity for every hour during


also

22-7-1980

given in Fig. 6.27 to 6.29 for a better apprecition

the phenomena. For calibration with the prototype


theoretical

curve for a k.L


1

marked

at

the

beginning

data,

is
of
the

0.05 value has been plotted on

top of the density current graph from data.


is

These

of

The

correlation

the density current af ter

6.20

..
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CD

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Q
fr;
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CD

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CD

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a:

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M.

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0
CD

~
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0

)1.('"

)!lIlYHl$IO

1111

..

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6.21
,,

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"':

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GD

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....-

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....

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IX
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IX
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6.22

ollio

0000 hrs

'.0,

.oilnilrlPl'TI

-,..-.woIi<i1r"""O
I

-lJI,~

hrs

22 .7 .1980
0200 hrs

S_lrlPl'TI

0300 hrs

Vlledlrllllli

SoIt,.,TI

r,.,

V_'1III1i
I
1

..... f
...

lE

e-c ',IC I

I'

I!i

\ ,. ..

Ol
_
'UI ....

j!!

.., 12~_____ Eli

\
'\

I. I

..
I.

I. I

I. 4

>
:l

1.2

I. I

.,11 n

V~III.1
,

I.

!Z.

........

fLIlOII _

ISM ,.,.

..I

~.
,.

'.1 ~

~ t.4

,.

Volocil,...,.,

S_!JII'I'TI

.. 1

I, I

I.

I. I

I. ,

a
>

I. 4 ~
-c
I,

20

~.

FIG:6.2.1 VELOCITY VERTICALS - 1980

"'..' 'V"'I
\

." " ..

::.~

I
C>

<0
0I

t-

....
Cl:
Z

~ ~

ex

:::>

>t:
VI
z

....
c

...
...
...a
...
::>

\::I

\::I
)<

~
-e

...

.......
x:

11/"'1 J!lIlYHlSIQ J.lN

'-I Hld30

,
\

R
I. 2 ~

6.23

,.,..,.,.."
~

a.

..,

,,-,.,..

....

hr.

~.

""

y_,..,...

tr

~TI

1.'

.:. d

4.

,.

lOl

Ie..

..

..

~I .4

~
~

':t

gl.1

I-

hr.

11..

'.1

t.

.....,.."

lt

I.

Elia: :FLOOD

ll" Ir.

y_"""

14

y_"""

hr.

IS" hra

"...,..,..

...,.",

s lIIIooIJI'I'n

..

I.

I.

ti.
W

11

'"
~ u~
!:f
~
.....

>

lt

..,

.%

I"

..

'.'
... ,
~
'.'
.....
e-e . ~

.. I

I.

..

g
I ...

12.
I

'.

-'

ti.

'.'

>
. ,!:f

......

t ~

...

I-

ti.

FIG:6.21. VElOCJTY VERTICALS-1910,

22 :7 ."'0
EBB : fLOOD

_
1600 HRS
101

"-,,..,.. WoIt"""

170. hr.

_..1

,.00 hr.
WoI,.,TI

1900 hrs

2100 hrs

~n

1~----~--~~-.

..

SoIloIt,IPPn
1

- ...

..

.....

..

_ E88

22 .7 .1'"
2200 HRS

23 hra

: FlOOO _
.... Ir.

ti

23 .7 .1910
.,00 hr.

OlOO hra

r.

\0,

....

..

..,

11

._.

FIG:6.2'. VrLDCITY VERTICALS-1980


--_ .. __ . -----_._----------------------------

41

_ .. _------_._------------

624

flushing. As to be expected for reasons given in section 4.5,


af ter

the

initial

portion,

there

is

deviation of the

theoretical from the actuals. This is where the


and

the

accumulation

friction is coming into play. Inside the gut, there

are two main channels in Cochin. The


channels.

wedge

goes

into

both

So the interfacial friction is higher resulting in

slowing down of the density current. The value of k.is


~
given by 10-3. This means that the length of the gut is 600
m. The effective width at site also would be around the same.
Because

of

the

abov~

findings,

the

figures given in the

subseqent table 6.2. indicate upper limits

for

the

density

currents.

6.5

SALIENT FEATURES AT COCHIN

6.5.1

As briefly mentioned in 6.1.3, the field data belonged to the


more than average monsoon conditions because of the excessive
rainfall

periode The freshet discharge at that


time is estimated to be around 8.00 m2/s. The general picture

given

during

by

that

Fig.

6.23 to 6.26 is the same for all seven days.

Because of the

predominance

of

freshwater

discharge,

the

tidal flooding was considerably

less and there were instances

wh en there was continuous

over

pattern

is

ebb

three

tides.

current

density

flow

flow.

The

is then brought to zero by the ebbing phase

of the smaller tide also, without flushing


The

the

that, af ter flushing, the density current starts

and goes on to the two maximum values at zero net


density

But

starts

again

af ter

really

occuring.

the peak ebb of the

second tide and reaches a third maximum before diminishing

to

zero prior to flushing.


6.5.2

One interesting feature was the reversal of the current


the

whole

depth

during

the

peak discharge of the smaller

tide. Example: 1300 hrs on 22-7-80 in Fig. 6.28.


there

is

no

flushing

at

over

this

discharge,

Eventhough,

the wedge goes

backward to a point near the gut and goes in again

when

the

net flow is reduced. This physical bodily shift of the saline

6.25

wedge is in line with the concept given


also
is

in

4.5.9.

This

is

in line with the theoretical estimate of Fig. 6.1 which


prepared

phenomenon

for

the

results

peak

in

discharge
high

conditions.

This

salt outflow over the whole

depth during this period which is essential

for

keeping

up

the salt balance in the estuary.


6.5.3

As

earlier

stated,

components

the

salt

outflow

consists

of

two

- salt overflow and outflow over the whole depth.

The velocity and salinity observations have been taken at 2 m


intervals.

The

readings have been joined by straight lines.

So a sharp interface, which


sharply

depicted

difficult

to

in

see

stratification.
The

no

doubt

vertical

salt

present,

profile.

overflow

is

not

But it is not

above

the

velocity

See velocity verticals from 0500 hrs to 0900

hrs and from 1200


6.29 ..

the

the

is

hrs

to

concentration

1800

hrs

in

fig.3.3.,6.28.,and

of salt seems lower but flows out

with a higher velocity .The salt

outflow

(whole

depth)

is

mainly concentrated over the region where the density current


is zero. See velocity profiles from 1900 hrs to 2200
fig.6.29.

this

of

period,

zero
the

density
entire

evident from the velocity/salinity


6.5.4

in

The largest salt outflow occures during the period

between the point


During

hrs

current
wedge

and

flushing.

flows out. This is

verticals.

A phenomena to be observed is the abnormal salt outflow af ter


flushing has occurred and while the density current
starting.

Fig.

6.22.

is

just

It may be remembered that just before

this period, all the salt had been driven out of the estuary.
That

means

there

is no salt left in the estuary to go out.

This is a phenomenon particular to Cochin. There


velocity

at

is

high

the gut but in the channels, the veloeities are

low. Horeover the

channels

have

irregular

shape

and

are

obstructed by islands. So when salt is driven out at the gut,


it is not fully driven out in the basin with the result, some
salt is trapped inside. This is flushed out later while being
mixed with the predominantly

fresh

water

in

the

estuary.

6.26

Please

see velocity verticals at 0200 hrs in Fig.6.27. It is

not clear at which location the salt is trapped in. It


be in the shallow areas in Mattanchery
6.5.5

could

or Vypern channels.

Various data on discharges at instances of flushing have been


analysed

and

it

has been found that it would be correct to

say that flushing occurs at Cochin at a Froude Number of


against

a theoretical value of 1. One explanation

per theory given in Chapter 3, when


sea, there

is

the

estuary

0.7

is that as
meets

the

a sudden change to infinite width of the sea

from the finite width of the estuary. But physically,

this is

not so. The channel continues into the sea with high contours
on the sides. The sea bottom slopes only mildly. So

part

of

the wedge is still formed outside. This has been proved right
by data collected in 1967-68 as discussed

in 6.1.1.

The Froude number of 0.7 corresponds to a discharge of 13.5


m2/s for a water dep th of 12.20 m at the gut and 10.00 m in
the

channel. This was the case before 1983 when the channels

were deepened. For the same Froude number, for the deepened
conditions,
a discharge of 15.60 m2/s would be required to
flush out the salt wedge. Ve do

not

have

any

observation~

taken at the gut af ter deepening of the channel (to -11.9 m).
In all probability,

flushing may be a rare phenomena now.

It

is all the more reason to ascertain this by observations.


6.5.6

The special hydrography


channels

of the gut and the bifurcating

induce a peculiar pattern at Cochin. Because of the

high velocity regime at the gut, there is deep


natural deeper draughts are available
are to be maintained
Though

inner

the

dep th

scouring

and

there. But the channels

by dredging even at a shallower draught.


is

more

at

the

gut, the area of cross

section is less. The result is that the driving force for the
density

current

is

proportional

to the depth of the inner

channel while the discharge depends on the area or depth


the

gut.

at

So if the gut is deeper more density current would

come in.Fig. 6.30.

6.27

If

the

channel

is

higher. But widening

deeper,
the

the

channel

velocity of flow would be


cannot

increase

density

current as the control is at the gut. If the depth of the gut


could be controlled,

there could be substantial reduction

in

the density current.

A~'I
"7"""'" '~

I
~

--=-

/'11), ~n",ru"
.

rl

,J
I

1.0NGITUDlHAL SfCTIOH

PLAH

FIG:6.30. GUT ANC -iANNELS


6.5.7

The saline wedge at Cochin is not a simple case of a wedge


entering an estuary with an almost rectangular cross section.
There are two deep navigation channels joining at the gut.
There

are

three

natural

shallow

channels on the northern

side. Out of this, Vypern channel joins right at the gut. Two
other

channels branch off from the Ernakulam channel towards

north. At present, the deepest is the

Ernakulam

channel

at

-11.9 m. The wedge goes into it first. As the wedge advances,


the height of salt at the gut also rises. When the
is

interface

above -9.8 m the wedge finds its way into the Mattanchory

channel also. If the height of the wedge climbs above -2.5 m,


it

would

start

entering the northern Vypeen channel on the

flanks of the Ernakulam channel. Subsequently

it may find its

way into the eastern channels as weIl. In ffect, the advance


would be in the form of a multipronged

wedge.

628

6.5.8

In

the Ernakulam and Hattanchery channels itself, the entire

water area is not occupied

by

flanks

there

of

the

channels,

the

deep
are

channels.

On

the

shallow portions. The

freshet discharges here are weak. It is mostly guided through


the

deep

channels.

The

discharge

sufficient to create or maintain


weIl

over the flanks are not

stratified

conditions.

So

mixed conditions could be expected there. This has been

established by the 1985 data.


~.5.9

By

taking

simultaneous observations at two locations in the

same cross section in Ernakulam channel, it


there

is

lateral

This

widening

which

this

found

that

variation in the advance of the saline

wedge through that. channel.


at

was

location

was
has

partly

due

to

the

resulted in lateral

variation in freshwater flow and tidal influx.

(Dixit

1985,

Ref.1.6.) The southern part of the gut is scoured deeper than


the northern part Fig. 6.31. This could be because 75% of the
tidal

prism

and

the

up land

discharge

is coming from the

south. Because of the variation in depth along the width, the


saline wedge enters the southern part earlier. This will also
induce a lateral variation in its advance in the early stages
and

is

expected

to

be corrected later. Ye do not have any

data to prove this yet.

FIG:6.31. CROSS SECTION OF GU .

6.29

6.5.10

Before

deepening

of the Ernakulam channel, the width of the

channel was half that of the Mattanchory channel. Since


were

of

both

the same depth, the density current was distributed

between the two channels in the ratio of width. So two


of

the

third

density current used to go into Mattanchery

and the balance


Ernakulum

into the Ernakulam

channel

was

channel.

But

channel
in

1983,

widened equal to Mattanchery channel

and deepened to -11.9 m. So now the ratio of distribution


density

current

roughly became proportional

to a/a, where a

is the water depth. This ?orks out to 0.57 : 0.43


of

Ernakulam

reversed.

of

in

favour

channel. It can be seen that the situation was

This

acquires

more

significance

since

density

current carries silt into the channels .

..
..-. ....
.'.
.
..

lil

'.

'

'.

.'

~~::~~~~~~~~--~---I."
111:

lil

'.,

'.

.,

.'.... ...,....,
. ....
.' . . ..,..'. : ''..
.. . ',:.. '.. .-, ....
,.q :. ....

, : SA~iNE. WEll<i,'
'

'. '

: .' .. '.' " ':.'

'.

'.'

t,'

'

F\t;. &.3~ LO ti ~\TUDltiAL.. .SEC,.lON

't

-5r-----------r---------~----------_4----------~
TiIK'

:::0
(T r::.)

FIG:6.32. DENSITY CURRfNT WHEN DRAUGHr"IS REDUCED


6.5.11

One

feature

which

quantification
sudden reduction

was

not

taken

into

account

for

the

density current, described in 6.3. is the

of
in

the

density

current

when

the

wedge

6.30

reaches

the

end

of

the channel. Please see Fig. 6.32. and

6.33. The driving force at

that

stage

is

reduced

to

the

reduced draught of the channel. So there is a sudden decrease


in

the

Fig.

density

6.32.

The

flow,

which

point

at

is

shown

schematically

in

which the sudden decrease occurs

depends on the velocity of advance of the saline wedge.

This

is a field to persue further research.


6.6

FUTURE DEEPENING OF THE CHANNEL


The

Port

of Cochin propos es to deepen the Ernakulam channel

further

for

required

by

accommodating
trade.

deeper

the

vessels

inner channel

to

-13.40

would

be

interesting

to

note

the developments

density current pattern. Computations revealed the

following

DKNSITY CURRENT FOR DEEPENED SITUATIONS

SITUATION

Total salt water

Ratio of Density

During monsoon

Current to Tidal
filling

LPast

Case

9.34 x 10

m3

2.79

(Draught - 9.8 m)
2.Present Case

11.18 x 109 m3

3.54

13.80 x 109 m3

4.60

17.58 x 109 m3

6.13

(Draught -11. 9 m)
3.Future Case (1)
(Draught -13.4 m)
4.Future Case (2)
(Draught -15.2 m)

m.

in the

facts.
TABLE 6.2

m.

second phase, there would be a further deepening

of approach channel to -16.10 and inner channel to -15.20


It

as

The first stage involves a deepening of

approach channel to -14.3 mand


During

draughted

6.31

It

may

be

noted

that from 1 to 2, the increase was 19.7 %

while from 2 to 3 it would be 23.4 % and then there would


27.4

% increase. For a better appreciation,

be

the theoretical

density current graphs for the various

situations

different

given in Fig. 6.34 to

freshwater

discharges

are

6.38. It has to be kept in mind that there will


appreciable

increase

in

not

for
be

five
any

the tidal filling due to deepening

because of the comparatively large tidal prism.

l::

{;.:: y:..:
{.:,:':';"

..
,.
.. : ..

"

......

,.::': ':

"l

~:'.:..:

....

~::,:'.:~:'.:

,\:':":
..
" . . ...

y I':1 y:
I.

hj\,~:..

.... :.:'.'

'

"." .......

..
'.

::'::'.~~,::

~:;,:r:.:

..:"" ..

,,; ~.:
.. ...... :

""

~
'"
I

=
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..

-,r. .;

.'

....

.':,

....
n-:;.

~{.
'r

!
0"
.

.. I

->,

,,"

'~':

~- -

--

;3'-

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~.,

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----

~',:,

Q~I'

{\
...

- - - - - - - -{

.,

(zr)

X;'

P'!

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S!
u,

..

J'

,I ......

~':':.,

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;?

J.N311li1l::l A.LISN1U

,-:"

"~~"I':,

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- - -J.

/:.:

-----~-----~--~::...:p~~-----~--~~.~~
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- .~
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<,'

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....
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z

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Cj'

--

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w
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rv':"

j.:.

a:
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r;

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....
a:

: ': ,"
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'-:: ,..... '
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....:z

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""~ \ s -

'\'-:

""I

I::: ......

e,

:z:
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y?;;
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,
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.~{~

.(_;'"

r!A.~ ::

....

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f:~:

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.r

..

t~:::
.....'.

..'

..,i3

i3

":

z
....
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....

~::' '.' '

....'
: ..

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L:l

';

1\......:" .. ""., ..

6.32

...

.::0

}t , , ' ,

,,'

."

" .. '
~
.: ....
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":
...... .. :,,'

~f": ','

f:: ;:::~.:;
.'....

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.

<q'.'

.'.

r,

<J1::'.~:

.,;, ,

.,
I

S!
I

~
I

6.33

L:l
Z

Z
....

......e,
....

Cl

:z::

I-

0)

'-

'ti

- - -

- --r' -

_____+-

.~

- -}'.~

..,

~._____iL-----+_---?~~~----~~~1~:::~--~~~~~1~;~::+_-----~----~-----_
...--

t,{)

r.;:,

"'11

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....

"',"

',:!

~.:.

L:l

1
-

- - - :- -~- - _

'"
I

~.

'

....
....

'1~
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---,

Z
.....
o,

Ii

Cl

:z::

I-

::i

e .. ..

.~

'X

I-

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....Z
....

0:
0:
::l

,.,.
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'!)

>-

'""~

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....:

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Vi

z
......

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....
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....
4(

....~
Cl(

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--

- - -I ._ - _ - "! ~-- - - - - __

\D
,.,

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...

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I

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11\

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+-__~~~:~i ~

-~'-~;~~~~
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.,

.,
I

t-

+o

$l

6.34

CHAPTER 7

SEDlHENTATION
7.1

INTRODUCTION TO PROBLEM

7.1.1

The

biggest

single

problem

facing

the

port of Cochin is

siltation in its channels. The port is spending a huge amount


on

maintenance dredging to keep up the draught requirements.

As

discussed

navigation

in

the

earlier

chapters,

there

Yhen

three

channels at Cochin - the approach channel outside

the basin and the Ernakulam and Mattanchery


it.

are

Cochin

was

declared

major

channels

inside

port in 1936, the

draught in the inner channels was - 9.8 mand

the

approach

channel, - 11.3 m. The siltation was keeping the same pattern


until 1983. The annual siltation in various channels is given
below.
Table 7.1. Dredging data
Quantity

Channel

1. Approach

channel

2. Ernakulam

channel

6 3
2.0x10 m
3
O.2x106 m
6 3
O.5x10 m

3. Mattanchery channel
Total

2.7x10

But in 1983, the shipping channels were deepened and


to accommodate bigger ships.

widened

7.2.

1.

The

approach

channel

was

deepened

- 12.8 m. The continental shelf

at

from

-11.3 m

Cochin

being

to
only

mildly sloping, this deepening resulted in.a substantial


lengthening as weIl. The channel was also

widened

from

137 m to 200 m. The quantity of siltation jumped up from


2.0 x106to 2.6 x 106 m3/year.
2.

The new deep draughted facilities were to be put


the

Ernakulam

channel.

So

this

channel,

proposed fertilizer berth was deepened to


configuration

generally

underwent

near the berths the widening being


against

There

were

earlier

250

the

-11.9 m.

The

high

wideningj
as

500

The siltation made a


spectacular increase from 0.2 x 106 to 2.2x106 m3/year.

3.

the

in

upto

sizable
as

up

m.

no changes made in the Mattanchery channel.

This has resulted in a change in the


between

the

two

relative

position

channels. Before 1983, there was more

siltation in the Mattanchery channel. But now

this

has

reversed though there had been a slight increase.


7.1.2

OBJECTlVE
The

objective

of this study is not to go in detail into the

mechanism of siltation. It is also not intended


siltation

accurately

as

various

required for the model are simply


intent

of

this

thesis

is

current phenomena. During that


current

and

the

parameters
not

the

quantify

of

the

silt

available.

The

main

to go in depth into the density


process,

the

total

density

tidal filling current entering the harbour

was quantified. Since the saline water entering


during

to

southwest

the

harbour

monsoon would be heavily silt charged

due to strong wave action outsidej it would be worthwhile

to

examine what hap pens to the silt during the period the saline
wedge stays inside.

7.3.

7.1.3

SCOPE
As mentioned earlier, para 1.13, the mechanism
is

different

in

approach

thesis is concentrating
focussed

on

silt

on

carried

and

inner

density

of

siltation

channels. Since this

current,

attention

is

by the density current and tidal

filling current. It is needless to say that

this

is

only though data

mostly

confined

suggest that

the

to

the

interface

inner

basin

extends

to

phenomenon

small

distance

outside the gut. Again, more importance is given to Ernakulam


channel as the major siltation presently is there.
7.1.4

HYPOTHESIS
A large tid~l prism is meeting a larger fresh water discharge
at

the

Cochin gut. This has given rise to highly stratified

conditions inside the basin. See 6.9. The slow movement of


distinct

saline

wedge

and

circulation

within, has been established. Large


occur

during

Incidentally
winds

the

four

of

the

this period is accompanied

resulting

of

salt water

water

discharges

southwest monsoon.
by

strong

these

waves

erode

lot

into

of

bed

and keep them in suspension. The saline water which

enters the basin in the form of a bot tom wedge


silt

westerly

in high wave action outside in the sea. The

shear stress induced by


material

months

fresh

the

navigation

brings

this

channels. Ultimately, before the

wedge goes out at the end of the twin tidal cycle, a

certain

portion of the material is deposited reating shoaling in the


channels. This process hap pens every time

the

wedge

enters

the channel during the four months of the southwest monsoon.


Therefore

the relevant processes involved can

be

as:
Eros'on by waves;
Transportation

by tidal and density currents;

Deposition inside the wedge;

summarised

7.4.

Erosion outside the wedge.


These processes will be discussed in the coming two sections.

7.2

TRANSPORT PROCESSES OF COBESlVE SEDlHENTS

7.2.1

FLOCCULATION
Flocculation
aggregates

can be defined as the forming of large particle


from smaller particles.

Flocculation

is

brought

about by collision of particles due to:


1) Brownian motion;
2) Velocity gradients within the suspending
3) Differential
Turbulence

settling of the suspended particles.

increases the

flocculation

fluid and

probability

of

collision aiding

but also acts as a check on the size of flocs by

breaking them up.


Salt is a natural
meet,

they

flocculating

Yhen

two

But

the negatively

there is a smal~ attractive

charged suspended

tendency due to Van

der Vaals forces. The repulsive forces depend on


of

positive ions in water.

in a

decrease
as

in

of
a

flocculation

the

repulsive

of

the

cloud

colliding

thus

of

aiding

particles. A salinity of 2

point

of

there

is bioflocculation

around

ggregates.

forces

flocculation.

to the action of bio-organisms.


adsorbed

amount

ions around the sediment particle. This will result

coagulation
given

the

An increase of the concentration

of positive ions results in a compression


positive

particles

will repulse each other because of the clouds of

positive kations surrounding


solids.

agent.

particles

when

Apart

/00

from

is

salt

which takes place due

Polymers
they

the

are

found

to

be

come in contact with

7.5.

From

the

foregoing,

it

can

be seen that the flocculation

process is determined by:


the

properties

of the sediment (minerological,

organic

content etc.);
the properties of the fluid (salinity, pH, temperature);
hydraulic conditions (turbulence);
Sediment concentration.
The

aggregated

in the

particles could be much larger than the ions

dispersed

state

and

would

be

possessing

high

settling velocity.
Fig. 7.1 gives a particle size distribution graph of the

bed

material of Ernakulam channel, showing both the dispersed and


flocculated states. The d50 is 3.5 microns and 25 microns
respectively for dispersed and flocculated conditions.
According to Stokes' law,

......

7.1

So, fall velocity increases as the square of the diameter.


the

increases 50 times. But since the floc


s
consists of loosely packed particles, its density would be
low.

above

case,

In

This makes it difficult to predict the fall velo~ity of

a flocculated mass. So it is common practice to


measurements.

Fig.

7.2

shows

flocculation on concentration.

astrong

take

actual

dependence

of

The following relationship

is

of ten used.

= me

where, usually, 1

...... 7.2.

<

<

7.6

>

lil

lil

,.

en .

0
C:)

,._

tD

('9

g
I

I- ....

c:::

lV!

lI...l

':J

a.

4J

..I

V!

...-:

r--

. ;)~

u..

"',

lil

ct.

a',
c.:J

:-:
....

Vl
liJ

>_I

U Z
-:(

I
)0("

"

I'

'
Cf.

z
o
0:
U

"'_

N
U')

0 cc
ai

"1:

...J
U')

I..)

J:

u
w
~

...

..J

";

0
lil

._

~'.

ei

.)

1.01

(1-

r-

..J ...J

.!:
l.

Cl

.,

I,

::E

<{

lil

l.u
t,,-e .

,e

CJ)

e oo-o

~__._...~..

7. 7

Krone(1962)

derived a theoretical value of 4/3

Fig. 7.2 shows TJ


concentrations
corresponds

for n.

varying between 10-5 mis and 10 -3 mis for


s
between 100 and 1000 mg/l. The lower value

to the mean diameter of

the

dispersed

material

(3.5 ~m) using Stokes' law.


3
3
(p
d = 2,600 kg/m , Pw = 1,025 kg/m , v =

QJ

Clmu/II-

FJG:7.2. COMPARJSON OF W,.


For

the

flocculated

state,

(d = 25 ~m - 100 ~m), the fall

velocity may be estimated using some typical values


floc

density

for

the

as derived from literature. Krone (1978) gives


values ranging from 1.050 to 1.250 kg/m3. Using Stokes' law,
the fall velocities become 10 -5to 10 -3 mis.

7.8

7.2.2

DEPOSITION
Once fall velocity

is

decided

by

flocculation,

the

next

important sediment parameter is the critical shear stress for


D). Krone (1962), through a series of flume
cr
arrived at the conclusion that when the bot tom

deposition (~
experiments
stress

shear

of

the

flow

reduces

value,

starts to take place. This value is termed as the

deposition

critical shear stress for deposition.


stress

certain

to

is

more

If

the

bottom

shear

than this vaIue, no deposition would occur,

although Krone did not confirm this. Krone had expressed this
as a fraction of the concentration near the bed.
. . . . 7.3
Deposition rate (kg/m2/s)

where,D
V

Fall velocity (mis)

Concentration near the bed (kg/m3)

Cb

probability

that a particle sticks to the bed,'

expressed as:

~b

1-

't

..

7 4

crD
Bottom shear stress
Critical shear stress for deposition

For a natural mud, Krone obtained a value of 0.06 Pa.


recirculating
Experiments
however

(in

fIume).
performed

indicate

that

by

Partheniades

and

Hehta(1978),

for a value higher than the critical

bed shear stress, a fraction

of

the

initial

sediment

can

deposito This "degree of deposition" is a function of the bed


shear stress.
practical

Because

problems

is

the

application

of

rather cumbersome,

Krone is most widely used.

the

theory

to

the expression by

7.9

Both

theories

however

agree

to

the

fact

that

complete

deposition occurs below some critical bed shear stress. Mehta


and

Partheniades

found

va lues

of

0.12

kaolinite in a circular flume. Reanalysed

and

0.15

Pa for

data

from

others

show values ranging as follows.


Table 7.2. Typical values of ~

cr

o(table derived from Ref.2.8)

Sediment

Referenee

Krone(1962)

natural mud

Mehta/Partheniades

kaolinite(distilled

Mehta/Partheniades

kaolinite(salt water)

crD

0.06
0.18

water)

0.15

"

"

kaolinite-natural

"
"

"

mixture in salt water

0.12

"

natural mud(salt)

0.10

mud

Partheniades(1968)

0.04

Partheniades(1965)

0.07

Rosillon and
Volkenborn(1964)

0.08

It follows that the critical shear stress

depends

upon

the

sediment and fluid properties.


7.2.3

EROSION
Identical

to

the

critical

shear

deposition is the concept of ~


the

particles

number

of

Parchure,
erosion

start

expressions
Ariathurai),

function

al,Ref. 2 .15).

is

cr
eroding.

E' Above this

available
the
given

stress

in

the

case of

shear

stress,

Although, there are a large


from

literature

(Mehta,

most practical and usually used


by

(Kandiah

Ariathurai

et

7JO

'tb
M(-'t-

- 1)

7 5

crE
2

erosion rate kg/m Is

'IIhere,E

2
erosion parameter (kg/m Is)

M
't

cr

E: critical shear stress for eros ion

M depends amongst others, upon the sediment type and the pore
fluid and can be determined in the laboratory.
In

general,

this expression

(7.5) holds for compact, rather

consolidated

layers. Some values of Mand 't E are given


5
c~3
2
the tabIe. Typical values of Mare 10- to 10 kg/m Is.

Table 7.3. Typical values of Mand

Refenence

Ariathurai,

't

cr

M (kg/m2 Is)

Sediment

Arulanandan

't

cr E (Pa)

-4
-3
- 5x10
-3
-2
1.4x10 - 1.6x10
2x10-4

5x10

Sargunam et al

Yolo loam

Cormault

Gironde mud

Thorn/Parsons

in

Grangemouth,

1.3x10

-4

-3.4x10

2 - 3
1 - 8
0.1 - 0.9

-4

0.05-0.34

Brisbane,
Belavan mud

It

can be seen that M as weIl as 't

cr

can vary

in orders of

magnitude.

7.3

SEDIMENTATION DURING SALINITY INTRUSION

Siltation is
Normally

any

the

net

result

of

deposition

and

siltation process will have a deposition

when particles will be deposited and an erosion


the

erosion.

bed would be eroded. It is not necessary

phase

phase
where

that both these

two phases should be present in any particular case. If there


is

only

deposition then it may come to a stage that the new

depths would induce an equilibrium condition when there would


be

no

deposition at all. Similarly erosion can go on till a

deeper equilibrium is reached.


Let us now see how this process is taking place when a saline
wedge is present. Please see Fig. 7.3.

';I"

-_"'''__EROSION
Flr..7.3. OErOSITION
7.3.1

FROM SALINE WEOt::E

DEPOSITION FROH VEDGE


The

density

current

has

a smaller velocity than the tidal

current and freshet discharge. The advance of the wedge would


be

at

lower

velocity

still. See chapter 4. The density

current would be coming in as


goes

salt

underflow

normally

out as salt overflow. As given in Fig. 4.8., during the

peak discharges of the smaller tide and that


tide

and
of

the

larger

prior to flushing, there is salt outflow throughout the

entire depth. The velocity

of

compared

to

oscillating
spending

the

this

flow

is

much

smaller

pure tidal velocities. Horeover this is an

movement

with

considerable

the

wedge

moving

to

and

time at zero velocities. The important

fact is that this flow carries silt from the sea. Due to
velocities

inside

fro

the

saline

wedge,

deposited in the channels all along.

the

material

low
gets

7. 12

7.3.2

EROSION OUTSIDE VEDGE


Vhen the saline wedge retreats, the
followed

wedge

front

always

by a high fresh water discharge. See Fig. 7.4. This

is the freshwater which was detained in the


flood

is

tide

(abed

by

the

= a'b'e'd') and coming out during the ebb

tide. As can be seen from the figure,

this

possess

be

high

estuary

velocities

and

could

material deposited by the wedge.

But

discharge

would

capable of eroding

this

eroding

process

could start operating only af ter the wedge has withdrawn from
that reach.

J;'IC.7.4. f.IillSHET f1EETINr. SALINE

7.3.3

WEDGE

SALINITY INTRUSION CONTROLLED OR TIDE CONTROLLED


It is

usual

consequently

phenomenon

tidal

shear

that
reduces

the

tidal

amplitude

and

with increasing distance

from the ocean. So there would be a point beyond upstream

of

71 j

which

the

tidal shear would be less than the critical shear

stress of the bed and that


erosion'.

Inside

the

point

is

velocity

line

'point

of

no

salt wedge there is a point where the

time averaged near bottom velocities


zero

called

meets

cross

the

point

the

the bed and turn back in seaward

direction. This point is called th~ 'null point'. In the case


of

estuaries where the sediment is coming from the sea, this

marks the upstream limit


location

of

of

shoaling.

these two points,

Depending

upon

the

an estuary can be classified

into two of the following.Ref.l.12.


(I)

If

the

null

point

is

downstream

of

'point

erosion', all the deposited material would be


to

erosion

of

some

magnitude.

So

the

of

no

subjected
estuary

is

classified as tide controlled.


(11) If

the

null

point is upstream of point of no erosion,

the net sedimentation would be around the null point. So


the estuary is salinity intrusion controlled.
7.3.4

EFFECT OF VEDGE ON SILTATION


(I)

Due

to

the

density

bringing in silt into

current, the volume of salt water


the

basins

is

increased.

This

quantity increases with the depth of the channel. At the


present draught of - 11.9m, the ratio of density current
to

tidal filling is 3.54, which gives a factual picture

of the magnitude of the role of density current.


(11) The

wedge is retained over the channels for a very long

time.

This

retention

increases
time.

Af ter

deposition

to

erode

to

increased

the wedge has receded, there is

only a small period during


allowed

due

material

which

the

before

tidal

shear

is

the wedge comes in

again. This increases net sedimentation.

7.T 4

7.4

COMPUTATIONS

ON SEDlKENTATION

If all the sediment parameters for deposition and erosion are


the flow parameters are also schematised,

and

available

only

the

equations.

But

problem boils

down

unfortunately

none of the parameters have been evaluated.

to

applying

the

computations were made for an array of values and


of elimination

process

based on the site data available, was _adopted.

For easiness

of

eros ion

expressed

was

So

comparison,

the

computed

deposition

and

as a fraction of the total amount of

sediment brought inside during the southwest monsoon.


OTOLB

-S.

....

7.6

ln

.. ETELB
S.
ln

Cl]:

S. =
ln

. 7.7

. . .. 7.8

Yfloodcsea

.....

ex

~-Cl]:
where,

7.9

T : time for deposition (18 to 22 hoursO


O
TE: time for eros ion (7 to 3 hours)
L

channel

lenghth under the wedge(three

reaches

totalling 4400 m was taken for calculation

in

this case)
B

channel width (varying for various

reaches

300,400 and300 m)
The bed shear stress is computed by
inflow

as

taking

place

over

half

taking
the

the

total

salt

water depth as an

average case.
Vflood

u =

1 hB

....

7.10

.....

7.11

2:
The bed shear stress follows from:
2
"tb

pg C2

where,

Chezy's coefficient

g mis

(taken as 100

for

the smooth channel)


plotted

Please see Fig. 7.5 and 7.6. On one side, P vs Lb is


for

various values of LcrO' On the other side,

is plotted

against TO' the retention time for deposition,


for constant
-5
-4
-3
fall velocities of V = 10 , 10
and 10 . If we have the
s
value of Lb' than we can proceed from the left side to the
relevant LcrO

and go on to the required

The graph gives an overall idea about

for a desired TO'


deposition would

how

vary with the variation of different parameters.


The erosion graph is given in fig.
side,

Lb

is

plotted

against

7.7.

On

the

left

hand

log E for constant values of

LcrE' each again for three constant values of H. On the right


hand side, log E vs log TE' where TE is the time for erosion,
is plotted. The graph is drawn for

sediment concentration

of

200 mg/litre. The same procedure of entering on the left side


of the graph for the relevant values of Lb' LcrE and H, and
coming to the value of ~ for the appropriate value of TE can
be followed here as weIl.
From

field

measurements,

the

amount

reduced to the amount of sediment brought

of

dredging
in

by

can be

the

total

inflowing salt water. Assuming a bulk density for the dredged


material, the bed concentration

cb

Pb - Pw
(p

where,

Pw

follows from

) Pg

......

cb

bed concentration

Pb

bulk density

Pw

mass density of water

Pg

mass density of grains

Af ter this, the sediment


period is calculated as :

mass

dredged

during

the

7.12

monsoon

.'.
7.16

.....

+---

0.05

rrb (Pa)

10

20

15

25

T (hu)-'"

FIG.

7.5. P vs T

s'

W = 10-4
s

0.15

0.10

0.05

1----

rrb

(Pa)

.FIG.

7.6.

5
T. (hr5)

P vs T

s'

10

..

W "10-3
s

15

20

25

..

7.17

I
C

I
C

7.18

where,

......

7.13

passing

over

net siltation
Volume dredged

7.4.1

CALIBRATION
In the present case, the volume of salt
the

Ernakulam

channel

estimated to be 6.40 x
quantity

comes

in

during the
109 m3. It

with

silt

water

southwest

monsoon

is

assumed

charge

of

that

was
this

200 mg/l. See

fig.7.8. The average annual dredging in the Ernakulam channel


as

per

data is 2.2 x 10 m. For an assumed bulk density of


1,200 kg/m3, the amount of sediments works out to 6.27 x 108

kg.

I ...

I~ _

SA,:,,,,rv

<111.,

'''' "pr,

.,l. r

.,
0-.1
'""' .. ,..' '"

",.T.

FIG.7.8.SILT CHARGE AT GUT

Ot

6.27 x 10
9

6.40x10 xO.2

0.49, say, 0.5

7.19

(It is interesting that for a eoneentration of 100 mg/l,

the

required value would be one, meaning that all the silt that
enters, deposits inside)

So the required value of for various eombinations of


~

is 0.5. There

woul~

be

several

eombinations

of

and

these

values sinee there are several varying sediment parameters.


The

The

and ~

region

values are given in Table 7.1 side by side.


of

the

values

of

whieh ean lead to

values of 0.5 are shown by arrows. For a


parameters for deposition whieh gives a

partieular

0 - ~
set

of

value, there is no

limitation on the seleetion of erosion parameters exeept

for

~erE value. Generally,


~

erE

~erD

So for two sets of deposition parameters,


large

eros ion parameters.


-5
0.30 Pa and H = 10
to 10-3 kg/m 2Is.
TABLE

range of

7.4. 0 &

~:

7.14

still

have

we
ie,

~cr E-

0.20 to

CALIBRARION

DEPOSITION

~er
V~\

. . . . . ..

0.05 Pa 0.10 Pa 0.15 Pa

EROSION

0.10 Pa

0.20 Pa

0.30 Pa

2
kg/m Is

mis
10-5 0.00021 0.00385 0.0076
10-4 0.0021 0.0385 0.076
10-3 0.021
0.385
0.76

0.00885

0.0014

0.00034

0.0885

0.014

0.0034

10-5
10-4

0.885

0.14

0.034

10-3

7. 20

7.4.2

VERIFICATION
The same procedure was
draught

done

for

the

of the channel was -9.8 mand

past

case

when

the

the width of Ernakulam

channel was much less. The computations were carried out for
-4
-3
~crO= 0.10 Pa and 0.15 Pa, Ys
10
mis and 10 mis,
-4
-3
and 10 . As per the
~crE= 0.20 Pa and 0.30 Pa and H = 10
dredging quantities at that time, the required worked out
to 0.09. The disposition of is shown in table 7.2.
now

seen

be

that

down

narrowed

parameters.

the

can

region of possible values have been

considerably

especially

with

the

erosion

The region is shown by arrows. In fact, only two

sets of reasonable values can be derived


looking

It

at

the

accuracy

of

the

from

this.

which,

computations, are almost

similar.
TABLE 7.5.

~cr
Y\
s

0.10 Pa

10-4 0:0436
10-3 0.436

& ~:

VERIFICATION

OEPOSITION:cn

EROSION:~

0.15 Pa

0.20 Pa

0.30 Pa

0.077

0.146

0.0549

0.77

1.00

0.549

-3
-3
E=0.284 Pa, Y =10 mis, H=10 ;
cr
cr
s
-4
-3
(II) ~ 0=0.15 Pa, ~ E=0.30 Pa, Y =8.325x10
mis, H=10 .
cr
cr
s

(I) ~

7.4.3

0=0.142 Pa, ~

PREOICTION
An attempt could now be made to predict the value of possible
siltation

if

the

Ernakulam channel is deepened to -13.4 m.

The above two sets of values were made use of. The values
.

of

obtained were 0.256 and 0.252. The siltation worked out to

7.21

be 1.50 x 106 m3. Incidentally it may be mentioned that this


is less than the present quantity of 2.2 x 106 m3 in these
calculations. This is because, in the case
channel,

there

density

is

current.

net

This

of

the

deepened

increase' in the velocity of the

has

increased

the

shear

stresses

slightly in the sensitive region of deposition making way for


substantial reduction in sedimentation.
inside

salt

wedge

have

dimensional (vertical)

or

to
a

be

three

But

the

quantified

velocities
using a two

dimensional

model

for

obtaining realistic figures.

7.5

INFERENCES

(I)

PROM TBE EXERCISE

Increase

in

depth

would increase the quantity of silt

charged salt water being brought inside. But


increases

the

velocity

of

circulation

Deposition is affected largely by


only

by

the

the

this

also

in the wedge.

velocities;

not

total quantity of silt brought inside. So

deepening need not increase sedimentation. But deepening


can

reduce

Deepening

erosion
could

deposition.

by

decrease

increase

Therefore

in tidal velocities.

retention

time

a more accurate modelling of the

hydraulic conditions is needed in order to


consequences

of

increasing

further

deepening

of

predict
the

the
inner

channels.
(11) Videning

of the inner channel does not increase density

current as Gut is the con trol. Videning will reduce both


velocity

of

density current and tidal velocities. This

will increase deposition and reduce erosion

inducing

double fold increase in sedimentation.


(III)Slight increase in the roughness of

the

channel

might

increase the bot tom shear and reducing siltation.


(IV) The quantity of sedimentation
silt

parameters

and

flow

is highly sensitive to the


parameters

and so accurate

7.22-

evaluation
future,

of

the

attention

following

is

same
should

parameters

by

be

required.
paid

in

laboratory

Therefore,

in

evaluating the
and

field

measurements:
~crE' ~crD' Ys' H, csea at gut, the bulk density of
dredged
material
and
a roughness value for
bed (Chezy).

the
the

CHAPTER 8

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOKHENDATIONS


8.1

PURPOSE OF STUDY
The

Port

basin,

of

Cochin,

exhibits

confluence

of

located at the mouth of a large tidal

fascinating
a

flow

through

narrow

entire

to

the

exchange

has

to

take

opening called Cochin Gut makes it

more interesting than ever.


amount

due

large tidal prism with a larger freshwater

discharge. The fact that the


place

patterns

The

port

experiences

large

of siltation in its channels presumably from the silt

brought

in

siltation

by
in

density
the

and

inner

tidal

channel

increased sharply, af ter that was


1983.

Yith

filling
on

the

deepened

Ernakulam
and

widened

The
side
in

a further deepening of the channel in two stages

in the offing, it became apparent that a


flow

currents.

pattern

bringing

in

sediment

research
into

the

into

the

basin

was

inevitable.
8.2

SCHEMATISATION
This

study

currents

at

has

concentrated

Cochin.

on

Cochin

the

physics

of

backwaters was considered as a

fresh water lake connected to the saline sea by the


the

theory

developed

by

Rigter

(1970)

was

certain modifications. This was developed into


quantify

density

currents.

method was made to Cochin


charged
graphs

saline
made

combinations

water

for

Extensive

for

tidal

the
and

gut

and

applied with
a

method

application

quantification

entering

various

density

of

to

of this
the

silt

basin. Density current


freshet

discharge

brought into focus interesting general physical

features of density currents. Certain other features could be

8.2.

explained

with

the

help

of the analysis of prototype data

collected at Cochin. The open questlons


incorporated in the recommendations
8.3

which

remained

are

to follow.

CONCLUSIONS
Host

of

the

conclusions

from

the

analysis

are given in

Chapter 6 and 7. However an important few are listed below.


8.3.1

DENSITY CURRENT
(1)

It was found that the deeper the channel, the more would
be

the

density

proportional

to

current.
a/a.

The

Using

density

the

equation (Eq.4.6.) and schematising


the

gut

as

indicated

quantification

of

in

density

current

density

current

the net flow through

section

current

5.1.2.,

the

shows that density

current fraction of the total salt water movement


increase

with

increase

is

3.54

would

in depth. In the present case,

the total density current during the


monsoon

whole

south

west

the tidal filling current. The

times

ratio was 2.79 before deepening and would go up to


and

6.13

total

af ter

quantity

neglecting

the

is

4.60

the future two cases of deepening. The


of

salt

effect

water

entering

the

basin,

of accumulation as mentioned in

section 6.4., during the southwest monsoon over a period


of 120 days is estimated to be 11.18x109 m3.
(11) The gut was found to be the control and
the

density

current.

of

area

which

admits

is

large

density current partly due to the increased

combined area of the two channels together


gut

for

But the gut has a deeper draught

and large cross sectional


quantum

constraint

deeper

on

inside.

The

the southern side and so salt wedge

advances on that side first.

8.3.

(III)From

data analysis, it was shown that the salt wedge is

flushed completely ou~side at a Froude number 0.7 ie,


at a net discharge of 13.5 m2/s until 1983. For a deeper
channel, the discharge required is 15.60 m2/s making
this

phenomenon rarer. But if there is no flushing some

salt is left behind during each tide.

This

accumulates

inside the basin and reduces further density currents.


(iv) It has been found

that

the

freshwater

discharge

for

which the density current is maximum, at Cochin is 6


m3/s per metre width of the gut. On both sides of this
discharge the quantity of salt brought in by the density
current would go on decreasing. This has
significanee

only

academie

as the total salt coming inside because of

tidal filling and density currents combined would always


decrease with increasing. freshet discharge.
(v)

It was found that some salt is getting trapped


corner

in

some

of the basin and is flushed out at a later stage

af ter the main wedge has gone out. The location


trap could not be discovered

of

the

(See 6.5.4.)

(vi) Before 1983, Mattanchery channel was

wider

because

of

the stream moorings there and therefore drew most of the


density current .So the ratio
these

of

salt

water

two channels was 0.67 : 0.33 approximately

ratio of their widths. But af ter deepening and


of

entering

Ernakulam

channel,

the

in the

widening

situation changed to equal

width and more depth, changing the

pattern

of

density

currents and siltation.


(vii)A final conceptual graph on
prepared

based

on

the

density

above

points out the necessity for

current

study.

further

could

be

(Fig.4.8.) This
research

on

the

subject apart from exposing some interesting features.

8.4.

8.3.2

SEDIMENTATION
Only

limited

sedimentation.

study
The

was

made

various

on

sediment

the actual process of


parameters

were

not

evaluated. So a method of narrowing down the range of assumed


values was employed. The following conclusions were derived.
(i)

Deepening

the

channel would increase the volume of the

density current and so increase the quantity of sediment


carried

in

from

the

sea

by the salt water. It would

also increase salt water veloeities which has a reducing


tendency

on

deposition.

stated here
important

with

thing

But

certain

is

to

the latter fact is being


amount

get

of

correct

veloeities inside the wedge by a two

caution.
values

The

of

dimensional

the
model

in the vertical.plane. The accuracy of this could affect


deposition computations. Deposition is also proportional
to

the

area

of

the

channel exposed to silt charged


But

water, not only the total quanti ty of water itself.


deepening

can

deposition

and

increase

retention

reduce

time

of

channels

does

not

time,

increasing

erosion.

Please

see

Chapter 7.
(ii) Videning
density
would

the

current
reduce

as
the

increase

volume

of

the gut remains the constraint but


veloeities

inside

the

wedge,

encouraging deposition.
(iii)Roughness of the channel can increase shear

and

would

reduce sedimentation.
(iv) The values of ~ ,V,
cr
s
accurately as total

Mand

Care

sedimentation

sensitive to these parameters.

to

be

evaluated

quantity is highly

.,..

..

.l

"
,

. I

/.\ .r:....
"..

.,.,

"

;
!:

..,"

.. 8..5

cS

..,
I

-=

,,'"....
...

., .

;;:

\.

,l
/i

'1,'/'

.'
1

.:1

.;

.'/

.l,
1/

r ..
I

.i

..

__

...re

O'

a.;.

--_ -. V'

..

",

.,

a.:"

:z:

rJ'

:IC
. Lol
u.!

a.
,_

>-

>;

8. 6

8.4

RECOMHENDATIONS
The recommendations made here are of two types.
(i)

To reduce density current and reduce sedimentation which


however need further study and cannot be based

only

on

this desk study.


(ii) Certain

studies

feasibility

to

study

be

included

for

the

in

the

Container

imminent

Transhipmen~

Terminal at Cochin.
8.4.1

(i)

One

recommendation

is

to

channels by training them so


increased.

streamline
that

ebb

the flow in the


velocities

are

Please see Fig. 8.1. The increased discharge

would flush out the wedge from the channel

quicker.

Of

course, the situation at the gut would remain unchanged.


But

higher

retention

velocities
time

of

in

the

channel

would

reduce

the silt wedge, and increase erosion

FI~:8.2. SILT SCREEN

8.7

time,

thereby

reducing

deposition

and

increasing

erosion.
(ii) Another innovation is the silt screen

which

was

tried

out at Botlek harbour in Rotterdam. Please see Fig. 8.2.


The screen would act as a barrier to the bot tom
of

the

portion

density current and would also prevent mud flow

into the basin. As mentioned earlier, the constraint


the

area

is

of gut. The screen would, in fact, reduce the

depth of the gut. To certain extent this would

overcome

the difficulty described in 6.5.6.


(iii)The value of Chezy coefficient
increasing

the

roughness

of

could
the

be

decreased

channel. This would

increase the shear stress sharply. It should be


how

this

could

be

done

by

studied

in practice. Increased shear

stress can reduce siltation considerably.


(iv) Further

studies

should

be made on density current and

sedimentation on the desk as weIl as


model

especially

for

in

prototype

and

deepened situation when there

would be no flushing.
It

must

be

mentioned

that

determining

feasibility and economie efficiency of (i),

the
(ii)

technical
and

(iii)

was outside the scope of this desk study.


8.4.2

For the future study on the Transhipment Terminal:


(i)

Even

among

all

not have a single


important

need

the data described in chapter 2, we do


reliable

silt

observation.

So

of the hour is to have reliable data on

silt charge during pre, post and monsoon periods. It


of ten

documented that southwest monsoon is

by strong wind and wave action. This has to


up.

The

the
is

accompanied
be

checked

hypothesis of origin of silt from sea has been

8. 8

taken for granted.

This

is

to

be

verified

to

some

extent.
(ii) The phenomenon of flushing was weIl
1983.

This phenomenon af ter the

established

before

deepening and widening

in 1983 has to be studied and verified.


(iii)It

would

velocity

interesting

interfaces.

interface
depth

be

are

observed.

is
to

So,

to

pin

point

as

soon

as

density
the

and

density

noticed, more frequent observations along


be

This

made

would

until
be

velocity

useful

interface

is

in the study of salt

overflow in highly stratified estuaries.


(iv) The

1980

observations

available are of peak discharge

conditions. The data of average conditions would be much


welcome for quantification over a periode
(v)

Careful evaluatian of silt parameters like ~crO' ~crE'


V , Hand C is required before any definite quantitative
s
statement on the effect of deepening can be given.

(vi) As

velocities

inside

the

wedge

quantification of siltation, a
plane

should

be

employed

important for a deeper


generation

vessels)

2-0

model

in

vertical

for the study. This is more

draught
when

are important in the

(to

accommodate

third

the salt accumulation due to

nonflushing would be more important.


This

study

was undertaken for educational purposes. Because

of the limitations which are inherent to a desk study, it


primarily

exploratory.

is

LIST OF FIGURES
1.1.

General

plan

for

Cochin

backwaters

showing

various rivers
1.2.

General plan for the port of Cochin

1.3.

Port infrastructure

1.4.

Tidal curve at Cochin

1.5.

Vind rose diagram

1.6.

Direction

1.7.

Vave rose-height

1.8.

Vave rose-period

1.9.

Before 1920

1.10.

Af ter 1930

1.11.

Af ter 1953

1.12.

Af ter 1982

2.1.

Observations

1968

2.2.

Observations

1975 - 1976

2.3.

General plan for the port of Cochin

2.4.

Observations

3.1.

Net flow Graph

3.2.

Density current mechanism

3.3.

Velocity verticals

3.4.

Density current - 1980

3.5.

Profile of saline wedge

3.6.

Arrested saline wedge

3.7.

Arrested salt wedge on long wier

3.8.

Density induced return current over short wier

4.1.

Definition

4.2.
4.3.

Relation between kiL, F1' F2


(F2 - F1) Vs F2

4.4.

Density current graph

of maximum wind speed

: 1985

- 1980

sketch

the

(ii)
4.5.

Variation

of freshet with salt

4.6.

Fully stratified

4.7.

Velocity

4.8.

Complete qualitative

5.1.

Fate of positive wave entering

5.2.

Schematized

6.1.

Density current graph, lst tide: 0.75m,

estuary

profile in stratified

flow

density current graph


channel at t=O

section of gut

2nd tide: 0.30 m, qfr = 8.16 m /s


6.2.
6.3.

Density current graph, lst tide: 0.75m,


2
2nd tide: 0.30 m, qfr = 6.00 m Is
Density current graph, lst tide: 0,75m,
2

2nd tide: 0.30 m, qfr = 4.08 m /s


6.4.

Density current graph, lst tide: 0,75m,


2
2nd tide: 0.30 m, qfr = 2.33 m /s

6.5.

Density current graph, lst tide: 0,75m,


2

2nd tide: 0.30 m, qfr = 1.00 m /s


6.6.

Density current graph, lst tide: 0,75m,


2

2nd tide: 0.15 m, qfr = 8,16 m /s


6.7.

Density current graph, lst tide: 0,75m,


2
2nd tide: 0.30 m, qfr = 6.00 m /s

6.8.

Density current graph, lst tide: 0,75m,


2
2nd tide: 0.30 m, qfr = 4.08 m /s

6.9.

Density current graph, lst tide: 0,75m,


2

2nd tide: 0.30 m, qfr = 2.33 m /s


6.10.

Density current graph, lst tide: 0,75m,


2

2nd tide: 0.30 m, qfr = 1.00 m /s


6.11.

Density current graph, lst tide: 0.50m,


2

2nd tide: 0.30 m, qfr = 8.16 m /s


6.12.

Density current graph, lst tide: 0,75m,


2

2nd tide: 0.30 m, qfr = 6.00 m /s


6.13.

Density current graph, lst tide: 0,75m,


2

2nd tide:0.30 m, qfr = 4.08 m /s


6.14.

Density current graph, lst tide: 0,75m,


2
2nd tide: 0.30 m, qfr = 2.33 m /s

(iii)

6.15.

Density current graph, lst tide: 0,75m,


2

2nd tide: 0.30 m, qfr = 1.00 m Is


6.16

Density current graph, lst tide: 0,75m,


2

2nd tide: 0.15 m qfr = 8.16 m /s


6.17.

Density current graph, lst tide: 0,75m,


2

2nd tide: 0.30 m, qfr = 6.00 m /s


6.18.

Density current graph, lst tide: 0,75m,


2

2nd tide: 0.30 m, qfr = 4.08 m /s


6.19.

Density current graph, lst tide: O,75m,


2

2nd tide: 0.30 m, qfr = 2.33 m Is


6.20

Density current graph, lst tide: 0,75m,


2

2nd tide: 0.30 m, qfr = 1.00 m Is


6.21.

qfr vs tidal filling

6.22.

Density current - 1980, 21-7-80

6.23.

Density current - 1980, 22-7-80

6.24.

Density current - 1980, 23-7-88

6.25.

Density current - 1980, 25-7-80

6.26.

Density current - 1980, 26-7-80

6.27.

Velocity verticals

1980

6.28.

Velocity verticals

1980

6.29.

Velocity verticals

1980

6.30.

Gut and channels

6.31.

Cross section of gut

6.32.

Density current when draaught is reduced.

6.33.

Longitudinal

6.34.

Increase in density current with deepening:

6.35.

qf r= 8.16 Increase in density current with deepening:

6.36.

qfr= 6.00
Increase in density current with deepening:

6.37.

qfr= 4.08
Increase in density current with deepening:

6.38.

qfr = 2.33
Increase in density current with deepening:

section

qfr = 1.00
7.1.

Size distribution

of bed material

<iy}
7.2.
7.3.
7.4.
7.5.
7.6.
7.7.
7.8.
8.1.

Comparison of V
Deposition

Freshet meeting saline wedge

= 10 -4mis
vs T , V = 10 -3mis
s
s

p vs T , V

LogE vs log TE' c =200 mgll


sea
Silt charge at gut
Scheme

to

siltation
8.2.

from saline wedge

Silt screen

streamline

veloci ties

to

reduce

LIST

OF TABLES

1.1.

Rainfall data

2.1.

Approach channel dredging

2.2.

Ernakulam channel dredging

6.1.

Density current and tidal filling

6.2.

Density current for deepened situations

7.l.

Dredging data

7.2.
7.3.
7.4.
7.5

Typical values of ~crD


Typical values of Mand
oand ~:

Calibration

oand ~:

Verification

crE

NOTATlONS
:h + ~ :Yater depth at any instance

:Depth of flow of upper 1ayer


:Depth of flow of lower 1ayer
:Yidth of channe1
:Yidth of estuary
c

:Ve1ocity of propogation

of tide

:Ve1ocity of propogation

of interna1 wave

:Initia1 concentration
:Bed concentration
:Chezy's coefficient
:Deposition

rate

:Erosion rate, Estuary number


:Interna1 estuary number
:Froude number
:Froude numer of upper 1ayer
:Froude number of lower 1ayer
:Froude numer of fresh water flow
:Acce1eration

due to gravity

g'

:g : Densimetric

:Mean water depth

ki

:Interfacia1

:l/a : Dimension1ess

:Length of si11

L.1

:Length of arrested saline wedge

:Length of tida1 wave

:Rate of erosion

:Probabi1ity

:Pressure at any point

Pt

:Tida1 prism

:ql - q2 : Net flow, flow rate induced by tida1 wave

Ql,q2:Discharge
Q

ex

shear stress coefficient


1ength of si11, 1ength of channe1

that a partic1e sticks to the bed

rate of upper and lower 1ayers

:Density induced exchange flow rate

(v i.i )

qr

:Density induced return flow rate

qfr

:Freshet discharge rate

Os

:Salt overflow

0'

:Salt underflow

0fr

:Fresh water discharge

:Richardson number

:Sedimentation

iE

S.

:Total sediment carried inside

:period till that instant

:Tidal period

:Velocity of flow

l.n

u ' u :Velocity of flow of upper and lower layers


1
2
Ut
:rms tidal velocity averaged over profile
V

:Fall velocity

:Horizontal coordinate, distance covered by tidal wave

:Vertical coordinate

Zo

:Height of individual tidal wave


ratio
:Simmon's ratio, ~

of bot tom shear to

interfacial shear
:Ratio of deposition

to total sediment carried inside

:Ratio of erosion to total sediment carried inside


PI + P2
2

:Mass density of lighter fluid


:Mass density of heavier fluid
(p

PI)

/lp
P

"tb
"t
crD
"t
crE
"t.
l.

{Al

:Bottom shear stress


:Critical shear stress for deposition
:Critical shear stress for erosion
:Interfacial friction
2n

=T

:Damping factor
:Symbol denoting amplitude of parameter involved
A

:Function

:Vatersurface elevation

~.

:Interfacial shear of arrested saline wedge

l.

REFERENCES

1.

DENSITY CURRENTS

1.1

Abraham

G.,

"Reference

notes

on

density

and

currents

transport processes". Lecture notes, IHE,1982-83.


1.2

Abraham G., Jong P.D. and

Kruiningen

F.E.V.,

"Large

scale

mixing processes in a partly mixed estuary". Delft Hydraulics

1.3

communication

no. 371, 1986.

Abraham

Eysink V.D., "Magnitude of interfacial shear in

G.,

exchange flow". Journalof

Hydraulic Research, vol. 9,

1971,

no . 2.
1.4

Barr,

O.I.D.,

"Densimetric

exchange

flow

in

rectangular

channels". La Houille Blanche, November 1963 and June 1967.


1.5

C.V. & P.R.S., "Specific note no. 441" of 16.9.1957.

1.6

Dixit, J.G., "Lateral change in the mixing characteristics

as

a result of widening of the Ernakulam channel". International


Symposium

on

new

Technology

on model testing in Hydraulic

Research 24-26, September 1987, India.


1.7

Eysink,

V.D., "Sedimentation

in harbour basins small density

differences may cause serious effects".


1.8

Gole

C.V., Vaidyaraman P.P., "Deepening the approach channel

to the Port of
Association
1.9

Cochin".

13th

Conference

of

International

for Hydraulic research, Kyoto, vol. 3, 1969.

Ippen A.T., "Estuary and coastline


Hill Inc., 1966.

Hydro-dynamics."

McGraw-

(Lx)

1.10

Joglekar D.V.,
siltation

Gole

of

C.V.

Cochin

and

Port".

Kuiekar
XIX

S.N.,

"Studies

International

in

Navigation

Congress, Section 11, Communication 3., London, 1957.


1.11

Naik

A.S.,

Kanhare

salinity on siltation
Conference

on

V.N.,
in

Coastal

Vaidyaraman

the

and

Cochin
Port

P.P.,

Port".

"Effect

of

International

Engineering in Developing

countries, Colombo, March 20-26, 1983.


1.12

Partheniades

E.,

"Salinity

Intrusion

in Estuaries and its

effect on shoaling". River Mechanics vol. 11, Hsieh wen Shen,


1966.
1.13

Rama Raju V.S., Udaya


observations

Varma,

Abraham

Pylee,

"Hydrographic

in the inner harbour of Cochin Port for Harbour

development works". National Institute of Oceanography,


1.14

Rama

Raju

V.S.,

Udaya

Varma, Abraham Pylee, "Hydrographic

& Tidal Prism at the Cochin

characteristics
Indian journalof

1976.

Harbour

mouth".

Marine sciences, vol. 8, June 1979 p.p.

78-84.
1.15

Rigter

B.P.,

"Density

return

induced

channels". Publication no. 83,

currents

in outlet

Yaterlookundig

laboratorium,

"Theoretical

considerations

1970.
1.16

Schijf J.B. and Schonfeld J.C.,

on the motion of salt and fresh water". 1953.


1.17

Simmons H.B., "Some effects of upland discharge on

estuarine

Hydraulics". Hydraulics division of ASCE, 1955.


1.18

Tarapore Z.S., Kanhare


siltation

V.N.

and

Naik

A.S.,

"A

study

of

at Cochin Port". Seminar or Coastal Engineering at

National Institute of Oceanography, GOA, 23/24, March 1977.

(x)

1.19

Udaya

Varma

P.,

Abraham

Pylee,

Rama

Raju

V.S.,

influence on the seasonal variation in current and


around

Yillington

"Tidal
salinity

island". Mahasagar, Bulletin of National

Institute of Oceanography 14(4), 1981, 225-237.


2.

SEDIMENTATION

2.1

Allersma E., "Mud in estuaries and along coasts". Publication


no. 270, Yaterloopkundig

2.2

Burt

T.,

"Field

Proceedings

laboratorium.

settling

velocities

of

estuary

muds ",

of a workshop on cohesive sediment dynamics with

special reference to Physical Processes in Estuaries,

Tampa,

Florida, November 12-14, 1984.


2.3

Gole

e.v.,

Tarapore Z.S.

siltation

in

harbour

and

Brahme

basins

S.B.,

"Prediction

of

and channels". Proceedings of

14th Conference of IAHR, Paris, 1971, vol. 4, paper 05,

p.p.

33-40.
2.4

Kranck,

"Settling

Proceedings

behaviour

sediments".

cohesive

of

of a workshop on cohesive sediment dynamics with

special reference to Physical Processes in Estuaries,

Tampa,

Florida, November 12-14, 1984.


2.5

Krone R.B., "Flume studies of the transport


estuarial

shoaling

Engineering

processes

laboratory

and

Final
Sanitary

of

sediment

report".
Engineering

in

Hydraulic
Research

Laboratory, University of California, Berkely, 1962.


2.6

Krone R.B., "The


transport
sediment

significance

processes".
dynamics

with

of

aggregate

properties

to

Proceedings of a workshop on cohesive


special

reference

to

Physical

Processes in Estuaries, Tampa, Florida, November 12-14, 1984.

(Xi1
2.7

Leussen, V.V., "Aggregation of particles,


of

settling

velocity

mud flocs". International Symposium on Physical Processes

in Estuaries, The Netherlands, September 9-12, 1986.


2.8

Mehta

A.J.

and

depositional
Journalof

Partheniades

properties

of

E.,

"An investigation of the

flocculated

fine

sediments".

Hydraulic Research, International Association

for

Hydraulic Research, vol. 13, no. 14, 1975, p.p. 361-381.


2.9

Mehta A.J., "Characterization

of cohesive sediment properties

and transport

estuaries".

processes

in

Proceedings

of

Vorkshop on Cohesive Sediment Dynamics with Special Reference


to Physical Processes in Estuaries Tampa,

Florida,

November

12-14, 1984.
2.10

Mehta A.J., "Cohesive Sediment in Estuarine Environment". AGU


Chapman Conference, Bahia Blanca, Argentina, June 1988.

2.11

Parker

V.R.

behaviour

"On
for

the

observation

Engineering

Cohesive

of

purposes".

sediment

Proceedings

of

Vorkshop on Cohesive Sediment Dynamics with Special Reference


to

Physical

Processes in Estuaries Tampa, Florida, November

12-14, 1984.
2.12

Partheniades,

E.

"A

fundamental

sediment Dynamics". Proceedings


Sediment

Dynamics

with

of

Special

frame
a

work

for Cohesive

Vorkhop

on

Cohesive

Reference

to

Physical

Processes in Estuaries Tampa, Florida, November 12-14, 1984.


2.13

Partheniades,

E.

"Erosion

and

deposition

of

Cohesive

sediments". River Mechanics Vol 11, Hsieh wen Shen, 1971.


2.14

Partheniades,

E.

Cohesive

sediment Transport Mechanics and

Estuarine Sedimentation - Lecture notes.

(xi.L)

2.15

Ranjan

Ariathurai

and Kandiah Aru1anandan,

Cohesive soi1s". Journalof


February,
2.16

5i11s"

the

"Erosion rates of

Hydrau1ic

Division,

ASCE,

1978 Vol 104, pp 279-283.

G.C., "The transition

from

sediment

suspension

to

settling bed."
2.17

Tetsuya Kusuda, Teruyuki Umita and Youichi Awaya,


process of fine Cohesive sediments"
Engineering

2.18

Trimbak

H.

Kyushu University,
Parchure

and

Cohesive Sediment Deposits".

"Erosiona1

Memoirs of the facu1ty of

Vol 12, no. 4, December 1982.

Ashish H. Hehta, "Eros ion of soft


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ASCE, Vol 111, no. 10, October 1985.


2.19

Villiams,

D.J.A., "Rheo10gy of cohesive suspensions".

Proceedings

of a Yorkshop on Cohesive Sediment Dynamics with

Special Reference

to Physica1 Processes

Florida, November 12-14, 1984.

in

Estuaries

Tampa,

ACKNOVLEDGEMENTS
At the onset, the author places on record his gratitude to Prof.
Ir. H.

Velsink

Services

of

Delft

Technical

University/Port

who was the driving force behind the entire programme.

He is grateful in no small
Abraham

(Delft

measure

to

his

guide

with

Ger

Hydraulics)

who

fundamentals of sedimentation. At this moment, the

author recalls his memorabie days


Division

Dr.Ir.

Hydraulics) who introduced the magie of density

currents to him and to Ir. Kees Kuijper (Delft


helped

Advisory

at

the

Estuaries

and

Seas

in zout-zoet-hal. He cannot but remember with grateful

satisfaction all his E-Z colleagues under the leadership of


Ad

van

Os

Ir.

who made Delft Hydraulics a home away from home for

him.
Many

thanks

are

due

to

Ir.

J.H.C.

Viersma of IHE who made

perfect arrangements at the Institute. The author is aware


he

owes

lot

Cooperation,
Netherlands

to

the

Ministry
who

remembers with

Directorate

of

foreign

that

General of International
affairs,

Government

of

made all this financially possible. The author


gratitude

the

organisations

NEDECO

and

Port

Advisary Services B.V., Netherlands for making his dream of this


research a reality. This
Hydraulics

moment

is

utilised

to

thank

Delft

for making available the excellent facilities of the

great institution.
Hr

Ananthakrishnan

A.

of

Government of India had been a


author

through

out

Ministry
souree

of
of

Surface

Transport,

inspiration

to

the

his professional career; especially during

the study at IHE. The author expresses his gratitude to him. The
interest

shown

by

Dr

P.P.

Vaidyaraman

and Hr J.G. Dixit of

Central Vater and Power Research Station, Pune to send


data,

is

valuable

gratefully acknowledged. The author also acknowledges

the official support provided by Hr H.K. Hanoharan and


John, Cochin Port Trust.

Hr H.H.

(xiy}_

Above all, the author


Dr

Kaniben

thanks

from

the

bot tom

of

his

heart

and little Swapna, his wife and daughter who helped

and spurred him on to the final destination.

~.