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Aerodynamics the meaning of Drag force and give the expression of the dimensionless Drag coefficient.
The resultant force in the direction of the upstream velocity is termed the Drag Force (D). It has two contributions the skin friction, related to shear stress and the pressure drag, related to pressure differential between the front and the back of the body. The dimensionless Drag coefficient is given by: 2Drag ForceC12DUA,
where is usually the frontal area, the projected area seen

Aerodynamics the meaning of Drag force and give the expression of the dimensionless Drag coefficient.
The resultant force in the direction of the upstream velocity is termed the Drag Force (D). It has two contributions the skin friction, related to shear stress and the pressure drag, related to pressure differential between the front and the back of the body. The dimensionless Drag coefficient is given by: 2Drag ForceC12DUA,
where is usually the frontal area, the projected area seen

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Aerodynamics

Email: m.fyrillas@frederick.ac.cy

QUESTION 1

a. Explain the meaning of Drag force and give the expression of the

dimensionless Drag coefficient.

The resultant force in the direction of the upstream velocity is termed the Drag

Force (D). It has two contributions the skin friction, related to shear stress and the

pressure drag, related to pressure differential between the front and the back of

the body. The dimensionless Drag coefficient is given by:

Drag Force

CD

,

1

2

U A

2

where A is usually the frontal area, the projected area seen by a person looking

toward the object from a direction parallel to the upstream velocity, U .

b. Explain the meaning of Lift force and give the expression of the

dimensionless Lift coefficient.

The resultant force in the direction normal to the upstream velocity is termed the

Lift Force (L). Similar to the Drag force it has two contributions however the

contribution of the shear stress to the Lift Force is often negligible. The

dimensionless Drag coefficient is given by:

Lift Force

CL

,

1

U 2 A

2

where A is usually the planform area, the projected area seen by a person looking

toward the object from a direction normal to the upstream velocity, U .

c. In the Figure below identify the Drag force, the Lift Force, and show the

direction of the total shear force.

Lift

Drag

FS

resultant

shear force

QUESTION 2

The results of a wind tunnel test to determine the drag on a body (see Figure)

are summarized below. The upstream [section (1)] velocity is uniform at 30 m/s .

The static pressures are given by p1 p2 14.7 psia . The downstream velocity

distribution [section (2)], which is symmetrical about the centerline, is

assumed to be stepwise uniform (see Figure). Assume that the body shape

does not change in the direction normal to the paper.

a. Using the mass conservation equation determine the dividing streamlines.

b. Using the momentum equation calculate the drag force (reaction force in x

direction) exerted on the air by the body per unit length normal to the plane

of the sketch.

c. Find the Drag coefficient CD .

30 m/s

30 m/s

1m

Vcenter 20 m/s

Rx

1m

at the velocity discontinuity on the right-hand side of the

control volume and a point, which is going to be determined

through mass conservation, on the left-hand side of the control

volume.

Mass Conservation

Assuming unit depth the mass conservation states:

20

hV1 2Vcenter h 2 1.333 m

30

Momentum Conservation in the x - direction

Assuming unit depth the momentum conservation states:

M R

M

out x

in x

1.255 1.333 30 10 489 N/m

QUESTION 3

The results of a wind tunnel test to determine the drag on a body (see Figure)

are summarized below. The upstream [section (1)] velocity is uniform at

100 ft/s . The static pressures are given by p1 p2 14.7 psia . The downstream

velocity distribution, which is symmetrical about the centerline, is given by

y

u 100 30 1

y 3 ft

3

u=100

y 3 ft

where u is the velocity in ft/s and y is the distance on either side of the

centerline in feet (see Figure). Assume that the body shape does not change in

the direction normal to the paper. Calculate the drag force (reaction force in x

direction) exerted on the air by the body per unit length normal to the plane of

the sketch.

QUESTION 4

As shown in the Figure below, a spoiler is used on race cars to produce a

negative lift, thereby giving a better tractive force. The lift coefficient for the

airfoil shown is CL 1.1 , and the coefficient of friction between the wheels and

the pavement is 0.6. At a speed of 200 mph, by how much would use of the

spoiler increase the maximum tractive force that could be generated between

the wheels and ground? Assume the air speed past the spoiler equals the car

speed and that the airfoil acts directly over the drive wheels.

QUESTION 5

A 25-ton (50,000-lb) truck coasts down a steep mountain grade without brakes,

as shown in Figure. The trucks ultimate steady-state speed, V, is determined

by a balance between weight, rolling resistance, and aerodynamic drag.

Assume that the rolling resistance for a truck on concrete is 1.2% of the weight

and the drag coefficient is 0.76. Determine V.

QUESTION 6

As shown in the Figure, the aerodynamic drag on a truck can be reduced by

the use of appropriate air deflectors. A reduction in drag coefficient from

CD 0.96 to CD 0.7 corresponds to a reduction of how many horsepower

needed at a highway speed of 65 mph?

QUESTION 7

Determine the wind velocity required to overturn the mobile home sketched in

the Figure if it is 10m long and weighs 50 kN. Consider it to be a square

cylinder.

D

w

is imminent, no weight is on the right wheel. Then taking moments (M )

about the right wheel:

1 2

But FD CD u A; Assume CD 2.05 square cylinder.

2

2

A=(2.5 m) (10 m)=25 m

w

2 FD

u

CD A

w

1.75

0.131 w m/s 29.3 m/s

2.05*1.292 * 25

2

QUESTION 8

A high speed car with m 2000kg , CD 0.3 , and A 1m2 , deploys a 2-m parachute

to slow down form an initial velocity of 100 m/s. Assuming constant CD , brakes

free, and no rolling resistance, calculate the distance and velocity of the car

after 1, 10, 100, and 1000 s. Neglect interference between the wake of the car

and the parachute.

dV

1

Fx m

Fc Fp V 2 (CDc Ac CD p A p )

dt

2

where subscript c is the car and subscript p the parachute.

dV

1

K

This is of the form

V 2 where K (CDc Ac CD p A p ).

dt

2

m

Separate the variables and integrate

V

V0

dV

K

K

K

dt

dt V01 V 1 t V 1 V01 t

m

m

m

V2

0

1

V01 Kt / m

ds

1

V 1

dt

V0 Kt / m

V

s s0 0 ln(1+ t ) where ( K / m) V0

0.122 s-1

t, s

10

100

1000

V , m/s 89 45

7.6

0.8

S , m 94 654 2100 3940

QUESTION 9

A wing on a race car is supported by two cylindrical rods, as shown in the

Figure. Compute the drag force exerted on the car due to these rods when the

car is traveling through still air at a speed of 150 mph. Compute the drag if the

cylindrical rods are replaced by elongated elliptical cylinders having a length to

breath ration of 8:1.

Re

uD

3.15 105 CD 0.8

A DL 0.0826 m2

FD CD

1 2

u A 214.4 N

2

uL

Re

2.5 106 CD 0.2 FD 53.6 N

QUESTION 10

A 25000 kg truck coasts in a highway at 60 km/hr. Determine the power

required assuming that the rolling resistance for a truck on concrete is 1.2% of

the weight and the drag coefficient is 0.96.

1.5m

FD

3m

FE

FR

FE

FR

The track is moving at constant speed, hence the sum of forces acting on

the track must be zero. There are three forces acting on the track, the Drag Force FD ,

theRolling Resistance FR and the Forward Force from the engine through the wheels FE .

F 0 FD FR FE .

1

P FD FR U CD U 2 A 0.012 W U

2

60 103

1

60 103

1.225

0.96

1.5 3 0.012 25000 9.81

3600

3600

2

61.3kW

QUESTION 11

A small spherical air-bubble is rising in still water (see Figure). Show that if the

density of the air in the bubble is neglected from the calculations, then the size

of the bubble can be estimated through the equation:

18 U

.

g

24

CD

for Re 1 .

Re

Fb

The forces acting on the bubble are the drag force FD , the bouyancy force Fb

and the weight W . If the bubble is moving at a constant velocity the forces must

balance. If we neglect the weight then:

W

FD

FD Fb

1

1

D 2 24 D 3

g

U 2 A CD V g U 2

2

2

4

Re

6

1

D2

U 2

2

4

24

D3

g

UD

6

D

18 U

g

QUESTION 12

A sphere of diameter D and density s falls at a steady rate through a liquid of

density s and viscosity . If the Reynolds number is less than 1, show that

the viscosity can be determined from

gD 2 ( s )

18 U

FD

QUESTION 13

A table tennis ball weighing 2.45 10-2 N with diameter D 3.8 10-2 m is hit at a

velocity of U 12m/s with a back spin of angular velocity as is shown in the

figure. What is the value of if the ball is to travel on a horizontal path, not

dropping due to the acceleration of gravity?

QUESTION 14

In the figure, we show two curves representing the maximum engine output (in

terms of horsepower, HP) of a vehicle for two different gear ratios, HP4 and

HP5. Determine the maximum speed given that the drag coefficient CD 0.5 ,

the frontal area of the car is A 2 m 2 , the rolling resistance is 2% of the

vehicles weight and the mass of the vehicle is 1000 kg .

available driving force at that speed equals the resistance force due to aerodynamic

drag and tire resistance.

Typically, the maximum engine output, initially increases with engine RPM, and the

maximum engine output can be related, through the overall gear ratio, to the vehicle's

speed. This maximum available driving power is shown schematically for two gear

ratios, HP4 and HP5, corresponding to fourth and fifth gears of a passenger car.

The total opposing force, which is a sum of tire rolling resistance and the aerodynamic

drag), increases rapidly with speed, and its power requirement is obtained through

1

2

2

rapid increase in the aerodynamic drag.

At a specific gear, the speed attained at maximum driving power is a balance between

the available power and the power required, i.e. the intersection of the HP4 and HP5 curves

with the power curve. Lower velocities are achieved by partial throttle.

Careful gear selection allows a higher maximum speed in the lower gear, while the highest

gear ratio is usually designed for good fuel economy. The latter avoids reaching the maximum

output range of the engine, rather it operates at maximum efficiency of the engine.

The primary conclusion is that total resistance increases rapidly with speed, and selection

of the proper gear ratio for maximum vehicle speed requires engine, tire and aerodynamic

data.

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