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2015/3/12

EM4100protocoldescription

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ElectronicsDesignandManufacture
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EM4100Protocoldescription.
RFIDtransponders(Tags)aredevicescarryingdigitalinformationthatcanbereadfromadistancebya
RFIDtransceiver(Reader).InordertobeabletoreadtheinformationstoredontheRFIDtagsthereader
mustknowhowtheinformationisstoredandtheprotocolforextractingit.Oneofthemorecommondata
formatsforRFIDtranspondersistheEM4100protocol,namedsobecausethemicrochipattheheartof
theTagisbasedonthecontrollerchipmadebythecompanyEMMicroelectronic.

ReadinganEM4100RFIDTransponder.
EM4100compatibleRFIDtransponderscarry64bitsofReadOnlymemory.Thismeansthatinformation
canbereadfromtheTagbutnodatacanbechanged,ornewdatawrittentothecardoncethecardhas
beenprogrammedwiththeinitialdata.Theformatofthedataisasshownhere.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 9bitheaderbits,all1's
8bitversionnumber D00 D01 D02 D03 P0
orcustomerID.
D04 D05 D06 D07 P1
D08
D12
D16
D20

D09
D13
D17
D21

D10
D14
D18
D22

D11
D15
D19
D23

P2
P3
P4
P5

D24
D28
D32
D36
4columnParitybits PC0

D25
D29
D33
D37
PC1

D26
D30
D34
D38
PC2

D27
D31
D35
D39
PC3

P6
P7
P8
P9
S0 1stopbit(0)

32DataBits

Eachgroupof4bits
isfollowedbyanEven
paritybit

WhentheTagenterstheelectromagneticfieldtransmittedbytheRFIDreaderitdrawspowerfromthefield
andwillcommencetransmittingitsdataasshownabove.Thefirst9bitsarealogic1.Thesebitsareusedas
amarkersequencetoindicatethebeginningofthestring.AsEvenparityisusedthroughoutthedatathis9bit
sequenceof1'swillnotoccuratanyotherlocationinthestring.Thisisfollowedby10groupsof4dataand1
evenparitybits.Finallythereare4bitsofcolumnparity(Even)andastopbit(0).TheTagthencontinuesto
repeatthisstringaslongasithaspower.
Shownhereisanexamplestringforaproximitycardthathasthedata$06(versionnumber),and$001259E3
asadatastring.
1111111110000001100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
0
6
0
0
1
2
5
9
E
3

Datamodulation.
AsdiscussedinRFIDbasicstheRFIDtransponderisabletotransmititsdatabymodulatingtheRFfieldof
theReader.Herewediscuss3popularmodulationschemes.
ManchesterEncoding.
BiPhaseEncoding.
PSKEncoding.
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2015/3/12

EM4100protocoldescription

TheTransponderandReaderusetheindividualcyclesoftheRFfieldtosyncronizethedatatransmission
betweenthetwo.ThefrequencyofthesynchronizingclockthensimplybecomesthefrequencyoftheRFfield
used.
RFIDsystemclockfrequenciesvaryaccordingtotheapplicationrequired.Inlowfrequency,shortdistance
sensingofTagsthetypicalbandusedisbetween100150Khz.Forlongerrangesensingasystemfrequency
of13.56Mhzmightbeused,orotherfrequencyastheapplicationrequires.
OfcoursethedesignerofanRFIDsystemisrestrictedtousingparticularfrequencybandsasRFIDsystems
areradioemittingdevicesandthereforeunderthecontrolofthelocalradiofrequencyregulatorbodies.
Thelengthofeachbitisspecifiedintermsofclockcycles.FortheEM4100protocolbitlengthscanbeeither
64,32,or16Clockcycles.
ManchesterEncodingScheme.
WithManchesterEncodingaTagwillproducealeveltransitioninthemiddleofthebitperiod.Alowtohigh
transitionrepresentsalogic1state,whileahightolowtransitionrepresentsalogic0state.

BiPhaseEncodingScheme.
BiphaseEncodingschemesmodulatetheRFfieldsothatthereisatransitionatthebeginningofeachbit
boundary.Alogic0statehasatransitioninthemiddleofthebitperiod,whilealogic1statehasnotransition
duringtheentirebitperiod.

PSKEncoding.
WithPSK(PhaseShiftKeying)encodingtheRFfieldismodulatedsothatthereisatransitionwitheachclock
period.Thismeanstherecanbeupto64,32,or16transitionsperbitdependingonwhatbitlengththeTagis
using.Whenaphaseshiftoccursitrepresentsalogic0state,whilealogic1stateisinterpretedwhenthereis
nophasechangeatthebitboundary.

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EM4100protocoldescription

Priority1DesigncarriesastockoflowcostEM4100compatibleTransponders.Wealsocarryastockof
lowcostT5557RFIDReadWritetransponders,YoucanbuyEM4100andT5557transpondersdirectfrom
ouronlineshopfront.SeeT5557RFIDtranspondertolearnaboutreadingandwritingRFIDtags.

SeeSpecifications.

Wealsostock:

ViewPrices

RFIDReaderModules
RFIDreaderIC's
RFIDcoilantennas

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