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Damage and Plasticity for Concrete Behavior in Abaqus

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ECCOMAS 2004

P. Neittaanmki, T. Rossi, S. Korotov, E. Oate, J. Priaux, and D. Knrzer (eds.)

Jyvskyl, 2428 July 2004

*,o

*

o

Ludovic Jason , Gilles Pijaudier-Cabot Antonio Huerta and Shahrokh Ghavamian

*

Ecole Centrale de Nantes Universit de Nantes CNRS

1, rue de la No BP 92101 F44300 Nantes, France

e-mails : Ludovic.Jason@ec-nantes.fr, Gilles.Pijaudier-Cabot@ec-nantes.fr

Departament de Matemtica Aplicada III

Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya, Jordi Girona 1-3 E-08034 Barcelona, Spain

e-mail : Antonio.Huerta@upc.es

o

1, avenue du Gnral de Gaulle

F 92141 Clamart Cedex

e-mail : Shahrokh.Ghavamian@edf.fr

Abstract. Elastic damage models or elastic plastic constitutive laws are not totally sufficient

to describe the behavior of concrete. They indeed fail to reproduce the unloading slopes

during cyclic loads which define experimentally the value of the damage in the material.

When coupled effects are considered, in hydromechanical problems especially, the capability

of the numerical model to reproduce the unloading behavior is thus essential, as an accurate

value of the damage is needed. A combined plastic damage formulation is proposed in this

contribution. It is applied on simple tension compression loading to evaluate the ability of

the law to simulate elementary situations. Two structural applications are then considered in

the form of a composite steel concrete tube and a representative structural volume of a

confinement building for nuclear power plants.

INTRODUCTION

Elastic damage models or elastic plastic laws are not totally sufficient to capture the

constitutive behavior of concrete correctly. In some cases (using damage mechanics), the

calculation of the damage variable (for isotropic cases) or tensor (anisotropic laws) is a key

point. It can become essential when coupled effects are considered (coupling between damage

and permeability, damage and porosity ). In [1], an experimental law is proposed between

the damage distribution in the material and its gas permeability (figure 1). Damage is

measured using the unloading slope during cyclic compressive loading. In this case, the

capability of the constitutive model to capture the unloading behavior is thus essential if a

proper evaluation of the permeability needs to be achieved.

An elastic damage model is not appropriate as irreversible strains cannot be captured: a

zero stress corresponds to a zero strain and the value of the damage is thus overestimated

(figure 2b). An elastic plastic relation is not adapted either (even with softening, see for

example [2]) as the unloading curve follows the elastic slope (figure 2c). Another alternative

consists in combining these two approaches to propose an elastic plastic damage law. The

softening behavior and the decrease of the elastic modulus are reproduced by the damage part

while the plasticity effect accounts for the irreversible strains. With this formulation,

experimental unloading can be simulated correctly (figure 2a).

K

= exp[(11.3D)1.64 ]

K0

Stress

Stress

Stress

b

E

(1-D) E

(1-D) E

Strain

Strain

Eperimental

Damage

model

Strain

Plastic model

It is such a model which is presented in this contribution. First, the constitutive law is

validated on two elementary tests. A simple tension and a cyclic compression are used to

evaluate the capability of the model to simulate simple but relevant applications. Second, two

structural tests are considered in the form of a composite steel concrete tube and a structural

representative volume of a containment building for French nuclear power plants.

2 MODEL FORMULATION

Plasticity effects (irreversible strains for example) and damage (softening) are both

decribed by the formulation. Nevertheless, they are not entirely coupled. From the total strain

tensor , an effective stress is computed from plasticity equations. Then, with the elastic

plastic strain decomposition ( = e + p ), the damage variable D and the real stress are

calculated. The main advantage of this approach is to fit to numerous constitutive relations.

2.1 Plastic yield surface

In this contribution, the plastic yield surface has been chosen to fulfill three main

objectives. First, irreversible effects have to develop during loading (achieved by definition

by every plasticity law). Then, the volumetric behavior has to be simulated correctly.

Especially, the change from a contractant to a dilatant evolution during simple compression

test has to be reproduced. This condition prevents using Von Mises equations, functions of the

second stress invariant, that provide an elastic volumetric response. Finally, the brittle

ductile transition has to be reproduced. For high hydrostatic pressures, plastic effects appear

experimentally (see [3] for details). It supposes a closed yield surface along the first invariant

(plastic threshold in confinement) and eliminates Drcker Prager equations.

The chosen yield surface depends on the three normalized stress invariant ( , , ) and on

one hardening internal variable kh ranging from 0 to 1 (definition of a limit surface for kh = 1)

[4]

'ii

3rc

s 'ij s ' ji

rc

1

3

= arcsin(

)

2 ( s 'ij s ' ji )3/ 2

(1)

with ij and sij the effective and deviatoric stress components respectively. rc is a parameter

of the model. F is defined with three main functions k (hardening function), c (deviatoric

invariant) and r (deviatoric shape function):

2

F = ( ')

k( ', kh ) c 2 ( ' )

r 2 ( ')

(2)

The classical equations of plasticity models are solved using an iterative algorithm based

on a Newton Raphson scheme (see [5] for details).

Figure (3a) shows the evolution of the yield surface with the hardening parameter in simple

compression. Figure (3b) highlights the non symmetry of the plastic law with the Lode angle

, simple tension =

Finally, figure (3c) illustrates the limit surfaces for two values of . When the hardening

parameter kh reaches its critical level (equal to one), the yield surface becomes a failure one

and does not evolve any more.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 3: Evolution of the plastic yield surface (hardening, lode angle and failure)

2.2.

Damage

The damage model used in this contribution was initially developed in [6]. It describes the

constitutive behavior of concrete by introducing a scalar variable D which quantifies the

influence of microcracking. To describe the evolution of damage, an equivalent strain eq is

computed from the elastic strain tensor e

e = E 1 '

(3)

eq =

3

i =1

(< e i > + ) 2

where <ei>+ are the positive principal values of the elastic strains.

(4)

g ( e , D) = d ( e ) D

(5)

where the damage D takes the maximum value reached by d during the history of loading

D = Max/ t (d ,0) . d is computed from an evolution law that distinguishes tensile and

compressive behaviors through two couples of scalars (t, Dt) for tension and (c, Dc) for

compression.

d ( e ) = t ( e ) Dt ( eq ) + c ( e ) Dc ( eq )

(6)

The definition of the different parameters can be found in [6]. The damage evolution

conditions are finally given by the Kuhn Tucker expression:

g 0, D 0, g D = 0

(7)

Once the damage has been computed, the real stress is determined using the equation :

= (1 D) '

(8)

3. ELEMENTARY VALIDATION

The elastic plastic damage formulation is now going to be validated on two simple but key

applications: tension and cyclic compression. The objective is naturally to compare the

numerical results with experiments but also with the elastic damage law for which plastic

strains are equal to zero.

3.1. Simple tension test

For concrete, tension is the most relevant loading that a model has to predict as far as

cracking is concerned. It is indeed when concrete is subjected to tension that the first cracks

usually appear. That is why the numerical response (elastic plastic damage law) is first

compared with such a test [7]. Figure (4a) gives the axial stress strain curve. To evaluate the

interest of including plasticity in the formulation, a pure damage model is also considered for

which the plastic strains are supposed to keep a constant zero value so as the elastic strains

equal exactly the total strains (original damage model [6]). Figure (4b) illustrates the

simulation with the elastic damage model. As the development of damage is predominant

during simple tension tests, the two models are able to reproduce the experiment globally.

Especially, the elastic plastic damage constitutive law gives a correct value of the peak

position and simulates well the post peak behavior. Choosing the appropriate parameters, the

model is thus adapted for simple tension test.

(a)

.

(b)

.

Figure 4 : Simple tension test. Comparison between simulation and experiment for the simple damage and

plastic damage laws.

Cyclic compression is the second elementary test. Experimental results are taken from [8].

Figure (5a) illustrates the numerical response without plasticity. With this type of relation, a

zero stress corresponds to a zero strain. The unloading curve is elastic with a slope equal to

the damage Youngs modulus Ed

Ed = (1 D) E0

(9)

with E0 the virgin Youngs modulus. The numerical response using the elastic plastic damage

model is given in figure (6a). This time, damage induces the global softening behavior of

concrete while the plastic part reproduces quantitatively the evolution of the irreversible

strains. Experimental and numerical unloading slopes are thus similar, contrary to the simple

damage formulation response.

This difference could seem negligible, it is in fact essential if a correct value of the damage

needs to be captured. The elastic damage model overestimates D whereas the full constitutive

law provides more acceptable results. Figures (5b) and (6b) illustrate the differences between

the two approaches in term of volumetric behaviors. While, with the simple damage law, the

volumetric strains are negative, the introduction of plasticity induces a change in the

volumetric response, from contractant (negative volumetric strains) to dilatant, a phenomenon

which is experimentally observed (see [3] for example)

The introduction of plasticity associated with the development of damage plays thus a key

role in the numerical simulation of a cyclic compression test. Irreversible strains during

loading are quantitatively reproduced, the softening behavior and the unloading slopes are

better described. Moreover, the volumetric response that was totally misevaluated by the

elastic damage model, is correctly simulated by the full plastic damage formulation.

(a)

.

(b)

.

Figure 5: Cyclic compression test for the elastic damage law. Axial (a) and volumetric (b) responses

(b)

(a)

Figure 6: Cyclic compression test for the elastic plastic damage model. Axial (a) and volumetric (b) responses

4. STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS

4.1. Circular concrete filled steel tube (passive confinement)

To highlight the interest of the presented constitutive law, the behaviour of a circular

concrete filled steel tube (CFT) is going to be simulated. The dimensions and geometry of the

sample and the mechanical properties experimentally reported in [9], measured on non

wrapped specimens, are listed in table 1.

The steel concrete interface is assumed to be perfect. For the considered compressive

strength fc, Giakoumelis and Lam [10] demonstrate with greased and non greased cylinders,

that the steel-concrete interface has little influence on the global behaviour.

Geometry (mm)

D

e

L

150

4

D

L

450

Steel

Es (Pa)

21 1010

Properties

e (MPa)

279.9

Concrete

E (Pa)

2.18 1010

Properties

fc (MPa)

22

Table 1 : Geometry and mechanical properties of the circular CFT as experimentally reported in [8]

A vertical displacement is applied on both steel and concrete plane faces. Two simulations

are proposed, the first one using the elastic plastic damage formulation and the second one

using the elastic damage constitutive law. The steel tube is modelled with a Von Mises

relation (e = 279.9 MPa and Et = 2500 MPa for the tangent hardening modulus). One fourth

of the cylinder is meshed for a 3D computation.

Figures (7a) and (7b) provide a comparison between the simulations with the two approaches

and experiments. With the elastic plastic damage relation, numerical and experimental axial

forces are in agreement for a given axial strain. The confinement effect is highlighted with

an increase of the maximal compressive strength (compared to fc). On the contrary, the

damage model underestimates the global behaviour of the column with the apparition of a

softening branch which is not observed during measurements. Note that the elastic behaviour

does not fit exactly, same as for the simulations performed in [9], it is probably due to

experimental differences between the elastic mechanical properties measured on wrapped and

non wrapped samples (incomplete hydratation of concrete for example, see [11] for details).

Experimentally [8], no confinement effect is noticed at the beginning of the loading. The

transversal strain in concrete is lower than in steel due to differences in the Poisson ratio (0.2

and 0.3 respectively). Concrete is thus under lateral tension (figure 8a). As the axial load

increases, plasticity is responsible for a change in the Poisson ratio. Lateral expansion in

concrete gradually becomes higher than in the steel tube. A radial pressure develops at the

interface and a confinement effect appears (passive confinement) (figure 8b).

The evolution of the radial stress at the interface as a function of the axial strain is provided in

figure (9a) using the full formulation. Figure (9b) illustrates the evolution of the transversal

strains c and s in concrete and in the steel respectively. Same as what is observed

experimentally, concrete is first subjected to tension and then to compression. The change in

the sign occurs immediately when c becomes higher than s.

On the contrary, with the simple elastic damage constitutive law, as c is always lower than s,

the concrete is only loaded in lateral tension. No passive confinement is observed and that is

why the peak in the axial load is so small and inadequate compared with experiment (figures

10a and 10b).

The study of the volumetric behaviour yields the same conclusions (figure 11). The change

from a contractant to a dilatant evolution obtained with the introduction of plasticity is a direct

consequence of the increase of the concrete transversal strains. With the elastic damage

relation, the volumetric response is always contractant.

As a conclusion, the elastic plastic damage constitutive law is necessary to achieve the change

of Poisson ratio that accounts for the passive confinement. For concrete filled steel tubes

subjected to axial compressive loading, it is possible to reproduce experimental results

correctly and especially the evolution of the axial capacity.

(a) a

.

b.

(b)

(a) Evolution of the axial force as a function of the axial strain. Comparison between the elastic plastic damage

formulation and the experiment; (b) Comparison between the elastic plastic damage and the elastic damage

models

concrete

steel

c < s

c > s

Figure 8 : Evolution of the radial pressure ( r ) as a function of the steel ( s ) and concrete ( c ) transversal

strains.

(a)

.

(b)

.

(c)

.

(a) Evolution of the concrete transversal stress as a function of the axial strain; (b) Evolution of the transversal

concrete and steel transversal strains as a function of the axial strain; (c) Zoom on the first part of the curve.

(a)

.

(b)

.

(a) Evolution of the transversal stress as a function of the axial strain, (b) evolution of the concrete and strain

transversal strains as function of the axial strain

Figure 11 : Evolution of the volumetric strain as a function of the axial force for both approaches.

10

The application presented in this part has been proposed by Electricit de France. The test,

named PACE 1300, is a Representative Structural Volume (RSV) of a prestressed pressure

containment vessel (PPCV) of a French 1300 MWe nuclear power plant. Figure 12 illustrates

the location of the RSV within the entire PPCV structure. The model incorporates almost all

components of the real structure: concrete, vertical and horizontal reinforcement bars,

transversal reinforcements, and prestressed tendons in both horizontal and vertical directions.

The size of the RSV is chosen to respect 3 conditions: large enough to include a sufficient

number of components (specially prestress tendons) and to offer a significant observation area

in the centre, far enough from boundary conditions, while remaining as small as possible to

ease computations. The model was prepared using Gibiane [12] mesh generating scripts

which create models with different mesh refinements. This was an important aspect of this

application, where the mesh size effect was of great concern on various nonlinear

calculations.

The RSV includes 11 horizontal and 10 vertical reinforcement bars (on both internal and

external faces), 5 horizontal and 3 vertical prestressed tendons, and 24 reinforcement hoops

uniformly distributed in the volume. The geometry of the problem is given in figure 13.

Figure 14 provides information about the steel distribution and properties.

11

Type

Horizontal external reinf.bars

Vertical internal reinf. bars

Vertical external reinf. bars

Horizontal tendons

Vertical tendons

Hoops*

m

22.60

23.35

22.60

23.35

23.15

22.95

x

cm

20

20

27.297

27.170

40.5

80

x

mm

20

20

25

25

40.5

40.5

3.685

Figure 14 : Steel geometries and properties

Figure 15: Definition of the F.E. model indicating the boundary SG, SD, SH and SB

12

PSV

BE

WE

RO

ND

ND

PSH

PSH

IP

z

r

VD

PSV

Boundary conditions in

Boundary conditions in stress

displacement

PSH : horizontal prestress

ND : zero normal displacement

5.28 MN per tendon

on SG and SD

PSV : vertical prestress

NV : zero vertical relation on

6.93 MN per tendon

SB

WE : weight of the

surrounding structure

RO : zero rotation on SH

1.61 MPa

g : gravity

Loading

IP : internal pressure

BE : tensile pressure

proportional to the internal

pressure (bottom effect)

Figure 16. Boundary conditions and loading for the Representative Volume

The behaviour of the RSV needs to be as close as possible to the in situ situation. The

following boundary conditions have been chosen : face SB blocked along OZ, on face SH all

nodes are restrained to follow the same displacement along OZ and no rotations are allowed

for faces SG and SD (see Figures 15 and 16). A more adequate boundary condition would

have probably been a periodic one on SG and SD.

In order to model the effect of prestressed tendons, bar elements were anchored to faces

SG and SD for horizontal cables and to faces SB and SH for vertical tendons, then prestressed

using internal forces. Then, these elements are restrained to surrounding concrete elements to

represent the prestressing technology applied in French PPCVs. The integrity test loading is

represented by a radial pressure on the internal face SI and the bottom effect applied on face

SH (tensile pressure proportional to the internal pressure to simulate the effect of the

neighbouring structure). The body weight of RSV and that of the surrounding upper-structure

are also taken into account. With these conditions, a mesh containing 16,500 Hexa20

elements for concrete and 1200 bar elements for reinforcement and tendons is used in the

presented computation.

Figure 17 provides the internal pressure applied on the volume as a function of the

displacement of a point located at the bottom right of the internal face, using the elastic plastic

damage formulation. This curve can be divided in four parts. The initial state corresponds to

the application of the prestress on the tendons. This yields a compaction of the volume and

13

due to the boundary conditions (no normal displacement on the lateral face), it imposes an

initial negative radial displacement (see figure 18). Then, upon application of the internal

pressure, there is a zone of linear behaviour where the compaction is reduced and the structure

returns towards its initial rest position before undergoing tension for higher values of internal

pressure. Damage does not evolve during state 2. The development of damage occurs during

state 3. Finally, a partial unloading of the volume occurs (state 4) due to heavy cracking of the

structure.

State 3

State 1

State 2

State 4

Figure 17: Displacement Pressure curve for the representative structural volume

Step 2 : Application of the

internal pressure

Step zero

Step 1 : Initial state after the

application of the prestress

Figure 18: Radial deflection of the RSV through different steps (schematic). View from the top of the volume

Figure 19 describes the distribution of the damage variable in the volume for two different

loading steps (just after the apparition of non linearity and after the peak). Damage initially

develops along the vertical tendon which is located in the middle of the mesh. Then, it

propagates in the depth of the volume and along the vertical axis. It finally forms a localized

14

damaged zone in the middle of the structure. Similar results can be found in [13] with the

elastic damage model (without plasticity). It tends to prove that for this tension dominant

application, the introduction of plasticity does not disturb the development of damage.

However, it is the amount of damage at a given loading state which is different according to

the damage and plastic damage models. In the second one, damage is lower than in the first

one and effects on the material permeability are drastically different (see figure 1). It follows

that evaluation of leakage according to these two models are expected to be very different too.

Figure 19 : Damage distribution in the representative structural volume. Initiation of the damage and

localized band. The blacker the zone is, the larger the damage is.

5. CONCLUSION

An elastic plastic damage formulation has been proposed and tested on both tension and

compression applications. It has been shown that the constitutive law proposes the same

advantages as the elastic damage model for tension dominant cases but also improves the

constitutive response when compression is considered.

For simple tension test, the law is able to simulate both peak and post peak (especially

softening) behaviors. The choice for the plastic yield surface enables to reproduce

qualitatively and quantitatively the axial and volumetric responses of a concrete cylinder

loaded in compression. Particularly, the development of irreversible strains and the change

from a contractant to a dilatant volumetric evolution are correctly simulated.

For structural applications, the improvements are also highlighted. Including plasticity is

the most appropriate solution to achieve the passive confinement effect of a concrete filled

steel tube (increase in the Poisson ratio). Finally, for the representative structural volume, the

development of damage is correctly described, following the same path as previously

mentioned in former studies.

As a conclusion, this constitutive law may represent an appropriate tool to simulate the

experimental damage value and may be used for coupled problems (hydro mechanical

simulations) for example.

15

6. AKNOWLEDGMENTS

Partial financial support from EDF and from the EU through MAECENAS project (FIS52001-00100) is gratefully acknowledged. The authors particularly thank R. Crouch

(University of Sheffield) for his help in the design and the numerical development of the

plasticity model. The authors would like to thank EDF for scientific support toward the

developments in the FE code Code_Aster.

7. REFERENCES

permeability of ordinary and high performance concrete, Cement and Concrete Research,

31, 1525-1532, 2001

[2] P. Grassl, K. Lundgren, K. Gylltoft, Concrete in compression: a plasticity theory with a

novel hardening law, International Journal of Solids and Structures,80, 5205-5223, 2002

[3] D. Sfer, I. Carol, R. Gettu, G. Etse, Study of the behavior of concrete under triaxial

compression, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 128, 156-163, 2002

[4] G. Etse, K.J. Willam, Fracture energy formulation for inelastic behaviour of cracking

concrete, ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 106, 1013-1203, 1994

[5] A. Perez-Foguet, A. Rodriguez-Ferran, A. Huerta, Numerical differentiation for non trivial

consistent tangent matrices: an application to the MRS Lade model, International

Journal for Numerical Methods in Enginnering, 48, 159-184, 2000

[6] J. Mazars, Application de la mcanique de lendommagement au comportement non

linaire et la rupture du bton de structure, PhD Thesis, universit Paris VI, 1984.

[7] V.S Gopalaratnam, S.P. Shah, Softening response of plain concrete in direct tension, ACI

Journal, 310-323, 1985

[8] B.P. sinha, K.H. Gerstle, L.G. Tulin, Stress strain relations for concrete under cyclic

loading, Journal of the American Concrete Institute, 195-211, 1964.

[9] K.A.S. Susantha, H. Ge, T. Usami, Uniaxial stress strain relationship of concrete confined

by various shaped steel tubes, Engineering Structures, 23, 1331-1347, 2001

[10] G. Giakoumelis, D. Lam, Axial capacity of circular concrete filled tube columns, Journal

of Constructational Steel Research, in press, 2004

[11] M. Kwon, E. Spacone, E., Three dimensional finite element analyses of reinforced

concrete columns, Computers and Structures 80, 199-212, 2002.

[12] Castem, Castem 2000, Users guide, CEA, DMT, LAMS, 1993

[13] L. Jason, S. Ghavamian, G. Pijaudier-Cabot, A. Huerta, Benchmarks for the validation of

a non local damage model, Revue Franaise de Gnie Civil, in press

16

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