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# CHE 421: UNIT OPERATIONS II: HEAT TRANSFER

Steam saturated at 68.9 kPa is condensing on a vertical tube 0.305 m long having an OD of
0.0254 m and a surface temperature of 86.11OC. Calculate the average heat transfer
coefficient using English and SI units.
Tsat = 89.44OC

Tw = 86.11OC

## Tf = Tw +Tsat = 89.44 + 86.11 = 87.8OC

2
2
Latent Heat, = 2283.2 kJ/kg
l = 996.7 kg/m3
v = 0.391 kg/m3
l = 3.24 x 10-4 Pa.s
kl = 0.675 W/m.K
L = 0.305 m
T = Tsat Tw = 89.44 86.11 = 3.33 K
I.

Nu = 1.13

II.

l (l v) gL3
lklT

1/4

## =1.13 996.7 (996.7 0.391)(9.8)(2.2832x106)(0.305)3

(3.24x10-4)(0.675)(3.33K)
= 6129.3187
ho = 6129.3187(0.675) = 13564.8857W/m2.K
0.305
A = DL = (0.0254)(0.305) = 0.0243 m2
q = hAT =
= 13564.8857 W/m2.K (0.0243 m2)(3.33 K)
2.2832x106 J/kg
= 4.8075 x 10-4 kg/s
Check assumption:
Re = 4 =
4 (4.81 x10 -4 kg/s)
Dl
(0.0254m)(3.24x10-4kg/m.s)

1/4

= 74.3791 Laminar!

Saturated steam condenses on the outside of a 5 cm-diameter vertical tube, 50 cm high. If the
saturation temperature of the steam is 302 K, and cooling water maintains the wall temperature

## CHE 421: UNIT OPERATIONS II: HEAT TRANSFER

at 299 K, determine: (i) the average heat transfer coefficient, (ii) the total condensation rate,
and (iii) the film thickness at the bottom of the tube.

## Critical Temperature of water: 2 142 HB

Tc = 647.096 K

Calculate Tr :

Tr=

Tr=

Tsat
Tc

Tsat
302 K
=
Tc 647.096 K

Calculation of lambda ,
= 2.4294 x 106 J/Kg

Tf =

Properties @ Tf
L =
L =
v =
KL =

=
=300.5 K
2
2

995.5116 kg/ m3
8.4583 x 10 -4
.0265 kg/ m3
.6111 W/mK

## ASSUME FLOW TO BE LAMINAR

Nu = 1.13 L (l v) L3g
lTkl

1/4

.50

3
kg
kg
kg
995.5116
995.5116
.0265
( 9.8 ) ( )
m3
m3
m3

hL
Nu= =1.13
K

T =Tsat Twall=302299=
h=9120.5414

W
m2 K

## (ii) The total condensati on rate is :

Q
h AT (9120.5414) (0.05)( 0.5)(302 299)
m

8.8457 10 4 kg/s
h fg
h fg
(2.4294 106 )

## (iii) The film thickness is

1/ 3

3
l
v l
l g
The mass flow rate per unit width of film is :

m
(8.8457 10 4 )

## 5.6313 103 kg/ms

D
( )(0.05)
3(8.4839 10-6 )(5.6313 10 3 )

(995.5116)(9.8)

Hence,

1/ 3

1.1374 10 4 m

Check assumption
Re = 4 =
4 (8.8457 x 10-4kg/s)
Dl
(0.05m)( 8.4583 x 10 -4kg/m.s)

## = 26.6311 < 1800 Laminar!

Saturated steam condenses on the outside of a 5 cm diameter vertical tube, 50 cm high. If the
saturation temperature of the steam is 302 K, and cooling water maintains the wall temperature
at 299 K, determine:
1. the average heat transfer coefficient,
2. the total condensation rate, and
3. the film thickness at the bottom of the tube.
Given: Film condensation of saturated steam
Required: (i) Average heat transfer coefficient, (ii) total condensation rate, (iii) and film
thickness
1. Effect of tube curvature negligible
2. Effect of liquid sub cooling negligible
3. Laminar
y
x
Tsat
y

3
(x)

Condensate Film

1/ 4

'
g ( v )k 3
_
h
fg
l
l

h 0.943

L
(
T

T
)
v

sat w l

## Evaluate hfg at the saturation temperature of 302 K

From Table of water properties :
h

fg

2.432106 J / kg

v 0.03kg / m3

## Also, for water

kl 0.611 W/mK

l 996 kg/m 3
l 0.87 10-6 m 2 /s
h fh g l v kl3
h 0.943

L Tsat Tw l

1/ 4

## (2.432 10 6 )(9.81) 996 0.03 (0.611) 3

0.943

(0.5)(3)( 0.87 10 6 )

1/ 4

7570 W/m 2 K

## (ii) The total condensati on rate is :

Q
h AT (7570)(3) (0.05)(0.5)
m

7.33 10 4 kg/s
h fg
h fg
(2.432 10 6 )

3
l
l g

1/ 3

v l

## The mass flow rate per unit width of film is :

m
(7.33 10 4 )

4.67 10 3 kg/ms
D
( )(0.05)
3(0.87 10 -6 )( 4.67 10 3 )

(996)(9.81)

Hence,

1/ 3

1.08 10 4 m

Air free saturated steam at 85OC condenses on the outer surfaces of 225 horizontal tubes of
1.27 cm OD, arranged in a 15 x 15 array. Tube surfaces are maintained at a uniform
temperature of 75OC. Calculate the condensate rate per one m length of tube.
Tsat = 85OC

Tw = 75OC

Tf = Tw +Tsat = 85 + 75 = 80OC
2
2
DO = 0.0127 m
l = 970.8918 kg/m3

v = .2973

## l = 3.5533 x 10-4 Pa.s

kl = 0.6698 W/m.K

L=1m

T = Tsat Tw = 85 75 = 10 K
Nu = 0.725 l (l v) gD3
hD =
kl

1/4

NlklT
0.725
970.8918 (970.8918-.2973)2 (9.81)(2.3045x106)(1)3 1/4
15(3.5533 x 10 -4)( 0.6698 W/m.K)(10 K)
= 135.5272

## hi = 135. 5272 (0.6698) = 7147.7295 W/m2.K

0.0127
A = DL = (0.0127)(1) = 0.0399 m2
q = h n A T =
= 7147.7295 W/m2.K (Total N) (0.0399 m2)(10 K) = 7147.7295(225)(0.0399)(10)
2.3045 x 106 J/kg
2.3045 x 10 6 J/kg
=

.2784 kg/s

Air free saturated steam at 90OC condenses on the outer surfaces of 2.5-cm OD 6 m long
vertical tube, where outer surface temperature is maintained at a uniform temperature of 60 OC.
Calculate the total rate of condensation of steam at the total surface.
Tsat = 90OC

Tw = 60OC

Tf = Tw +Tsat = 90 + 60 = 75OC
2
2
DO = 0.025 m
l = 973.9543kg/m3
l = 3.7861 x 10-4 Pa.s
T = Tsat Tw = 90

## Latent Heat, = 2592.8468 kJ/kg

v = .2442 kg/m3
kl = 0.6666 W/m.K
L=1m
60 = 30 K

## Assume Laminar flow

Nu = 1.13 l (l v) gL3 1/4
lklT
Nu = 1.13 (973.9543) (973.9543 - .2442)
9.8(2.283x106)(6)3

1/4

(3.7861 x 10 -4)(0.6666)(30 K)
= 32 338.3122
hi = 32 338.3122 (0.6666) = 3517.3455
W/m2.K
6
A = DL = (0.025)(6) = 0.471239 m2

q = hAT =
= 3517.3455 W/m2.K (0.471239 m2)(30 K)
2.5928 x 106 J/kg
= .0201 kg/s
Check assumption:
Re = 4 =
4 (0.0201 kg/s)
Dl
(0.025m)(3.7861 x 10-4kg/m.s)
Re = 2703.7970
Re = 2703.7970
assumed 2500

1/3
gl(l v) L3
Re0.4
2
l
Assume Re = 2500
hD = 42441.5272
kl
Nu = 42441.5272
hi = 42441.5272 (0.6666) = 4715.2357W/m2.K
6
A = DL = (0.025)(6) = 0.4712 m2

Nu = 0.0077

q = hAT =
= 0.0264 kg/s
Check assumption:
Re = 4 =
4 (0.0264 kg/s)
Dl
(0.025m)(3.7861 x 10-4kg/m.s)
Re = 3551.2558
Re = 3551.2558 2500
Assume Re = 4500
hD = 53690.8161
kl
Nu = 53690.8161
hi = 5390.8161 (0.6666) = 5965.0497 W/m 2.K
6
A = DL = (0.025)(6) = 0.4712 m2
q = hAT =
= .0333kg/s
Check assumption:
Re = 4 =

4 (0.0333 kg/s)

## CHE 421: UNIT OPERATIONS II: HEAT TRANSFER

Dl
(0.025m)(3.7861 x 10-4kg/m.s)
Re = 4479.4249
Re = 4479.4249 assumed 4500

## Saturated steam at atmospheric pressure condenses on a 2-cm tube whose surface is

maintained at 340 K. Determine the rate of condensation and the heat transfer coefficient for
the case of 1.5-m long tube oriented vertically.

Boiling
A: Free convection;
B: Nucleate boiling;
C: Transition Boiling;
D: Film boiling

<5
Nucleate Boiling:
Transition Boiling:
Film Boiling:

## Modes of Pool Boiling

Excess Temperature (deg. C)
Free Convection:
5 25
25 120
> 120

## CHE 421: UNIT OPERATIONS II: HEAT TRANSFER

The excess temperature is the surface temperature above the boiling point of the liquid.

Nucleate Boiling
Bubbles form at surface and separate, mixing
the fluid. As temperature increases, the bubbles
join to form bubble columns or jets. These
eventually merge to form slugs. This type of
boiling is the most desirable for a chemical
process due to the high heat rates

Transition Boiling

## Film begins to form at surface.

Surface changes from nucleate to
boiling.

film

Film Boiling
Surface completely covered with film blanket.

T Tw Tsat

K or o F

## For horizontal surfaces:

English (h : BTU/hr-ft 2 -o F)

Metric (h : kW/m2 )

h 151 T

q / A 5000

h 1043 T

1/3

q / A 5000

h 5.56 T

1/ 3

h 0.168 T

q / A 75, 000
For vertical surfaces:

q / A 16
q / A 16
q / A 240

English (h : BTU/hr-ft 2 -o F)

Metric (h : kW/m2 )

h 87 T

q / A 1000

h 537 T

q / A 1000

h 7.95 T

1/ 7

h 0.240 T

q / A 20, 000

1/7
3

q/ A 3
q/ A 3
q / A 63

## Pressure Correction: multiply by

P 0.4 where P is in atm.

## For forced convection inside tubes,

English: h 0.077 T e P / 225
3

Metric:

h 2.55 T e P /1551
3

T : o F; h : BTU/hr-ft 2 -o F P : psia
T : K; h : W/m 2 K P : kPa

10

## Film Boiling Correlations

N Nu

g ( l v )h fg D 3
hD

kv
vv kv (Ts Tsat )

1/ 4

## where C 0.62 for horizontal cylinders

C 0.67 for spheres
is the density
h fg is the enthalpy change from liq. to vapor

desirable!
Better to have

## D is the diameter of the pipe

v is the specific volume
k is the thermal conductivity
Ts is the surface temperature
Tsat is the boiling point temperature of the liquid
Subscript v refers to the vapor
Subscript l refers to the liquid.
Water is being boiled at 1 atm abs pressure in a jacketed kettle with steam condensing in the
jacket at 115.6C. The inside diameter of the kettle is 0.656 m and the height is 0.984 m. the
bottom is slightly curved but it will be assumed to be flat. Both the bottom and the sides up to
the height of 0.656 m are jacketed. The kettle surface for heat transfer is 3.2 mm stainless steel
with a k of 16.27 W/m.K. the condensing steam coefficient hi inside the jacket has been
estimated as 10200 W/m.K. predict the boiling heat transfer coefficient ho for the bottom
surface of the kettle.
Assume Tw = 110C
T = Tw Tsat = 110 100 = 10C
Using the simplified equation for horizontal
surfaces:
ho = 5.56 T3 = 5.56 (10)3 = 5560 W/m2.K
q/A = h T = 5560(10) = 55600 =55.6
kW/m2
Check assumed Tw:
Ri = 1/hiA
= 1/(10200)(1) = 9.8 x
10-5
Rw = x
= 3.2/1000 = 19.66
x 10-5
kA
16.27 (1)
Ro = 1/hoA = 1/(5560)(1) = 17.98 x 10-5
R = 47.44 x 10-5
T = To ; To = Ro(T) = 17.98 x 10-5
(115.6 100)

R
10-5

Ro

To = 5.9
110C

= (Tw 100)

47.44 x

; Tw = 105.9 C

## Reassume Tw and Recompute Tw

Assume Tw = 108C
T = Tw Tsat = 108 100 = 8C
Using the simplified equation for horizontal
surfaces:
ho = 5.56 T3 = 5.56 (8)3 = 2846.72
W/m2.K
q/A = h T = 2846.72(8) = 28467.2 =
28.4672 kW/m2
Check assumed Tw:

11

## CHE 421: UNIT OPERATIONS II: HEAT TRANSFER

Ri = 1/hiA

= 1/(10200)(1) = 9.8 x

Rw =

= 3.2/1000

10-5
x

= 19.66

x 10-5

x 10-4

kA
16.27 (1)
Ro = 1/hoA = 1/(2846.72)(1) = 3.51

## T = To ; To = Ro(T) = 3.51 x 10-4

(115.6 100)
R
Ro
R
6.4588 x 10-4
To = 8.48
C 108C

R = 6.4588 x 10-4

= (Tw 100)

; Tw = 108.48

A vessel with a flat bottom and 0.1 m2 in area is used for boiling water at atmospheric pressure.
Find the temperature at which the vessel must be maintained if a boiling rate of 80 kg/h is
desired. Assume that the vessel is made of copper and the boiling is nucleate. Take V = 0.60
kg/m3
Latent Heat, = 2257 kJ/kg
l = 960.6 kg/m3

v = 0.60 kg/m3
q = hAT =

q/A = /A

## q/A = 80 kg/h (1h/3600 s) 2.257 x 106 J/kg

q/A = 501.556 kW/m2 ho = 5.56 T3
0.1 m2
501555.5556 W/m2 = h (Tw Tsat)
501555.5556 W/m2 = 5.56 (Tw Tsat)4
501555.5556 W/m2 = 5.56 (Tw 100)4
Tw

= 117.33 OC

Calculate the heat transfer coefficient and the mass flow rate during stable film boiling of water
from a 0.9 cm diameter horizontal carbon tube. The water is saturated and at 100 OC. The tube
surface is at 1000OC.
Tsat = 100OC
Tw = 1000OC
Tf = Tw +Tsat = 100 + 1000 = 550OC
2
2
DO = 0.009 m
Latent Heat, = 2257 kJ/kg
l = 960.63 kg/m3
v = 0.4005 kg/m3
-5
2
v = 4.70 x 10 m /s
kv = 0.0379 W/m.K
T = Tw Tsat = 1000 100 = 900 K

Nu = 0.62

g (l v) D3
vkvT

1/4

## Nu = 0.62 9.81(960.63 0.4005)

(2.257x106)(0.009)3 1/4

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## CHE 421: UNIT OPERATIONS II: HEAT TRANSFER

(4.70 x 10-5)(0.0379)(900
K)
= 34.5718
hi = 34.5718(0.0379) = 145.5859 W/m2.K

0.009
A = DL = (0.009)(1) = 0.0283 m2
q = hAT =
= 145.5859 W/m2.K (0.0283 m2)(900 K)
2.283 x 106 J/kg
= 1.6414 x 10 -3 kg/s

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