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Heat transfer

Heat transfer

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Steam saturated at 68.9 kPa is condensing on a vertical tube 0.305 m long having an OD of

0.0254 m and a surface temperature of 86.11OC. Calculate the average heat transfer

coefficient using English and SI units.

Tsat = 89.44OC

Tw = 86.11OC

2

2

Latent Heat, = 2283.2 kJ/kg

l = 996.7 kg/m3

v = 0.391 kg/m3

l = 3.24 x 10-4 Pa.s

kl = 0.675 W/m.K

L = 0.305 m

T = Tsat Tw = 89.44 86.11 = 3.33 K

I.

Nu = 1.13

II.

l (l v) gL3

lklT

1/4

(3.24x10-4)(0.675)(3.33K)

= 6129.3187

ho = 6129.3187(0.675) = 13564.8857W/m2.K

0.305

A = DL = (0.0254)(0.305) = 0.0243 m2

q = hAT =

= 13564.8857 W/m2.K (0.0243 m2)(3.33 K)

2.2832x106 J/kg

= 4.8075 x 10-4 kg/s

Check assumption:

Re = 4 =

4 (4.81 x10 -4 kg/s)

Dl

(0.0254m)(3.24x10-4kg/m.s)

1/4

= 74.3791 Laminar!

Saturated steam condenses on the outside of a 5 cm-diameter vertical tube, 50 cm high. If the

saturation temperature of the steam is 302 K, and cooling water maintains the wall temperature

at 299 K, determine: (i) the average heat transfer coefficient, (ii) the total condensation rate,

and (iii) the film thickness at the bottom of the tube.

Tc = 647.096 K

Calculate Tr :

Tr=

Tr=

Tsat

Tc

Tsat

302 K

=

Tc 647.096 K

Calculation of lambda ,

= 2.4294 x 106 J/Kg

Tf =

Properties @ Tf

L =

L =

v =

KL =

=

=300.5 K

2

2

995.5116 kg/ m3

8.4583 x 10 -4

.0265 kg/ m3

.6111 W/mK

Nu = 1.13 L (l v) L3g

lTkl

1/4

.50

3

kg

kg

kg

995.5116

995.5116

.0265

( 9.8 ) ( )

m3

m3

m3

hL

Nu= =1.13

K

T =Tsat Twall=302299=

h=9120.5414

W

m2 K

Q

h AT (9120.5414) (0.05)( 0.5)(302 299)

m

8.8457 10 4 kg/s

h fg

h fg

(2.4294 106 )

1/ 3

3

l

v l

l g

The mass flow rate per unit width of film is :

m

(8.8457 10 4 )

D

( )(0.05)

3(8.4839 10-6 )(5.6313 10 3 )

(995.5116)(9.8)

Hence,

1/ 3

1.1374 10 4 m

Check assumption

Re = 4 =

4 (8.8457 x 10-4kg/s)

Dl

(0.05m)( 8.4583 x 10 -4kg/m.s)

Saturated steam condenses on the outside of a 5 cm diameter vertical tube, 50 cm high. If the

saturation temperature of the steam is 302 K, and cooling water maintains the wall temperature

at 299 K, determine:

1. the average heat transfer coefficient,

2. the total condensation rate, and

3. the film thickness at the bottom of the tube.

Given: Film condensation of saturated steam

Required: (i) Average heat transfer coefficient, (ii) total condensation rate, (iii) and film

thickness

1. Effect of tube curvature negligible

2. Effect of liquid sub cooling negligible

3. Laminar

y

x

Tsat

y

3

(x)

Condensate Film

1/ 4

'

g ( v )k 3

_

h

fg

l

l

h 0.943

L

(

T

T

)

v

sat w l

From Table of water properties :

h

fg

2.432106 J / kg

v 0.03kg / m3

kl 0.611 W/mK

l 996 kg/m 3

l 0.87 10-6 m 2 /s

h fh g l v kl3

h 0.943

L Tsat Tw l

1/ 4

0.943

(0.5)(3)( 0.87 10 6 )

1/ 4

7570 W/m 2 K

Q

h AT (7570)(3) (0.05)(0.5)

m

7.33 10 4 kg/s

h fg

h fg

(2.432 10 6 )

3

l

l g

1/ 3

v l

m

(7.33 10 4 )

4.67 10 3 kg/ms

D

( )(0.05)

3(0.87 10 -6 )( 4.67 10 3 )

(996)(9.81)

Hence,

1/ 3

1.08 10 4 m

Air free saturated steam at 85OC condenses on the outer surfaces of 225 horizontal tubes of

1.27 cm OD, arranged in a 15 x 15 array. Tube surfaces are maintained at a uniform

temperature of 75OC. Calculate the condensate rate per one m length of tube.

Tsat = 85OC

Tw = 75OC

Tf = Tw +Tsat = 85 + 75 = 80OC

2

2

DO = 0.0127 m

l = 970.8918 kg/m3

v = .2973

kl = 0.6698 W/m.K

L=1m

T = Tsat Tw = 85 75 = 10 K

Nu = 0.725 l (l v) gD3

hD =

kl

1/4

NlklT

0.725

970.8918 (970.8918-.2973)2 (9.81)(2.3045x106)(1)3 1/4

15(3.5533 x 10 -4)( 0.6698 W/m.K)(10 K)

= 135.5272

0.0127

A = DL = (0.0127)(1) = 0.0399 m2

q = h n A T =

= 7147.7295 W/m2.K (Total N) (0.0399 m2)(10 K) = 7147.7295(225)(0.0399)(10)

2.3045 x 106 J/kg

2.3045 x 10 6 J/kg

=

.2784 kg/s

Air free saturated steam at 90OC condenses on the outer surfaces of 2.5-cm OD 6 m long

vertical tube, where outer surface temperature is maintained at a uniform temperature of 60 OC.

Calculate the total rate of condensation of steam at the total surface.

Tsat = 90OC

Tw = 60OC

Tf = Tw +Tsat = 90 + 60 = 75OC

2

2

DO = 0.025 m

l = 973.9543kg/m3

l = 3.7861 x 10-4 Pa.s

T = Tsat Tw = 90

v = .2442 kg/m3

kl = 0.6666 W/m.K

L=1m

60 = 30 K

Nu = 1.13 l (l v) gL3 1/4

lklT

Nu = 1.13 (973.9543) (973.9543 - .2442)

9.8(2.283x106)(6)3

1/4

(3.7861 x 10 -4)(0.6666)(30 K)

= 32 338.3122

hi = 32 338.3122 (0.6666) = 3517.3455

W/m2.K

6

A = DL = (0.025)(6) = 0.471239 m2

q = hAT =

= 3517.3455 W/m2.K (0.471239 m2)(30 K)

2.5928 x 106 J/kg

= .0201 kg/s

Check assumption:

Re = 4 =

4 (0.0201 kg/s)

Dl

(0.025m)(3.7861 x 10-4kg/m.s)

Re = 2703.7970

Re = 2703.7970

assumed 2500

1/3

gl(l v) L3

Re0.4

2

l

Assume Re = 2500

hD = 42441.5272

kl

Nu = 42441.5272

hi = 42441.5272 (0.6666) = 4715.2357W/m2.K

6

A = DL = (0.025)(6) = 0.4712 m2

Nu = 0.0077

q = hAT =

= 0.0264 kg/s

Check assumption:

Re = 4 =

4 (0.0264 kg/s)

Dl

(0.025m)(3.7861 x 10-4kg/m.s)

Re = 3551.2558

Re = 3551.2558 2500

Assume Re = 4500

hD = 53690.8161

kl

Nu = 53690.8161

hi = 5390.8161 (0.6666) = 5965.0497 W/m 2.K

6

A = DL = (0.025)(6) = 0.4712 m2

q = hAT =

= .0333kg/s

Check assumption:

Re = 4 =

4 (0.0333 kg/s)

Dl

(0.025m)(3.7861 x 10-4kg/m.s)

Re = 4479.4249

Re = 4479.4249 assumed 4500

maintained at 340 K. Determine the rate of condensation and the heat transfer coefficient for

the case of 1.5-m long tube oriented vertically.

Boiling

A: Free convection;

B: Nucleate boiling;

C: Transition Boiling;

D: Film boiling

<5

Nucleate Boiling:

Transition Boiling:

Film Boiling:

Excess Temperature (deg. C)

Free Convection:

5 25

25 120

> 120

The excess temperature is the surface temperature above the boiling point of the liquid.

Nucleate Boiling

Bubbles form at surface and separate, mixing

the fluid. As temperature increases, the bubbles

join to form bubble columns or jets. These

eventually merge to form slugs. This type of

boiling is the most desirable for a chemical

process due to the high heat rates

Transition Boiling

Surface changes from nucleate to

boiling.

film

Film Boiling

Surface completely covered with film blanket.

T Tw Tsat

K or o F

English (h : BTU/hr-ft 2 -o F)

Metric (h : kW/m2 )

h 151 T

q / A 5000

h 1043 T

1/3

q / A 5000

h 5.56 T

1/ 3

h 0.168 T

q / A 75, 000

For vertical surfaces:

q / A 16

q / A 16

q / A 240

English (h : BTU/hr-ft 2 -o F)

Metric (h : kW/m2 )

h 87 T

q / A 1000

h 537 T

q / A 1000

h 7.95 T

1/ 7

h 0.240 T

q / A 20, 000

1/7

3

q/ A 3

q/ A 3

q / A 63

P 0.4 where P is in atm.

English: h 0.077 T e P / 225

3

Metric:

h 2.55 T e P /1551

3

T : o F; h : BTU/hr-ft 2 -o F P : psia

T : K; h : W/m 2 K P : kPa

10

N Nu

g ( l v )h fg D 3

hD

kv

vv kv (Ts Tsat )

1/ 4

C 0.67 for spheres

is the density

h fg is the enthalpy change from liq. to vapor

desirable!

Better to have

v is the specific volume

k is the thermal conductivity

Ts is the surface temperature

Tsat is the boiling point temperature of the liquid

Subscript v refers to the vapor

Subscript l refers to the liquid.

Water is being boiled at 1 atm abs pressure in a jacketed kettle with steam condensing in the

jacket at 115.6C. The inside diameter of the kettle is 0.656 m and the height is 0.984 m. the

bottom is slightly curved but it will be assumed to be flat. Both the bottom and the sides up to

the height of 0.656 m are jacketed. The kettle surface for heat transfer is 3.2 mm stainless steel

with a k of 16.27 W/m.K. the condensing steam coefficient hi inside the jacket has been

estimated as 10200 W/m.K. predict the boiling heat transfer coefficient ho for the bottom

surface of the kettle.

Assume Tw = 110C

T = Tw Tsat = 110 100 = 10C

Using the simplified equation for horizontal

surfaces:

ho = 5.56 T3 = 5.56 (10)3 = 5560 W/m2.K

q/A = h T = 5560(10) = 55600 =55.6

kW/m2

Check assumed Tw:

Ri = 1/hiA

= 1/(10200)(1) = 9.8 x

10-5

Rw = x

= 3.2/1000 = 19.66

x 10-5

kA

16.27 (1)

Ro = 1/hoA = 1/(5560)(1) = 17.98 x 10-5

R = 47.44 x 10-5

T = To ; To = Ro(T) = 17.98 x 10-5

(115.6 100)

R

10-5

Ro

To = 5.9

110C

= (Tw 100)

47.44 x

; Tw = 105.9 C

Assume Tw = 108C

T = Tw Tsat = 108 100 = 8C

Using the simplified equation for horizontal

surfaces:

ho = 5.56 T3 = 5.56 (8)3 = 2846.72

W/m2.K

q/A = h T = 2846.72(8) = 28467.2 =

28.4672 kW/m2

Check assumed Tw:

11

Ri = 1/hiA

= 1/(10200)(1) = 9.8 x

Rw =

= 3.2/1000

10-5

x

= 19.66

x 10-5

x 10-4

kA

16.27 (1)

Ro = 1/hoA = 1/(2846.72)(1) = 3.51

(115.6 100)

R

Ro

R

6.4588 x 10-4

To = 8.48

C 108C

R = 6.4588 x 10-4

= (Tw 100)

; Tw = 108.48

A vessel with a flat bottom and 0.1 m2 in area is used for boiling water at atmospheric pressure.

Find the temperature at which the vessel must be maintained if a boiling rate of 80 kg/h is

desired. Assume that the vessel is made of copper and the boiling is nucleate. Take V = 0.60

kg/m3

Latent Heat, = 2257 kJ/kg

l = 960.6 kg/m3

v = 0.60 kg/m3

q = hAT =

q/A = /A

q/A = 501.556 kW/m2 ho = 5.56 T3

0.1 m2

501555.5556 W/m2 = h (Tw Tsat)

501555.5556 W/m2 = 5.56 (Tw Tsat)4

501555.5556 W/m2 = 5.56 (Tw 100)4

Tw

= 117.33 OC

Calculate the heat transfer coefficient and the mass flow rate during stable film boiling of water

from a 0.9 cm diameter horizontal carbon tube. The water is saturated and at 100 OC. The tube

surface is at 1000OC.

Tsat = 100OC

Tw = 1000OC

Tf = Tw +Tsat = 100 + 1000 = 550OC

2

2

DO = 0.009 m

Latent Heat, = 2257 kJ/kg

l = 960.63 kg/m3

v = 0.4005 kg/m3

-5

2

v = 4.70 x 10 m /s

kv = 0.0379 W/m.K

T = Tw Tsat = 1000 100 = 900 K

Nu = 0.62

g (l v) D3

vkvT

1/4

(2.257x106)(0.009)3 1/4

12

(4.70 x 10-5)(0.0379)(900

K)

= 34.5718

hi = 34.5718(0.0379) = 145.5859 W/m2.K

0.009

A = DL = (0.009)(1) = 0.0283 m2

q = hAT =

= 145.5859 W/m2.K (0.0283 m2)(900 K)

2.283 x 106 J/kg

= 1.6414 x 10 -3 kg/s

13

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