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Abdolmohammadi, M. J. and G. Sarens (2011).

"An Investigation of the Association between Cultural

Dimensions and Variations in Perceived Use of and Compliance with Internal Auditing Standards in 19
Countries." The International Journal of Accounting 46(4): 365-389.
Abdul Mail, P., Sudjito Suparman, Purnomo Dan Budi Santoso (2014). "Relationship Between Internal
Quality Audit And Quality Culture Toward Implementation Consitency Of Iso 900 In Private Collage Of
Sulawesi Province Indonesia." InTErnational Journal of Accounting Information Systems VOL.7 NO.9.
Amr Kotb, A. S., David Henderson (2014). "E-Business Internal Audit:The Elephant Is Still In The Room."
Andon, P., et al. (2010). "Personality preferences of accounting and non-accounting graduates seeking
to enter the accounting profession." Critical Perspectives on Accounting 21(4): 253-265.
The aim of this study is to investigate the relative personality preferences of accounting and
non-accounting graduates seeking to enter the accounting profession. This study is motivated
by the recent changes within the Australian accounting profession to encourage nonaccounting graduates to enter the discipline, a key motivation for which is a perceived need to
attract a greater diversity of individuals to pursue careers in accounting. Using the personality
preferences (as measured using the MyersBriggs Type Indicator [MBTI]) as an indicator of
diversity, the results of this study signify that accounting and non-accounting graduates
seeking to enter the accounting profession are likely to share similar personality preferences.
The implications of this finding for a range of stakeholders associated with the accounting
profession, and for matters such as stereotypical images of accountants, graduate recruitment,
and university and professional curriculum development are discussed.
Arens, A. A., et al. (2012). Auditing and assurance services : an integrated approach. Boston, Prentice
INTERNAL AUDIT FUNCTION AFFECT AUDIT DELAY?" Journal of Contemporary Accounting & Ekonomi 9
(2013) 19-32.
beelde, g. s. i. d. (2006). "'internal auditor'perception about their role in risk management." managerial
Auditing Journal vol.21 iss 1 pp.63-80.
beng wee gooh, d. l. (2013). "the diciplining effect of the internal control provisions of the sarbanesoxley act on the governance structures of firms." the International Journal of Accounting 48 248-278.
Benny, d. S. B. s. N. M. (2011). "the internal audit function." managerial Auditing Journal vol. 26 iss 7
Bierstaker, J. L., et al. (2001). "The impact of information technology on the audit process: an
assessment of the state of the art and implications for the future." Managerial Auditing Journal 16(3):
Braiotta, L. and J. Zhou (2006). "An exploratory study of the effects of the SarbanesOxley Act, the SEC
and United States stock exchange(s) rules on audit committee alignment." Managerial Auditing Journal
21(2): 166-190.
Broberg, P., et al. (2013). "Balance between auditing and marketing: An explorative study." Journal of
International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation 22(1): 57-70.
This study explores how auditors attitudes toward marketing and their views on the
importance of marketing affect how they balance their time spent on auditing and marketing
activities. The purpose is to understand how changes in the business environment for auditors
affect the relationship between the auditing profession and marketing. The study is based on a
survey of 672 auditors in Sweden. Findings suggest that auditors with a positive attitude
toward marketing spend significantly more time on marketing activities compared to those
with a less positive attitude. Furthermore, auditors who view marketing activities as important
spend significantly more time on marketing activities. The study controlled for the number of

years as an auditor, age of the auditor, and firm affiliation. The results indicate that the
theoretical distance between the auditing profession and marketing does not exist in practice
to the same degree as in the past. These findings have implications for international auditing
theory and practice in illuminating the relationship of marketing and auditing in a wider
business context.
Carpenter, B. W., et al. (1994). "Materiality judgments and audit firm culture: Social-behavioral and
political perspectives." Accounting, Organizations and Society 19(45): 355-380.
Researchers have traditionally interpreted the formation of auditor judgments as either a
technical or a cognitive phenomenon. Their research has, therefore, focused mainly on refining
empirical techniques designed to reveal the mental processes used to form judgments interior
to the individual. This theoretical and empirical analysis opens this conceptualization on three
levels. On the first level, the authors interpret auditor judgment formation as a socialbehavioral phenomenon in which the social context of the audit firm vis--vis its audit
philosophy influences materiality judgments. On the second level, rather than interpreting the
firm's philosophy as merely one form of variable administrative partners may manipulate to
achieve desired ends, the authors treat it as determining of and being determined by the social
structure of the audit firm and in turn its culture. Accordingly, they hypothesize that (1) a firm's
audit culture, expressed in terms of mechanistic versus organic orientations, systematically
influences its members' materiality judgments, which are characterized as rational
comprehensive or satisficing, respectively; and (2) the level of experience of audit firm
members, expressed in terms of hierarchical ranks, amplifies the effect of firm culture. On the
third level, the authors interpret the formation of materiality judgments vis--vis culture as
forming an implicit tension with political interests in which the practitioner and administrative
components of audit firms contend with one another over the location of decision-making
discretion and autonomy. Results obtained from an experimental simulation involving the
participation of 212 partners, managers and seniors from the former Big 8 firms strongly
support both audit firm culture hypotheses. Finally, the authors explore implications using
empirical results as well as insights gathered during interviews with firms members directed at
probing the political forces influencing the location of decision-making discretion.
Cenker, A. L. N. W. J. (2007). " Internal Audit Professionalism and Section 404 Compliance."
International Journal of Auditing Volume 11 issue 1.
Chambers, A. D. (2014). "New Guidance On Internal Audit-An Analysis And Apraissal Of Recent
Development." MANAGERial Auditing Journal VOL.29 ISS. 2 PP.196-218.
Claypool, j. A. T. F. w. G. A. (2006). "internal control on sarbanes-oxley: A critical examination."
managerial Auditing Journal vol. 21 iss 3 p.317-323.
Cohen, S. and S. Leventis (2013). "Effects of municipal, auditing and political factors on audit delay."
Accounting Forum 37(1): 40-53.
We examine audit delay for financial statements prepared by Greek municipalities. Greece is
an interesting setting because, despite the rigid regulatory framework that governs reporting,
the penalties imposed in cases of non-compliance with regulatory deadlines are almost nonexistent. We investigate specifications indicated by previous research but also municipal and
political factors. Our results suggest a considerable variation in audit delay which is influenced
by the political process under which municipalities operate and make decisions. We analyse
further determinants of non-compliance and we analyse the characteristics of non-compliers
separately. Political variables persist in explaining audit delay in terms of non-compliance.
coopre, s. K. j. s. k. n. s. b. (2013). "internal audit function, board quality and financial reporting
quality:evidence from malaysia." MANAJERIAL AUDITING JOURNAL VOL 28 ISS 9 PP 780-814.
Dedoulis, E. (2006). "The Code of Ethics and the development of the auditing profession in Greece, the
period 19922002." Accounting Forum 30(2): 155-178.
Various forms of Codes of Ethics have played major roles in the advancement of the
accountancy profession in the Anglo-American context. Responding to various legitimation
challenges, accountants have drawn upon their ethical arrangements to reinforce claims to
credibility and independence from clients. By doing so, they have sought to persuade

social institutions of their professionalism and secure the privileges of self-governance and
the monopoly of auditing practice. Though the literature has illuminated the role of ethical
pronouncements in the ascendancy of the Anglo-American profession, little effort has been
made to explore their impact upon the profession in emerging contexts. The case of Greece in
the period 19922002, for instance, provides an interesting setting of an emerging economy in
which to study professional ethics, as the local institute of auditing was restructured according
to the Anglo-American professional paradigm following which it faced certain legitimation
challenges. This paper investigates the broader background of threats to the Greek auditing
profession in the period 19922002 and explores whether local auditors relied upon their Code
of Ethics and compliance processes to re-establish the image of their institute as a credible
body. It draws upon the imperialism of influence framework to demonstrate that, within
increasingly internationalised contexts, the local accountancy profession tends to resort to
professional ethics to confer legitimacy upon its activities and to safeguard its self-governing
Dwyer, P. D. and R. W. Roberts (2004). "Known by the company they keep: a study of political
campaign contributions made by the United States public accounting profession." Critical Perspectives
on Accounting 15(67): 865-883.
The U.S. public accounting profession commits substantial financial resources to federal
election campaigns. In this paper, we explore the potential motivations for and consequences
of those actions. We investigate the political contributions made by the profession during
periods of proposed professional reform. We also analyze political contributions made during
the 19971998 U.S. federal election cycle, with the intent of identifying systematic
relationships between the levels of those contributions and the ideological profiles of the
legislators receiving them. We argue that the profession is engaged politically in the
management of its professional role in society and in the support of large clients interests. We
also argue that the legislators supported by the profession have legislative agendas that are
much broader than those of direct interest to the profession, and therefore the professions
support may have unintended consequences. Our analyses of contributions data reveal that
the profession shows preference for legislators who are sympathetic to pro-business agendas.
At the same time, the legislators who receive financial support from the profession tend to
favor conservative agendas, and tend to oppose agendas advanced by Civil Rights, Labor,
Liberal, and Womens groups. Our study provides insights into the fundamental role played by
the accounting profession in U.S. society and the effects of the professions efforts to shape
public policy.
Earl, M. J. (1980). "Program Review: Its Role in Computer Auditing." Managerial Finance 5(2): 188-199.
Eija Vinnari, P. S. (2014). "The Uncertainties Of Risk Managemenet: A Filed Study Of Risk Managemenet
Internal Audit Practices In A Finish In Municipality." ACCOUNTING, AUDITING & Accountability Journal
VOL 27 ISS 3 PP 489-526.
Fanning, K. and M. David Piercey (2014). "Internal auditors use of interpersonal likability, arguments,
and accounting information in a corporate governance setting." Accounting, Organizations and Society
39(8): 575-589.
Favere-Marchesi, M. (2000). "Audit Quality in ASEAN." The International Journal of Accounting 35(1):
This study explores audit quality in ASEAN from an analysis of the legal environment faced by
statutory auditors. First, it provides an overview of the national laws, regulations, professional
codes and standards defining the legal environment. Second, it provides an economic analysis
of the main differences among countries and relates those differences to the functioning of the
audit markets, with a potential for uneven audit quality in the region. Data were collected with
questionnaires from national representatives of four Big Five firms, and accuracy of the
information was reviewed by 15 governmental and professional bodies responsible for
regulating the auditing profession in ASEAN. Analysis of the data revealed a diverse legal
environment among the ASEAN countries possibly creating a climate of differential audit
quality. Many differences were observed in the competence requirements of auditors, the
requirements regarding the conduct of statutory audits, and the reporting obligations. Further,
audit quality in some countries is seriously compromised due to a lack of rules ensuring
auditors' independence. Finally, some of the liability regimes in ASEAN do not provide an

incentive for statutory auditors to provide quality audit services. Several recommendations are
made to improve the legal environment by bringing the national laws and regulations in line
with international standards of auditing which would result in a more uniform audit quality
throughout ASEAN.
FernndezLaviada, A. (2007). "Internal audit function role in operational risk management." Journal of
Financial Regulation and Compliance 15(2): 143-155.
Fox, P. (2001). "Automation: crossing the final frontier." Assembly Automation 21(2): 111-114.
Fraser, I. and W. Henry (2007). "Embedding risk management: structures and approaches." Managerial
Auditing Journal 22(4): 392-409.
Geiger, M. A., et al. (2006). "Auditor decision-making in different litigation environments: The Private
Securities Litigation Reform Act, audit reports and audit firm size." Journal of Accounting and Public
Policy 25(3): 332-353.
The adoption of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 had a marked impact on
public accounting firms in the US by significantly reducing their liability exposure with respect
to litigation involving publicly traded audit clients. This shift in the litigation environment of
public accounting firms has been argued to have been manifest in changed auditor decisions
regarding their audit clients. While this tort reform legislation was intended to benefit all audit
firms, recent research suggests that it may have differentially affected auditors based on audit
firm size. In this study, we examine the impact of the change in litigation environment ushered
in by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act and Big 6 membership on going-concern
modification decisions for companies entering bankruptcy before and after the new legislation.
Our findings, based on analyses of 694 financially stressed firms that entered into bankruptcy
during the period 1991 to 2001, indicate that the likelihood of a going-concern modified
opinion decreased significantly after the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act, and the
change was particularly pronounced for the Big 6 audit firms. These results suggest that this
important litigation reform had a significant effect on auditor decision-making, and that it had
more of an effect on audit decisions of the Big 6 firms in comparison to the non-Big 6 firms.
Gerrit Sarens, M. A., Gisuepe D Onza, Robert Melville (2011). "Are Internal Auditing Practices Related To
Age The Internal Audit Function?" MANAGERial Auditing Journal VOL.26 iss 1 PP. 51-64.
Ghozali, I. (2005). Aplikasi Analisis Multivariate dengan program IBM SPSS 19. Semarang, Badan
Penerbit Universiats Diponegoro.
Giroux, G. and C. Cassell (2011). "Changing audit risk characteristics in the public client market."
Research in Accounting Regulation 23(2): 177-183.
Financial audit services have changed in the US over the last half century, resulting in distinct
cyclical patterns of relative audit risk. The purpose of this project is to describe changing
patterns in the economic and institutional risk environment over time and investigate
differences using empirical surrogates as measures of relative audit risk. Economic,
competitive, and regulatory differences are analyzed over the period of study. Particularly
important events included the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (likely reducing audit risk),
the elimination of rules against advertising and direct solicitation in 1979 (increasing audit
risk), the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (increasing risk), and the collapse of
Arthur Andersen and SarbanesOxley Act (20012002, reducing risk). Empirical models are
used to evaluate financial risk (Altmans Z-score), earnings manipulation risk (Sloans measure
of accruals), and litigation risk (litigation index). Averages by year suggest cyclical patterns of
relative audit risk that parallel regulatory, economic and institutional changes over the period.
Gwilliam, J. A. B. H. M. E.-N. D. R. (2001). " he Problems of Establishing Internal Audit in the Sudan."
International Journal of Auditing Volume 5 issue 1.
Habib, A. and M. B. U. Bhuiyan (2011). "Audit firm industry specialization and the audit report lag."
Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation 20(1): 32-44.
This paper contributes to the audit report lag (ARL) literature by documenting the association
between audit firm industry specialization and the ARL. ARL is one of the few externally

observable audit output variables that allows outsiders to gauge audit efficiency, because it
relates to the timeliness of both audit and earnings information. Although a sizable volume of
literature exists on the determinants of the ARL in different countries, the effect of audit firm
industry specialization on the ARL has not been investigated. Industry-specialist auditors are
able to develop industry-specific knowledge and expertise and to familiarize themselves
quickly with the clients business operations and, therefore, are likely to complete the audit
sooner than their non-specialist counterparts. Using regression analyses with two different
definitions of industry specialization, and controlling for known determinants of ARL, we
demonstrate that the ARL is shorter for firms audited by industry specialist auditors. Our
findings also reveal that the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) has
increased the ARL for all auditors except for industry specialist auditors.
Hass, p. A. B. S. (2011). "internal auditing in the Americas." managerial Auditing Journal vol.26 iss 8 pp
Hopkins, R. N. (1997). " The Nature of Audit Qualitya Conflict of Paradigms An Empirical Study of
Internal Audit Quality." <nternational Journal of Auditing Volume 1 issue 2.
Hossain, S. M. M. (2011). "Corporate Gonvernance Attributes And Remediation Of Internal Control
Material Weaknesses Reported Under Sox Section 404." REVIEW OF ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE VOL.
10 NO 11 PP529.
Jantan, F. H. F. H. H. M. (2005). "Internal Auditing Practices And Internal Control System." MANAJERIAL
janvrin, d. (2008). "to what extend does internal control effectivenes increase the value of internal
evidence?" managerial Auditing Journal vol.23 iss. 3 pp 262-282.
Janvrin, D., et al. (2010). "Enforcement release evidence on the audit confirmation process:
Implications for standard setters." Research in Accounting Regulation 22(1): 1-17.
The audit confirmation process involves obtaining evidence from third parties about
information affecting financial statement assertions. Recently, the confirmation process has
drawn the attention of both regulators and practitioners (AICPA, 2007a; IFAC, 2006, 2008;
PCAOB, 2004) due to questions regarding whether this widely used audit procedure provides
persuasive audit evidence. This paper examines confirmation-related evidence from relevant
Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) Accounting and Auditing Enforcement Releases
(AAERs). Our findings integrate the confirmation process and enforcement release outcomes to
provide guidance to regulators and researchers. Specifically, we found situations where fraud
may have been detected if auditors had confirmed additional items such as material cash
balances, marketable securities, and terms of significant transactions. We also noted (1)
situations where management requested that auditors not confirm specific accounts, (2)
several examples of collusion between the auditee and either vendors or customers, as well as
related parties, and (3) cases involving failure to authenticate responses. Our detailed
examination of enforcement release evidence provides implications for standard setters and
areas for future research.
Research in Accounting Regulation 17(0): 167-190.
The auditors responsibility and independence are crucial issues underlying the independent
auditing function and has significant implications on the development of auditing standards
and practices. Through a questionnaire survey, this study investigated auditors responsibility
and independence from the perspectives of audit beneficiaries and public practitioners in the
Peoples Republic of China. The results reveal that the role and benefits of public accounting
(independent auditing) have been positively recognized by Chinese audit beneficiaries and
auditors, and there are increasing demands for expanding the applicability of public accounting
in China. However this study obtained substantial evidence on the emergence of the
expectation gap in China, with respect to audit objectives, auditors obligation to detect and
report fraud, and third party liability of auditors. In addition, the study found that the majority

of audit beneficiaries and auditors are supportive of improving auditor independence by

reducing governmental control or intervention and moving towards self-regulation of the
profession. The causes and practical implications of the study findings are therefore analyzed
contextual to the existing practices of public accounting in the changing Chinese social and
economic conditions. This study should cast light on understanding of the institutional settings
and updated development of independent audits in China and may also serve as an annotation
to the recent accounting reform debates in the Western world.
Karapetrovic, S. and W. Willborn (2000). "Quality assurance and effectiveness of audit systems."
International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management 17(6): 679-703.
Kasey Martin, E. S., Genevieve Scalan (2014). "The Potential Impac Of Coso Internal Control Integrated
Framework Revition On Internal Audit Structured Sox Work Program." Research in Accounting
Regulation VOL. 26 210-217.
Ling, D. H. W. R. K. H. (2008). " Evidence on the Impact of Internal Control and Corporate Governanc."
International Journal of Auditing Volume 12 issue 1.
Lloyd Bierstaker, J. and J. C. Thibodeau (2006). "The effect of format and experience on internal control
evaluation." Managerial Auditing Journal 21(9): 877-891.
Manson, S., et al. (2001). "Audit automation as control within audit firms." Accounting, Auditing &
Accountability Journal 14(1): 109-130.
McKee, T. E. (2006). "Increase your fraud auditing effectiveness by being unpredictable!" Managerial
Auditing Journal 21(2): 224-231.
Miller, T. C., et al. (2012). "Do auditors assess inherent risk as if there are no controls?" Managerial
Auditing Journal 27(5): 448-461.
Mulyanto (2014). "Modul Statistik Pengolahan Data Kuantitatif."
Munro, L. and J. Stewart (2011). "External auditors' reliance on internal auditing: further evidence."
Managerial Auditing Journal 26(6): 464-481.
Nazir, M. (1988). Metode Penelitian. Jakarta, Galia.
Ohta, Y. (2009). "The role of audit evidence in a strategic audit." Journal of Accounting and Public Policy
28(1): 58-67.
This study examines how audit risk (the probability of false acceptance) and its components
change when the auditor obtains audit evidence in an acceptance sampling model. Inherent
risk and audit risk increase with audit evidence if the auditee has a sufficiently strong incentive
for committing fraud. Detection risk always increases when audit evidence is introduced. If the
auditor has a sufficiently strong incentive for avoiding false rejection, audit risk also increases
with audit evidence. The analysis indicates that requiring auditors to obtain information is not
effective in preventing material misstatements in at least some instances.
Oetea, A., et al. (2013). "Internal Public Audit in the Financial Crisis Context." Procedia Economics and
Finance 6: 688-693.
Pacini, C., et al. (2000). "At the interface of the electronic frontier and the law: the international legal
environment for systems reliability assurance services." Journal of International Accounting, Auditing
and Taxation 9(2): 185-218.
In response to concerns about unreliable information systems, the American Institute of
Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) and the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants
(CICA) have launched a new assurance service called SysTrust. The objective of a SysTrust
engagement is for the practitioner to issue an attestation/assurance report on system(s)
reliability. The development and deployment of the CPA/CA SysTrust service, however, is done
in a high litigation risk environment, especially in the United States, Canada, Australia, New

Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Our purpose is to evaluate the legal environment in these
five nations so CAs and CPAs can comprehend the issues involving potential litigation prior to
initiating SysTrust engagements. Presently, no legal case in the U.S., Canada, Australia, New
Zealand, and the United Kingdom has yet been reported which addresses directly accountant
liability to third parties for negligent information system assurance services. An analysis of
related legal cases sheds light on the potential liability of SysTrust providers. However, the
current international legal environment is characterized by a high level of uncertainty. Several
risk management strategies, including risk exposure analysis, client engagement evaluation,
engagement letters, loss-limit clauses, and alternative dispute resolution, are presented that
SysTrust providers may implement to minimize litigation risk.
MANAGERIal Auditing Journal VOL.20 ISS 6 PP 569-577.
Patten, D. M. (2005). "A The Analysis Of Impact Of Locus On Control Of Internal Auditor Job
Performance And Satisfication." Managerial auditng journal vol.20 iss 9 pp 1016-1029.
Peecher, M. E., et al. (2007). "Its all about audit quality: Perspectives on strategic-systems auditing."
Accounting, Organizations and Society 32(45): 463-485.
We discuss the antecedents of and rationale for what has become known as Strategic-Systems
Auditing (SSA). We also describe the conceptual foundation and key elements of SSA. We
observe that the auditor employing SSA conceives the audit as a process of evidence-driven,
belief-based, risk assessment. We also illustrate facets of this process, including how the
auditor, by acquiring a rich understanding of how and how well management is executing its
business-model, develops rich (e.g., distributional) expectations of future financial-statement
amounts and disclosures. These expectations form a benchmark against which the auditor
later compares and investigates managements asserted financial-statement amounts and
disclosures. Finally, we pose and respond to some of the more common questions about
elements of SSA and complete the paper by suggesting some educational innovations and
high-value targets for research. One salient message is that SSA first emerged in the 1990s as
an attempt to enhance audit quality in response to changes in the audit environment. Another
salient message is that SSA continues to equilibrate, adapting to more recent environmental
changes, especially societys demand for greater protection from financial-statement fraud.
Such adaptation requires ongoing, significant intellectual investments by audit practitioners
and audit scholars/educators.
Perera, p. l. b. J. C. L. (2011). "accountability structures and management relationship of internal
audit." 2011 Manajerial Auditing Journal Vol. 26 No. 9, 2011 pp. 794-816.
Pierce, B. and B. Sweeney (2005). "Management control in audit firmsPartners perspectives."
Management Accounting Research 16(3): 340-370.
Previous studies have consistently reported high levels of quality threatening behaviours in
response to traditional budgetary controls at audit trainee levels in Big Four audit firms.
Partners simultaneously occupy positions as owners and members of top management, and
their perspectives on these behaviours and control procedures that may mitigate potential
consequences are therefore important. These perceptions, which have been missing from prior
research, were investigated using semi-structured interviews with 12 audit partners from three
of the Big Four firms. The findings suggest the existence of previously unidentified controls at
partner level that become embedded in the procedures and routines through which potential
cost-quality conflicts are managed. At the same time as cost-quality conflicts created by the
formal budgetary control system are increasingly being seen by partners to be pushed up the
hierarchy, changes in audit methodology and operating procedures are perceived to facilitate a
strengthening of the impact of other less formal controls at lower levels. Many of these
constitute examples of clan controls and include the influence of partners experience and
intuition over a wide range of organisational activities, informal communication and signalling
both within the partnership and between partners and staff, and the management of internal
and external relationships. The study highlights the importance of these controls in achieving a
balance between trust-building and additional monitoring.
Previts, G. J. (2003). "THE INFORMATION RIGHT AND THE CPA PROFESSION." Research in Accounting
Regulation 16(0): 275-277.

A profession is a skilled association of individuals who profess to serve the public interest
above their own self-interest. In the market driven, versus mandate driven accountancy world
of the 1980s and 1990s where competition was unleashed at the direction of an AICPA-FTC
accord, the orientation was top line expand the use of skill sets to meet market demands for
the knowledge services related thereto. As the Y2K bubble burst and 20012002 events
unfolded, much as the survivors of a shipwreck, individual CPAs, their leadership and practice
units are picking through the philosophical flotsam and jetsam strewn about their environment.
Serving the publics information right is identified as the proper orientation for our professions
Saidu Badara, M. a. and S. Zabedah Saidin (2014). "Internal Audit Effectiveness: Data Screening and
Preliminary Analysis." Asian Social Science 10(10).
Sathe, R. S. (2010). "CPA licensure without examination: Legitimation and resistance." Critical
Perspectives on Accounting 21(6): 496-508.
A 2001 law converted Minnesota's licensed public accountants (LPAs) to certified public
accountants (CPAs). LPAs were individuals licensed to practice public accounting, including
attestation, without having passed the CPA examination. Following the conversion, a fierce
resistance arose from a small segment of Minnesota's CPA community. This paper used
institutional theory to analyze the legitimation strategies and actions of the institutional agents
as well as the resistance. The history and institutionalization of the CPA examination suggested
that its cognitive legitimacy was a significant factor in the resistance. The analysis of the
resistance reflected back upon the pragmatic approach taken by the proponents. The case
demonstrated the importance of controlling communication resources in building legitimacy.
Finally, it considered how the diversity of interests in a segmented professional association
shaped legitimation and resistance.
Shirenjiit K Johl, S. K., Johl Nava Subramaniam,Barry Cooper (2013). "Internal Audit Function, Board
Quality And Financial Reporting Quality:Evidence From Malaysia." MANAGERial Auditing Journal VOL 28
ISS 9 PP 780-984.
Snoep, L. P. J. S. P. (2003). "the relationship Between the Internal Audit Function and Corporate "
International Journal of Auditing Volume 7 issue 3.
Steinbart, P. J., et al. (2012). "The relationship between internal audit and information security: An
exploratory investigation." International Journal of Accounting Information Systems 13(3): 228-243.
Stevenson Smith, G. (2012). "Can an auditor ever be a first responder to financial frauds?" Journal of
Financial Crime 19(3): 291-304.
subramainam, l. d. z. j. s. n. (2011). "internal audit involvement in entreprise risk management."
managerial Auditing Journal vol.26 iss. 7 pp. 586-604.
tremblay, j. e. m. s. (2010). "ethics and internal audit: moral will and moral skill in an heteronomous
filed." critical Perspectives on Accounting 25 pp 181-196.
Vanasco, R. R. (1998). "Fraud auditing." Managerial Auditing Journal 13(1): 4-71.
OR A CODE OF QUALITY ASSURANCE?" Critical Perspectives on Accounting 14(4): 483-503.
A code of ethics has been the traditional means by which a profession assures the public and
its clients of its responsibilities and thereby the maintenance of its integrity and reputation. As
Abbott (1983) observes ethics codes are the most concrete cultural form in which professions
acknowledge their societal obligations (p. 2). In this paper, it is argued that the accounting
professions code of ethics has moved from a focus on moral responsibility for a public good to
that of technical specification for a product or service. The replacement of the true and fair
view requirement by compliance with accounting standards is highlighted as a major shift in
the focus of the code of ethics. This shift can be related to the professions need to legitimise
itself within the wider public domain in which technique has replaced character as an

important virtue. It is concluded that code of ethics is misleading and that code of quality
assurance is more appropriate. The study is based on an evaluation of the code of ethics of
the Institute of Chartered Accountants of New Zealand (ICANZ) and the Australian Society of
Certified Practising Accountants (ASCPA).
Vinten, G. and C. Lee (1993). "Audit Committees and Corporate Control." Managerial Auditing Journal
Vinten, G. and G. Smith (2005). "Communication skills are critical for internal auditors." Managerial
Auditing Journal 20(5): 513-519.
Vinten, G., et al. (2005). "Auditors' perception of fraud risk indicators." Managerial Auditing Journal
20(1): 73-85.
W.L Felix jR, G., Maleata (1999). "The Contribution of Internal Audit as a Determinant of External audit
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