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Load Control in UMTS

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, 11-04-2012 at 01:27 PM (8531 Views)

Overview of Load Control

The WCDMA system is a self-interfering system. As the load of the system increases, the
interference rises. A relatively high interference can affect the coverage of cells and QoS of
established services. Therefore, the capacity, coverage, and QoS of the WCDMA system are
mutually affected. To solve these problems, the load control function is introduced that
controls the load in a cell.
Load control aims to maximize the system capacity while ensuring coverage and QoS by
controlling the key resources, such as power, downlink channelization codes, channel
elements (CEs), Iub transmission resources, which directly affect user experience.
Each cell has its own set of load control functions that are responsible for monitoring and
controlling the resources of the cell. The load control functions monitor the load condition
of the cell through load measurement, make the admission decision for services through
intelligent access control and call admission control, and relieve congestion in a cell.
>> Load Control in Different Scenarios
Depending on the different phases of UE access, different load control functions are used,
as shown in the following figure.
1 Load Control functions in different UE access phases
Load Control-1.jpgLoad Control-1.jpg
The load control functions are applied to different UE access phases as follows:
* Before UE access: Potential User Control (PUC)
* During UE access: Intelligent Access Control (IAC) and Call Admission Control (CAC)
* After UE access: intra-frequency Load Balancing (LDB), Load Reshuffling (LDR), and
Overload Control (OLC)
The following sections will provide detailed information about the load control functions
performed in the different UE access phases.
2 Functions of Load Control

Load control is implemented in the RNC after obtaining measurement reports from the
2 Load control function in the WCDMA system
Load Control-2.jpg
The load control functions are described as follows:
* Potential User Control (PUC) The function of PUC is to balance traffic load between
cells on different frequencies. The RNC uses PUC to modify cell selection and reselection
parameters, and broadcasts them through system information. In this way, UEs are
directed to the cells with light load. The UEs can be in idle mode, CELL_FACH state,
CELL_PCH state, or URA_PCH state.
* Intelligent Access Control (IAC) The function of IAC is to increase the access success
rate with the current QoS guaranteed through rate negotiation, queuing, preemption, and
Directed Retry Decision (DRD).
l Call Admission Control (CAC) The function of CAC is to decide whether to accept
resource requests from UEs, such as access, reconfiguration, and handover requests,
depending on the resource status of the cell.
* Intra-frequency Load Balancing (LDB) The function of intra-frequency LDB is to
balance the cell load between intra-frequency neighboring cells to provide better resource
usage. When the load of a cell increases, the cell reduces its coverage to lighten its load.
When the load of a cell decreases, the cell extends its coverage so that some traffic is sent
from its neighboring cells to it.
* Load Reshuffling (LDR) The function of LDR is to reduce the cell load when the cell
enters the basic congestion state. The purpose of LDR is to increase the access success
rate by taking the following actions:
Inter-frequency load handover
Code reshuffling
BE service rate reduction
AMR voice service rate reduction
QoS renegotiation for uncontrollable real-time services
CS inter-RAT load handover
PS inter-RAT load handover
MBMS power reduction
* Overload Control (OLC) The function of OLC is to reduce the cell load rapidly when the
cell is overloaded. The purpose of OLC is to ensure the system stability and the QoS of
most UEs in the following ways:
Restricting the Transport Format (TF) of the BE service
Switching BE services to common channels

Adjusting the maximum transmit power of FACHs

Releasing some RABs
Below table lists the resources that are considered by different load control functions.
Load Control-3.PNG
3 Priorities Involved in Load Control
Different types of priorities are used in load control to preferentially ensure the QoS of the
services or users with high priorities.
The priorities involved in load control are user priority, Radio Access Bearer (RAB)
integrated priority, and user integrated priority.
3.1 User Priority
User priorities are adopted to provide differentiated services for users. For ease of
application, the RNC maps the 15 levels of Allocation/Retention Priority (ARP) that is carried
in the RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message from the core network (CN) onto three user
priorities, that is, gold (high priority), silver (medium priority), and copper (low priority).
The relation between user priority and ARP can be set by running SET
UUSERPRIORITY command; the typical relation is shown in Table below:
Load Control-4.PNG
Note : If ARP is not received in messages from the Iu interface, the user priority
is regarded as copper.
3.2 RAB Integrated Priority
The priority of an RAB is determined by its traffic class, ARP, and carrier type. Such a
priority is called RAB integrated priority. When resources are insufficient, services with the
highest integrated priority are preferentially processed.
The values of RAB integrated priority are set according to the integrated priority
configuration reference parameter (PriorityReference):
- If PriorityReference is set to Traffic Class, the integrated priority abides by the
following rules:
- Traffic classes: conversational > streaming > interactive > background
- Services of the same traffic class: priority based on ARP, that is, ARP1 > ARP2 > ARP3 >
... > ARP14 > ARP15

- Service of the same traffic class and ARP (only for interactive services): priority based on
Traffic Handling Priority (THP) that is carried in the RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message,
that is, THP1 > THP2 > THP3 > ... > THP14 > THP15
- Services of the same traffic class, ARP and THP (only for interactive services): High Speed
Packet Access (HSPA) or Dedicated Channel (DCH) service preferred depending on
>> If PriorityReference is set to ARP, the integrated priority abides by the following
* ARP: ARP1 > ARP2 > ARP3 > ... > ARP14 >ARP15
>> Services of the same ARP: priority based on traffic classes, that is, conversational >
streaming > interactive > background
* Only for the interactive service of the same ARP value: priority based on Traffic Handling
Priority (THP), that is, THP1 > THP2 > THP3 > ... > THP14 > THP15
>> Services of the same ARP, traffic class and THP (only for interactive services): HSPA or
DCH service preferred depending onCarrierTypePriorInd.
3.3 User Integrated Priority
A user may have multiple RABs, and the RABs may have different priorities. In this case,
the highest priority is considered as the priority of this user. Such a priority is called user
integrated priority. User integrated priority is used in user-specific load control. For
example, the selection of R99 users during preemption, the selection of users during interfrequency load handover for LDR, and the selection of users during switching of BE services
to common channels are performed according to the user integrated priority.