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The Essential Guide to

Power Protection Design

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

THIS DOCUMENT IS RESERVED FOR CHLORIDE POWER PROTECTION INTERNAL USE. IT MUST
NOT BE DISTRIBUTED TO PERSONS EXTERNAL TO CHLORIDE POWER PROTECTION. ALL RIGHTS
RESERVED UNDER CURRENT LAW AND INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS.

First issue: 18 April 2001


Version 1

Silectron S.p.A.
Via Fornace, 30
40023 Castel Guelfo (BO)
Italy
Web: http://www.chloridepower.com
Email: CSC@Chloridepower.com
Tel: +39-0542 632111
Fax: +39-0542 632120

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 2

Introduction
The main objective of this document is to assist in the diffusion, within Chloride Power Protection,
of a style and analysis for UPS applications that are as uniform as possible. The information
contained herein has been collected by using the considerable know-how of the personnel that work
at Chloride.
The personnel with most experience, both in terms of technical details and sales, as well as design
and industrialisation, will be able to utilise this document to easily find the most commonly used
information. Furthermore it is a valid technical training tool for new employees.
Franco Costa
UPS Franchise Director

Authors' note
The purpose of this publication is to collect basic information and experience concerning
uninterruptible power supplies. It is aimed at those requiring more detailed information concerning
UPS rather than specific product functioning.
Topics under discussion range from product standards, and more generally those for special
applications, to UPS sizing, with reference to problems that can arise when using this particular
type of electrical equipment.
The topics under discussion do not exhaust the material, and neither are they always examined in
detail. This is because the document is aimed, as far as possible, at those dealing with UPS for the
first time.
We acknowledge the efforts of those who have contributed to this first edition. We welcome new
contributions, criticisms and suggestions from them, and anyone else, to ensure that future versions
of the text are better than the existing one.
Emiliano Cevenini
Claudio Zucchini
CHLORIDE SUPORT & CONSULTING

E-Mail:

CSC@Chloridepower.com

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CONTENTS
1

CLASSIFYING UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES ................................................ 7


1.1 Uninterruptible power supplies ................................................................................................ 7
1.2 Rotating units ........................................................................................................................... 8
PRODUCT STANDARDS ...................................................................................................... 9
2.1 The purpose of standards.......................................................................................................... 9
2.2 Standard EN 50091-1............................................................................................................. 10
2.3 Standard EN 50091-2............................................................................................................. 14
2.4 Standard ENV 50091-3 .......................................................................................................... 18
ELEMENTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY............................................. 25
3.1 Interface with the power supply ............................................................................................. 25
3.1.1 Disturbances from the network..................................................................................... 25
3.1.2 Disturbances injected into the mains power supply ..................................................... 28
3.1.3 Correct sizing of electrical energy sources in systems with uninterruptible
power supplies. ............................................................................................................. 32
3.2 Interfacing towards the load ................................................................................................... 37
3.2.1 Types of load ................................................................................................................ 37
3.2.2 Current in the neutral conductor ................................................................................... 39
3.3 Radio frequency interference (RFI) and unipotential connection.......................................... 39
3.3.1 Disturbance ................................................................................................................... 40
3.3.2 Unipotential connections .............................................................................................. 40
3.3.3 Outside earths ............................................................................................................... 42
3.3.4 The cabinet.................................................................................................................... 43
3.3.5 RFI filters ...................................................................................................................... 43
POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS ............................................................................................... 45
4.1 Classification.......................................................................................................................... 45
4.1.1 TN systems ................................................................................................................... 45
4.1.2 Protection against indirect contacts in TN systems ...................................................... 46
4.1.3 Using differential switches ........................................................................................... 48
4.1.4 TT systems .................................................................................................................... 50
4.1.5 Protection against indirect contacts in TT systems ....................................................... 51
4.1.6 IT systems ..................................................................................................................... 52
4.1.7 Protection against indirect contacts in IT systems (first fault) ..................................... 53
4.1.8 Protection against indirect contacts in IT systems (double fault) ................................. 53
4.2 Faulty UPS functioning cycles ............................................................................................... 56
4.2.1 Overloads ...................................................................................................................... 56
4.2.2 Short circuits ................................................................................................................. 58
4.2.3 Mains power supply failure .......................................................................................... 59
4.2.4 Floating neutral functioning ......................................................................................... 60
4.3 Permanent modifications to neutral status ............................................................................. 61
4.4 Differential selectivity components ....................................................................................... 62
SELECTION CRITERIA FOR UPS SYSTEMS .................................................................. 69
5.1 Emergency power supply ....................................................................................................... 69
5.1.1 Safety power supply ..................................................................................................... 69
5.1.2 Standby power supply................................................................................................... 69
5.2 UPS configurations for standby and safety services .............................................................. 70
5.3 Static switch assemblies. ........................................................................................................ 73
5.4 Using system static switch assemblies: two typical examples ............................................... 74
5.5 Service availability and communication with the UPS .......................................................... 76

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5.6 Inverter power sizing.............................................................................................................. 78


5.7 Sizing examples...................................................................................................................... 81
6
BATTERY CAPACITY SIZING TECHNIQUES ................................................................ 83
6.1 Determining battery capacity for constant power discharging using current as a
parameter ................................................................................................................................ 84
6.1.1 Capacity sizing example for a VRLA battery using current as a parameter ................ 85
6.2 Determining battery capacity for constant power discharging using the power
parameter for each cell ........................................................................................................... 87
6.2.1 Capacity sizing example for a VRLA battery using power per cell as a
parameter ...................................................................................................................... 88
6.3 Battery recharging methods ................................................................................................... 89
6.3.1 Charging with characteristic I- V with voltage limit of 2.4 V/cell ............................... 90
6.3.2 Charging with characteristic I- V with voltage limit set at float voltage ...................... 91
6.3.3 Recharging at 2.7 Volts/cell ......................................................................................... 92
6.4 Recharging times .................................................................................................................... 92
6.5 Battery line protection............................................................................................................ 93
7
ANALYSING SPECIFICATIONS........................................................................................ 95
7.1 Cross references between obsolete standards and standards EN 50091 and IEC 62040 ....... 96
7.2 Standards for special applications ........................................................................................ 104

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CLASSIFYING UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES

An Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) is a system capable of supplying high quality electrical
power without interruptions. An electricity generating unit (motor-alternator) cannot be considered
as an uninterruptible power supply because it has a switch ON-time of several tenths of a second
(automatic switch-ON when the mains power failure is detected). This time period can be
considered as the time necessary to restore the power supply after a mains power failure. It is too
long to enable normal functioning of virtually all devices that use electricity. Uninterruptible power
supplies, as well as providing protection against all types of power supply failure, are also capable
of filtering a vast range of disturbances found in the mains power supply thus providing more
sensitive loads with a perfect power supply. Therefore uninterruptible power supplies perform two
functions:
They filter disturbances from the continuously functioning mains power supply.
They supply power to the loads in the event that the mains power supply fails.
Therefore a UPS must have a power reserve within its structure. The power can be stored in
electrochemical or mechanical format. The former concerns uninterruptible power supplies whilst
the latter concerns rotating units. This document deals exclusively with uninterruptible power
supplies. The main characteristics of these two types of system are shown below.
1.1

Uninterruptible power supplies

Uninterruptible power supplies use electrical accumulator batteries as a power reserve.


The batteries are usually made of lead, and more rarely nickel-cadmium. Uninterruptible power
supplies are widely used in the majority of applications. This is thanks to their reliability and
flexibility. The main component is the DC/AC switch assembly, or inverter. This is needed to
convert the continuous electrical power supplied by the rectifier or the batteries into alternating
power at a set frequency. One of the architectures offering the best performance level, both in terms
of power supply continuity and the high quality of the power supplied to the load, is that known as
double conversion (see Figure 1-1). This architecture uses an AC/DC converter (rectifier) and an
inverter. Under normal functioning conditions the power flows from the input to the output through
the two converters. If there is no input power supply, the power is supplied to the inverter directly
from the battery, without the intervention of any other device.

LOAD

Figure 1-1 Double conversion UPS (main outline)


The performance levels of this architecture derive from the fact that under all functioning conditions
the load is separated from the mains power supply because it is always powered by the inverter.
Typical autonomy of these UPS (that is to say maximum battery functioning time until the stored
power is exhausted) ranges from a few minutes to an hour. Usually, electricity generating units,
capable of replacing the mains power supply, are used when longer periods of autonomy are
required. See the following sections for further details.

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1.2

Rotating units

In this type of unit the power reserve is mechanical and stored in a flywheel kept in constant
rotation. One of the most widely used architectures involves an electric motor-generator unit and an
input frequency adjustment system. This system means that the rotation speed of the flywheel
connected to the electric motor-generator unit is kept constant, and therefore the output frequency is
kept constant. The load is powered by the generator output. In general the flywheel is able to
withstand a mains power failure for a few seconds. Other versions use a synchronous regulator
generator system, an induc tion coupling and a diesel engine with a freely rotating clutch. The diesel
engine is run at a speed that is equal to the rotation of the synchronous regulatorgenerator. When
there is a mains power supply failure, the diesel engine keeps the generator rotating thanks to the
intervention of the freely rotating clutch. In this case autonomy is limited only by the fuel supply.
Rotating UPS have several disadvantages including noise level, long periods of downtime and
maintenance associated with mechanical parts, considerable weight and size. Furthermore these
devices are subject to legal requirements and standards that are different from those applicable to
uninterruptible power supplies. For example they must adhere to DE 89/392/CEE (Machinery
Directive) and they can only be installed in special rooms with specific features.

Bibliography
[1]

IEEE Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby Power Systems for Industrial and
Commercial Applications, IEEE Orange Book, 1996

[2]

CEMEP, Uninterruptible Power Supply, European Guide, 1999

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PRODUCT STANDARDS

2.1

The purpose of standards

The main purpose of standards is to provide objective references to ensure a minimum acceptable
safety level and, as with the latest standards, a reference for product performance levels. As is well
known the strength of standards lies in the mutual recognition between nations (on a European and
a wider international level) enabling products to be exchanged without specific restraints and
without the need for specific adaptation.
This means that there is a greater onus on manufacturers to pay more attention to specific problems,
particularly in the area of personal safety. In return manufacturers can exploit the advantage of a
more economic production process give n by the standardisation of products, processes and
performance levels. There is also more efficient technical communication given by the
standardisation of symbols and icons. Finally, better consumer protection is ensured by a more
transparent price/quality ratio. Standards are organised on the following three levels:
National
European
International
The European body is CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization).
Founded in 1973, CENELEC defines the conditions for free movement of goods within the EU to
which the European Directives of today refer. CENELEC standards are identified by the suffix EN,
and member states are legally obliged to enforce them. Modifications during translation into the
language of the country that must adopt the standards are not permitted. There is a date (DOW
Date Of Withdraw) by which time the national standards that contrast with the new ones must be
withdrawn.
There are numbers to identify the origins of the standard.
EN 50000 series: these are standards prepared by the CENELEC technical committees.
The standard relating to UPS is part of this series because it was drafted
by a CENELEC task- force called BT60-4.
EN 55000 series: these are drafted by CISPR and refer to radio interference.
EN 60000 series: these are drafted by IEC and then adapted to European needs.
The international standards body is known as the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission).
All the countries in the world adhere to IEC standards.
As has already been said, national standards are the exact equivalent of the standards used by the
countries that make up CENELEC group. Therefore a British standard (BS) is the exact equivalent
of the corresponding German standard (VDE) etc. That established by European directives must be
added to this. The resolution known as the new approach, approved by the European Community
Council in 1985, redefines the European Directive so that it no longer describes the technical
requirements of a product, but exclusively the minimum safety requirements. Standards bodies are
delegated the task of defining the technical specifications which must be met to show that a product
conforms to said directives. European Directives relevant to UPS are as follows:
73/23/CEE (Low Voltage Directive).
Council Directive 73/23/CEE of 19 February 1973 on the harmonization of the laws of
Member States relating to electrical equipment designed for use within certain voltage
limits.
CE mark obligatory from 1/1/97.
89/336/CEE (Electro Magnetic Compatibility).
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Council Directive 89/336/CEE of 3 May 1989 on the approximation of the laws of


Member States relating to electromagnetic compatibility.
CE mark obligatory from 1/1/96.
Table 2-1 shows an updated list of the publications which refer to the applicable European
Directives.

European Directive

References

EMC

89/336/CEE

LVD

73/23/CEE

Amendments
92/31/CEE
93/68/CEE
art. 5(4)
93/68/CEE
art. 13

Table 2-1 Applicable European directives, amendments and Italian laws of recognition
Uninterruptible power supplies are exempted from application of the following European
Directives:
89/106/CEE Construction Products Directive
89/392/CEE Machinery Directive
Specifically, the following standards ha ve been issued with regard to uninterruptible power supply
systems:
EN 50091-1
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Part 1: General and safety prescriptions. This
standard was ratified 9/12/92 with DOW 15/03/94.
EN 50091-2
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Part 2: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
requirements. This standard was ratified 6/3/95 with DOW 01/03/96.
ENV 50091-3
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Part 3: Performance prescriptions and test methods.
This is a temporary standard, ratified 01/02/98, with a duration of three years.
Existing standards have then been amended giving rise to the following new standards:
EN 50091-1-1
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Part 1-1: General and safety prescriptions for UPS
used in areas accessible to the operator.
EN 50091-1-2
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Part 1-2: General and safety prescriptions for UPS
used in limited access areas.
2.2

Standard EN 50091-1

This standard deals with the general prescriptions concerning the safety of UPS systems.
The reference document (RD) is standard IEC 950, which corresponds to EN 60950: "information
technology equipment including electrical equipment for the office: safety. We have used this
standard (IEC 950), which to a large extent is not fully applicable to UPS, because it is an important
benchmark for equipment, particularly limited power equipment, comparable with computer
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equipment (PCs, printers, typewriters, etc.). This standard has been modified in some of its parts to
adapt it to the specific features of UPS systems.
We know that a UPS system has a very particular function within a power supply system: under
normal functioning conditions it is simply a load for the mains power supply that powers it, with
interface functions to filter and stabilise the electrical parameters of the network, to supply the load
with perfect voltage and frequency. Whereas in the event of a mains power supply failure the UPS
system behaves as an autonomous generator. Therefore the RD has been altered to ensure that it is a
perfect tool for the task for which it was intended.
Obviously, the work of those that write standards is an ongoing task. The working group is
constantly making improvements and/or modifications. Particular attention has been given to the
differences that may exist between different types of equipment particularly system power, which
generally also gives an idea of the specific application type.
For this reason standard EN 50091-1 was later divided into two separate standards:
EN 50091-1-1
EN 50091-1-2
As has already been said part 1-1 refers to installations accessible to all and therefore describes
maximum safety level criteria, whereas part 1-2 refers to installations in locations that can only be
accessed by specialist personnel. Clearly the aim of those that write standards is to allow the
designer more room for manoeuvre. This means that although the designer must ensure that the vital
personal safety performance levels are maintained, they can take different precautions compared to
those for part 1-1. This is undoubtedly applicable to high power equipment where the system
generally has different characteristics compared to a low power one.
The main differences with EN 60950 are described in the section dealing with marks and
instructions. In this case the power supply sources, the possible internal presence of batteries, the
output power and relative load all had to be defined. Other specific features include the definition of
qualified service and maintenance personnel responsible for installation and trained personnel.
The main factors in the location of protection and/or the mains power supply switch, differentiating
between installations with fixed and plug- in equipment, are also defined if they are not envisaged in
the UPS. As far as backfeed protection is concerned, when the special circuitry is not envisaged, all
the electrical cabinets that supply power to the UPS must be marked as such to protect the operator
who may have to work on potentially live parts of the system.
Furthermore the dispersion current is noted which is envisaged to be no greater than 0.05 (nominal
input current). Given that the value of 3.5 mA has been exceeded then the earth conductor must be
connected before any other conductor This factor must be highlighted.
Annex N, defining the amount of air needed to ventilate the battery compartments, is of extreme
importance (applicable also to battery rooms):
Q = 0,054 n I C

Equation 2-1
where:
0.054
n
I
C

m3
Ah
number of elements (or cells) in the battery string
0 ,2 A
for valve regulated lead accumulators (VRLA)
100 Ah
nominal battery capacity in Ah with autonomy of 10 hours.
result of the product (vqs). Value in

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Equation 2-1 enables calculation of the air flow rate (in m3 /h) needed to circulate through the
ventilation holes so that the hydrogen concentration never reaches danger levels (4%). The annex
also shows the calculation for the surface area of the openings, in cm2 , given the necessary air flow
rate, in the case of natural ventilation, defining the area sufficient to ensure an invective air flow
rate to enable an exchange with the outside to guarantee the required flow rate. This is all valid in
the absence of other air flow mechanisms that differ from natural motion.
This calculation method ensures a sufficient level of safety against explosions given that the hot
components (> 300C) or those that produce sparks are kept at a suitable distance from the
ventilation ho les (500 mm is sufficient in battery rooms).
The formula also conforms with the new European standard EN 50272-2, Safety requirements for
secondary battery installations. Part 2: stationary batteries (dop 01/04/2001), described in section
8. For natural ventilation this standard advises locating the air input and output holes on different
walls, or to maintain a vertical distance of at least 2 m between them if the holes are on the same
wall. Natural ventilation is preferred to forced ventilation. In the event that it is not possible to
obtain the necessary air flow rate Q using only convective motion, then forced ventilation can be
used. In this case ventilation functioning must be co-ordinated (interlocked) with battery charge
functioning so that potentially dangerous situations do not arise (e.g. battery charge ON and
ventilation OFF). Refer to section 6.3 for a description of recharging methods.

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CONTENTS
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8

GENERAL
Scope
Normative references
Definitions
General requirements
General conditions for tests
Component
Power interfaces
Marking and instructions

2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12

FUNDAMENTAL DESIGN REQUIREMENT S


Protection against electric shock and energy hazard
Insulation
Safety Extra-Low Voltage (SELV) Circuits
Limited current circuits
Provisions for protective earthing
A.C. and D.C. power isolation
Overcurrent and earth fault protection
Protection of personnel - Safety interlocks
Clearances, creepage distances and distances through insulation
External signalling circuits
Limited power source
Protection of the applied load

3
3.1
3.2
3.3

WIRING, CONNECTION AND SUPPLY


General
Connection to power
Wiring terminals for external power conductors

4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
Stability and mechanical hazards
Mechanical strength and stress relief
Construction details
Resistance to fire
Battery location

5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS


Heating
Earth leakage current
Electric strength
Abnormal operating and fault conditions

ANNEXES
A
Test for resistance to heat and fire
B
Motor test under abnormal conditions
C
Transformer
D
Measuring instruments for earth leakage current test
E
Temperature rise of a winding
F
Measurements of creepage distances and clearances
G
Earth leakage current for UPS intended to be connected directly to it power systems
J
Table of electromechanical potentials
K
Thermal controls
H
Guidance on protection against ingress of water and foreign objects
L
Backfeed protection test
M
Examples of reference load conditions
M.1
General
M.2
Reference resistive load
M.3
Reference inductive-resistive load
M.4
Reference capacitiv e-resistive loads
M.5
Reference non linear load
N
Ventilation of battery compartments
N.1
Notes for guidance
N.2
Application of lead-acid batteries
N.3
Ventilation requirements (normative)
P
Q
A-Deviations

Figure 2-1 - Contents of standard EN 50091-1

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As far as the batteries are concerned, the recharging methods (external batteries), the location of the
maximum current protection system, the value of the recharging current and all the information
required to fully define the type of battery used must be defined.
The variations for parts 1-2 are as follows:
Definition of accessibility and personnel.
Safety instructions.
Information on the manual rather than the mark.
Protection against electric shocks.
Design features of the case.
Resistance to fire and dispersion current to earth.
2.3

Standard EN 50091-2

Part 2 refers to electromagnetic compatibility. This standard deals with all aspects relating to the
applicability to UPS of existing standards that have in part already been experimented in the field,
even though the specific difficulty of actuation and the importance of some types of measurement
mean that further considerations must be made. The main aim however is to provide minimum
criteria to guarantee sufficient electrical compatibility levels to ensure correct functioning both in an
industrial environment and a residential one. It is for this reason that some emission limit categories
have been introduced.
Therefore UPS are classified according to the following rules:

UPS for unrestricted sales distribution.


The most stringent emission limits are applied to this category of UPS in that the equipment
can be used in any type of environment, both industrial and residential, without any
restrictions.
The UPS in this category are subdivided into two distinct groups:
Class A: equipment suitable for use in non-residential environments, connected
directly to a mains power supply.
This class is made up of all UPS that are permanently connected using an industrial
type plug or socket.
A warning concerning emissions is obligatory for this class:
This product is a class A UPS. It may cause radio interference in residential
environments. Refer to the user.
Class B: equipment suitable for use in all environments, including residential ones,
and connected directly to a mains power supply.
This class is made up of all UPS connected using a non- industrial type plug (IEC83).

UPS for restricted sales distribution.


The highest emission limits are applied to this category in that it is reserved for specialist
users capable of assessing the necessary characteristics expected of the product.
The reasons for this choice are linked mainly to economic and application aspects.
Equipment with a current greater than 25 A and a free surrounding space greater than 30 m belongs
to this category. A warning concerning emissions is obligatory for this class: This product is
restricted for sale to specialist installers or users. Installation restrictions or additional measures may
be necessary to avoid disturbances.
Paragraph 2 refers to the problems relating to driven type emissions for both unrestricted and
restricted sales distribution UPS.
Table 2-2 and Table 2-3 shown below describe the driven type interference voltage limits, to the
network terminals, whereas Table 2-4 and Table 2-5 describe the irradiated type interference
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voltage limits. The values shown in Table 2-2 and Table 2-3 increased by 14 dB are those for the
UPS output driven interference voltage limits. As far as the low frequency driven emission limits
are concerned the reference standard is EN 60555-2 which must be replaced by EN 61000-3-2 if its
application field is relevant. Successive developments are currently being studied.
The measurement methods are described in the same paragraph.
Limits
[dB (V)]

Frequency
range
(MHz)

Class A UPS
Class B UPS
Virtual peak
Mean
Virtual peak
Mean
from 0.15 to 0.50
79
66
(*) from 66 to 56 (*) from 56 to 46
from 0.50 to 5
73
60
56
46
from 5 to 30
73
60
60
50
(*) the limit decreases in line with the frequency logarithm
Table 2-2 Driven emission limits to network terminals for restricted sales distribution UPS
UPS
nominal
current
25-100A

101-400A
> 400A

Frequency range
(MHz)

Limits [dB(V)]
Virtual peak

Mean

from 0.15 to 0.50


100
90
from 0.50 to 5.0
86
76
from 5.0 to 30.0
(*) from 90 to 70
(*) from 80 to 60
from 0.15 to 0.50
130
120
from 0.50 to 5.0
125
115
from 5.0 to 30.0
115
105
from 0.15 to 0.50
from 0.50 to 5.0
Under study
Under study
from 5.0 to 30.0
(*) the limit decreases in line with the frequency logarithm

Table 2-3 Driven emission limits to network terminals for restricted sales distribution UPS

Figure 2-2 shows the driven emission limits to network terminals in graph format. Figure 2-3
shows, in graph format, the emission limits given by standards VDE 0871 and VDE 0875 normally
used before definition of product standard EN 50091.

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140

RS 100 - 400A

120
Virtual peak [dB (V)]

RS 25 - 100A
100
Class A
80
60
Class B
40
20
0
0.1

MHz

10

100

Figure 2-2 Driven emission limits to network terminals EN 50091-2

140

Virtual peak [dB(V)]

120
100
VDE 0875 G

80
VDE 0875 N

60 VDE 0871 A - C
VDE 0871 B

40
VDE 0875 K

20
0
0.1

MHz

10

100

Figure 2-3 Driven emission limits VDE 0871 VDE 0875


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The irradiated emission limits have been defined as shown below.


Virtual peak limits [dB(V)]
Class A UPS
Class B UPS
Test distance
Test distance
10 m
10 m
40
30
47
37

Frequency range
(MHz)
from 30 to 230
from 230 to 1000

Table 2-4 Irradiated emission limits for unrestricted sales distribution UPS

Frequency range
(MHz)

Virtual peak limits [dB(V)]


Test distance
30 m

from 30 to 230
from 230 to 1000

Under study

Table 2-5 Irradiated emission limits for restricted sales distribution UPS
The irradiated emission limits are shown in graph format in Figure 2-4.

Virtual peak [dB (V)]

100

RS
&
Class A
Class B

10

1
10

100

MHz

1000

Figure 2-4 Irradiated emission limits EN 50091-2

Section 3 deals with immunity to disturbances. This is tested by taking into consideration the output
characteristics (according to that envisaged by ENV 50091-3) and the various functioning modes.
In general there are two criteria to satisfy, A and B.
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Performance criteria for immunity tests


Component

Criterion A

Criterion B

Static tolerances
(ENV 50091-3)

Dynamic tolerances
(ENV 50091-3)

Test variations

Test variations

Command signals to
external devices

No variation

Variations depending on
functioning mode

Functioning mode

No variation

Only temporary variations

Output characteristics

Internal and external


measurement indications

Table 2-6 Immunity levels


The prescribed tests are as follows:
Type of test
Electrostatic discharges
Electromagnetic fields
Quick transients
Overloads
Low frequency

Reference standard
IEC 801-2
IEC 801-3
IEC 801-4
IEC 801-5
IEC 1000-2-2

Prescription
3
2
2
Under definition

Performance
B
A
A
Under definition

Table 2-7 Immunity tests


2.4

Standard ENV 50091-3

This part attempts to cover the performance aspects of the product which up to now were only
marginally touched on by an IEC document.
Standards IEC146-4 and IEC146-5 deal with the problems more directly linked with the system and
with specific refe rence to UPS. The EN standard is applicable to UPS in both mono-phase and
three-phase configurations both in input and in output. Environmental functioning, storage and
transport conditions are also defined. Section 3 defines the electrical functioning characteristics
with reference to input and output performance levels. Three different groups are used according to
the dynamic output characteristics. In particular these groups enable an initial selection of
equipment type on the basis of specific application needs.
The UPS offering the best dynamic output characteristics and therefore the best performance levels
belong to Class 1 (Figure 2-5). Those UPS able to power not particularly sensitive loads belong to
Class 2 (Figure 2-6). Those US with particularly low performance levels (no voltage for 10
milliseconds) belong to Class 3 (Figure 2-7).

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Figure 2-5 Dynamic output performance for Class 1 UPS

Figure 2-6 Dynamic output performance for Class 2 UPS

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MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 19

Figure 2-7 Dynamic output performance for Class 3 UPS

The standard also applies to UPS with a non-sinusoidal wave form, and in this case describes the
minimum characteristics of this wave form.
U
Up
0.9 Up
dUp
0.1 Up

t
dt

dt

T/2

Up

Figure 2-8 Non-sinusoidal wave form


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MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 20

Section 4 deals with the problem of UPS electrical testing and defines both type tests and those
done in the factory. Section 5 describes the non-electrical tests including transport, environmental
and noise level tests. Section 6 includes a classification of the UPS characteristics on the basis of
performance. This enables comparisons under the same conditions and using the same measurement
methods.
This classification is shown below.
V
F
I
____________________

Dependency of output on
dependent input only in
Normal mode

VFI =
UPS output voltage and
frequency independent from
input and within limits
prescribed by standard
ENV61000-2-2

VFD =
UPS output frequenc y and
voltage dependent on input
VI =
UPS output dependent on
input frequency variations
whilst voltage is stabilised

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

S
S
___________

Output wave form

1
1
2
____________________

Dynamic output performance

1st character =
Normal or Bypass
functioning
2nd character =
Battery functioning

1st character =
Performance during functioning
mode changeover
2nd character =
Performance with linear load step
in Normal/battery (worst case
scenario) functioning

S=
Sinusoidal wave form
with total harmonic
distortion D <0.08
within IEC61000-2-2
limits under all linear
and non- linear
reference load
conditions

3rd character =
Performance with reference nonlinear load step in Normal/battery
(worst case scenario) functioning

X=
Sinusoidal wave form
With linear load as for
S.
With a non- linear load
the distortion factor D
will be greater than
0.08 if loaded greater
than the limits defined
by the manufacturer
Y=
Non-sinusoidal wave
form and distortion
greater than ENV610002-2 limits (refer to
manufacturer's data)

2=

1=

3=

4=

Output voltage within


Class 1 limits (without
voltage failure)
Output voltage within
Class 2 limits (output
voltage at 0 for 1 ms max.)
Output voltage within
Class 3 limits (output
voltage at 0 for 10 ms
max.)
Refer to the performance
levels declared by the
manufacturer

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 21

As far as the annexes are concerned, it is worth highlighting that D8 contains some of the
commonest configuration examples with the aim of providing the user with information concerning
the technology used by the various constructors.
These are as follows:
AC input

AC
output

AC/DC
converter

Inverter

Block
diode
AC input
Battery
charger
Normal mode
Battery

Battery mode

Figure 2-9 Double conversion

AC input

Bypass (main or standby)

AC input

Static
switch

AC/DC
converter

AC
output

Inverter

Block
diode
AC input
Battery
charger
Normal mode
Battery

Battery mode
Bypass mode

Figure 2-10 Double conversion with bypass

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MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 22

AC input

AC
output

Power
interface

Inverter

Normal mode
Battery mode

Battery

Figure 2-11 - Interactive

Ac input

Ac
output
Switch

(optional
connection)

Inverter
AC switch
Battery
charger

Normal mode
Battery mode
Battery

Figure 2-12 Stand-by

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 23

Bibliography
[1]

EN 50091-1-1 Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Part 1-1: General and safety
requirements for UPS used in operator access areas.

[2]

EN 50091-1-2 Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Part 1-2: General and safety
requirements for UPS used in limited access areas.

[3]

EN 50091-2 Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Part 2: Electromagnetic compatibility


requirements (EMC).

[4]

ENV 50091-3 Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Part 3: Performance requirements


and test methods.

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POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 24

ELEMENTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY

An uninterruptible power supply is an electricity supply network conditioning device designed to


maintain the correct level of power to electrical equipment. The electrical equipment is usually of
vital importance in terms of its utilisation cycle. The UPS must also supply power when there is lots
of disturbance in the mains electricity supply and even when there is a mains power supply failure.
It is obvious that such a system will have a complex design in that on the one hand it must meet the
specifications of the power supply source and on the other the specifications of the load, and of
course these two factors may not be compatible. Both are variable and at the same time complex.
The mains electricity supply can be that provided by the national grid or in some cases another
electricity generating unit.
The load varies and usually consists of process controllers, electric motors, remote control switch
coils and system or emergency lighting. The load can be either mono-phase or three-phase and may
involve IT systems such as PCs, main frames, etc.
In terms of the electrical conditions, the most important factor to take into consideration is the level
of disturbance from the mains power supply, the level of disturbance injected into the network and
the type of load being supplied. Of course system conditions upstream and downstream of the UPS
must not be overlooked and therefore the level of selectivity of these conditions.
3.1

Interface with the power supply

3.1.1

Disturbances from the network

The biggest problems caused by the interface with the mains power supply involve voltage
distortion, electromagnetic disturbances which can compromise correct system functioning and
problems caused by the behaviour of other loads connected to the same line (the pickup of motors,
triggering of maximum current fuses, distorting loads, etc.). The voltage is often subject to varying
levels of disturbance which cannot always be controlled. These disturbances are produced and
transferred throughout the circuit. It is obvious that a good UPS must be able to withstand these
disturbances and consequently non not transfer the disturbance to the output terminals where the
load is connected. Therefore pulsed voltage overloads, less sudden variations, wave form distortions
and frequency variations (the latter are particularly frequent in the event of the intervention of an
electricity generating unit) must be considered as important design parameters.
3.1.1.1 Voltage variations
Given that electricity distribution lines are subject to continuous load variations, they cannot supply
a perfectly constant level of voltage. In addition there is the problem of falls in voltage caused by
undersized lines, overloads and voltage increases which occur when larger consumers do not absorb
the expected level of power. These factors cause voltage variations which result in serious problems
for the power supply stages of electronic equipment.

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POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 25

Figure 3-1 - Voltage variations


3.1.1.2 Pulsed variations
These are brief surges. They are extremely dangerous for electronic and IT loads in that they can
reach very high levels, sometimes several thousand volts.
They are normally caused by switching on high voltage power lines, atmospheric phenomena, and
the enabling or disabling of reactive loads.

Figure 3-2 - Pulsed variations


3.1.1.3 Radio disturbance
This is very common and is generally caused by all those devices which, due to electrical size
switching (voltage/current), produce radio frequencies. Typical examples include equipme nt using
static switch assemblies, transmitters, commutator motors, etc. The presence of such disturbance in
the distribution network can affect the IT load thus altering its functioning.

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MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 26

Figure 3-3 - Radio disturbance

3.1.1.4 Mains power supply failure


This is the most obvious problem, even though it is the most infrequent, because a power supply
failure is recognised by everyone. A power supply failure can be caused by faults in the production
system or on the distribution lines. Power supply failures that last for only a short time are very
significant, (statistics show that 90% of power supply failures do not exceed 100 milliseconds) and
they are normally caused by short circuits or switching.

Figure 3-4 - Power supply failures

These disturbances can also be further divided as follows:


a) External factors
Overhead power supply cables are often subject to a decrease in power quality
caused by atmospheric pheno mena e.g. lightning striking the line.
Factors reflected from activity in other geographically distinct areas electrically
connected to the line. This means that accidental switching or short circuits in
other parts of the line can be detected at the coupling point. Loads connected at
the same point and characterised by high levels of current distortion causing
CHLORIDE
MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 27
POWER PROTECTION

high levels of voltage distortion. The associated harmonics can cause resonance
which can result in very dangerous overloads.
b) Internal factors
These include low voltage activity. Load connection and disconnection can
cause overloads dangerous enough to damage the UPS input circuits.

3.1.2

Disturbances injected into the mains power supply

In general the UPS can be considered a conversion system. The technology used for the input stage
determines the type and quantity of harmonic pollution injected into the mains power supply
upstream. For example, in double conversion UPS the converter is connected directly to the mains
power supply and an AC/DC converter. If the converter is a controlled total jumper one consisting
of thyristors then the harmonic pollution on the current ensures a THDI reading 30% during
normal functioning. If current limitation functioning is reached then the current distortion is even
higher. As is well known this can cause serious problems (refer to section 3.1.3). In general a
current distortion total that causes a voltage distortion level at the common coupling point not
exceeding 8% is considered reasonable (defined also by ENV 61000-2-2 article 2 for public supply
networks, see Table 3-1, and EN 50160 article 2.11). The impedance value upstream, generator
power and the level of harmonics created by the UPS must be known in order to obtain this value.
These values can be used to identify the voltage distortion caused by the UPS at the common
coupling point, if the UPS is considered as the only load powered by the upstream source. The
existence of other loads powered by the source, as well as the UPS, means calculating the harmonic
voltage distortion, assessing also the harmonic pollution level caused by these loads.
Odd harmonics
not multiples of 3
Harmonic
order
5
7
11
13
17
19
23
25
>25

Harmonic
voltage
%
6
5
3.5
3
2
1.5
1.5
1.5
0.2 0.5
25/n

Odd harmonics
multiples of 3
Harmonic
order
3
9
15
21
>21

Even harmonics

Harmonic
voltage
%
5
1.5
0.3
0.2
0.2

Harmonic
order
2
4
6
8
10
12
>12

Harmonic
voltage
%
2
1
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.2
0.2

Table 3-1 Compatibility levels for the individual harmonic voltages in low voltage networks ENV
61000-2-2 article 2

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MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 28

An interesting approach is the one established by the British standard which sets the maximum
(absolute) acceptable current levels (G5/3). Therefore up to a power level of 100 kVA the UPS can
be installed without taking any specific precautions. Whereas for higher power levels a system to
reduce the level of harmonic current content injected into the network must be used.
Table 3-2 shows the typical percentage current distortion values, for six-phase and twelve-phase
rectifiers, compared with the absolute values (A) suggested by G5/3. Therefore beyond certain
power levels it is possible to use twelve-phase conversion circuits when there is only one UPS.
In the event of more than one UPS powered by the same source, system phase displacement circuits
or out of phase twelve-phase systems can be used to ensure that the standard is met as effectively as
possible. In general a good level of harmonic voltage distortion at the common coupling point can
be obtained when the ratio between UPS/network impedance is greater than 5 for a six-pulse
converter (six-phase) and greater than 3.5 for a 12-phase converter.

Harmonic
order

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Harmonic content
(%)

G5/3
(A)

Six-phase

Twelve-phase

3
0
0
26
0
5
0
0
0
4.5
0
3
0
0
0
0.5
0
1.6

0
1.7
0
3.6
0
2.3
0
0
0
4
0
7
0
0
0
2
0
2

48
34
22
56
11
40
9
8
7
19
6
16
5
5
5
6
4
6

Table 3-2 Acceptable maximum absolute levels according to standard G5/3


Some examples of the technological solutions currently used for AC/DC converters in three-phase
input UPS are shown below. Six-phase rectifier (fully controlled), six-phase rectifier with fifth
harmonic filter, twelve-phase rectifier.

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MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 29

Harmonic
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
THDi %

Six-phase
100%
0%
0%
0%
26%
0%
5%
0%
0%
0%
4.5%
0%
3%
0%
0%
0%
0.5%
0%
1.6%
0%
28%

Twelve-phase + 10% filter


100%
0%
0%
0%
4%
0%
4%
0%
0%
0%
4.5%
0%
3%
0%
0%
0%
1.8%
0%
1%
0%
8.5%

Table 3-3 Comparison between six-phase and six-phase with fifth harmonic filter

30
Six-phase
Twelve-phase + 10% filter
25

amplitude %

20

15

10

0
2

CHLORIDE
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10 11 12 13
harmonic order

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 30

Harmonic

Six-phase Twelve-phase

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
THDi %

100%
0%
0%
0%
26%
0%
5%
0%
0%
0%
4.5%
0%
3%
0%
0%
0%
0.5%
0%
1.6%
0%
28%

100%
0%
1.7%
0%
3.6%
0%
2.3%
0%
0%
0%
4%
0%
7%
0%
0%
0%
2%
0%
2%
0%
9.8%

Table 3-4 Comparison between six-phase and twelve -phase


30
Six-phase
Twelve-phase
25

amplitude %

20

15

10

0
2

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

10 11 12 13
harmonic order

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 31

3.1.3

Correct sizing of electrical energy sources in systems with uninterruptible power


supplies.

This section provides a description of how to size an electrical energy source to be used in
applications with an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). Guidelines for calculating the power of
electricity generating units used in fail-safe uninterruptible power supplies are also shown.
When an alternated electricity source has to be sized to power non- linear loads, as well as the active
and reactive power, the harmonic voltage distortion must also be considered. This distortion is the
effect of current non-sinusoidal absorption on the part of the non-linear load. According to the
Fourier series, each non-sinusoidal wave form can be considered as the sum of the fundamental
frequency multiple frequency sinusoids (harmonics). The harmonic currents generate multiplefrequency potential falls on the equivalent impedance of the power supply system (including the
source internal impedance). The result is a distorted voltage wave form. If there is too much
distortion then there are various negative effects on the system, including the possible incorrect
functioning of the equipment connected to the common coupling point. The European reference
standard is ENV61000-2-2 which imposes a maximum total voltage harmonic distortion value less
than or equal to 8%. Under these conditions each source and each load must function correctly. The
system sees uninterruptible power supplies as non-linear loads and therefore a method of sizing the
electrical power must be found to limit the harmonic voltage distortion.
3.1.3.1 Sizing the electrical power of the source

ZS

UPS

Source

The model used for the calculation is that shown in Figure 3-5. The source is represented only by
the impedance which is the equivalent of a series of outputs whereas the UPS input stage is
represented by an ideal generator of harmonic currents.

Vnom
In

Figure 3-5
To justify this it can be shown [3] that the harmonic currents do not contribute to the active power
transferred to the load but only the reactive power, and therefore they are considered injected into
the network by the load itself. Despite the minimum complexity of this model, the calculations and
experience show that the model enables reliable sizing of the source if the equivalent impedance of
the power supply line can be overlooked.

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MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 32

The following definitions are required to make the calculation:


Normalised equivalent impedance ZS : this shows the voltage decrease, compared to the
nominal functioning voltage, that the equivalent impedance ZS would cause if it was
traversed by the nominal current at the fundamental pulse 0 =2f0 (all currents and
voltages shown are efficient values):
Equation 3-1
ZS

ZS I SO
nom
Vnom

I SO
nom = nominal source current (efficient value)
Vnom = nominal voltage (efficient value)
ZS = ? 0 Ld

Total harmonic voltage distortion THDV:


Equation 3-2

THD

2
n

V0

V0 = fundamental harmonic voltage


Vn = n harmonic voltage

On the basis of these definitions and used the model shown in Figure 3-5 it is possible to obtain
Equation 3-3:
Equation 3-3
A SO
Z K
UPS
R dim = nom
S UPS 100, with ASO
nom A max
UPS
A max THD V %
SO
UPS
where A nom means source apparent electrical power, where A max
means UPS apparent electrical
power, where Rdim means sizing ratio between source and UPS and where KUPS means a typical
input stage parameter of the UPS. Typical values for the KUPS parameter are shown in Table 3-5 for
some AC/DC converters used in UPS.
Equation 3-3 links the total harmonic voltage distortion, the ratio between the nominal apparent
electrical powers of the source and the UPS, the output feature of the source itself and the
technology used to manufacture the UPS AC/DC converter. Indeed the KUPS parameter is a function
of the normalised harmonic spectrum of the current absorbed by the UPS input stage. If a maximum
total harmonic voltage distortion is set at the common coupling point, and assuming that the source
only powers the UPS, then Equation 3-3 can be used to perfectly size the apparent power of the
source.
CHLORIDE
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POWER PROTECTION

UPS AC/DC converter


six-phase
twelve-phase
six-phase with filter 1
PFC2

KUPS
1.7
0.8
1.0
0.6

Table 3-5 Typical values for the KUPS parameter


If the source only powers the UPS then the apparent power of the latter to apply in Equation 3-3 is
the maximum value shown in the technical specifications, that is to say the nominal apparent output
power divided by the UPS AC/AC UPS performance plus, if relevant, the power required to
recharge the batteries. It is worth noting that if the apparent power absorbed by the UPS is less than
the maximum value then a portion of the power will be supplied to the nominal load by the UPS
batteries. This functioning cycle is limited in time by the autonomy of the batteries for the load
fraction that they must power. It will be seen in the next section that the latter consideration can be
useful when the electrical energy source is an electricity generating unit. Still assuming that the
source only powers the UPS under nominal conditions and that the ratio of the apparent powers in
Equation 3-3 is virtually unitary, then the following approximation can be considered valid:
THD V % 100 ZS K UPS Equation 3-4
that is to say the voltage distortion at the UPS input is approximately equal to normalised equivalent
impedance of the source for the KUPS if UPS and source sizing are in a ratio of one to one.
3.1.3.2 Some application examples
If the source of electrical energy is a transformer then the normalised series equivalent impedance is
equal to the normalised short circuit impedance 3 . The model used for the voltage distortion
calculation is valid for single-phase transformers and three-phase transformers powered by three
symmetric voltages and connected to balanced loads. The typical normalised short circuit
impedance values vary from 4% to 7%. The impedance is mainly inductive. If the energy source is
an electricity generating unit then the normalised equivalent impedance is the normalised subtransient reactivity of the alternator. The values for this parameter are usually in a range between
8% and 20%.
Table 3-6 shows, by way of example, some sizing ratios with the maximum harmonic voltage
distortion set at 8%. It should be noted that the sizing ratio only refers to the apparent electrical
power supplied by the source. Therefore in the event that the source is an electricity generating unit,
the ratio refers to alternator power and not motor power.
Keeping the harmonic distortion within acceptable values when the power is supplied by an
electricity generating unit is of vital importance. Indeed, whilst the damage caused by the harmonic
distortion from a transformer power supply may not be immediately obvious, that from an

The filter is passive and resonant on the fifth harmonic (L-C)


Three-phase input, boost converter (CHLORIDE Synthesis Twin series)
3
The normalised short circuit impedance value is more or less equal to the normalised short circuit voltage on the
transformer secondary.
2

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POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 34

electricity generating unit may result in complete instability during voltage adjustment. This may
cause the generator to be switched OFF and the loss of the load after the expiry of UPS autonomy.
The following section shows a sizing example with an electricity generating unit.

UPS AC/DC converter


six-phase
twelve-phase
six-phase with filter
PFC
THDv %

ZS =4%
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
8%

ZS =6%
1.3
1.0
1.0
1.0
8%

ZS =12%
2.5
1.2
1.5
1.0
8%

ZS =20%
4.2
2.0
2.5
1.5
8%

Table 3-6 Rsizing as a function of source output equivalent impedance to obtain THD V= 8%.

3.1.3.3 Example of electricity generating unit sizing for UPS


It is assumed that an uninterruptible power supply must be provided for a generic three-phase load
Figure 3-6 absorbing an apparent Anom and active Pnom power.

?G

M
PM

? UPS
UPS

AGEN

AUPS, PUPS

Load
Anom, Pnom

Figure 3-6
The maximum power absorbed by the UPS input, both active and apparent, can be deduced from
the technical specification4 . However, the maximum power in input will be equal to Pnom absorbed
by the load divided by UPS performance plus the level of active power required to recharge the
batteries, if relevant. Given that AUPS is known, the electricity generating unit alternator can be
sized by calculating the required AGEN value using the method described in section 3.1.3.1.
Given the values for active power absorbed by the UPS and alternator performance, it is possible to
calculate the mechanical power to the shaft that the motor must supply to the latter. Therefore the
following equation is valid for motor sizing:
Pnom
PM =
Equation 3-5
? G ? UPS
Consider the following example 5 : the maximum apparent power in input to a UPS with a six-phase
AC/DC converter, at nominal voltage (400 V between phases), is 110 kVA with quick-charge
batteries.
4
5

In this example (double conversion UPS) assume A UPS 1.25 A nom


The example is based on the technical specifications of the CHLORIDE EDP90 series

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MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 35

The electricity generating unit must be sized only to supply the UPS. From Table 3-6 it can be
deduced that if the electricity generating unit alternator has a reactive sub-transient value of 12%,
then the unit must be able to supply an apparent power of 250 kVA so that the total harmonic
voltage distortion is equal to or less than 8%. It should be remembered that normal functioning of
the electricity generating unit and the UPS, and indeed any other equipment powered from the
common coupling point, cannot be guaranteed if this distortion value is exceeded. The maximum
active power required at the UPS input is 72 kW in float charge (the power factor in input is 0.83 at
nominal voltage). Therefore if the alternator has a performance level of 70%, the unit motor must be
able to supply a maximum power of 95 kW. Now let us assume a UPS with the same power but a
twelve-phase input converter. In this case the alternator must be capable of supplying 150 kVA of
power. Note that motor sizing remains unchanged. Indeed, if alternator performance remains
unchanged, the motor must supply the same level of active power in both cases. Table 3-7 illustrates
the costs for a UPS and an electricity generating unit for the two scenarios described above.
AC/DC
converter

UPS cost without


batteries
(ITL millions)

UPS ANOM
(kVA)

Generator cost
(ITL millions)

Generator
alternator
power

Total cost
(ITL millions)

six-phase
twelve-phase

42
48

100
100

75
62

250
150

117
110

Table 3-7
It can be seen from this example that the saving on the generator, as well as compensating for the
higher cost of the UPS (twelve-phase technology provides better performance levels and is
therefore more costly than six-phase technology) enables an overall saving of approximately 6%.
When a UPS mounting a six-phase input converter with a resonant L-C filter is used, the load
percentage applied to the UPS plays a vital role. When the load applied to the UPS is 30% of the
nominal power, the bank of filter condensers is designed to re-phase (at the fundamental frequency)
all the reactive power at the rectifier input (which has an inductive power factor). If the load applied
to the UPS should decrease further, the input power factor of the UPS becomes capacitive.
Normally electricity generating units find it very difficult to adjust output voltage in the presence of
capacitive loads. Therefore the use of six-phase rectifiers for applications in which the nominal
power of the UPS is underused should be avoided.

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 36

3.2
3.2.1

Interfacing towards the load


Types of load

The types of load requiring a more careful assessment are electric motors and distorting loads
(typically variable frequency motor commands, DC motor commands, distorting loads and
obviously all types of IT load).
In the first instance problems derive from the characteristic current surge which causes the UPS to
be oversized or the overall features of the load to be assessed very closely: sequencing when
supplying the motors, start configuration type (star-triangle connection), etc. If the current surges
are too high and/or last longer than that accepted by the inverter (causing current limit functioning
with a natural decrease in the output voltage) then the standby network line can be used. The static
switch assembly means that this line is able to supply very intense currents (10-15 In) for some
periods (see section 4.2.1 for a more detailed description). The real problem arises when the mains
power supply is not available because the tolerance is outside the accepted limits or even missing
and therefore the inverter must bear the surge. In the latter instance the only alternative is to
oversize the UPS. The Power supply to highly distorting loads consisting of six-phase rectifying
circuits has a very low impedance level around the 5th and 7th fundamental harmonic. This causes
the generator (UPS) to supply more current. Therefore the power supply system output impedance
must adapt itself to these load conditions. As a general rule low impedance and good overload
capacity are required. These must be able to meet the demands of the current surges without large
variations in the output voltage.
Another type of highly distorting load is the classic single-phase load with a powerful third
harmonic component, which ranges from between 40% and 70% with total distortion levels which
can reach 130%. These are classic IT loads with a crest factor6 of 3:1. They are most common in
telecommunications and finance and typically linked to the problem of distributed rather than
centralised architectures which are generally used in industrial contexts.
Single-phase distorting load

+
L
N

The crest factor (CF) is the ratio between the peak value and the efficient value of a wave form.

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 37

Three-phase distorting load

+
L1
L2
L3

Harmonic

Single-phase distorting load


CF = 2
CF = 2,5
CF = 3
100%
100%
100%
0%
0%
0%
41%
56%
72%
0%
0%
0%
23%
42%
61%
0%
0%
0%
16%
25%
55%
0%
0%
0%
9%
10%
35%
0%
0%
0%
7%
10%
22%
50.9%
77.2%
116.7%

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
THDI%

Table 3-8 Harmonic analysis for distorting loads at different crest factor values (CF).

CF=2
CF=2.5
CF=3

amplitude (%)

100
80
60
40
20
0
1

10

11

harmonic order

Figure 3-7 - Distribution of single-phase distorting load harmonics at different crest factor values
CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 38

3.2.2

Current in the neutral conductor

The presence of single-phase distorting loads (therefore with a high 3rd harmonic %) overloads the
neutral conductor with currents that are 1.5 - 2 times the line current as a result of the combination
of line currents in the neutral conductor itself (phase/amplitude).
IL1 = IL2 = IL3

IN =

2,5 I L_RMS
2

IL_PICCO = 2,5IL_RMS

1,7 I L_RMS

Figure 3-8 - 3rd harmonic current in the neutral conductor


3.3

Radio frequency interference (RFI) and unipotential connection

The electromagnetic compatibility of the individual devices, as with the relevant electrical systems,
has today become a technical aspect that cannot be overlooked because of the increasing number of
potentially disturbing sources. Electromagnetic compatibility should be addressed during the design
stage of a system. Failure to do so will almost certainly result in problems that will not be easy to
rectify. Therefore, regulation bodies throughout the world have drafted a set of rules. These include
immunity and emission levels beyond which an electrical device may not be compatible with the
electromagnetic environment surrounding it.
CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 39

In Europe the general reference standard is Directive 89/336/CEE, followed by the more specific
publications for each production sector, that is to say EN 55022 and EN 50091-2. All electrical and
electronic devices emit disturbance and, at the same time, all are susceptible to the disturbance
emitted by other devices in the surrounding environment. The standards require that such devices
only emit a certain level of disturbance and that they can coexist with the environment in which
they are located without suffering outside influence, that is to say they continue to function
correctly.
3.3.1

Disturbance

Electromagnetic waves emitted by electrical and electronic devices cause disturbance which can
vary in intensity across the whole frequency spectrum. This disturbance causes interference which
in turn causes any faults to the equipment involved. These faults can manifest themselves in reading
errors in the case of data transmission, or even genuine functioning errors. There are two types of
electromagnetic disturbance: either transmitted along cables or irradiated into the air. In the latter
case electrical devices act as aerials thus causing all equipment to act as either a receiver or an
aerial.
3.3.2

Unipotential connections

Earth connections and optimised earth connections are important aspects in terms of compatibility.
Earth means a unipotential point or surface which acts as a reference for the system.
In the first place it is important to have a single good earth connection, and secondly, if possible, a
mesh earth network (see Figure 3-9). This, together with the optimised mass, helps to ensure a
unipotential connection for either the site or device in question. This also ensures considerable
advantages at both low and high frequencies. The mesh earth system, using the appropriate PE or
PEN cables, ensures excellent personal safety levels. As far as high frequencies are concerned, a
dense unipotential mesh network ensures good performance in terms of system and equipment
compatibility. Unfortunately PEN earth cables are only effective with low frequencies and therefore
can only be used to ensure safety.

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 40

YES
EARTHS
LIVE CABLES

YES

Figure 3-9 An example of a mesh network


On the other hand, the maximum possible number of earth connections must be made to ensure
good functioning at high frequencies. The connections must be made using cables with a diameter
that is less than the PE used as a reference. These connections must be located near to the earth of
the various devices, cable ducting, existing or specially added metal structures. Therefore safety and
good compatibility can be obtained simultaneously by giving serious attention to the multitude of
connections between the earth and unipotential factors.

NO

NO

NO
NO

NO

NO

Figure 3-10 An incorrect example of connections between earths


However the connections between masses must be made with care. Star connections between
devices and an earth connection should be avoided at all costs (see Figure 3-10). Therefore a mesh
network should be used to directly connect the relevant equipment, ensuring that the live cables run
as closely as possible to the network elements. Furthermore, the path of the earth connections must
be designed carefully to ensure the correct layout of earth rings and rings between earths (see
Figure 3-11).

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 41

NO

OK

OK

YES

OK

Figure 3-11 An example of earth rings


Earth rings are surfaces between a functional cable (power supply cable, command cable,
connection network) and the conductor or the closest mechanical earth. Rings between earths are
surfaces between two or more earth cables. The number of earth rings is equal to the number of
functional cables. These rings are a dangerous means of coupling irradiated disturbance. Therefore,
their surface must be reduced. That is to say the communication cables must be passed as close as
possible to the earths.
3.3.3

Outside earths

The conductors, both live and not, are components that when acting as aerials receive signals. If
they conduct high- frequency current they can also emit signals. To ensure the least number of
problems involving outside earths, the indications concerning mesh networks and unipotential
factors should be followed. Furthermore a good mesh connection for the metal structures,
metalworking and the earth networks is very important.
In light of this, it should be remembered that the connections should ensure maximum contact and
minimum connection length. Observe the following recommendations:
Use plaits.
Bolt the ducts together.
Ensure that the connection points are unpainted so as to maximise the contact.
All forms of insulation should be removed from the connection points.
Observe the following recommendations:

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POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 42

3.3.4

Signal cables that can cause interference must be separated by a distance proportional to
their length. This does not apply to screened cables which can, for example, be laid in
the same duct.
The cond uctors not used in a cable must be connected to the earth at both ends.
If cables must be crossed for different signals that can cause interference then the angle
between them must be 90.
The use of metal ducting is a good form of shielding. In particular the internal angles of
metal ducts have little exposure to electromagnetic disturbance.
Earth plate continuity must be ensured. Connection must always be perfect i.e. bolted
metal ducts, connection points should be neither painted or coated.
The cabinet

A cabinet or rack for electrical equipment must be made. This should be designed with an unpainted
earth plate on its base. The plate should be connected to the cabinet frame at various points. The
frame should then be connected to the earth network. When designing the cabinet, the power
components must be kept separate from those with low emission levels (logic, etc.). Earth plate
continuity must be ensured in the event of two or more cabinets. The star connections to supply
power to two or more devices should be designed so that they are as close as possible to the power
source (transformer or mains power supply) so that the cables can be laid at a certain distance from
each other. Two distinct power supplies should be used in the event of particularly sensitive
equipment. System components emitting higher levels of disturbance should be connected close to
the power supply whereas those causing less disturbance can be moved further away. The earth
connections of any transformers inserted in the cabinet mus t be as short as possible.
3.3.5

RFI filters

The following recommendations should be observed for RFI filters:


- The filters should be mounted at the front of the cabinet, and then bolted to the cabinet
frame or earth plate.
- Any cables must be located as close as possible to the cabinet earth plate.
- It is important that the filter input and output cables are laid separately and that they do
not have connections likely to cause extensive earth rings.

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 43

Bibliography
[1]

F. Costa, Generating sets matching rectifiers: comparison between 6 and 12 pulse


rectifiers
CHLORIDE Applications document, 1989

[2]

Le armoniche negli impianti di potenza, RL 88.01.15


CHLORIDE Applications document, 1988

[3]

J. Arrillaga, Power sys tem harmonics


John Wiley & Sons, 1985

[4]

E. Cevenini, Il corretto dimensionamento delle sorgenti di energia elettrica in impianti con


gruppi statici di continuit CHLORIDE White Papers, 2000

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 44

POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS


4.1

Classification

Standard HD 384 requires that a power supply is cut automatically if, in the event of a fault, there is
a risk of personal injury due to the size and duration of the voltage contact. This safety measure
requires co-ordination between the system earth connection method and the characteristics of the
protection conductors and the protection device.
Furthermore standard HD 384 states that the earths must be connected to a protection conductor
under the specific conditions of each earth connection.
Protection against indirect contacts depends on the type of neutral distribution adopted in the
system. It should be remembered that the UPS in no way alters the neutral distribution system
because it is a "through" system. Some UPS models ensure full isolation between the input and the
output. Therefore the input neutral conductor is isolated from the output one. This feature must be
expressly indicated in the UPS technical specifications.
The following rules should be used to determine the type of neutral distribution:
First letter

Power supply system status to earth.

Direct earth connection of a point (usually the neutral one).

Isolated from earth, or earth connection using an impedance.

Second letter

Status of earths to earth.

Earths connected directly to earth.

Earths connected to the earthed point in the power supply system.

4.1.1

TN systems

The TN system has the neutral cable connected directly to the earth in one point, and the system
earths connected to the same point by a protection conductor (Figure 4-1).

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 45

(TN-S)

(TN-C)
L1
L2
L3

PEN

PE

Figure 4-1 - TN system (HD 384-3)


There are three types of TN system depending on the layout of the neutral and protection
conductors.
TN-S

The neutral and protection conductors are separated.

TN-C

The neutral and protection functions are combined in a single conductor (PEN).

TN-C-S

The neutral and protection functions are combined in one part of the system.

4.1.2

Protection against indirect contacts in TN systems

The fault ring consists exclusively of metal components (see Figure 4-2), in which Ig = fault
current).

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 46

Ig
L1
L2
L3
PEN
Ig

0
(TN-C)

PE

(TN-S)

Figure 4-2 Fault ring in the TN system (HD 384-3)


As far as the type of protection against indirect contacts is concerned, the following equation must
be adhered to (HD 384-4-41):
Zs I a U 0

Equation 4-1

where:
Ia
is the current level that triggers the automatic protection device within the preset time limit.
U0
is the nominal AC voltage, the efficient value between the phase and earth.
Zs
is the impedance of the fault ring.
Given that the fault impedance Zs is always very low, the above ratio is always correct. A protection
device with an inverse delay time trigger is required.
Distribution circuits or terminals supplying power to fixed equipment can have a maximum
protection device trigger delay time of 5 seconds. Whereas circuits supplying power (with or
without a socket) to class 1 electrical components and mobile equipment have a drastically reduced
protection device trigger time, as shown in Table 4-1.
Nominal voltage Uo (V)
120
230
400
> 400

Delay (sec)
0.8
0.4
0.2
0.1

Table 4-1 Maximum stop delay times for TN systems (HD 384-4-41)

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 47

In systems where the conventional contact voltage limit is 25 V (prHD 384-7-704; HD 384-7-705)
the values shown in Table 4-3 must be replaced by those shown in Table 4-2.
Nominal voltage Uo (V)
120
230
400
> 400

Delay time (sec)


0.4
0.2
0.06
0.02

Table 4-2 Maximum protection trigger delay times for TN systems with a conventional voltage
limit of 25 V (IEC 364-4-481)
In all cases however the following equation must be correct:

(I t )
>
2

St

1
2

Equation 4-2

where:

I
t
K
St

is the fault current.


is the protection device trigger delay time.
is the coefficient depending on the type of conductor insulating agent.
is the protection conductor section.

The following example should help to clarify the concept.


U 0 230
=
= 2300 A
Z0
0,1
t = 1 sec
Ig =

(2300 1)
=
2

St

143

1
2

= 16mm2

In the case of TN distribution the fault current is always very high because the fault ring
impedance is much reduced. For this reason maximum current protection devices which are
triggered within the delay time are sufficient.
The use of the following protection devices is recognised in TN systems:
Maximum current devices.
Differential current devices.
These are not permitted in TN-C systems.
PEN conductors are not permitted downstream in TN-C-S systems.
4.1.3

Using differential switches

Differential switches must be used in place of maximum current protection devices in each of the
following situations:
Extensive fault rings (high Zs).
Later system extensions (high Zs).
Development faults (low fault currents).
CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 48

The best solution when installing differential type switches envisages:


The use of highly sensitive rapid differential switches (0.01A and 0.03A) to protect all the
system terminals accessible to the user.
A second level of selective protection (total or partial). Calibrations must be made with care
to ensure that the interventions are spaced correctly.
A delayed reaction differential switch completes the system protection devices.
In general the protection system can be co-ordinated as follows:
Overload selectivity.
Differential overload selectivity.
Differential selectivity.

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 49

4.1.4

TT systems

In the TT system the neutral cable is connected directly to the earth in one point, and the system
earths are connected to an earth that is electrically independent from the neutral one (Figure 4-3).
L1
L2
L3
N

Figure 4-3 - TT system (HD 384-3)


In effect two completely independent earth circuits must be designed.
It should be remembered that this type of distribution system is the one most widely used in low
voltage systems and by the mains electricity supply companies.

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POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 50

4.1.5

Protection against indirect contacts in TT systems

The fault ring usually includes the earth in its circuit (seeFigure 4-4), where I g = fault current).
Ig
L1
L2
L3
N
M

RB

Ig

RA

Figure 4-4 Fault ring in the TT system (HD 384-3)


Even if the neutral earth and the system earths are not separate, as for example in the case of
buildings that also contain the mains electricity supply company transformer, the system is still
considered to be a TT one.
In other words, unintentional connections between the earths are not taken into consideration when
determining the protection conditions. This distribution system satisfies the protection conditions
for indirect contacts when the ratio is correct (HD 384-4-41).

R A I A 50

Equation 4-3

where:
RA
is the sum of earth plate resistance and the resistance of the earth protection conductors.
IA
is the current level causing the protection device to be triggered.
50
is the conventional contact voltage limit (UL). In some specific applications and
environments (prHD 384-7-704) UL is equal to 25 V.
The use of the following protection devices is recognised in TT systems:
Differential protection devices.
Overload protection devices.
When a differential device is used IA represents the differential nominal current Idn . For reasons of
selectivity, S type differential current devices can be used in series with general type differential
current protection devices. A maximum trigger delay time of 1 second (HD 384-4-41) is permitted
to ensure selectivity using differential current protection devices in distribution circuits.
When the device is an overload switch IA is the In value causing the device to trigger within 5
seconds.
Given that it is generally difficult to obtain a very low earth resistance value, the best protection is
undoubtedly the differential type.
CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 51

With this in mind it is also important to remember that type A differential current protection devices
(unidirectional pulsed currents) are required for single-phase electrical circuits and type B for threephase electrical circuits (EN 50091-1-1 section 1.8.11, IEC 364-5-53).
4.1.6

IT systems

In IT systems all live parts are isolated from the earth, or the neutral conductor is connected to the
earth at a certain point by an impedance (Figure 4-5), whereas the system earths can be:
Connected to the earth separately.
Connected to the earth together.
Connected to the system earth together (the system earth is the one that could be connected
to neutral using an impedance).
L1
L2
L3
N

PE

Figure 4-5 - TT system (HD 384-3)

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POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 52

4.1.7

Protection against indirect contacts in IT systems (first fault)

The Id current caused by the first earth fault is of little importance because it is enclosed by the
distribution capacity of the system towards the earth and, if relevant between neutral and earth.
L1
L2
L3
Id

C3

C2

C1

Id

Figure 4-6 - Fault ring in the IT system (HD 384-3)


The following ratio must be correct for protection against indirect contacts (HD 384-4-41):
RT I d 50

Equation 4-4

where:
RT
is the resistance of the plate to which the earths are connected.
Id
is the fault current for the first earth fault.
50
is the maximum contact voltage.
In this type of distribution system, the triggering of a protection device to deal with the first fault is
not required in that the aforementioned condition is always satisfied. This is because the fault ring
resistance is always very high thus allowing only very low fault currents if the system is not very
extensive.
The standard does however envisage that the first fault is signalled (visually and in audio) using a
system to continuously monitor isolation status between the live parts and the earth.
4.1.8

Protection against indirect contacts in IT systems (double fault)

Dangerous situations can arise in the event of two earth faults when the fault current, involving two
circuits, reaches a value that is lower than the short circuit one in a single circuit.
Furthermore if one of the two live conductors in contact with the earth is the neutral one (Figure
4-7) IT systems with distributed neutral), the situation is even more dangerous compared to the
double fault affecting two phase conductors.

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 53

L1
L2
L3
N

Figure 4-7 Fault ring in IT systems in the event of a double fault.


Protection against indirect contacts in the event of a double fault depends on the type of equipment
earth connection.
In the event of earths connected separately or in groups, the protection conditions are the same as
for TT systems.
In the event of earths connected together to a protection conductor (see Figure 4-7), the following
ratio must be satisfied (HD 384-4-41):
Zs

U
2I a

Equation 4-5

In the event of a non-distributed neutral conductor, the following ratio must be satisfied.

Z s'

U0
2I a

Equation 4-6

in the event of distributed neutral, where:


U0
is the nominal AC voltage, the efficient value between the phase and neutral.
U
is the nominal AC voltage, the efficient value between the phase and phase.
Zs
is the impedance of the fault ring consisting of the phase conductor and the circuit protection
conductor.
'
Zs
is the impedance of the fault ring consisting of the neutral conductor and the circuit
protection conductor.
Ia
is the current which blocks the circuit within the time delay shown in Table 4-3, when
applicable, or within 5 seconds for all other circuits, when this delay is permitted.
The maximum permitted delays are shown in Table 4-3.

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POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 54

Nominal voltage (V)


Uo /U
120/240
230/400
400/690
580/1000

Protection trigger delay (sec)


Non-distributed neutral
0.8
0.4
0.2
0.1

Distributed neutral
5.0
0.8
0.4
0.2

Table 4-3 Protection trigger delay times in IT systems (second fault) (HD 384-4-41)
Alternatively a differential switch must be used to protect each piece of equipment powered by the
system.
In systems where the conventional contact voltage limit is 25 V (prHD 384-7-704 and HD 384-7705) the values shown in Table 4-3 must be replaced by those shown in Table 4-4.
Nominal voltage (V)
Uo /U
120/240
230/400
400/690
580/1000

Protection trigger delay (sec)


Non-distributed neutral
0.4
0.2
0.06
0.02

Distributed neutral
1
0.4
0.2
0.06

Table 4-4 Maximum protection trigger delay times for IT systems with a conventional voltage
limit of 25 V (IEC 364-4-481)
The second earth fault (Figure 4-7) must be eliminated within the time limits set out in HD 384.
However the short circuit current can be slightly higher than the nominal current (1.5 - 2In ) and
therefore the maximum current protection devices are not triggered.
In the event of simultaneous IT functioning, as for example with isolated UPS functioning (see
section 4.2.4), these fault currents cause the inverter to stop within a few tenths of a second. There
is no danger to people in contact with both pieces of faulty equipment within this brief time period.
Indeed, in the event of contact with the two pieces of faulty equipment, a person is subject to a
voltage equal to the product of the resistance of the protection conductors and the short circuit
current. This voltage is negligible due to the low current. The standard requires that the first earth
fault in permanent IT systems is recorded.
Despite that stated previously, the best protection system against indirect contacts is undoubtedly a
differential one.
The use of the following protection devices is recognised in IT systems:
Isolation control devices.
Overload protection devices.
Differential current protection devices.
The supplementary unipotential connection is considered efficient if the resistance R between the
simultaneously accessible earths satisfies the following conditions (HD 384-4-41):
CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 55

R<

50
Ia

Equation 4-7

where:

Ia

- for differential switches, is the nominal differential current Idn which must cause
intervention within 5 seconds in any event.
- for overload protection devices, is the functioning current within 5 seconds.
4.2

Faulty UPS functioning cycles

This section is designed to provide a guide for the correct sizing of protection devices. Specifically
when a UPS is inserted in an electrical system and taking into consideration the problems related to
its dual role of load/generator compared to the neutral distribution status.
The various operating conditions for UPS systems are shown below. As a general rule these must be
addressed during the design stage. The specific data refer to the UPS manufactured by Chloride.
4.2.1

Overloads

The overload is the capacity of the UPS is to supply the load beyond the nominal conditions and in
any case for a limited time period.
If the overload is less than the maximum current limit then the UPS supplies the load for the time
period set by the special algorithm in the microprocessor command (see Figure 4-8). This takes into
consideration both the required power level and the environment temperature.
The inverter is switched OFF once this time limit has elapsed.
This causes the output to be switched to the standby network (or the automatic by-pass one). The
standby network is an alternative power supply line to the AC one. It is used if the inverter cannot
support the load.
The standby line is not a UPS and is only used during an emergency and maintenance. If the
exchange with the standby line is phase synchronised (voltage) with the inverter, using the internal
static switch assembly, then very short power supply cuts to the load are avoided. If the standby line
and inverter are not synchronised then there is a brief power supply cut (usually 10 milliseconds) to
the load during the switch to avoid more serious damage.
After a preset delay the inverter is switched ON again, and if the overload conditions have been
eliminated the load will automatically return to being powered by the inverter. If the overload
conditions are not eliminated, the static switch assembly is blocked on standby. The load is then
only switched back to the inverter when the nominal conditions have been reset.
The standby static switch assembly can also be subject to overloads, as shown in Table 4-5. This is
because it is made from semi- conducting components (SCR). It should be noted that the overload
and short circuit capacity of the UPS is vital to correctly and unequivocally define the protection
devices downstream of the power supply system, with particular reference to system selectivity.
Overload (%)
125
150
700
1000

Time (sec.)
600
60
0.6
0.1

Table 4-5 Overload capacity of the standby static switch assembly for EDP90 UPS
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POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 56

Output power (%)

150

125
115
100

10

T (min.)

60

20

Figure 4-8 Overload capacity of the inverter for EDP90 UPS at ambient temperature of 40C.

Overload capacity
10 seconds

Nominal live
output power
Nominal apparent
output power

150%
125%

Overload
capacity
1 minute

100%

150%
125%

70%

100%
cos
0.7

150

125

100

100

125

150

Nominal power
factor

Figure 4-9 - Circular diagram of the inverter for a Synthesis Twin UPS.

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POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 57

4.2.2

Short circuits

The short circuit is a specific UPS functioning condition, limited over time, and characterised by the
supply of a controlled current (maximum limit) together with a reduced level of voltage.
In the event of a system short circuit downstream of the UPS and in the absence of the static switch
assembly, the inverter lowers the output voltage and limits the current to 1.5 - 2IN (see Figure 4-10).
The inverter is blocked after a set time (approximately 300 milliseconds for EDP90) if the
protection devices downstream have not been triggered. If the UPS is fitted with a static switch
assembly and the power supply is on the standby line, then the load is switched instantaneously to
this line. When the power is supplied by the standby line, the short circuit current varies depending
on its impedance. The short circuit current is also much higher than that supplied by the inverter.
This ensures that the maximum current protection devices located along the power supply line to
the load are definitely triggered.
V
Load impedance:
Zn
Z0V1
Zn :
nominal
Z0V1 : overload
ZCC: short circuit
ZCC

In

1,5 In ICC

Figure 4-10 Output of the inverter for EDP90 UPS.

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4.2.3

Mains power supply failure

When the input mains power supply is not sufficient to power the UPS, the energy to power the
load is supplied entirely by the accumulator battery. If the UPS is a double conversion one, this
means that the mains power supply cannot correctly power the rectifier. If the UPS is an interactive
one, this means that the inverter is no longer capable of regulating the power supply network. The
result is that the input must be open and all the power needed by the load must be supplied by the
batteries. Therefore the tolerance margins on the input network in a double conversion UPS are
generally much wider than on an interactive one. If the neutral cycle is not modified by the UPS 7 ,
then the envisaged protection devices remain enabled as they were designed. The type of system
(TT, TN or IT) downstream of the UPS is therefore unchanged during a mains power supply failure.
UPS

Figure 4-11

Some UPS models have the input fully isolated from the output. Therefore even the neutral input conductor is isolated
from the output one. This feature must be expressly indicated in the UPS technical specifications. See for example the
Chloride Power Lan 5000 and 7000 models.

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4.2.4

Floating neutral functioning

Floating neutral functioning occurs after a mains power supply failure caused by the opening of an
omnipolar protection device installed upstream of the UPS. In this case the neutral cycle is modified
and the system downstream of the UPS is transformed from a TT or TN to an IT one (assuming that
the UPS has a through neutral and not an isolated one).
O
P
E
N

UPS

Id

Neutral same
as system
Isolated
neutral
Figure 4-12
During floating neutral functioning the first earth fault is not generally cons idered dangerous (refer
to section 4.1.7 on indirect contact protection in IT systems). However, a second fault could be
dangerous (see section 4.1.8) because the protection devices downstream of the UPS are not
triggered because they were designed for either a TT or TN system. In floating neutral functioning
the protection devices against indirect contacts cannot be applied using electrical separation because
an inverter transformer is generally not isolated, and anyway the equipment earths are connected to
earth. However it should not be forgotten that UPS floating neutral functioning in this case is
temporary and limited by the autonomy of the batteries.
Note:
For this reason Technical Committee 64 of the CEI (Comitato Elettrotecnico Italiano) included a
comment with standard CEI 64-8 Part 4 section 413.1.5.1 (comment) correspondent to HD 384-441. This allows the second fault protection rules to be used for IT systems. The comment is as
follows:
When, in a system with a TT or TN earth connection, the intervention of the safety and/or standby
power supply (in isolation) temporarily modifies the way the neutral is connected to earth (isolated
neutral), the prescriptions in CEI standard 64-8, sections 413.1.5.1, 413.1.5.4, 413.1.5.5 and
413.1.5.6 do not need to be applied in that a second fault is unlikely to occur after a first fault
during the brief functioning time of the safety and/or standby power supply.
See also section 563.4, comment.
WARNING !!!! This applies only in Italy
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4.3

Permanent modifications to neutral status

A D/YN transformer, preferably with a screen, must be used to make a permanent modification to
the neutral status. The transformer secondary star centre must be connected to earth. The
transformer can be electrically connected either upstream or downstream of the UPS. Some
considerations on the various ways of connecting the transformer to the UPS are shown below.
1. Transformer downstream of the UPS.

BYPASS

DYN
I.S
TO LOAD

AC/DC
UPS

DC/AC

Figure 4-13 Isolation transformer on UPS output


The transformer has a constant power flow through it to supply the load. This causes a reduction in
overall performance, usually in the region of 2 or 3 percentage points. The line from the unit output
to the transformer primary will function in an IT cycle if the UPS functions in isolation (neutral
opening upstream of the UPS). The transformer secondary neutral can be connected to earth, for
example to create a TN system. If this does not happen, an IT system is created downstream of the
secondary. This system is suitable to improve the continuity of the power supply system for critical
loads in that it does not require the protection devices to be opened after the first earth fault.
2. Transformer upstream of the UPS, connected to the standby input, separated from the main
input.
DYN
BYPASS

I.S
TO LOAD

AC/DC
UPS

DC/AC

Figure 4-14 Isolation transformer on standby input


This solution can only be applied if there is a transformer on the inverter output. This ensures the
isolation between the double conversion line input and output. In this case the rectifier does not use
the neutral of the upstream system (see EDP90 UPS). The standby neutral (identical to the output
neutral) is connected to the external transformer star centre and the inverter transformer star centre
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(using internal cabling). During normal functioning (i.e. with an inverter) the transformer on the
standby line only supplies the neutral reference but it does not have power through it. Therefore
there is no loss of performance as in the previous case. This is the main advantage of this
configuration.
3. Transformer upstream of the UPS to supply both the rectifier and the standby line.

DYN

BYPASS

C.S
TO LOAD

AC/DC
UPS

AC/DC

Figure 4-15 Isolation transformer on UPS input


The transformer must be more powerful than the ones described in the previous points because it
must be capable of supplying the rectifier if the batteries need to be recharged. The through power
in the transformer is that being supplied to the load, taking into consideration double conversion
performance plus the level of power required to recharge the batteries. The rectifier re- injects
harmonic currents into the network. These distort the transformer secondary voltage which affects
the coil equivalent impedance. Therefore, in the event of standby functioning the load would be
powered by a slightly distorted voltage if the rectifier is recharging the batteries. Even if the level of
distortion is not very high, check that the load can function correctly in the presence of this
distortion. As indicated in point 1, even in this case transformer dissipation is permanent because
the power is constantly flowing through the transformer.
4.4

Differential selectivity components

The following definitions and acronyms are widely used below and therefore useful in
understanding the concept of differential selectivity:

Dispersion current
Current flowing to earth in an electrically sound circuit.
Nominal differential intervention current I dn
The nominal current at which a differential device will definitely intervene.
Nominal differential non-intervention current
The maximum differential current at which the device will definitely not intervene.
I
The value equal to dn .
2
I
Differential devices can intervene at any differential current between dn and I dn (IEC 3642
5-53).
Maximum interruption time

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The time period between the moment at which the differential current is applied and the
moment at which the arc is extinguished on all the device poles.
Minimum non-intervention time
This defines the period during which a differential current, greater than I dn , can remain
without the differential device beginning the opening movement.

Differential switches are the most widely used devices for protection against indirect contacts.
When placed on both single-phase and three-phase electrical lines, these devices detect the vectorial
sum of circulating currents. Therefore, the circuit may be opened in the event of a current dispersed
towards earth, for example caused by an indirect contact, when the detected value is between Idn /2
and I dn .
There are dispersion currents in all electrical systems. It is very important to know the size of these
currents in order to correctly size differential devices because the currents can reach high levels
even in the absence of an earth fault. It should also be remembered that for UPS systems the
maximum permitted current dispersed to earth is 5% of the nominal input current (EN 50091-1-1
section 1.8.12 and section 5.2.2 of RD, EN 60950). To prevent the differential protection devices
from being triggered all the time, the vectorial sum of dispersion currents in a system, or a part of a
system, should not exceed I dn /2 of the device used to protect the system or part of the system.
With this in mind it is also important to remember that type A differential current protection devices
(unidirectional pulsed currents) are required for single-phase electrical circuits and type B for threephase electrical circuits (EN 50091-1-1 section 1.8.11, IEC 364-5-53).
If there is an earth fault the use of a single differential device upstream of the system protects all the
subtended circuits but penalises continuity. Therefore to achieve rational and efficient protection the
distribution must be both horizontally and vertically selective.

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Ig

Id

Id A

Id

Id B

Figure 4-16 Horizontal selectivity


When different pieces of equipment are powered by the same electrical system (Figure 4-16), it is
useful to install various differential devices instead of a single centralised device. This is because if
there is an earth fault only the device designed to protect that load must intervene thus guaranteeing
an uninterruptible power supply to the remaining loads. This type of protection system ensures
horizontal selectivity.
When there are several differential devices in series (Figure 4-17), these must be sized so as to
ensure vertical selectivity.

Id

Id

Id A

Id B

Id

Id C

Figure 4-17 Vertical selectivity


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This is achieved when there is an earth fault on the distribution and the most downstream device
intervenes whilst the upstream ones do not. This ensures that all the remaining loads remain in
service.
Given that several differential devices in series are selective, the following conditions must be met:

I dnB 3 I dnA

tnf B > ttiA


where:

I dnB

is the nominal differential intervention current of device B.

I dnA

is the nominal differential intervention current of device A.

tnf B
tti A

is the minimum non-intervention time of device B.

is the maximum intervention delay time of device A. Therefore, two or more differential
devices connected in series are selective when the nominal differential current of the upstream
device is at least 3 times the nominal differential current of the down stream device (IEC 364-5-53)
and the minimum non-intervention time of the upstream device is greater than the maximum trigger
delay time of the downstream device.
Figure 4-18 shows how vertical selectivity is guaranteed a generic (or instantaneous) device
downstream and a selective device upstream.
Selective device limits

T
(ms)

Generic device limits


Idn2 = 30 mA

S
Idn1

Idn1 = 100 mA

1000

Id

Selective
500
200
150

G
Idn2
Istantaneous

Id

50
40

10

10

15

30

50

100 150 200

500

1000

I (mA)

Figure 4-18 An example of selectivity


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As can be seen the intervention areas of these two different types of device do not overlap when the
ratio between the nominal differential currents is at least 3.
Table 4-6 shows the maximum trigger times and the minimum non- intervention times of the generic
(or instantaneous) differential devices and the selective differential devices at various current levels.
Type of differential switch
Generic (instantaneous)
Selective

Maximum trigger delay


Maximum trigger delay
Minimum non- intervention time

Differential current
Idn
2Idn
5Idn
0.3 s
0.5 s
0.04 s
0.5 s
0.2 s
0.15 s
0.13 s 0.06 s 0.06 s

500 A
0.04 s
0.15 s
0.04 s

Table 4-6 Intervention and non- intervention times for generic and selective differential devices
It is often difficult to ensure co-ordination between indirect protection devices and the earth system
in that it is not always possible to obtain suitably low earth resistance levels.
Therefore it is easier to adapt the earth system protection devices.
Table 4-7 shows the differential current values and earth resistance to ensure protection against
indirect contacts for U L = 50V .
Idn (A)
0.03
0.1
0.3
0.5
1
3
5
10
20

RT ( )
1666
500
166
100
50
16.6
10
5
2.5

Table 4-7 Current I dn and earth RT values to ensure protection against indirect contacts for
U L = 50V .

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1A
Selective
Id

Id

Id A
100 mA
Generic

Id C

Id B

Id

300 mA
Generic

Examples
Figure 4-19 shows an example of vertical selectivity on two levels.

Figure 4-19 Selectivity between differential devices on two levels (IEC 364-5-53)
The downstream devices have different nominal differential currents, 100 mA and 300 mA, and
therefore selectivity must be checked between the upstream device and the downstream one using
the larger I dn value. The nominal differential current of device C (1A) is more than 3 times greater
than the nominal differential current of device B (300 mA). Furthermore the maximum trigger delay
time of device B is greater than the minimum non- intervention time of device C because B is
instantaneous and C is selective.
Given that there is selectivity between device C and device B, selectivity is also gua ranteed between
device C and device A.

Figure 4-20 shows an example of vertical selectivity on three levels.

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300 mA
Delayed

100 mA
Selective

30 mA
Generic

Id

Id

Id

Id C

Id B

Id A

Figure 4-20 Selectivity between differential devices on three levels (IEC 364-5-53)
Selectivity between devices B and A is ensured by the fact that device B is selective and it also has
a nominal differential current 3 times the nominal differential current of device A which is
instantaneous. Given that device C has a differential current of 300 mA, and therefore 3 times
greater than the differential current of device B (100 mA), and that C has a preset delay, selectivity
is ensured on all levels.

Bibliography
[1]

HD 384 Electrical systems using a voltage no greater than 1000 V for alternating currents
and 1500 V for direct currents.

[2]

EN 50091-1-1 Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Part 1-1: General and safety
requirements for UPS used in operator access areas

.
[3]

Vito Carrescia, Fondamenti di sicurezza elettrica, Ed. TNE.

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SELECTION CRITERIA FOR UPS SYSTEMS

This section describes the basic information to select the right UPS system architecture for the
functions required. The choice of UPS type must be made on the basis of application (standby or
safety) and the characteristics of the load being protected. When the application and type of UPS
have been defined, electrical sizing, that is to say the choice of nominal output power, can be
determined. The first step in this process is undoubtedly the most important.
5.1

Emergency power supply

Emergency means imminent risk or a serious threat of danger for people or property. An
uninterruptible power supply must be envisaged in all cases where a mains power supply failure
constitutes an emergency situation. The emergency includes standby and safety measures. Legally
binding standards impose the presence of an emergency power supply in a variety of circumstances.
These standards also specify the characteristics of the UPS and the duration of service (see for
example HD 384-3). In a more general sense, the presence of an emergency power supply system is
advisable when the cost of damages caused by a mains power supply failure is greater than the
investment required to purchase a UPS (critical applications). Consider for example a continuous
industrial process in which even a brief mains power supply failure causes production to cease. As
well as the financial losses caused by wasted materials, there is also the cost in downtime whilst the
process is restarted. Often the latter are much greater than the former, and in these cases an
uninterruptible power supply is indispensable if large economic costs are to be avoided. Let us now
consider the different ways in which standards deal with standby and safety power supply.
5.1.1

Safety power supply

A safety power supply (HD 384-3) is an electrical system which must guarantee a power supply to
loads (or parts of a system) required to ensure the safety of people. The system includes the source,
the circuits and other electrical components. For example a safety power supply is a legal
requirement for life support devices in operating theatres. Emergency lighting is considered safety
lighting if it is designed to ensure the safety of people in the event of lighting failure (artificial or
natural). For example an emergency lighting system is considered safety lighting in a busy public
building if it is designed to prevent the spread of panic in the event of a lighting failure.
5.1.2 Standby power supply
A standby power supply is an electrical system designed to ensure a power supply to loads (or parts
of a system) for reasons other than safety. The following are some of the many application
examples: data processing centres (IT rooms), web servers, wide band telecommunications centres,
night lights, air conditioning in operating theatres and intensive care units etc. Electric lighting
standards (HD 384) provide a list of places in which a standby power supply must be provided.
These include the following: places of public performance, areas destined for medical use, large
garages (more than nine vehicles), underground railway systems, schools with more than eight
hundred pupils. Emergency lighting is considered standby lighting if it allows the continuation of an
activity, in the absence of normal lighting, and without reference to personal safety.
If there is only one source available for the safety power supply this cannot also be used for the
standby power supply (HD 384-5-56). However when there is more than one source for the safety
power supply, these can also be used for the standby power supply, so long as, in the event that a
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source fails, the remaining available power is sufficient to ensure startup and functioning of all
safety devices.
5.2

UPS configurations for standby and safety services

Below is a description of some general criteria for selecting the type of UPS to efficiently protect
the load:
Selecting the UPS base architecture: double conversion, interactive or standby. This
selection must be made on the basis of the dynamic characteristics of the power supply
required to protect the load. When a load withstands very brief mains power supply failures
and does not require specific power conditioning (power disturbance filtered in input), the
interactive and standby architectures are more suitable. An interactive UPS (including the
delta inverter technology), according to standard ENV 50091-3, belongs to class 2 in terms
of dynamic output performance, and therefore, can cause very brief power supply failures
(in the region of 1 millisecond) or disturbance towards the output and therefore towards the
load. If the load cannot withstand very brief power supply failures, or the power needs to be
fully conditioned, then double conversion architecture is required. Obviously, much also
depends on the quality of the mains power supply. If there is lots of disturbance in the power
supply (frequent voltage decreases, considerable voltage transients, high level of radio
frequency disturbance, etc.), double conversion architecture may even be necessary to power
not particularly sensitive loads. Double conversion architecture is also advisable for very
extensive UPS systems and those subject to expansion in the short and medium term. This is
because it is difficult to identify beforehand the level of load immunity to the various
possible power supply disturbances.
Selecting the UPS configuration: single or redundant parallel. This selection must be
made on the basis of the required level of power supply reliability. Given that the UPS is a
very reliable device, single installations offer a high level of protection and they are suitable,
for example, for all small/medium- sized office automation applications.
A parameter used to describe the reliability of a device is the MTBF (Mean Time Between
Failures). The MTBF is a statistical parameter and is defined as the mean interval between
successive failures for a group of devices. The statistic is merely an expression of probability for
single devices. The longer the MTBF of a device, the more reliable it is. In a parallel UPS
system, the outputs of each individual device are connected to a common power supply line
connected to the load. By passing from a single UPS to a redundant parallel configuration, the
MTBF can increase up to one hundred times. The expression redundancy m/n defines, for a
parallel configuration with n UPS, the number of m units that can have faults simultaneously
without compromising the continuity of the power supply. In a parallel system the load is
distributed uniformly between the various units, and therefore if the redundancy is m/n, each
UPS must be sized as follows:
P
PnomUPS load
Equation 5-1
n m
Pure redundancy (n-1)/n provides the highest level of reliability. Indeed only one unit in the
parallel system needs to function to ensure a power supply to the load. At lower levels of
redundancy (m/n with m<n-1), reliability is relatively lower, but in absolute terms much greater
than that provided by a single unit. Often the redundancy 1/n is the only practical one due to the
high costs of pure redundancy. With (n-1)/n redundancy each UPS must be able to power the
whole load. In practice (n-1)/n redundancy is only found in installations with two or three units
in parallel (several tenths of kVA) in extremely critical installations (for example a group of
operating theatres).
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Selecting the type of UPS parallel: distributed or centralised. The distributed parallel
system consists of identical units with an on-board static switch assembly. It can also be
fitted with a system bypass switch which can be used for maintenance. This switch is
indispensable for distributed systems with more than 2 units. If this switch is not included
the system cannot be bypassed without cutting the power supply to the load. This
configuration combines reliability and flexibility. The power capacity can be increased
simply by adding another unit to the one already in service.

UPS A
Load

System standby input

UPS A

Figure 5-1 Distributed parallel system (2 UPS)


The centralised parallel system consists of units without on-board static switch assemblies. The
units are all identical and the static switch assembly is usually housed in a special cabinet. This
switch assembly can power the entire nominal load using the system standby input. The main
advantage of the centralised parallel system is that it is less complex than the distributed system.
For this reason the MTBF of the centralised system is slightly higher than in the distributed
configuration. However the centralised configuration is not suitable for installations in which the
nominal load is subject to significant variations during the lifecycle of the UPS.

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System standby
input

Load

System static switch assembly

UPS A

UPS B

Figure 5-2 Centralised parallel system (2 UPS)

Selecting the remote monitoring and/or remote diagnosis system. UPS systems are fitted
with communication ports through which they can interface with the outside world. The
correct choice of remote monitoring and/or remote dia gnosis system is vital to ensure
maximum availability of the power supply system. Refer to section 5.5 for a description of
how communication with the UPS affects the continuity of the service. After having selected
the type of communication (local network, switched telephone network, point to point
communication, etc.), the distribution of the signal cables (network cable, telephone pair,
RS232 cable, etc.) in the overall design of the installation must be considered with reference
to the guidelines, drafted to prevent the onset of disturbance.

In light of that stated above the type of UPS can now be selected on the basis of the application
required by the customer.
A redundant UPS configuration is almost always advisable for safety applications. This
means that the same source can also be used for the standby electrical system, if the
available power allows it. For example, by using a redundant parallel system, both the safety
lighting system (emergency escape rout e lighting) and the standby lighting system (night
lights, normal lighting) can be powered.
A redundant configuration is also advisable for standby applications requiring a high level
of reliability (critical applications). For example geographical network wide band
telecommunications nodes (MAN, WAN), voice and data telecommunications providers,
web hosting, strategic servers (stock exchange, central banks, IT departments of
international companies), etc.
When a redundant parallel configuration is required, the distributed version is preferable if
the load is likely to be subject to considerable nominal power variations during installation
functioning. For example, in applications linked to telecommunications or internet, nominal
load variations are very likely in the medium term, given the likelihood of considerable
variations in the volume of traffic.
A single double conversion UPS can be used for applications involving small and mediumsized computer networks (LAN). This type of system ensures excellent power supply
protection performance. All functional network nodes (servers, concentrators, etc.) must
have an uninterruptible power supply, whereas the devices that are not essential for network
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functioning (e.g. monitors, modems and printers) can be connected to a power supply that is
not uninterruptible.
An interactive UPS configuration may be advisable for small groups of PCs or workstations
(two or three) if the devices being powered can withstand consistent power supply
disturbance (varying from 1 to 10 milliseconds).
As far as lighting is concerned, both standby and safety, the intervention delay time required
by standard HD 384 is not less than 150 milliseconds. Therefore it would appear that for this
type of application, the level of performance offered by an interactive or standby UPS is
sufficient. In reality, in the event of a brief power supply failure, some control systems for
certain types of lights (e.g. mercury vapour) must ensure that the lights remain switched
OFF for several minutes 8 . Therefore a double conversion UPS might be more suitable for
extensive lighting systems using this type of light.

5.3

Static switch assemblies.

A static switch assembly, hereinafter CROSS, the trade name of the Chloride product, ensures a
redundant power supply to critical loads by enabling switching between two independent AC power
supply sources (see Figure 5-3). A switch is made each time the line supplying power to the load is
no longer within the acceptable tolerance values (voltage and frequency). There are two main
functioning modes: fixed priority and no priority. In fixed priority functioning the load selects the
preferred input line. CROSS transfers the load to this source each time the parameters are within a
range of acceptable values. In no priority functioning, CROSS treats both lines as equally
acceptable (because the parameters of both fall within the range of defined values) and therefore
does not attempt to make a switch to a preferred power supply source.
CROSS operates so that the switch between the two sources only happens after the fault in the live
line has occurred (break before make). This ensures that the two lines are never connected in
parallel. CROSS also ensures that the switch between the two power supply sources occurs under
both synchronous and asynchronous conditions (relative to the voltage phase). When two lines are
synchronous, CROSS transfers the load from one source to the other within 5 ms of fault
identification on the power supply line. Under async hronous conditions, the switch can also occur
within 5 ms, but it is suggested that this interval is followed by a delay (normally between 10 and
20 ms) to ensure that there is no conflict between the voltages set by the sources on the CROSS
output. The duration of the delay can be set on the basis of the system parameters. The maximum
acceptable phase angle difference for asynchronous transfers between the two lines is usually 30.
Switching between sources is never acceptable outside this range. The request for a manual switch
in this status is placed on hold until the phase difference is within the required tolerance level. In
this case CROSS reacts as a controlled switch preventing potentially dangerous operations such as
the aforementioned out of phase switching.
The bypass switches (refer to QB1 and QB2 in Figure 5-3) ensure safe system maintenance. The
operation to enable bypassing of one of the two lines is guided by the CROSS control mechanism
using the synoptic panel.

This is a protection procedure for this type of light. In the event of a power supply failure this type of light must be
allowed to fully cool before it can be switched ON again.

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QB1

QS1

QU

Uscita

S1

QS2
S2
QB2

Figure 5-3 Block diagram of the CROSS static switch assembly.


5.4

Using system static switch assemblies: two typical examples

The main advantages provided


by system static switch
assemblies in terms of system
reliability are as follows:

A considerable percentage of faults to the load (power supply failure) are caused by
distribution faults. When a protection device is triggered, even by a short circuit or overload,
system functioning is compromised to a greater or lesser degree 9 . All the components in the
distribution system (cables, protection devices, switches, terminals etc.) contribute to the level
of load power supply reliability as a result of their intrinsic fault rate. Reliability is further
diminished by extrinsic faults caused by events external to the system10 , like for example an
incorrect switch operation. The use of system static switch assemblies enables the redundancy
provided by the two independent sources to be located as close as possible to the load. This
makes the system practically immune to potentially harmful events that can occur in the
distribution system upstream of the two CROSS branches. Indeed, simultaneous faults on the
two sources are extremely unlikely, particularly if the sources are protected by a UPS. Therefore
the level of critical distribution (downstream of CROSS) is greatly reduced compared to
standard conditions.
In a parallel UPS system, the common output can be a weak point in the system (single
point of failure). Indeed, faults in a UPS system that do not allow the UPS to be overridden
by the parallel, even if extremely rare, can cause problems affecting the system output. For

In extreme cases system reliability, particularly in very complex systems, can be fully compromised by incorrect
protection device design.
10
The most frequent causes of faults include overloads to systems caused by lightening or operations on high-voltage
power lines. It is vital that TVSS and/or SPDE devices are used to efficiently design the protection system.

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example a bypass static switch short circuit, in a UPS that is part of a distributed parallel
system, causes a possible fault for the whole system. The CROSS enables creation of
redundancy between the two sources without ever placing them in parallel (the switch is a
break before make one). A short circuit fault on one of the two sources does not compromise
the CROSS output.
Figure 5-4 shows an example of static switch assembly use in a very reliable system (mission
critical). The two sources consist of redundant parallel UPS systems powered by independent
medium- voltage transformers, and with the possibility of inserting electricity generating units in the
event of prolonged mains power failure. The two systems are redundant, that is to say they can both
power the entire load. In this system configuration the loads downstream of the static switch
assemblies are powered with maximum reliability. In the highly unlikely event of total failure to
one of the UPS systems (e.g. system A), all the CROSS devices supplying power to the load using
this source, switch the uninterruptible supply to system B. The two UPS systems can be kept
synchronous (output voltage phase coupling) to ensure that the switch occurs as rapidly as possible.
The system bypass switches for A and B can be used for maintenance on parallel systems. They can
also be used to replace a UPS in a parallel system.
Another advantage of this configuration is the way the CROSS behaves if there is an output short
circuit. Under this circumstance the CROSS disables the switch, that is to say the short circuit is
only powered by the live source when the short circuit occurs. If the short circuit causes a
significant fluctuation in the relevant source voltage, all the other CROSS assemblies are free to
switch to the other source. This means that distribution downstream of the CROSS assemblies is not
in any way affected by the potentially damaging effects of short circuits on other branches.
SBS A

GE

A UPS system
UPS1
UPS2

A UPS line

UPS3

MT-BT A

UPS4

Synchronisation
SBS B

GE

B UPS system
UPS1
UPS2
UPS3

MT-BT B

B UPS line

UPS4

Figure 5-4 The CROSS assembly in fully redundant parallel UPS systems.
The example in Figure 5-5 shows a configuration of single UPS systems and CROSS to ensure
redundancy for critical loads. The A UPS is a parallel system used as a very reliable standby source.
Therefore it is only used in the event of a fault to one or more of the single UPS (UPS 1, UPS 2
etc.). The nominal power of the standby system is such that simultaneous faults to more than one
individual UPS can be accounted for. Synchronisation between the outputs of the UPS systems and
the standby system has the same function as that seen in the previous example i.e. to enable CROSS
to switch safely and as quickly as possible between sources. Note how uninterruptible redundancy
is created between the various synchronous sources without using parallel nodes (except the
standby system).

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SBS A

GE

A UPS system
UPS1

Standby UPS line

UPS2

MT-BT A

UPS3

Synchronisation
UPS1
UPS2

GE
UPS3
UPS4

MT-BT B

UPS5

Figure 5-5 The CROSS assembly with single UPS and a standby UPS system.

5.5

Service availability and communication with the UPS

The study of equipment reliability is an extensive part of applied science. Therefore the subject
cannot be dealt with exhaustively in this context. The purpose of this section is to show the link
between service availability and remote monitoring for UPS systems. In a general sense (see
Equation 5-1) availability means the probability, at a specific moment, that the system is
functioning i.e. supplying the expected service. Calculations show that for sufficiently long
operating periods availability tends to be constant 11
(Period in use)
A=
Equation 5-1
(Period in use) + (Period out of use)
The period in use is the mean time during which the system is in service. Similarly, the period out
of use is the mean time required to repair or reset the system. This formula takes into consideration
both maintenance necessitated by a fault (repair maintenance, period out of use = repair time) and
routine system maintenance (period out of use = reset time). System maintenance can then be
divided into active maintenance and inactive maintenance. The former refers to the time required to
actually repair (or reset) the machine (with tools and spare parts to hand). The latter is the total time
elapsing from the moment service assistance is requested to the moment when the technician arrives
on the site where the system is installed. Inactive maintenance times are therefore logistical times.
The aim is to ensure that A (theoretical limit = system always available) is as close to 1 as possible.
This is achieved by maximising the period in use (by giving maximum care to project and process
quality) and minimising the period out of use. Remote monitoring and diagnosis are vital for the
latter. The availability of these tools means that if repair maintenance is necessary, as soon as the
assistance service is notified, technicians can communicate with the UPS to ascertain what the fault
is.
This means that when the technician arrives on the site where the UPS is installed, they will have
with them all the spare parts and tools needed to repair the fault.
If the remote monitoring system is particularly sophisticated, the UPS automatically traces the
available service technician in the event of a fault (through an automatic assistance centre) using a
telephone line for example. The technician can then use the same line to communicate with the UPS
using a laptop PC. It is interesting to note that the customer is not required to contact the assistance
service because the call is forwarded automatically by the system. Furthermore the system can
11

The periods under consideration are no longer than the lifecycle of any individual component in the system.

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operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. This system can be designed so that the UPS notifies the
assistance service in the event of a functioning anomaly which may cause a fault in the future. In
this instance repair maintenance is transformed into preventive maintenance. The Chloride
LIFE2000 system (see Figure 5-6) means that many of the above features are available today.
The system is being developed to enable preventive remote diagnosis.
Therefore the right choice of remote diagnostic/monitoring system contributes significantly to UPS
system functioning.

LIFE2000 Layout

CHLORIDE
AUTHORISED
CENTRE
COMMERCIAL
TELEPHONE
NETWORK

TELEPHONE AND PC OF
THE AUTHORISED
ASSISTANCE CENTRE
TECHNICIAN

Figure 5-6 The LIFE2000 remote diagnosis system

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5.6

Inverter power sizing

When the load being supplied with power is linear, the apparent power (VRMSI RMS) and the power
factor must be known. The power factor is defined as follows:
FP

Plive
Papparent

Equation 5-2

The technical specifications of the UPS must show the apparent nominal power which can be
supplied at a specific power factor and at the reference temperature. According to standard
ENV50091-3, the nominal power is declared at the maximum operating room temperature (usually
40C). At lower temperatures the dissipation of heat produced by power modules is more efficient.
Therefore the inverter can supply more power to the load. If the inverter control system is capable
of automatically adjusting the nominal references for output sizes (automatic power upgrade), this
margin can be used if the UPS is installed in a controlled temperature room.
A circular output diagram is needed to select the UPS with the most suitable power level. The
circular diagram is a Cartesian diagram with reactive power on the x-axis and live power on the yaxis. The diagram shows the power supply area within the nominal limits. The diagram is called
circular because the curve enclosing the nominal area is in part made up of concentric arcs, which
may or may not have their centre at the origin of the axes. The diagram is not usually a complete
circumference. As can be seen in Figure 5-7 the maximum live power (or nominal12 ) is that
supplied at the nominal power factor, which is usually less than one 13 . This excludes the part above
the circumference from the nominal area.

Plive

Pnom

A nom

Qreactive
Figure 5-7 Circular diagram centred on the origin of the axes
Proceed as follows to size the UPS:
1. Calculate the live power required by the load.

12

This is the live power that can be supplied for an undetermined time period. If the load requires more power there will
be an overload.
13
If the load is linear, the FP matches the cosine (f).

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Pload = A load PFload

Equation 5-3

2. Estimate the live nominal power of the UPS (W or kW) using a safety factor which is usually
10%-20%. However, this factor varies greatly according to the installation specifications (e.g.
extra power may be required for future expansion).
PnomUPS Pcarico (1,1 1,2) Equation 5-4
Great caution should be shown with the safety factors because it is easy to oversize the UPS.
3. Select the nominal apparent power (VA or kVA) of the UPS as follows:
P

A nomUPS max nomUPS , A load Equation 5-5


PFnomUPS

UPS sizing begins with the live power of the load because this parameter is directly linked to the
energy that the batteries must supply in the event of a mains power supply failure (and therefore
autonomy, see section 6.3). Inverter sizing can be done using only the live power value if the load
power factor is greater or equal to the nominal power of the inverter itself.
Proceed in the same way if the circular diagram of the UPS output is not centred on the origin of the
axes. It can be seen from the example shown in Figure 5-8 that the live nominal power is
determined by the intersection of the circular diagram with the y-axis. Note also the different power
supply capacity for capacitive loads compared to Figure 5-7.
On inverters with an L-C output filter, the positioning of the circular diagram compared to the
original is due to the effect of re-phasing14 the fundamental frequency. This is done by the filter
condensers (suppression of high frequency modulation residue).

Plive

Anom
Pnom

Qreactive
Figure 5-8 Circular diagram not centred on the origin of the axes
Up to now we have only considered a linear load (ohmic inductive or ohmic - capacitive). In the
majority of cases however the loads are non- linear, that is to say they absorb current in a nonsinusoidal way (this is why they are called distorting loads, see section 3.2.1). For these loads it is
important to know, as well as the apparent and live power, the crest factor (refer to section 3.2.1).
Use the following equation to calculate this value.
14

Decide whether to re-phase a portion of load reactivity or that introduced by an inverter transformer, or both, during
the design stage.

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CF

I peak
I RMS

Equation 5-6

If the CF and apparent effective current are known, this means that the peak current absorbed by the
load is also known. For a sinusoidal current the CF is 2 (approximately 1.41). A typical distorting
load can have a CF of 3. This means that the peak current (in the semi-period) is slightly higher, at
power parity, in a distorting load than in a linear load. For a UPS to function correctly, the peak
current of the load must be less than the maximum peak current permitted by the inverter in the
semi-period. The UPS specifications show the maximum load CF (also nominal CF) at which the
inverter is still capable of supplying the nominal power (in VA or kVA). Follow the instructions for
linear loads to size the inverter if the load CF is lower than or equal to the nominal CF. If the load
CF is greater than the nominal CF then a more powerful inverter than the one calculated using the
procedure described is required. The standard EN 50091-1-1 defines the reference distorting load,
both single-phase and three-phase. This load has a CF approximately equal to 3. This is the reason
why the nominal CF of the inverter is equal to 3.
The CF of some types of load can be greater than 3 (equal even to 4 or 5). When the current peak is
so high, even the series equivalent inductance of the power supply system causes slight voltage
decreases. Therefore voltage wave form deformation is seen around the maximum value (flat
topping). This automatically limits the peak current. Therefore, with such highly distorting loads,
the inverters identify a load with a lower effective CF. This should be taken into consideration to
ensure that the inverter is sized correctly.
All these conditions are valid under normal functioning conditions, that is to say there are no
sudden variations in voltage and effective current. In reality all loads give rise to a transient phase
when they are switched ON. During this phase the current exceeds the nominal values for a certain
period of time. The method required by the UPS to manage the switch-ON transients and load startups can have a serious effect on UPS sizing. The following factors must be taken into consideration.
The loads are switched ON under standby power supply conditions within the limits i.e. the
following information only applies to double conversion UPS systems with a static switch
assembly. If the switch-ON current exceeds the maximum peak that can be supplied by the
inverter, then the supply is switched to the standby network. The latter supplies power to the
load until the transient is over. The load is then switched again without an interruption on the
inverter. Check that the power flowing through the standby static switch assembly is not high
enough to damage it.
Switch-ON occurs with the standby network out of tolerance, or the UPS is not fitted with a
static bypass. In the latter case the inverter must be capable of withstanding the switch-ON
current for the whole duration of the transient. UPS sizing is therefore done, not on the basis of
nominal values, but switch-ON ones.
Load switch-ON in a UPS system is usually a rare event only occurring during maintenance to the
load itself. Indeed one of the aims of a UPS system is to never switch OFF the connected loads.
There are however exceptions to this rule. For example, in safety applications load switch-ON
(often only necessary in the event of an emergency e.g. safety lighting and centralised fire
extinguishing systems) must also occur in a worst case scenario, that is to say in the latter
circumstance listed above. It is therefore very important, above all in safety applications, to know
the value and duration of the load switch-ON and startup current before selecting the nominal
output power of the UPS. Table 5-1 shows the start- up currents for certain loads typically linked to
safety systems.
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Type of load
Incandescent lights
Fluorescent strip lights
Asynchronous motors
Transformers

Peak current
10 - 20 INOM
1 - 2 INOM
6 - 8 INOM
10 - 15 INOM

Peak duration
0.1 0.15 sec
5 - 10 sec
2 - 10 sec
50 - 100 ms

Table 5-1 Typical switch-ON and startup currents


5.7

Sizing examples

A. A UPS must be provided for a 170 kW three-phase non- linear load with CF<3 and a mean
power factor of 0.65 (mainly IT equipment). There are no significant peaks on the load. The
redundancy must be used to obtain a high level of power supply system reliability. Select the
right UPS system.
In this system n=2 and m=1 (redundancy of 1 on 2). Therefore each UPS is sized so that it can
power the entire 170 kW load. The minimum apparent power of the inverter must be greater than
261 kVA.
Select the safety factor. In this case 20%, therefore:
UPS
Pnom
1,2 170kW = 204kW
Calculate the apparent power of the inverter. The nominal FP is 0.8 (EDP90 system):
204kW

UPS
A nom max
, 261kVA = 261kVA
0.8

The commercially available system is the EDP90 300 kVA @ 40C. If the installation room is fitted
with a reliable air conditioning system, for example at 25C, the 250 kVA @ 40C model can
supply 275 kVA @ 25C. In the latter case the 250 kVA model may be more suitable.
If the centralised parallel system is selected, the static switch assembly (COC) must be capable of
supplying power to the entire load, that is to say 261 kVA. The corresponding current, assuming a
balanced three-phase load at nominal vo ltage, is as follows:
261kVA
I fase =
= 377A
400V 3
Therefore a 400 A COC must be selected. If a distributed parallel system is selected, a system
bypass is not necessary because the bypass and static switches of each UPS can withstand the
nominal current of the load.
B.

Let us assume we want to supply a UPS system to group of offices. The IT equipment consists
of: 15 standard workstations (PC, 17 monitor , modem, etc), 10 high-performance CAD
workstations (twin-processor, 19 monitor , modem, etc), 1 IBM AS400 server and 5 laser printers.
Select the correct UPS using the data shown in Table 5-2.
Type of load
Standard workstation
High-performance workstation
Server
A4 laser printer

Nominal power
400 VA
500 VA
600 VA
300 VA

Contemporaneity coefficient
0.9
0.9
1
0.6

Table 5-2 Examples of loads

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The contemporaneity coefficient is the probability, at a certain moment, that the load is absorbing
the nominal power. A constantly absorbing load has a nominal power of 1, whereas the nominal
power will be proportionately less than 1 for loads that are not constantly absorbing. The mean level
of absorbed power is therefore equal to the product of nominal power and the coefficient. This
power product for the various loads constitutes the nominal power absorbed by the system, taking
into consideration the probability of contemporaneous absorption on the part of all the loads.
Firstly it is not advisable to provide a UPS for the all laser printers. They cause high absorption
peaks during printing. Furthermore the damage caused by a power supply failure to a printer
consists only of the loss of the print queue. Therefore the customer must be consulted to ascertain
the choice of which printer to provide with a UPS. Let us assume that the customer agrees to only
provide the printer in the dispatch department with a UPS. The overall power required by the loads
can therefore be calculated (see Table 5-3).
Number of loads
15
10
1
1

Nominal power (VA)


400
500
600
400

Coefficient
0.9
0.9
1
0.6

Total (VA)
5400
4500
600
240
10740

Table 5-3 Calculation of the power absorbed by the system.


If we consider a mean power factor of 0.65 (assuming that all the loads are non- linear) the live
power absorbed by the load is 6981 W. Following the same example shown in example A, the right
UPS for this application is the Chloride Linear 12 kVA model (nominal output power factor of
0.7) with a single-phase output and a single- or three-phase input. However if a high level of
reliability is required, a distributed parallel system is required. The Chloride Synthesis Twin
made up of two 12 kVA single-phase output units is ideal.

Bibliography
[1]

HD 384 for electrical systems, 1998

[2]

ENV 50091-3, uninterruptible power systems (UPS), part 3: performance requirements and
test methods.

[3]

Illuminazione di sicurezza, edizioni TNE, 1990.

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BATTERY CAPACITY SIZING TECHNIQUES

In all cases where loads cannot tolerate a mains power failure, batteries provide the most suitable
alternative power source for Uninterruptible Power System applications.
The batteries supplied with an uninterruptible power supply system are often of the valve regulated
lead acid type (VRLA), better known as sealed batteries. Two VRLA technologies are currently
available: absorbed electrolyte (ELA) and gelled electrolyte (GEL). VRLA batteries have very low
gas emissions and can therefore be installed in areas accessible to the operator (EN 50091-1-1).
The batteries can be installed in the UPS cabinet or in the power distribution panel. Battery life
depends on ambient and working conditions and on the design and quality of the batteries
themselves. It is best to install the batteries in a place where the temperature is controlled since
battery life can be drastically shortened by high temperatures. A good rule of thumb is to remember
that for every 10C above the reference temperature (20C), battery life is reduced by half, as
shown in the Eurobat guide.
For applications requiring high power and performance levels, stationary wet cell batteries with
free- flowing, fluid electrolyte (ELI) may be used. Wet cell batteries must be installed in a suitable
place (EN 60896-1) and must be periodically checked for fluid level.
Nickel cadmium batteries can also be used if they are suitable for particularly critical environments
with working temperatures that can vary from 40C to +60C. In the following examples the
typical parameters shown refer to VRLA ELA batteries, even though the calculation methods are of
general use.
The term autonomy indicates the minimum time for which the UPS, in the absence of the utility
power source, can guarantee the power supply for the load at specified operating conditions (EN
50091-1-1 section 1.3.2.6). Therefore autonomy is declared when the UPS supplies the nominal live
power to the load, unless otherwise specified.
The capacity of a battery expressed in Amp- hours (Ah) is the quantity of electrical energy that the
battery can supply when discharging and accumulate when charging. This capacity varies with
operating conditions and therefore it is defined at specified reference characteristics (temperature,
discharge end voltage, discharge cycle). Refer to EN 60896-2 section 3.1 for VRLA batteries, and
EN 60896-1 section 6 for ELI batteries.
The battery capacity required to ensure a power supply to the load can be determined in a variety of
ways. There are also different ways to recharge the batteries. The continuous voltage needed for
UPS functioning is obtained by connecting monobloc batteries in series. The batteries are made up
of a variable number of cells depending on the battery model. Hereinafter the series of monoblocs is
called a battery string. Refer to EN 50272-2, section 11 and annex A for standards relating to
battery recharging methods.
This section contains information on the following subjects:
Methods of determining battery capacity in accordance with the required autonomy.
Recharging methods.
Recharging times.
Protection of direct current lines.

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6.1

Determining battery capacity for constant power discharging using current as a


parameter

This section describes the method of calculating the capacity of the battery capable of providing the
power required by the load for a specified time (autonomy) using current as the assessment
parameter.
Although the UPS is a device that discharges the batteries at constant power (therefore minimum
current when fully charged and maximum current when fully discharged), we can assume that in
terms of autonomy the batteries are discharged at a mean current.
The mean discharge current is calculated using the Equation 6-1. The result is used to select the
battery model using the tables, supplied by the manufacturer, showing the constant discharge
current values as certain parameters change. These parameters are as follows:
Discharge time.
Discharge end voltage by cell.

( A FP )

I ms =

Ims
A

FP

Vis + V fs

n
2

Equation 6-1

Mean discharge current.


This is the mean value of the discharge current. It is expressed in A (Amperes).
Nominal apparent power of the load.
Nominal power of the load being supplied for the specified autonomy (it can be ALOAD
ANOM UPS). It is expressed in VA (Volt Amperes).
Power factor.
This is a feature of an AC load expressed by the ratio between live power and apparent
power. Its value is generally between 0.7 and 0.8. In the case of a linear load PF = cos,
where is the phase displacement between voltage and current, whereas for a non- linear
load PF = cos1 ,where 1 is the phase displacement between the first voltage harmonic
and current, and is the load distortion factor. This factor is always less than one but can in
fact be considered as unitary in many practical examples.

N.B.:
If load power is declared as live power (P) and therefore in Watts, this value replaces the parameter
in full (A PF).

Inverter efficiency.
This varies according to UPS model and architecture, and different load percentages relative
to the UPS nominal value. In the product specifications, its value is usually given for
different load percentages (25%, 50%, 75%, 100%).
n
Number of cells in battery string.
The number of cells varies according to the following parameters:
UPS model.
UPS power (even for the same model).
Type of battery (lead acid or nickel cadmium).
The number is given in the product specifications.
Vis
Start of discharge voltage.
This is the voltage of a battery cell when discharging begins. It varies according to the type
of battery, as follows:
Nickel Cadmium
1.2 V.
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Lead acid
2 V.
End of discharge voltage.
This is the voltage of a battery cell when discharging ends. It varies according to the type of
battery, as follows:
Nickel Cadmium
1.05 V.
Lead acid
value depends on discharge time (see Table 6-1). Its value
is expressed in V (Volts).

Vfs

Discharge time
Discharge up to 1 hour
Discharge up to 2 hours
Discharge up to 4 hours
Discharge up to 10 hours

End of discharge voltage


End of discharge voltage > 1.65 V/ cell
End of discharge voltage > 1.68 V/ cell
End of discharge voltage > 1.75 V/ cell
End of discharge voltage > 1.80 V/ cell

Table 6-1 End of discharge voltages as a function of time for VRLA batteries used in Chloride
UPS.
When the capacity required is higher than that available, two or more battery strings can be
connected in parallel in order to obtain the required capacity.
When doing this, remember the following:
The power required by each monobloc is that previously calculated divided by the number
of parallel strings (the maximum number of parallel strings is usually between 4 and 6,
depending on the specifications of the battery manufacturer).
All the parallel strings must have the same number of cells of the same type and capacity.
The parallel branches must be as similar and symmetrical as possible (in terms of wiring
length) so as not to create non-uniform currents.
Furthermore to improve the lifecycle of batteries, manufacturers suggest that the following formula
is adhered to:
I fs
<5
Ah
where:
Ifs
is the end of discharge current. It is expressed in A (Amperes).
Ah
is the capacity of the battery. It is expressed in Ah (Ampere/hours).
For strings connected in parallel, the value of one battery must be multiplied by the number
of strings.
6.1.1

Capacity sizing example for a VRLA battery using current as a parameter

Size the capacity of a VRLA battery for an apparent nominal power load of 80 kVA, with PF =0.8
for an autonomy of 15 minutes under nominal functioning conditions.
First of all, you must identify the type of UPS to be used to supply the load so as to have all the
technical data you need for the calculation.
Let us assume a Chloride EDP90/800 UPS (nominal power 80 kVA).
P
FP

= 80 kVA
= 0.8
= 0.92

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

(100% of UPS rating)


(a feature of the load)
(value given in UPS specifications for 100% of load)
MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 85

n
Vis
Vfs

= 198
= 2V
= 1.65 V

(value given in UPS specifications)


(value given in battery specifications)
(value given in UPS specifications, see Table 6-1)

( 80000 0.8 )
I ms =

0.92
= 192.5 A
2 + 1.65

198
2

Next, consult the manufacturers' tables for discharge at constant current and find the value required
or the one immediately above this for an autonomy of 15 minutes at an end of discharge voltage of
1.65 V/cell (see Table 6-1 discharge up to 1 hour).
Use the data shown in Table 6-2 (genuine values given by a VRLA manufacturer).

Batt.
type
108
Ah
@
25C
110
Ah
@
25C
128
Ah
@
25C

Batt.
volt.
12

12

12

End
dis. V
1.67
1.75
1.80
1.85
1.67
1.75
1.80
1.85
1.67
1.75
1.80
1.85

1
min.
412.5
351.0
299.5
254.0
573.8
489.6
430.3
368.6
699.6
596.9
524.7
449.4

5
min.
298.9
266.5
241.0
207.5
387.4
336.0
307.1
264.9
472.3
409.6
374.4
323.0

10
min.
225.6
207.4
188.2
166.2
262.1
242.2
223.6
200.5
319.5
295.4
272.7
244.4

15
min.
179.9
168.3
154.1
138.3
194.6
186.1
176.4
161.1
237.2
226.9
215.0
196.4

20
min.
149.9
142.0
130.8
118.2
156.4
152.3
146.3
134.9
190.7
185.7
178.3
164.5

30
min.
112.6
108.4
101.8
92.5
115.0
112.7
109.7
103.3
140.2
137.3
133.8
125.9

60
min.
67.7
65.9
62.8
58.7
67.8
66.7
65.7
63.1
82.7
81.3
80.1
76.9

90
min.
49.7
48.2
45.9
43.3
49.0
48.6
48.1
46.5
59.8
59.2
58.7
56.7

2
hour
38.2
36.9
35.1
38.8
38.4
37.3
47.2
46.9
45.4

4
hour
21.8
20.9
19.9
22.1
21.7
21.0
27.0
26.5
25.6

6
hour
15.4
14.8
14.1
15.5
15.3
14.8
18.9
18.6
18.1

8
hour
12.0
11.6
11.1
12.0
11.9
11.5
14.7
14.5
14.0

10
hour
9.9
9.5
9.1
9.8
9.75
9.42
12.0
11.9
11.5

20
hour
55.5
5.2
5.0
5.48
5.26
5.08
6.5
6.4
6.2

48
hour
2.5
2.3
2.2
2.54
2.35
2.22
2.96
2.29
2.7

72
hour
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.71
1.63
1.48
2.06
1.96
1.81

Table 6-2 Table of constant current discharge values as a function of end of discharge voltage and
discharge time for sealed lead acid batteries. Values in Amperes/battery @ 25C. capacity is given
in Ah with 20 hour discharge cycle.
Result
The UPS rated at 80 kVA, at nominal operating conditions, will be able to supply the load for 15
minutes with 33 sealed lead acid 12 V monoblocs (198 cells) (battery with 110 Ah capacity for a
discharge cycle of 20 hours @ 25C).

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 86

6.2

Determining battery capacity for constant power discharging using the power
parameter for each cell

This section describes the method of calculating the capacity of the battery capable of providing the
power required by the load for a specified time (autonomy) using power per cell as the parameter
for calculation.
The power per cell is calculated using the Equation 6-2. The result is used to select the battery
model using the tables, supplied by the manufacturer, showing the constant discharge power values
as certain parameters change. These parameters are as follows:
Discharge time.
Discharge end voltage by cell.

( A PF )
PC =

PC

FP

Equation 6-2

Power per cell.


This is the power that each cell in the battery string must supply to the inverter for the
specified time (autonomy). Its value is expressed in Watts (W).
Nominal apparent power of the load.
Nominal power of the load being supplied for the specified autonomy (it can be ALOAD
ANOM UPS). It is expressed in VA (Volt Amperes).
Power factor.
This is a feature of an AC load expressed by the ratio between live power and apparent
power. Its value is generally between 0.7 and 0.8. In the case of a linear load PF = cos,
where is the phase displacement between voltage and current, whereas for a non- linear
load PF = cos1 , where 1 is the phase displacement between the first voltage harmonic
and current, and is the load distortion factor. This factor is always less than one but can in
fact be considered as unitary in many practical examples.

N.B.:
If load power is declared as live power (P) and therefore in Watts, this value replaces the parameter
in full (A PF).

Inverter efficiency.
This varies according to UPS model and architecture, and different load percentages relative
to the UPS nominal value. In the product specifications, its value is usually given for
different load percentages (25%, 50%, 75%, 100%).
n
Number of cells in battery string.
The number of cells varies according to the following parameters:
UPS model.
UPS power (even for the same model).
Type of battery (lead acid or nickel cadmium).
The number is given in the product specifications.
The power required for each battery (or monobloc of batteries) can be determined as follows:
Pm = Pc nc
Pm

Power required for each monobloc. Its value is expressed in Watts (W).

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 87

Pc
nc

Power required for each cell. Its value is expressed in Watts (W).
Number of cells in a monobloc. The number varies according to monobloc voltage. The
nominal voltage of a VRLA cell is 2 V, and therefore:
12 V monoblocs
= 6 cells
6 V monoblocs
= 3 cells
2 V monoblocs
= 1 cell

When the capacity required is higher than that available, two or more battery strings can be
connected in parallel in order to obtain the required capacity.
When doing this, remember the following:
The power required by each monobloc is that previously calculated divided by the number
of parallel strings (the maximum number of parallel strings is usually between 4 and 6,
depending on the specifications of the battery manufacturer).
All the parallel strings must have the same number of cells of the same type and capacity.
The parallel branches must be as similar and symmetrical as possible (in terms of wiring
length) so as not to create non-uniform currents.
Furthermore to improve the lifecycle of batteries, manufacturers suggest that the following formula
is adhered to:
I fs
<5
Ah
where:
Ifs
is the end of discharge current. It is expressed in A (Amperes).
Ah
is the capacity of the battery. It is expressed in Ah (Ampere/hours).
For strings connected in parallel, the value of one battery must be multiplied by the number
of strings.
6.2.1

Capacity sizing example for a VRLA battery using power per cell as a parameter

Size the capacity of a VRLA battery for an apparent nominal power load of 80 kVA, with PF =0.8
for an autonomy of 15 minutes under nominal functioning conditions.
First of all, you must identify the type of UPS to be used to supply the load so as to have all the
technical data you need for the calculation.
Let us assume a Chloride EDP90/800 UPS (nominal power 80 kVA).
P
FP

n
nc

=
=
=
=
=

80 kVA
0.8
0.92
198
6

(100% of UPS rating)


(a feature of the load)
(value given in UPS specifications for 100% of load)
(value given in UPS specifications)
(12 V monoblocs)

( 80000 0.8 )
PC =
Pc
Pm

0.92
198

= 351 W

= 351 W
(power required for each cell in the string)
= 351 6 = 2108 W (power required for each monobloc in the string)

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 88

Next, consult the manufacturers' tables for discharge at constant power and find the value required
or the one immediately above this for an autonomy of 15 minutes at an end of discharge voltage of
1.65 V/cell (see Table 6-1 discharge up to 1 hour).
Refer to Table 6-3.

Batt.
type

Batt.
volt

108 Ah
@
25C

12

110 Ah
@
25C

12

128 Ah
@
25C

12

End
dis. V
1.67
1.75
1.80
1.85
1.67
1.75
1.80
1.85
1.67
1.75
1.80
1.85

1
min.
4263
3740
3283
2854
5485
4810
4482
3786
6688
5863
5465
4616

5
min.
3183
2891
2665
2348
3800
3548
3327
3046
4633
4326
4056
3714

10
min.
2417
2204
2098
1896
2863
2675
2500
2300
3491
3261
3048
2804

15
min.
1956
1855
1734
1505
2227
2152
2019
1849
2714
2599
2461
2254

20
min.
1648
1589
1483
1373
1825
1780
1715
1587
2225
2170
2091
1935

30
min.
1269
1227
1172
1087
1355
1337
1314
1262
1652
1631
1602
1539

60
min.
781
764
737
702
799
791
782
756
974
965
953
922

90
min.
572
561
546
523
584
579
571
552
712
706
697
673

2
hour
447
435
417
477
460
443
581
561
540

4
hour
254
245
237
275
268
256
335
326
312

6
hour
181
175
169
198
191
183
241
233
223

8
hour
143
138
133
154
148
142
188
180
173

10
hour
118
114
111
126
121
16
154
147
141

20
hour
66.1
64.0
61.5
66.0
64.0
62.0
80.5
78.0
75.6

48
hour
31.2
29.7
29.2
30.9
29.7
27.8
37.7
36.2
33.9

72
hour
21.7
20.5
19.0
21.5
20.5
18.9
26.2
24.9
23

Table 6-3 - Table of constant power discharge values as a function of end of discharge voltage and
discharge time for sealed lead acid batteries. Values in Amperes/battery @ 25C. Capacity is given
in Ah with a 20 hour discharge cycle.
Result
The UPS rated at 80 kVA, at nominal operating conditions, will be able to supply the load for 15
minutes with 33 sealed lead acid 12 V monoblocs (198 cells) (battery with 110 Ah capacity for a
discharge cycle of 20 hours @ 25C). Note that the result is the same as the one calculated in the
previous example.
6.3

Battery recharging methods

In any system where they are installed, batteries constitute a readily available energy source that can
be used in the event of any transient power disturbance. For this reason, the following are essential:
During periods when the load does not operate on battery power, the batteries must be kept
in a fully charged state by float charging.
When the load has operated on battery power for a certain length of time, the batteries must
be recharged to restore their full store of energy. Recharging must be carried out
immediately after discharging.
A battery is being recharged when the voltage being applied to it is greater than its EMF (or
discharged voltage). Depending on the time available for recharging or on the type of battery,
recharging can be performed in the following different ways:
With a charge vo ltage of 2.4 V/cell.
With a charge voltage at float value.
With a charge voltage at 2.7 V/cell (rapid charge).
There are various stages in each of these methods. For each of these methods the last recharging
stage occurs at float voltage which depends on the type of battery, its age and temperature. The float
voltage is the level of voltage required to circulate a recharge current to compensate battery autodischarge, without causing excessive consumption of the electrolyte. To ensure that the battery
lifecycle is not reduced, it is vital that the battery recharging device is capable of compensating the
float voltage as a function of temperature (typical value 0.11% per C, 2.27 V/cell @ 20C for an
ELA type VRLA battery).
CHLORIDE
MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 89
POWER PROTECTION

6.3.1

Charging with characteristic I- V with voltage limit of 2.4 V/cell

This recharging method consists of three different steps which follow each other as the capacity is
restored.
The first stage involves voltage applied from the battery charging device to the battery strings so
that the recharge current is limited to the maximum permitted value. Battery EMF gradually
increases as recharging takes place, beginning with a value similar to the discharge end one and
increasing up to the applied voltage value. Therefore to maintain a constant current (current limit),
the applied voltage must be gradually increased. The maximum recharge current is usually equal to
0.1C10 A, where C10 is the capacity in Ah with a discharge cycle of 10 hours.
This first stage is described as constant current and increasing voltage. The stage is complete when
the applied voltage value reaches the maximum applicable value (2.4 V/cell).
A constant voltage stage begins when the applied voltage reaches the maximum value. During this
stage the battery EMF continues to increase (recharging has now reached approximately 80% of
maximum capacity) and the recharge current decreases suddenly, according to the curve given by
the following formula:
V E
I=
Ri
where:
I
= recharge current
V
= applied voltage (constant at 2.4 V/cell)
E
= battery EMF
Ri
= internal battery resistance
I

Vr
Vm

t1

t2

t1

t2

Figure 6-1 Applied voltage and current during recharging with 2.4 V/cell voltage limit.
During this stage, the charging level at 2.4 V/cell has the effect of accelerating the charging rate.
Since applied voltage is higher than float voltage, (2.27 V/cell @ 20C), the battery absorbs more
current and the remaining 20% of capacity is recovered at a faster rate.
When absorbed current approaches float values, voltage is decreased to 2.27 V/cell @ 20C and
float charging begins to avoid damaging the battery. The switch from 2.4 V/cell to float voltage
must not occur for current values that are too close to those that would be absorbed during the float
stage. This is because the current absorbed during the float stage is not constant during each
recharge cycle and tends to increase with battery age. This means that there is a risk that the switch
to 2.27 V/cell will not occur because the current absorbed by the battery is higher than the switching
threshold.
CHLORIDE
MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 90
POWER PROTECTION

Even if a sufficiently high threshold is selected to take battery ageing into consideration, the switch
may not occur if there is a fault to the battery recharging adjustment device. Therefore it is
important that potential faults are identified during the design stage so that even if the adjustment
device fails, the applied voltage is never higher than the float voltage.
Excessive electrolyte consumption may occur if the switch to the float value does not take place.
This then results in irreparable damage to the battery. That stated above is invalid if the 2.4V/cell
recharge is done manually, if human error is excluded. Recharging at 2.4 V/cell is used above all to
quickly restore battery capacity, and is normally done using an automatic device.
6.3.2

Charging with characteristic I- V with voltage limit set at float voltage

Although this is the safest way of recharging a battery, it has the disadvantage of requiring a
relatively long time to restore the battery to its full capacity.
When the battery is low, recharging it on float voltage is performed as follows:
Battery EMF gradually increases up to the maximum value applied by the battery recharge
device with the recharge current kept constant (0.1C10 A), as with the first stage in the 2.4
V/cell method.
Thereafter, the current decreases according to the usual law:
V E
I=
Ri
where:
I
= recharge current
V
= applied voltage (2.27 V/cell @ 20C for an ELA type VRLA)
E
= battery EMF
Ri
= internal resistance
I

Vm

t1

t2

t1

t2

Figure 6-2 Applied voltage and current during recharging to the float limit.
If charging in I-V mode with a voltage limit of 2.4 V/cell is compared with float charging, it can be
observed that:
The time taken to restore the initial 50% of the capacity, corresponding to the constant
current section, is the same in both cases because the recharge current is the same in both
cases.
From 50% to 75-80% of capacity, corresponding to the falling current stage during
recharging to float voltage, the 2.4V/cell recharging mode enables recovery times that are 4
to 5 times less. This is because in the latter case the current is still constant and equal to the
maximum permitted value (the constant current stage finishes earlier in float recharge mode
because the applied voltage is lower).
CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 91

The last 20% of the capacity takes a long time in both cases. In the case of 2.4 V/cell mode,
recharging is faster if the switch to float voltage is carried out when the current absorbed
corresponds to more than 80% of the capacity.
Recharging with float voltage has the highest energy efficiency (approximately 95%). In the other
cases, the more the electrolyte is consumed, the less recharging efficiency there is (as a general rule
energy efficiency is 90% for 2.4 V/cell recharging and 85% for 2.7 V/cell).
6.3.3

Recharging at 2.7 Volts/cell

To obtain an extremely fast charge and force to maximum levels the desulphurization of cells that
have remained discharged for long periods, a charging voltage close to the electrolyte gasification
level can be used.
For temperatures between 15C and 25C, this voltage is 2.7 V/cell for VRLA batteries.
This level is very high and should only be used in exceptional circumstances. Indeed many users do
not envisage this voltage level at all.
Recharging at 2.7 V/cell reduces battery life because it degrades the live earth, causes the emission
of considerable quantities of gas and makes the surrounding atmosphere hydrogen rich (the standard
allows a maximum concentration of 4% - EN 50091-1-1 Annex N.1), causing large quantities of
electrolyte to be consumed. For these reasons, it is always performed in "manual" mode and never
automatically.
6.4

Recharging times

The recharging time is defined as the longest time taken to recharge the UPS battery to a sufficient
state of charge, taking into account the installed charge capacity, to allow another complete
discharge at specified operating conditions (EN 50091-1-1 section 1.3.2.7). The duration of
recharging is the time which elapses between the moment in which the UPS, after discharging, is
supplied at nominal values and the moment in which the current to the battery reaches a minimum
value (specified by the manufacturer).
This value indicates that the battery has been recharged to a value greater than 90% of its capacity
(ENV 50091-3 section 4.3.9.2). The recharging time, for different maximum current values
supplied by the battery (0,1C10 0,15C10 0,25C10 ), is indicated by the manufacturer. The
recharging procedure that maximises battery life uses a constant voltage that is the same as the float
voltage (2.27 V/cell @ 20C for ELA and VRLA batteries) with a maximum initial charging current
of 0 C10 Amps (see section 6.3.2). Following this procedure, 90% of the battery capacity can be
restored in 10-12 hours.
There are no general standards limiting maximum recharge times for standby power supplies.

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 92

6.5

Battery line protection

The product standard (EN 50091-1-1 section 2.7.2) specifies the protection necessary against
overloads and earth faults (positioning and number of devices) for batteries installed both inside a
UPS and outside it (in a separate cubicle, whether mobile or fixed, or in a separate battery room).
Direct current circuits can be subject to overloads, short circuits and earth faults.
Protection against overloads is the same as that used for alternating current systems. For protection
against short circuits, the devices used must be able to interrupt the direct current at a value which is
greater than the presumed short circuit current.
Earth faults are indicated by significant overloads only if the direct current power source has an
intermediate point or pole connected to earth and a main earth connection.
The choice of the type of switch for the protection of a direct current system depends on the
following parameters:
The maximum current that can flow through the system. This allows the protection rating to
be determined.
The nominal voltage. This allows determination of the number of poles, connected in series,
that will open.
Wire conductor size.
Other protection devices within the UPS or in the battery cubicle.
The maximum short circuit current at the installation point. This allows definition of the
interruption capacity. A very important parameter to define the short circuit current is the
internal battery resistance (given in the product specifications) which depends essentially
on:
battery cell technology
conductivity and density of the electrolyte
discharge cycle
ambient temperature.
Type of network.
networks connected to earth through a central point
networks connected to earth through a pole
networks isolated from earth.

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 93

Bibliography
[1]

EN 50091-1-1 Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Part 1-1: General and safety
requirements for UPS used in operator access areas.

[2]

EN 50091-1-2 Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Part 1-2: General and safety
requirements for UPS used in limited access areas.

[3]

EN 50091-2 Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Part 2: Electromagnetic compatibility


requirements (EMC).

[4]

ENV 50091-3 Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Part 3: Performance requirements


and test methods

[5]

EN 60896-1. Sealed lead batteries Performance requirements and test methods Part 1:
Open batteries

[6]

EN 60896-2. Sealed lead batteries Performance requirements and test methods Part 2:
Valve regulated batteries

[7]

EN 60896-1. Sealed lead batteries Part 3: Recommendations for installation and use

[8]

Illuminazione di sicurezza, edizioni TNE, 1990.

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 94

ANALYSING SPECIFICATIONS

The Specifications are a document used to define:


manufacturing characteristics
electrical characteristics
functioning mode
supply methods and times
for an uninterruptible power supply unit.
Analysis of a specification therefore means comparing that requested by the customer with the
characteristics of the product supplied by the manufacturer.
The most significant aspects to correctly read a technical specification document are shown below.
The list is most certainly not exhaustive.
The parameters requiring assessment to identify the product model are as follows:
Apparent power (product of output voltage and current in efficient values, expressed in VA
with a specified power factor), or alternatively live power (mean instantaneous power in a
period expressed in Watts).
Number of input phases/output phases.
Single-phase input/single-phase output.
Three-phase input/single-phase output.
Three-phase input/three-phase output.
Type of UPS (if functioning is described).
Double conversion (under normal functioning conditions the load is always supplied
with power by an inverter).
Interactive (under normal functioning conditions the load is always supplied with
power by a direct line).
Standby (under normal functioning conditions the load is always supplied with
power by a direct line, but with dynamic output features which are lower than on the
interactive version).
Functioning mode.
Single.
Parallel.
o Distributed parallel.
o Centralised parallel.
Once the model has been identified then all the remaining electrical and mechanical parameters can
be checked. Particular attention should be given to all parameters that greatly affect the
characteristics of the UPS (assess the suitability of using standard options) such as:
Percentage current harmonic distortion (THDI).
UPS with six-phase rectifier jumper (THDI = 30%)
UPS with six-phase rectifier jumper with filter (THDI = 7%)
UPS with twelve-phase rectifier jumper (THDI = 8%)
UPS with twelve-phase rectifier jumper with filter (THDI = 5%)
UPS with PFC (Power Factor Control) single-phase rectifier jumper (THDI = 3%)
UPS with PFC (Power Factor Control) three-phase rectifier jumper (THDI = 10%)
Classes of electromagnetic compatibility.
class B
class A (can be converted into class B using RFI filter options)
controlled sales distribution (can be converted into class B using RFI filter options)
Galvanic isolation.
CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 95

use of isolation transformer


o on UPS output
o on UPS standby input
o on UPS main input
o on both UPS inputs
Backfeed protection device.

Careful analysis is required to guarantee the minimum time period during which the UPS system, in
the absence of an input power supply, ensures the power supply to the load under specified
functioning conditions.
Autonomy
Battery type
o lead sealed
o nickel cadmium
o wet cell
Expected battery life
o 3 5 years
o 6 -9 years
o 10 -12 years
o more than 12 years
Recharging time (usually not shown but some applications must meet standard
obligations)
There are some increasingly important prescriptions in terms of:
Communication
Installation room
o warning lights and sounds
o alphanumeric display
Remote.
o display panel
o serial communication
RS232 RS422 RS485
shutdown software
o communication between UPS and assistance centre
monitoring software
remote assistance (LIFE 2000)
Maintenance and services
maintenance contracts
remote assistance
Supply services
spare parts
testing
o on the manufacturer's premises
o startup and testing
technical documentation
declaration of conformity
7.1

Cross references between obsolete standards and standards EN 50091 and IEC
62040

This section deals with standards.


CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 96

The purpose of the standards included in the specification is to define:


The requisites that the materials and equipment must have.
The criteria with which these requisites must be checked
and which may vary as a result of:
Nationality.
Type of application.
The specifications do not always identify the product standards (EN 50091), but list, as well as the
European Directives and the laws that enforce them, all those standards which can in some way
provide safety indications and define the electrical characteristics of UPS systems.
It is important to know the standards in each country (at least CENELEC members) and the
prescription references contained in the product standards to correctly assess whether the products
conform to the prescribed standards.
Each member country of CENELEC is obliged to enforce the standards drafted by the organisation
and withdraw contrasting national standards within a specific date (DOW).
This means that there is a perfectly equivalent standard for each country.
Table 7-1 shows the CENELEC member counties, national standards bodies and standards. This
should facilitate identification of the various standards and their country of origin.
Country

National standards body

Standards

Austria

sterreichischen Verband fr Elektrotechnik (VE)

Belgium

Comit Electrotechnique Belge (CEB)

Logo

NORM
VE

NBN

Belgisch Elektrotechnisch Comit (BEC)


DS

Denmark

Dansk Standard (DS) Electrotechnical Sector

Finland

Finnish Electrotechnical Standards Association (SESKO)

France

Union Technique de l'Electricit et de la communication


(UTE)

Germany

Deutsche Elektrotechnische Kommission im DIN und VDE

SFS
NF
UTE
VDE
DIN

(DKE)
Greece

Hellenic Organization for Standardization (ELOT)

Ireland

Electro-Technical Council of Ireland (ETCI)

Iceland

The Icelandic Council for Standardization (STR)

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

EOT

ET

ST

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 97

Country
Italy

National standards body

Standards

Comitato Elettrotecnico Italiano (CEI)

Luxembourg Service de l'Energie de l'Etat (SEE)

Norway

Norsk Elektroteknisk Komite (NEK)

Holland

Nederlands Elektrotechnisch Comit (NEC)

Portugal

Instituto Portugus da Qualidade (IPQ)

United
Kingdom

British Electrotechnical Committee (BEC)

Logo

CEI
UNI

SEE

NS

NEN
NP

BS
ERA
EA

British Standards Institution (BSI)

SN

Czech
Republic

Czech Standards Institute (CSNI)

Spain

Asociacin Espaola de Normalizacin y Certificacin


(AENOR)

Sweden

Svenska Elektriska Kommissionen (SEK)

Switzerland

Swiss Electrotechnical Committee (CES)

UNE
UNESA
SIS

ASE
SNV
SICC

Table 7-1 List of CENELEC member countries and their national standards bodies
Standard EN 50091-1-1 uses standard EN 60950 as a reference document (RD). The former also
refers to prescriptions in other standards.
Table 7-2 shows the European and international standards us ed as references.
European
publications

Title

EN 50091-2

Uninterruptible power systems (UPS)


Part 2: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements

ENV 50091-3

Uninterruptible power systems (UPS)


Part 3: Performance requirements and test methods

CHLORIDE
POWER PROTECTION

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 98

European
publications

Title

EN 60127

Miniature fuses
(IEC 127 series)

EN 60269-1

Fuses with a voltage no greater than 1000 V for alternating currents and
1500 V for direct currents
Part 1: General requirements (IEC 269 series)

EN 60445

Identification of equipment terminals and terminations of certain designated


conductors including general rules of an alphanumeric system
(IEC 445 - 1988)

EN 60529

Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)(IEC 529 - 1989)

EN 60924

DC supplied electronic ballasts for tubular fluorescent lamps General and


safety requirements (IEC 924 - 1990)

EN 60925

DC supplied electronic ballasts for tubular fluorescent lamps General and


safety requirements (IEC 925 - 1989)

EN 60950
+ A1
+ A2

Safety of information technology equipment


(IEC 950 1991 + A1 1992 + A2 1993, modified)

EN 61008-1
(+Corr. Sept
1994)

Electrical accessories Residual current operated circuit-breakers without


integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCCB's)
Part 1: General rules
(IEC 1008-1 1990 + A1 1992, modified)

EN 61009-1
(+Corr. Sept
1994)

Electrical accessories Residual current operated circuit-breakers without


integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCCB's)
Part 1: General rules
(IEC 1009-1 1991, modified)

ENV 61002-2-2

Electromagnetic compatibility Part 2: Environmental Section 2:


Compatibility levels for low-frequency conducted disturbances and
signalling in low-voltage public power supply systems

IEC 146-4

Semiconductor converters
Part 4: Method of specifying the performance end test requirements of
Uninterruptible power system

IEC 755
+ A1
+ A2

General requirements for residual current operated protective devices

Table 7-2 Reference standards (EN 50091-1-1 sections 1.2.1 and 1.2.2)
Standard EN 50091-2 refers to prescriptions in other standards.
Table 7-3 shows the European and international standards used as references.
European
publications
ENV 50091-3

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Title
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS)
Part 3: Performance requirements and test methods

MI01/10030 - rev.1 - 18/014/1 - page 99

European
publications

Title

EN 55011

Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance characteristics of


industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio-frequency equipment
(CISPR 11(1990), modified)

EN 55022

Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance characteristics of


information technology equipment

EN 60555-1

Disturbances in supply systems caused by household appliances and similar


electrical equipment
Part 1: Definitions

EN 60555-2

Disturbances in supply systems caused by household appliances and similar


electrical equipment
Part 2: Harmonics

EN 60555-3/A1

Disturbances in supply systems caused by household appliances and similar


electrical equipment
Part 3: Voltage fluctuations
(IEC 555/A1 (1990) + Corrigendum (1990))

EN 61000-4-1

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)


Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques
Section 1: Overview of immunity tests
Basic EMC publication
(IEC 1000-4-1 (1992))

EN 61000-4-11

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)


Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques
Section 11: Voltage dips, short interruptions and voltage variations immunity
tests
(IEC 1000-4-11 (1994))

CISPR 16

CISPR Specification for radio interference measuring apparatus and


measurement method

European
publications

Title

IEC 83

Plugs and socket-outlets for domestic and similar general use

IEC 801-1

EMC for industrial process measurement and control equipment


Part 1: General introduction

IEC 801-2

EMC for industrial process measurement and control equipment


Part 2: Electrostatic discharge requirements

IEC 801-3

EMC for industrial process measurement and control equipment


Part 3: Immunity to radio frequency electromagnetic fields

IEC 801-4

EMC for industrial process measurement and control equipment


Part 4: Electrical fast transient/burst immunity

IEC 801-5

EMC for industrial process measurement and control equipment


Part 5: Surge immunity requirements

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European
publications

Title

IEC 1000-2-2

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)


Part 2: Environmental
Section 2: Compatibility levels for low frequency conducted disturbances
and signalling in public low voltage supply system

IEV 50(161)

International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV)


Chapter 161: Electromagnetic compatibility

Table 7-3 Reference standards (EN 50091-2 section 1.3)


Standard ENV 50091-3 refers to prescriptions in other standards.
Table 7-4 shows the European and international standards used as references.
European
publications

Title

EN 27779

Acoustic: Measurement of airborne noise emitted by computer and business


equipment (ISO 7779 - 1988)

EN 50091-1-1

Uninterruptible power systems (UPS)


Part 1-1: General and safety requirements for UPS used in operator access
areas

EN 50091-1-2

Uninterruptible power systems (UPS)


Part 1-2: General and safety requirements for UPS used in limited access
areas

EN 5091-2

Uninterruptible power systems (UPS)


Part 2: Electromagnetic compatibility requirements (EMC)

EN 60529

Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)


(IEC 529 - 1989)

EN 60950
+ A1
+ A2
+ A3
+ A4
+ A11

Safety of information technology equipment


(IEC 60950:1991 + A1:1992 + A2:1993 + A3:1995, mod. + A4:1996, mod.)

EN 60068-2-1
+ A1
+ A2

Environmental - Part 2: Tests Test A: Cold


(IEC 60068-2-1:1990 + A1:1993 + A2:1994)

EN 60068-2-2
+ A1
+ A2

Environmental - Part 2: Tests Test B: Dry heat


(IEC 60068-2-2:1974 + IEC 60068-2-2:1976 + A1:1993 + A2:1994)

EN 60068-2-27

Environmental - Part 2: Tests Test Ea and guidance: Shock


(IEC 60068-2-27:1987)

EN 60068-2-32

Environmental - Part 2: Tests Test Ed: Free fall


(IEC 60068-2-32:1975 + A2:1990)

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European
publications

Title

EN 60146-1-1

Semiconductor converters General requirements and line commutated


converters Part 1-1: Specifications of basic requirements
(IEC 60146-1-1:1991)

ENV 61000-2-2

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 2: Environmental


Section 2: Compatibility levels for low-frequency conducted disturbances and
signalling in low-voltage public power supply systems
(IEC 61000-2-2:1990, mod.)

EN 61000-3-2

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 3: Limits


Section 2: Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current up
to and including 16A per phase)
(IEC 61000-3-2:1995)

HD 323.2.48 S1

Basic environmental testing procedures


Part 2: Tests Guidance on the application of the test of IEC
Publication 60068 to simulate the effects of storage
(IEC 60068-2-48: 1982)

HD 323.2.56 S1

Basic environmental testing procedures


Part 2: Tests Test Cb: Damp beat, steady state
(IEC 60068-2-56: 1988)

HD 384.4.x

Electrical installation of buildings


Part 4: Protection for safety
(IEC 60364-4-x series, mod.)

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European
publications

Title

IEC 60146-2

Semiconductor converters
Part 2: Semiconductor self commutated converters

IEC 60146-4

Semiconductor converters
Part 4: Method of specifying the performance and test requirements of UPS

IEC 60146-5

Semiconductor converters
Part 5: Switches for uninterruptible power system (UPS switches)

Table 7-4 Reference standards (ENV 50091-3 sections 1.3.1 and 1.3.2)
On an international level the standards for UPS systems have been reclassified, as shown in Table
7-5.
Standard title
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) Part 1-1:
General and safety requirements for UPS used in operator
access areas
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) Part 1-2:
General and safety requirements for UPS used in limited
access areas
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) Part 2:
Electromagnetic compatibility requirements (EMC)
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) Part 3:
Performance requirements and test methods

CENELEC
classification
EN 50091-1-1
EN 50091-1-2

IEC reclassification
IEC 62040-1-1
IEC 62040-1-2

EN 50091-2

IEC 62040-2

ENV 50091-3

IEC 62040-3

Table 7-5 IEC reclassification for UPS standards


The following is a list of directives that may by referred to in specifications.
73/23EEC
Council Directive 73/23/EEC of 19 February 1973 on the harmonization of the laws
of Member States relating to electrical equipment designed for use within certain
voltage limits.
89/336EEC
Council Directive 89/336/EEC of 3 May 1989 on the approximation of the laws of
Member States relating to electromagnetic compatibility.
93/68EEC
Council Directive 93/68/EEC of 22 July 1993 modifying Council Directives
87/404/EEC (simple pressure vessels), 88/378/EEC (safety of toys), 89/106/EEC
(construction products), 89/336/EEC (electromagnetic compatibility), 89/392/EEC
(machinery), 89/686/EEC (personal protective equipment), 90/384/EEC (nonautomatic weighing instruments), 90/385/EEC (active implantable medical devices),
90/396/EEC (appliances burning gaseous fuels), 91/263/EEC (terminal
telecommunications equipment), 92/42/EEC (new hot water boilers fired with liquid
or gaseous fuels) and 73/23/EEC (electrical material destined for use within certain
voltage limits).
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7.2

92/31EEC
Council Directive 92/31/EEC of 28 April 1992 modifying Directive 89/336/EEC on
the approximation of the laws of Member States relating to electromagnetic
compatibility.
Standards for special applications

The EN 50091 standards do not deal with all UPS in that supplementary prescriptions may be
necessary for special applications. The following are some examples:
UPS applications in exceptional installation conditions such as extreme temperatures, high
dust, humidity and vibration levels, inflammable gases, and in corrosive or explosive
atmospheres.
In medical applications physically connected to the patient.

The following is a list of standards that may be quoted in specifications. The standards apply to
UPS and the materials or components used in their design not included in Table 7-2, Table 7-3 and
Table 7-4.
EN 60896-1 (CEI 21-6/1)
Lead sealed batteries
General requirements and test methods
Part 1 Open batteries
EN 60896-2 (CEI 21-6/2)
Lead sealed batteries
General requirements and test methods
Part 2 Valve regulated batteries
EN 60896-3 (CEI 21-6/3)
Lead sealed batteries
Part 3 Recommendations for installation and use
VDE 0510
Specification for accumulators and battery installation
VDE 0871
Regulation for the radio-frequency interference suppression of high frequency apparatus
and installation
VDE 0875
Regulation for the radio-frequency interference suppression of appliances, machines, and
installations with power input of DC to 10 kHz
Some applications have their own specific standards, such as:
Military standards.
Military equipment may be used in particularly hostile environments. MIL standards are
very restrictive in terms of:
Environmental conditions (temperature).
Electricity supply (wider acceptance window compared to the standard one).
Selected components subject to burn- in.
The level of equipment electromagnetic compatibility must ensure:
Very low emissions.
High immunity levels.
Resistance to EMP tests.
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Standards for UPS in marine applications.


For these applications the environmental conditions include climatic conditions [temperature
(0 - 45 C) and humidity], biological conditions, conditions dependent on chemically active
(salt) or mechanically active (dust or oil) substances, and mechanical conditions (vibrations
or angles).
Therefore the UPS must satisfy that prescribed by the following standards:
RINA (Italian Naval Register)
Sections D and E
Lloyds Register
Part 6
DNV
The specific characteristics of the prescriptions are as follows:
Isolation cables with fire-proof and low toxic gas and smoke emission rubber.
Electronic circuits protected against salt (tropicalisation).
Equipment anchored to the floor.
No escaping of battery electrolyte for 40 angles relative to the vertical.
Level of protection against water entry IPX1.
Isolation transformers downstream and /or upstream.
Usually IT distribution with non-distributed neutral.
Power supply voltage 60 Hz 440V (3 phases without neutral) or 60 Hz 220V (3
phases with neutral).
In Europe the equipment must be approved by the standards/test bodies which are as
follows:
RINA
Lloyds Register
DNV

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Bibliography
[1]

EN 50091-1-1 Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Part 1-1: General and safety
requirements for UPS used in operator access areas.

[2]

EN 50091-2 Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Part 2: Electromagnetic compatibility


(EMC) requirements.

[3]

ENV 50091-3 Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Part 3: Performance requirements


and test methods.

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