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Global Astaxanthin Market Sources, Technologies and Applications


The report reviews, analyzes and projects the global market for Astaxanthin for the period 2010-2020.
The report also reviews production technologies, raw material sources and applications.
Published: March 2015
Report Code: PH009
Pages: 316
Charts: 128
Price: $4050 Single User License, $6750 Enterprise License

SUMMARY

Astaxanthin has been widely used in aquaculture industry for


pigmentation of salmon, trout and shrimps; used for its antioxidant
and other health benefits in nutraceutical industry; used in
cosmetics for its skin care and anti-aging properties; and also used
for fortification of foods and beverages. On commercial scale,
astaxanthin is currently produced through chemical synthesis and
also derived from natural sources such as Phaffia yeast, Paracoccus
bacteria, shrimp bi-products and Haematococcus pluvialis (H.
pluvialis) microalgae, with the current major natural source of
astaxanthin being the Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae.

In recent years, there has been a growing trend toward using natural
ingredients in all forms of food nutrients including the nutraceutical
and cosmetic markets, resulting from increasing concerns for
consumer safety and regulatory issues over the introduction of
synthetic chemicals into the human food chain. The demand for
natural astaxanthin derived from Haematococcus pluvialis algae in
the global market has been sky-rocketing in recent years owing to
increasing consumer awareness of its health benefits.

Astaxanthin products analyzed in this study include Synthetic


Astaxanthin, Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae Astaxanthin and
astaxanthin rich Paracoccus bacteria. End-use application markets
covered in the report are Aqua Feed, Nutraceuticals, Cosmetics
and Food & Beverages. The report reviews, analyses and projects
the astaxanthin market for global and the regional markets
including North America, South America, Europe, Japan, AsiaPacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World. The report also
provides a special focus on various astaxanthin production
technologies employed by key market players, including Chemical
Synthesis; Microalgae Cultivation, Harvesting, Drying and
Astaxanthin Extraction; and Bacteria Fermentation.

Global Astaxanthin Market Overview (2010-2020) in USD Million

Global market for both synthetic and natural source astaxanthin in


aqua feed, nutraceuticals, cosmetics and food & beverages is
estimated at 280 metric tons valued at US$447 million in 2014, is
further projected to reach 670 metric tons valued at US$1.1 billion
by 2020. Synthetic astaxanthin, astaxanthin rich Phaffia yeast and
Paracoccus bacteria are predominantly used in the aquaculture
sector, while the astaxanthin derived from H. pluvialis microalgae
is the main source for human applications such as dietary
supplements, cosmetics and food & beverages.
2010

Page 1

2015

2020

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Global Astaxanthin Market Sources, Technologies and Applications


Mar 2015 |316 Pages | 128 Charts | Price $4050

SAMPLE COMPANY PROFILE

SAMPLE TABLE/CHART
2014 Global Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae Astaxanthin
Market Trends by End-use Application in Metric Tons

ALGATECHNOLOGIES LTD. (ISRAEL)

Kibbutz Ketura, D.N Hevel Eilot, 8884000, Israel


Phone: +97286356425, Fax: +97286356562
info@algatech.com
www.algatech.com

Nutraceuticals

Business Profile
Algatechnologies Ltd is a leading commercial cultivator of
microalgae that was established in 1998 and has
considerable expertise in its chosen field of activity. The
company has leadership standing in manufacturing and
distributing AstaPure branded premium natural
astaxanthin, which forms a highly potent antioxidant that
has been derived from the microalga, Haematococcus
pluvialis. Algatechnologies location in the Arava desert of
Israel, having a stable climate and high light intensity, places
it ideally in its endeavor of cultivating algae. The companys
astaxanthin production involves a novel process, whereby
the final product AstaPure is supplied to the cosmetic,
food & beverage and nutrition sectors. Algatechnologies has
a worldwide presence, with the companys sales
organization offering services to over 30 countries using a
wide-ranging network of exclusive distributors, as also
through a direct sales network that caters to global clients.
Algatechnologies has adopted the utilization of a closed
tubular and eco-friendly cultivation system for producing its
AstaPure natural astaxanthin. This technology enables a
highly controlled cultivation system, which eliminates
foreign objects, agricultural residues and microbial
contamination being introduced into the growing medium.
The company has been associated with Ben-Gurion
University of the Negev, Israel, since 1998 with the aim of
developing and achieving its microalgae cultivation
technologies founded on closed and semi-closed reactors.
Algatechnologies employs an exclusive and proprietary
closed system that includes a modular arrangement of
tubular photo-bioreactors, with the entire closed system
being based on existing 300 km long glass tubes covering an
area of 10 acres of desert land. This computerized,
controlled, connected and automatic astaxanthin oleoresin
extraction technology has been outsourced to third-party
contractors, who employ the supercritical CO2 extraction
process.

..more

Page 2

Aqua Feed
Cosmetics
Food & Beverages

Global Paracoccus carotinifaciens Bacteria Astaxanthin Market


Overview 2020 by Geographic Region - Europe, Japan, North America
and Chile in USD Million
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2
1
0

Europe

Japan

North America

Chile

KEY PLAYERS PROFILED

Algatechnologies Ltd.
BASF SE
Beijing Gingko Group (BGG) Biological Technology Co Ltd
Biogenic Co Ltd
Cyanotech Corporation
DSM NV
Fenchem Biotek Ltd
Fuji Chemical Industry Co Ltd (Astareal Co Ltd)
Igene Biotechnology, Inc.
Jingzhou Natural Astaxanthin Inc.
JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation
Parry Nutraceuticals Ltd.
Pigmentos Naturales SA
Supreme Biotechnologies NZ Ltd
Valensa International (U. S. Nutraceuticals LLC)
Zhejiang NHU Co Ltd
more

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART A: GLOBAL MARKET PERSPECTIVE ......... 1
1. INTRODUCTION .................................................. 1
Trending of the Global Astaxanthin Market.........3
Trending of the Global Haematococcus pluvialis
Astaxanthin Market .............................................5
1.1 Product Outline.....................................................7
1.1.1 What is Astaxanthin? .........................................7
1.1.1.1 Singlet Oxygen Quenching Ability ...................7
1.1.1.2 Antioxidant Properties of Astaxanthin ............8
1.1.1.2.1 Antioxidant Power of Astaxanthin in Salmon . 9
1.1.1.3 Bioavailability..................................................9
1.1.1.4 Pharmacokinetics of Astaxanthin: Absorption,
Distribution, Metabolism and Elimination ................10
1.1.1.5 Safety of Astaxanthin ....................................11
1.1.2 The Chemistry of Astaxanthin ..........................12
1.1.3 Health Benefits of Astaxanthin ........................14
1.1.3.1 Powerful Antioxidant ....................................15
1.1.3.2 Effect on Diabetes Related Obesity...............15

1.1.3.3 Improving and Protecting Cardiovascular Health .. 15

1.1.3.4 Delays Brain Aging ........................................16


1.1.3.5 Stimulator of Eye Health ...............................17
1.1.3.6 Prevention of Early Stage Cancer ..................17
1.1.3.7 Immune System Booster ...............................18
1.1.3.8 Powerful Skin Protector ................................18
1.1.3.9 Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia ........................19
1.1.3.10 Infertility .....................................................19
1.1.3.11 Ulceration ...................................................19
1.1.4 Sources of Astaxanthin ....................................20
1.1.4.1 Commercial Sources of Astaxanthin .............21
1.1.4.1.1 Synthetic Astaxanthin ................................21
1.1.4.1.2 Natural Source Astaxanthin .......................21
1.1.4.1.2.1 Yeast - Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous
(Phaffia rhodozyma) .................................................22
1.1.4.1.2.2 Bacteria - Paracoccus carotinifaciens ......22
1.1.4.1.2.3 Microalgae - Haematococcus pluvialis ....23
1.1.4.1.2.4 Shrimp and Other Crustaceans ...............24
1.1.5 Commercial Applications of Astaxanthin .........24
1.1.6 Astaxanthin Product Forms..............................27
1.1.6.1 Synthetic Astaxanthin ...................................27
1.1.6.2 Natural Source Astaxanthin ..........................28
1.1.6.2.1 Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae .........28
1.1.6.2.1.1 Dried Algae Meal or Biomass ..................28
1.1.6.2.1.2 Oil or Oleoresin .......................................28
1.1.6.2.1.3 Microencapsulated Powder or Beadlets .28
1.1.6.2.1.4 Cold Water Dispersible (CWD) Powder ...29
1.1.6.2.1.5 Emulsion or Liquid ..................................29
1.1.6.2.2 Other Natural Sources ...............................30
2. COMMERCIAL ASTAXANTHIN PRODUCTION
TECHNOLOGIES..................................................... 31
2.1 Synthetic Astaxanthin Production.......................31
2.1.1 DSM (Roche) Synthesis Process .......................32
2.1.1.1 Process Examples ..........................................34
2.1.2 BASF Synthesis Process ....................................37
2.1.2.1 Process Steps ................................................38
2.1.2.2 Process Example ...........................................40
2.1.2.3 Alternative Process Example .........................42
2.1.3 Zhejiang NHU Synthesis Process ......................43
2.1.3.1 Process Example ...........................................44
2.2 Astaxanthin Production from Natural Sources....45
2.2.1 Yeast (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous/Phaffia
rhodozyma)...............................................................45
1. Igene Biotechnology, Inc. ........................46
Phaffia rhodozyma strains ...................46
Mutagenesis of Phaffia rhodozyma yeast
cells ......................................................46

Page 3

Antimycin Treatment ...........................47


Fermentation .......................................47
Cell Recovery and Product Preparation48
2. Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) ...............48
Phaffia rhodozyma strains ...................49
Mutagenesis of Phaffia rhodozyma yeast
cells ......................................................49
Screening and Fermentation................49
Cultivation Techniques ........................50
Cell Recovery and Product Preparation52
2.2.2 Bacteria (Paracoccus carotinifaciens and
Lactobacillus sp.) ......................................................52
1. JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation .......52
Bacteria Strain .....................................52
Mutagenesis of Paracoccus
carotinifaciens .....................................53
Fermentation .......................................53
Cell Recovery and Product Preparation53
Astaxanthin Extraction Process ............53
2. Guangzhou UDA Biotech Development
Co., Ltd ........................................................54
Bacteria Strain .....................................54
Fermentation .......................................54
2.2.3 Shrimp Shells ...................................................55
2.2.3.1 BlueOcean NutraSciences Inc .......................55
2.2.4 Microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis) .............55
Strain Selection ...........................................55
Cultivation ..................................................57
Harvesting...................................................57
Drying and Milling .......................................58
Extraction and Purification .........................58
2.2.4.1 Haematococcus Pluvialis Cultivation
Technologies .............................................................58
2.2.4.1.1 Closed PBRs Combined with Raceway Ponds60
1. Cyanotech Corporation ...........................60
Algae Strain ..........................................61
Algae Cultivation ..................................61
Harvesting Cultivated Cells ..................63
Product Preparation and Extraction ....63
2. Mera Pharmaceuticals, Inc......................64
Algae Strain ..........................................64
Algae Cultivation ..................................65
Harvesting Cultivated Cells ..................66
Product Preparation and Extraction ....67
3. Parry Nutraceuticals Ltd..........................68
Algae Strains ........................................68
Algae Cultivation ..................................68
Harvesting & Product Preparation .......70
4. Jingzhou Natural Astaxanthin Inc ............71
Algae Cultivation ..................................71
Extraction.............................................72
5. Pigmentos Naturales S.A. ........................73
6. Atacama Bio Natural Products S.A. .........74
7. Heliae Development LLC .........................75
Helix Seed Production Systems .........76
Volaris Commercial Production
Platform ...............................................76
Harvesting & Extraction .......................76
2.2.4.1.2 Closed Tubular Photo-bioreactors .............77
1. Algatechnologies Ltd ...............................77
Algae Cultivation ..................................77
Phase I Cultivation ...............................78
Phase II Cultivation ..............................80
Harvesting Cultivated Cells ..................81
Product Preparation and Extraction ....81
2. Biogenic Co., Ltd. (Kunming Biogenic Co., Ltd)..... 82

Algae Cultivation .................................. 82


Photo-Bioreactor Design ......................82
Cultivation Process ..............................84
Extraction.............................................85
3. Beijing Gingko Group Biological
Technology Co. Ltd (BGG) ...........................86
4. Yunnan Alphy Biotech Co.,Ltd. ................88
2.2.4.1.3 Closed Tank/Cylinder Photo-bioreactors ... 89
1. Fuji Chemical Industry Co., Ltd (AstaReal
Co., Ltd) ......................................................89
Algae Strain .......................................... 89
Algae Cultivation .................................. 89
Harvesting Cultivated Cells ..................91
Product Preparation and Extraction .... 91
2. Algae Health (Slinte Alga Teoranta) ...... 92
3. Algae to Omega Holdings, Inc. ................93
Algae Strain .......................................... 93
Creating Starter Culture from Seed
Culture .................................................93
Creating Working Culture from Starter
Culture .................................................94
Production Process ..............................95
Harvesting ............................................ 95
2.2.4.1.4 Closed Plastic Bag Photo-bioreactors......... 96
1. Supreme Biotechnologies Ltd .................96
2. Maui Tropical Algae Farm (MTAF)........... 98
2.2.4.1.5 Closed Flat Panel Photo-bioreactors .......... 99
1. Fraunhofer IGB & Subitec GmbH ........... 99
2. MicroA AS .............................................100
3. KEY MARKET TRENDS ...................................... 101
3.1 Natural Astaxanthin Producers Ramping Up
Capacities to Satiate Skyrocketing Consumer
Demand .................................................................. 101
3.2 Competition Heats Up in the Global Astaxanthin
Industry .................................................................. 102
4. INDUSTRY LANDSCAPE .................................... 104
4.1 Astaxanthin Production Capacities ...................104
4.1.1 Synthetic Astaxanthin .................................... 104
4.1.2 Natural Source Astaxanthin ...........................104
4.1.2.1 Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae .......... 104
4.1.2.2 Other Natural Sources ................................106
4.2 Patent Portfolio ................................................107
4.2.1 Important Patents for Chemical Synthesis of
Astaxanthin.............................................................107
4.2.2 Important Patents for Haematococcus pluvialis
Cultivation ..............................................................108
4.2.3 Select Patents for Haematococcus pluvialis
Downstream Processes........................................... 110
4.2.4 Select Patents for Astaxanthin from Other
Natural Sources ......................................................111
4.2.5 Important Patents for Astaxanthin Applications112
4.3 Company Profiles ..............................................114
SYNTHETIC ASTAXANTHIN MANUFACTURERS ..... 114
BASF SE (GERMANY) ...............................................114
CARDAX, INC. (UNITED STATES) ..............................115
DIVIS LABORATORIES LIMITED (INDIA) ...................116
DSM NV (THE NETHERLANDS) ................................117
ZHEJIANG NHU CO LTD (CHINA) .............................118
NATURAL SOURCE ASTAXANTHIN ....................... 119
Haematococcus Microalgae Astaxanthin
Manufacturers .......................................................119
ALGAEON, INC. (UNITED STATES) ...........................119
ALGATECHNOLOGIES LTD. (ISRAEL) ........................120
ALIMTEC SA (CHILE) ................................................122
ATACAMA BIO NATURAL PRODUCTS SA (CHILE) ..... 123

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BEIJING GINGKO GROUP (BGG) BIOLOGICAL


TECHNOLOGY CO LTD (CHINA) ...............................124
BIOGENIC CO LTD (JAPAN) ......................................125
Kunming Biogenic Co Ltd (China) ............................125
CONTRACT BIOTICS (UNITED STATES) .....................126
CYANOTECH CORPORATION (UNITED STATES) .......127
FENCHEM BIOTEK LTD (CHINA) ...............................129
FUJI CHEMICAL INDUSTRY CO LTD (JAPAN) ............130
AstaReal AB (Sweden).............................................132
AstaReal Technologies, Inc. (United States) ............132
INNOBIO LTD (CHINA) .............................................133
JINGZHOU NATURAL ASTAXANTHIN INC. (CHINA) ....134
MERA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. (UNITED STATES) ...135
NINGBO RED DRAGON BIOLOGICAL TECHNOLOGY CO
LTD (CHINA) ............................................................136
PARRY NUTRACEUTICALS LTD. (INDIA) ...................137
PIGMENTOS NATURALES SA (CHILE) .......................138
PIVEG, INC. (UNITED STATES) .................................139
SHANDONG WEFIRST BIOTECHNOLOGY CO LTD
(CHINA) ...................................................................140
SUPREME BIOTECHNOLOGIES NZ LTD (NEW
ZEALAND)................................................................141
TEXASTA INC. (UNITED STATES) ..............................142
VALENSA INTERNATIONAL (U. S. NUTRACEUTICALS
LLC) (UNITED STATES) .............................................143
YUNNAN ALPHY BIOTECH CO LTD (CHINA) .............144
New Entrants in Haematococcus Microalgae
Astaxanthin Industry..............................................145
ALGAE HEALTH (SLAINTE ALGA TEORANTA) (IRELAND) 145
ALGAE TO OMEGA HOLDINGS INC (UNITED STATES) ... 146
ALGAETECH INTERNATIONAL SDN BHD (MALAYSIA) .... 147

ALGALO INDUSTRIES COMPANY LTD (ISRAEL) ........148


ANDEXS BIOTECHNOLOGY SRL (PERU)....................148
ASTAXA GmbH (GERMANY) ....................................149
AVOCA, INC. (UNITED STATES) ................................150
Synthetic Genomics Inc. (United States) .................151
GARDEN STATE BIOENTERPRISES LLC (GS BIOE)
(UNITED STATES) ....................................................152
GUANGDONG HAIRONG ENVIRONMENTAL
PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY CO LTD (CHINA) ..........152
HELIAE DEVELOPMENT LLC (UNITED STATES) .........153
MAUI TROPICAL ALGAE FARM LLC (UNITED STATES) ... 154

MBD ENERGY LIMITED (AUSTRALIA) .......................155


MICROA AS (NORWAY) ...........................................156
FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE FOR INTERFACIAL
ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY (IGB)
(GERMANY) .............................................................157
Subitec GmbH (Germany) .......................................158
TIANJIN NORLAND BIOTECH CO LTD (CHINA) .........159
Extraction and Other Services ................................160
ALGAEBIOTECH (THE NETHERLANDS) .....................160
EVODOS BV (THE NETHERLANDS) ...........................161
ORIGINOIL, INC. (UNITED STATES) ..........................162
PHARMALINK EXTRACTS LTD (NEW ZEALAND) .......163
PHASEX CORPORATION (UNITED STATES) ..............163
RADIENT INC. (CANADA) .........................................164
SEPAREX SAS (FRANCE) ...........................................164
THAR PROCESS, INC. (UNITED STATES) ...................165
OTHER NATURAL ASTAXANTHIN
MANUFACTURERS .............................................. 166
BLUEOCEAN NUTRASCIENCES INC. (CANADA) ........166
GUANGZHOU UDA BIOTECH DEVELOPMENT CO LTD
(CHINA) ...................................................................166
IGENE BIOTECHNOLOGY, INC. (UNITED STATES).....167
JX NIPPON OIL & ENERGY CORPORATION (JAPAN) .168
5. KEY BUSINESS TRENDS .................................... 169
BlueOcean NutraSciences Files New Patent
Applications ............................................................169
BlueOcean and Neptune in a Licensing Agreement ..... 169

Page 4

AlgaeBiotech Offers Astaxanthin for Personal Care


Products .................................................................170
Fenchems AstaMarin Product Increases Sales .......170
Fenchem Receives Approval for its AstaMarin
Product ...................................................................170
Algatechnologies Increases Presence in Ireland and
the UK .....................................................................170
Algatechnologies in an R&D Agreement
with SCHOTT AG .....................................................171
Algaetech International Undertakes Development of
Astaxanthin Facility.................................................171
Capsugel in Collaboration with Cardax ...................171
AstaReal Obtains Canadian Product License Approval
for Astaxanthin .......................................................171
EFSAs Opinion on AstaREAL Ambiguous ..............172
Heliae and Sincere Corp Form a Joint Venture .......172
Astaxanthin Git-R-Done Energy Drink Launched.....172
Cawthron Institute Researchers Develop Smart
Technology for Enhancing Algae Production ..........173
MicroA Completes Successful Batch-Production of
Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis ............173
Avoca and Synthetic Genomics Enter into a Supply
Agreement ..............................................................173
AstaReal Increases Natural Astaxanthin Production
Capacity ..................................................................173
Algaeon Obtains Funding to Support Algae
Production ..............................................................174
Algatechnologies AstaPure 20% Natural
Astaxanthin Oleoresin Launched ............................174
EID Parry Acquires Alimtec SA ................................174
Valensas ZanthinNEX Astaxanthin Launched .......174
Algatechnologies Enhances Production of Natural
Astaxanthin.............................................................175
Contract Biotics Increases Algae Production Units .175
Piveg, Inc Vertically Integrates Operations .............175
Fenchem Increases Natural Astaxanthin Supply .....175
PIVEG Inc Introduces AstaMarine Natural
Astaxanthin.............................................................176
Natural Algae Astaxanthin Association
Established .............................................................176
DSM Launches New Form of AstaSana Astaxanthin
Product ...................................................................176
BGGs Astaxanthin Plant Reaches Full Capacity ......176
Algatechnologies AstaPure Offered with Extended
Shelf Life .................................................................177
Guangdong Hairong Cultivates Haematococcus
pluvialis on a Large Scale ........................................177
Divis Laboratories Europe and Glanbia Nutritionals
Deutschland GmbH in an Agreement .....................177
BGG Inaugurates Largest Asia-Pacific Production
Facility for Haematococcus pluvialis ...................... 177
Heliaes Commercial Algae Facility in Arizona
Commences Operations .........................................177
Valensa and Texasta in an Agreement ....................178
Algaeon and Valensa in a Partnership ....................178
Valensa to Obtain Algae Biomass from Contract
Biotics .....................................................................178
Supreme Biotechnologies Enhances Production
Capacity ..................................................................178
AstaReal Technologies to Set Up new manufacturing
facility in Moses Lake, Washington .........................179
Mitsubishi Corp and Bruneis Ministry of Industry and
Primary Resources Sign an Agreement ...................179
Algatechnologies Obtains US$50 Million in Private
Investment .............................................................179
Garden State bioEnterprises Implements Technology
from OriginOil for Astaxanthin Harvesting..............180
Maui Tropical Algae Farm (MTAF) Cultivating
Haematococcus pluvialis in Maui............................180

Fujifilm Launches New Range of Cosmetics Containing


Astaxanthin.............................................................180

Algae Health Receives 1 Million Biotech Investment..180

Cyanotech Obtains Long-Term Loan Facility for


Expansion ...............................................................181
Astaxanthin Water Soluble Emulsion Launched by
Algatechnologies ....................................................181
Fuji Chemical Integrates Astaxanthin Business under
AstaReal ..............................................................181
EID Parrys Acquisition of Valensa Complete .......... 182

Cyanotech Expands Astaxanthin Production Capacity ..182

Astaxanthin Plant closures from Yamaha and Fuji


Agitate Industry ......................................................182
Fuji Expands Astaxanthin Capacity .........................182
Fuji Relocates Astaxanthin Production ...................183
Cyanotechs BioAstin Natural Astaxanthin Granted
GRAS Status ............................................................183
Naturxan LLC Increases Production Capacity of
Aquasta Naturally Sourced Astaxanthin ...............183
Nippon Oil Initiates European Production of
Paracoccus Astaxanthin for use in Fish Feed .......... 183
Valensa Initiates Out Licensing Patent for Astaxanthin
in Eye Health Management .................................... 184
Valensa Develops Innovative O2B Peroxidation
Blocker Technology.................................................184
Valensa Enhances Astaxanthin Production Capacity184
ADM and Igene Biotechnology Combine Forces for
Natural Astaxanthin Supply to Aquaculture Industry185
6. GLOBAL MARKET OVERVIEW ........................... 186
6.1 Astaxanthin Market Overview by End-use
Application .............................................................187
6.2 Astaxanthin Market Overview by Raw Material
Source ..................................................................... 191
6.2.1 Synthetic Astaxanthin .................................... 195
6.2.1.1 Synthetic Astaxanthin Market Overview by
Geographic Region .................................................196
6.2.2 Natural Source Astaxanthin ...........................200
6.2.2.1 Microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis)
Astaxanthin.............................................................200

6.2.2.1.1 Microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis)


Astaxanthin Market Overview by End-use Application.201

6.2.2.1.2 Microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis)

Astaxanthin Market Overview by Geographic Region ..205

6.2.2.1.3 Microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis)


Astaxanthin End-use Application Market Overview by
Geographic Region .................................................209
6.2.2.1.3.1 Nutraceuticals ....................................... 209
6.2.2.1.3.2 Aqua Feed .............................................213
6.2.2.1.3.3 Cosmetics..............................................217
6.2.2.1.3.4 Food & Beverages ................................. 221
6.2.2.2 Bacteria (Paracoccus carotinifaciens)
Astaxanthin.............................................................225
6.2.2.2.1 Bacteria (Paracoccus carotinifaciens)
Astaxanthin Market Overview by Geographic Region ..226

PART B: REGIONAL MARKET PERSPECTIVE .. 230


REGIONAL MARKET OVERVIEW ........................... 234
1. NORTH AMERICA ............................................ 234
1.1 Astaxanthin Market Overview by Raw Material
Source ..................................................................... 235
1.1.1 Synthetic Astaxanthin .................................... 239
1.1.1.1 Synthetic Astaxanthin Market Overview by
Geographic Region .................................................240
1.1.2 Natural Source Astaxanthin ...........................244
1.1.2.1 Microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis)
Astaxanthin.............................................................244

1.1.2.1.1 Microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis) Astaxanthin


Market Overview by End-use Application ........................245
1.1.2.2 Bacteria (Paracoccus carotinifaciens) Astaxanthin..249

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2. EUROPE .......................................................... 250


2.1 Astaxanthin Market Overview by Raw Material
Source .....................................................................251
2.1.1 Synthetic Astaxanthin ....................................255
2.1.1.1 Synthetic Astaxanthin Market Overview by
Geographic Region..................................................256
2.1.2 Natural Source Astaxanthin ...........................260
2.1.2.1 Microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis)
Astaxanthin.............................................................260
2.1.2.1.1 Microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis)
Astaxanthin Market Overview by End-use
Application..............................................................261
2.1.2.2 Bacteria (Paracoccus carotinifaciens)
Astaxanthin.............................................................265
3. JAPAN............................................................. 266
3.1 Astaxanthin Market Overview by Raw Material
Source .....................................................................267
3.1.1 Synthetic Astaxanthin ....................................271

3.1.2 Natural Source Astaxanthin ...........................272


3.1.2.1 Microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis)
Astaxanthin.............................................................272

3.1.2.1.1 Microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis) Astaxanthin


Market Overview by End-use Application ....................... 273

3.1.2.2 Bacteria (Paracoccus carotinifaciens)


Astaxanthin.............................................................277
4. ASIA-PACIFIC ................................................... 278
4.1 Astaxanthin Market Overview by Raw Material
Source .....................................................................279
4.1.1 Synthetic Astaxanthin ....................................283
4.1.1.1 Synthetic Astaxanthin Market Overview by
Geographic Region .................................................284
4.1.2 Natural Source Astaxanthin ...........................288
4.1.2.1 Microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis)
Astaxanthin.............................................................288

4.1.2.1.1 Microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis) Astaxanthin


Market Overview by End-use Application ...........................289

5. SOUTH AMERICA ............................................. 293


5.1 Astaxanthin Market Overview by Raw Material
Source ..................................................................... 294
5.1.1 Synthetic Astaxanthin .................................... 298
5.1.1.1 Synthetic Astaxanthin Market Overview by
Geographic Region .................................................299
5.1.2 Natural Source Astaxanthin ...........................303

5.1.2.1 Microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis) Astaxanthin... 303

5.1.2.2 Bacteria (Paracoccus carotinifaciens)


Astaxanthin.............................................................304
6. REST OF WORLD .............................................. 305
6.1 Astaxanthin Market Overview by Raw Material
Source ..................................................................... 306
PART C: GUIDE TO THE INDUSTRY ....................... 310
PART D: ANNEXURE ............................................ 314
1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ............................. 314
2. FEEDBACK ....................................................... 317

LIST OF CHARTS, TABLES & FIGURES


PART A: GLOBAL MARKET PERSPECTIVE ......... 1
Chart 1: 2014 and 2020 Global Astaxanthin Market
Trends by Raw Material Source in Metric Tons ..........3
Chart 2: 2014 and 2020 Global Astaxanthin Market
Trends by Raw Material Source in USD Million ...........4
Chart 3: 2014 and 2020 Global Haematococcus
pluvialis Microalgae Astaxanthin Market Trends by
End-use Application in Metric Tons ............................5
Chart 4: 2014 and 2020 Global Haematococcus
pluvialis Microalgae Astaxanthin Market Trends by
End-use Application in USD Million ............................6
Chart 5: Global Astaxanthin Market Overview (20102020) by Volume in Metric Tons and Value in USD
Million.....................................................................186
Chart 6: Global Astaxanthin Market Overview (20102020) by End-use Application - Aqua Feed,
Nutraceuticals, Cosmetics and Food & Beverages in
Metric Tons .............................................................187
Chart 7: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global
Astaxanthin Volume Market Share (%) by End-use
Application - Aqua Feed, Nutraceuticals, Cosmetics
and Food & Beverages ............................................188
Chart 8: Global Astaxanthin Market Overview (20102020) by End-use Application - Aqua Feed,
Nutraceuticals, Cosmetics and Food & Beverages in
USD Million .............................................................189
Chart 9: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global
Astaxanthin Value Market Share (%) by End-use
Application - Aqua Feed, Nutraceuticals, Cosmetics
and Food & Beverages ............................................190
Chart 10: Global Astaxanthin Market Overview (20102020) by Raw Material Source - Synthetic, Microalgae
and Bacteria in Metric Tons ........................................191
Chart 11: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global
Astaxanthin Volume Market Share (%) by Raw Material
Source - Synthetic, Microalgae and Bacteria .............192
Chart 12: Global Astaxanthin Market Overview (20102020) by Raw Material Source - Synthetic, Microalgae
and Bacteria in USD Million ....................................193
Chart 13: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global
Astaxanthin Value Market Share (%) by Raw Material
Source - Synthetic, Microalgae and Bacteria ..........194

Page 5

Chart 14: Global Synthetic Astaxanthin Market Overview


(2010-2020) by Volume in Metric Tons and Value in USD
Million ............................................................................ 195
Chart 15: Global Synthetic Astaxanthin Market
Overview (2010-2020) by Geographic Region - North
America, South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and
Rest of World in Metric Tons ..................................196
Chart 16: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global
Synthetic Astaxanthin Volume Market Share (%) by
Geographic Region - North America, South America,
Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World ...................197
Chart 17: Global Synthetic Astaxanthin Market
Overview (2010-2020) by Geographic Region - North
America, South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and
Rest of World in USD Million ..................................198
Chart 18: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global
Synthetic Astaxanthin Value Market Share (%) by
Geographic Region - North America, South America,
Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World ...................199
Chart 19: Global Microalgae Astaxanthin Market
Overview (2010-2020) by Volume in Metric Tons and
Value in USD Million ........................................................ 200
Chart 20: Global Haematococcus Microalgae
Astaxanthin Market Overview (2010-2020) by Enduse Application - Nutraceuticals, Aqua Feed,
Cosmetics and Food & Beverages in Metric Tons ...201
Chart 21: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global
Haematococcus Microalgae Astaxanthin Volume Market
Share (%) by End-use Application - Nutraceuticals, Aqua
Feed, Cosmetics and Food & Beverages....................... 202
Chart 22: Global Haematococcus Microalgae
Astaxanthin Market Overview (2010-2020) by Enduse Application - Nutraceuticals, Aqua Feed,
Cosmetics and Food & Beverages in USD Million ...203
Chart 23: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global
Haematococcus Microalgae Astaxanthin Value
Market Share (%) by End-use Application Nutraceuticals, Aqua Feed, Cosmetics and Food &
Beverages ...............................................................204
Chart 24: Global Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae
Astaxanthin Market Overview (2010-2020) by
Geographic Region United States, Europe, Japan,
Asia-Pacific and Rest of World in Metric Tons ........205

Chart 25: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global


Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae Astaxanthin Volume
Market Share (%) by Geographic Region - United States,
Europe, Japan, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World ............. 206
Chart 26: Global Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae
Astaxanthin Market Overview (2010-2020) by
Geographic Region - United States, Europe, Japan,
Asia-Pacific and Rest of World in USD Million ........ 207
Chart 27: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global
Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae Astaxanthin Value
Market Share (%) by Geographic Region - United States,
Europe, Japan, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World ............. 208
Chart 28: Global Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae
Astaxanthin Market in Nutraceuticals (2010-2020) by
Geographic Region - United States, Europe, Japan,
Asia-Pacific and Rest of World in Metric Tons ........ 209
Chart 29: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global
Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae Astaxanthin
Volume Market Share (%) in Nutraceuticals by
Geographic Region - United States, Europe, Japan,
Asia-Pacific and Rest of World ................................210
Chart 30: Global Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae
Astaxanthin Market in Nutraceuticals (2010-2020) by
Geographic Region - United States, Europe, Japan,
Asia-Pacific and Rest of World in USD Million ........ 211
Chart 31: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global
Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae Astaxanthin
Value Market Share (%) in Nutraceuticals by
Geographic Region - United States, Europe, Japan,
Asia-Pacific and Rest of World ................................212
Chart 32: Global Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae
Astaxanthin Market in Aqua Feed (2010-2020) by Geographic
Region - United States, Europe, Japan, Asia-Pacific, South
America and Rest of World in Metric Tons..........................213

Chart 33: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global


Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae Astaxanthin
Volume Market Share (%) in Aqua Feed by Geographic
Region - United States, Europe, Japan, Asia-Pacific,
South America and Rest of World ............................. 214
Chart 34: Global Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae
Astaxanthin Market in Aqua Feed (2010-2020) by
Geographic Region - United States, Europe, Japan,
Asia-Pacific, South America and Rest of World in USD
Million .................................................................... 215

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Chart 35: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global


Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae Astaxanthin
Value Market Share (%) in Aqua Feed by Geographic
Region - United States, Europe, Japan, Asia-Pacific,
South America and Rest of World ...........................216
Chart 36: Global Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae
Astaxanthin Market in Cosmetics (2010-2020) by
Geographic Region - United States, Europe, Japan and
Asia-Pacific in Metric Tons ......................................217
Chart 37: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global
Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae Astaxanthin Volume
Market Share (%) in Cosmetics by Geographic Region United States, Europe, Japan and Asia-Pacific ................. 218
Chart 38: Global Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae
Astaxanthin Market in Cosmetics (2010-2020) by
Geographic Region - United States, Europe, Japan and
Asia-Pacific in USD Million ......................................219
Chart 39: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global
Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae Astaxanthin Value
Market Share (%) in Cosmetics by Geographic Region United States, Europe, Japan and Asia-Pacific.............. 220
Chart 40: Global Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae
Astaxanthin Market in Food & Beverages (2010-2020)
by Geographic Region - United States, Japan, AsiaPacific and Rest of World in Metric Tons ................221
Chart 41: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global
Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae Astaxanthin
Volume Market Share (%) in Food & Beverages by
Geographic Region - United States, Japan, Asia-Pacific
and Rest of World ...................................................222
Chart 42: Global Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae
Astaxanthin Market in Food & Beverages (2010-2020)
by Geographic Region - United States, Japan, AsiaPacific and Rest of World in USD Million ................223
Chart 43: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global
Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae Astaxanthin
Value Market Share (%) in Food & Beverages by
Geographic Region - United States, Japan, Asia-Pacific
and Rest of World ...................................................224
Chart 44: Global Paracoccus carotinifaciens Bacteria
Astaxanthin Market Overview (2010-2020) by Volume
in Metric Tons and Value in USD Million.................225
Chart 45: Global Paracoccus carotinifaciens Bacteria
Astaxanthin Market Overview (2010-2020) by
Geographic Region - Europe, Japan, North America
and Chile in Metric Tons .........................................226
Chart 46: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global
Paracoccus carotinifaciens Bacteria Astaxanthin
Volume Market Share (%) by Geographic Region Europe, Japan, North America and Chile ................227
Chart 47: Global Paracoccus carotinifaciens Bacteria
Astaxanthin Market Overview (2010-2020) by
Geographic Region - Europe, Japan, North America
and Chile in USD Million .........................................228
Chart 48: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global
Paracoccus carotinifaciens Bacteria Astaxanthin Value
Market Share (%) by Geographic Region - Europe,
Japan, North America and Chile..............................229

Chart 50: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global


Astaxanthin Market Volume Market Share (%) by
Geographic Region - North America, Europe, AsiaPacific, South America and Rest of World...............231
Chart 51: Global Astaxanthin Market Overview (20102020) by Geographic Region - North America, Europe,
Asia-Pacific, South America and Rest of World in USD
Million ....................................................................232
Chart 52: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Global
Astaxanthin Market Value Market Share (%) by
Geographic Region - North America, Europe, AsiaPacific, South America and Rest of World...............233

REGIONAL MARKET OVERVIEW .................. 234


NORTH AMERICA ................................................ 234
Chart 53: North American Astaxanthin Market Overview
(2010-2020) by Volume in Metric Tons and Value in USD
Million ............................................................................ 234
Chart 54: North American Astaxanthin Market
Overview (2010-2020) by Raw Material Source
Synthetic, Microalgae and Bacteria in Metric Tons .. 235
Chart 55: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 North
American Astaxanthin Volume Market Share (%) by
Raw Material Source Synthetic, Microalgae and
Bacteria ..................................................................236
Chart 56: North American Astaxanthin Market
Overview (2010-2020) by Raw Material Source
Synthetic, Microalgae and Bacteria in USD Million ... 237
Chart 57: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 North American
Astaxanthin Value Market Share (%) by Raw Material
Source Synthetic, Microalgae and Bacteria ............... 238
Chart 58: North American Synthetic Astaxanthin
Market Overview (2010-2020) by Volume in Metric
Tons and Value in USD Million ................................239
Chart 59: North American Synthetic Astaxanthin
Market Overview (2010-2020) by Country Canada,
United States and Mexico in Metric Tons ...............240
Chart 60: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 North
American Synthetic Astaxanthin Volume Market
Share (%) by Country Canada, United States and
Mexico ....................................................................241
Chart 61: North American Synthetic Astaxanthin
Market Overview (2010-2020) by Country Canada,
United States and Mexico in USD Million ...............242
Chart 62: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 North American
Synthetic Astaxanthin Value Market Share (%) by
Country Canada, United States and Mexico .............. 243
Chart 63: United States Haematococcus pluvialis
Microalgae Astaxanthin Market Overview (2010-2020) by
Volume in Metric Tons and Value in USD Million ........ 244
Chart 64: United States Haematococcus pluvialis
Microalgae Astaxanthin Market Overview (2010-2020) by
End-use Application Nutraceuticals, Aqua Feed,
Cosmetics and Food & Beverages in Metric Tons ........ 245

PART B: REGIONAL MARKET PERSPECTIVE .. 230

Chart 65: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 United


States Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae
Astaxanthin Volume Market Share (%) by End-use
Application Nutraceuticals, Aqua Feed, Cosmetics
and Food & Beverages ............................................246

Chart 49: Global Astaxanthin Market Overview (20102020) by Geographic Region - North America, Europe,
Asia-Pacific, South America and Rest of World in
Metric Tons.............................................................230

Chart 66: United States Haematococcus pluvialis


Microalgae Astaxanthin Market Overview (2010-2020) by
End-use Application Nutraceuticals, Aqua Feed,
Cosmetics and Food & Beverages in USD Million ........ 247

Page 6

Chart 67: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 United


States Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae
Astaxanthin Value Market Share (%) by End-use
Application Nutraceuticals, Aqua Feed, Cosmetics
and Food & Beverages ............................................ 248
Chart 68: North American Paracoccus carotinifaciens
Bacteria Astaxanthin Market Overview (2010-2020) by
Volume in Metric Tons and Value in USD Million ..... 249
EUROPE .............................................................. 250
Chart 69: European Astaxanthin Market Overview
(2010-2020) by Volume in Metric Tons and Value in
USD Million .............................................................250
Chart 70: European Astaxanthin Market Overview
(2010-2020) by Raw Material Source Synthetic,
Microalgae and Bacteria in Metric Tons .................251
Chart 71: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 European
Astaxanthin Volume Market Share (%) by Raw Material
Source Synthetic, Microalgae and Bacteria ............ 252
Chart 72: European Astaxanthin Market Overview
(2010-2020) by Raw Material Source Synthetic,
Microalgae and Bacteria in USD Million .................253
Chart 73: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 European
Astaxanthin Value Market Share (%) by Raw Material
Source Synthetic, Microalgae and Bacteria.......... 254
Chart 74: European Synthetic Astaxanthin Market
Overview (2010-2020) by Volume in Metric Tons and
Value in USD Million ...............................................255
Chart 75: European Synthetic Astaxanthin Market
Overview (2010-2020) by Country Norway, United
Kingdom and Rest of Europe in Metric Tons........... 256
Chart 76: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 European Synthetic
Astaxanthin Volume Market Share (%) by Country Norway,
United Kingdom and Rest of Europe ...................................257

Chart 77: European Synthetic Astaxanthin Market


Overview (2010-2020) by Country Norway, United
Kingdom and Rest of Europe in USD Million ........... 258
Chart 78: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 European
Synthetic Astaxanthin Value Market Share (%) by
Country Norway, United Kingdom and Rest of
Europe .................................................................... 259
Chart 79: European Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae
Astaxanthin Market Overview (2010-2020) by Volume in
Metric Tons and Value in USD Million .......................... 260
Chart 80: European Haematococcus pluvialis
Microalgae Astaxanthin Market Overview (20102020) by End-use Application Nutraceuticals, Aqua
Feed and Cosmetics in Metric Tons ........................261
Chart 81: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 European
Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae Astaxanthin
Volume Market Share (%) by End-use Application
Nutraceuticals, Aqua Feed and Cosmetics ..............262
Chart 82: European Haematococcus pluvialis
Microalgae Astaxanthin Market Overview (20102020) by End-use Application Nutraceuticals, Aqua
Feed and Cosmetics in USD Million ........................263
Chart 83: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 European
Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae Astaxanthin
Value Market Share (%) by End-use Application
Nutraceuticals, Aqua Feed and Cosmetics ..............264
Chart 84: European Paracoccus carotinifaciens
Bacteria Astaxanthin Market Overview (2010-2020)
by Volume in Metric Tons and Value in USD Million265

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JAPAN ................................................................ 266


Chart 85: Japanese Astaxanthin Market Overview
(2010-2020) by Volume in Metric Tons and Value in
USD Million .............................................................266
Chart 86: Japanese Astaxanthin Market Overview
(2010-2020) by Raw Material Source Synthetic,
Microalgae and Bacteria in Metric Tons .................267
Chart 87: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Japanese
Astaxanthin Volume Market Share (%) by Raw Material
Source Synthetic, Microalgae and Bacteria.............268
Chart 88: Japanese Astaxanthin Market Overview
(2010-2020) by Raw Material Source Synthetic,
Microalgae and Bacteria in USD Million..................269
Chart 89: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Japanese
Astaxanthin Value Market Share (%) by Raw Material
Source Synthetic, Microalgae and Bacteria ..........270
Chart 90: Japanese Synthetic Astaxanthin Market
Overview (2010-2020) by Volume in Metric Tons and
Value in USD Million ...............................................271
Chart 91: Japanese Haematococcus pluvialis
Microalgae Astaxanthin Market Overview (20102020) by Volume in Metric Tons and Value in USD
Million.....................................................................272
Chart 92: Japanese Haematococcus pluvialis
Microalgae Astaxanthin Market Overview (20102020) by End-use Application Nutraceuticals, Aqua
Feed, Cosmetics and Food & Beverages in Metric
Tons ........................................................................273
Chart 93: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Japanese
Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae Astaxanthin
Volume Market Share (%) by End-use Application
Nutraceuticals, Aqua Feed, Cosmetics and Food &
Beverages ...............................................................274
Chart 94: Japanese Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae
Astaxanthin Market Overview (2010-2020) by End-use
Application Nutraceuticals, Aqua Feed, Cosmetics and
Food & Beverages in USD Million ................................. 275
Chart 95: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Japanese
Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae Astaxanthin
Value Market Share (%) by End-use Application
Nutraceuticals, Aqua Feed, Cosmetics and Food &
Beverages ...............................................................276
Chart 96: Japanese Paracoccus carotinifaciens
Bacteria Astaxanthin Market Overview (2010-2020)
by Volume in Metric Tons and Value in USD Million277
ASIA-PACIFIC ...................................................... 278
Chart 97: Asia-Pacific Astaxanthin Market Overview
(2010-2020) by Volume in Metric Tons and Value in
USD Million .............................................................278
Chart 98: Asia-Pacific Astaxanthin Market Overview
(2010-2020) by Raw Material Source Synthetic and
Microalgae in Metric Tons ......................................279

Chart 99: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Asia-Pacific


Astaxanthin Volume Market Share (%) by Raw
Material Source Synthetic and Microalgae ..........280

Chart 113: South American Astaxanthin Market


Overview (2010-2020) by Raw Material Source
Synthetic, Microalgae and Bacteria in Metric Tons 294

Chart 100: Asia-Pacific Astaxanthin Market Overview


(2010-2020) by Raw Material Source Synthetic and
Microalgae in USD Million ......................................281

Chart 114: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 South


American Astaxanthin Volume Market Share (%) by
Raw Material Source Synthetic, Microalgae and
Bacteria .................................................................. 295

Chart 101: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Asia-Pacific


Astaxanthin Value Market Share (%) by Raw Material
Source Synthetic and Microalgae.........................282
Chart 102: Asia-Pacific Synthetic Astaxanthin Market
Overview (2010-2020) by Volume in Metric Tons and Value
in USD Million ..................................................................... 283
Chart 103: Asia-Pacific Synthetic Astaxanthin Market
Overview (2010-2020) by Country China, Australia &
New Zealand and Rest of Asia-Pacific in Metric Tons... 284

Chart 115: South American Astaxanthin Market


Overview (2010-2020) by Raw Material Source
Synthetic, Microalgae and Bacteria in USD Million . 296
Chart 116: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 South
American Astaxanthin Value Market Share (%) by Raw
Material Source Synthetic, Microalgae and Bacteria .297

Chart 117: South American Synthetic Astaxanthin Market


Overview (2010-2020) by Volume in Metric Tons and
Value in USD Million ...................................................... 298

Chart 104: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Asia-Pacific


Synthetic Astaxanthin Volume Market Share (%) by
Country China, Australia & New Zealand and Rest of
Asia-Pacific..............................................................285

Chart 118: South American Synthetic Astaxanthin


Market Overview (2010-2020) by Country Chile,
Peru and Rest of South America in Metric Tons ..... 299

Chart 105: Asia-Pacific Synthetic Astaxanthin Market


Overview (2010-2020) by Country China, Australia &
New Zealand and Rest of Asia-Pacific in USD Million ... 286

Chart 119: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 South


American Synthetic Astaxanthin Volume Market
Share (%) by Country Chile, Peru and Rest of South
America .................................................................. 300

Chart 106: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Asia-Pacific


Synthetic Astaxanthin Value Market Share (%) by
Country China, Australia & New Zealand and Rest of
APAC .......................................................................287

Chart 120: South American Synthetic Astaxanthin


Market Overview (2010-2020) by Country Chile,
Peru and Rest of South America in USD Million...... 301

Chart 107: Asia-Pacific Haematococcus pluvialis


Microalgae Astaxanthin Market Overview (20102020) by Volume in Metric Tons and Value in USD
Million ....................................................................288

Chart 121: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 South


American Synthetic Astaxanthin Value Market Share
(%) by Country Chile, Peru and Rest of South
America .................................................................. 302

Chart 108: Asia-Pacific Haematococcus pluvialis


Microalgae Astaxanthin Market Overview (20102020) by End-use Application Nutraceuticals, Aqua
Feed, Cosmetics and Food & Beverages in Metric
Tons ........................................................................289

Chart 122: South American Haematococcus pluvialis


Microalgae Astaxanthin Market Overview (2010-2020) by
Volume in Metric Tons and Value in USD Million ........ 303

Chart 109: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Asia-Pacific


Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae Astaxanthin
Volume Market Share (%) by End-use Application
Nutraceuticals, Aqua Feed, Cosmetics and Food &
Beverages ...............................................................290
Chart 110: Asia-Pacific Haematococcus pluvialis
Microalgae Astaxanthin Market Overview (2010-2020)
by End-use Application Nutraceuticals, Aqua Feed,
Cosmetics and Food & Beverages in USD Million ..... 291
Chart 111: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Asia-Pacific
(excluding Japan) Haematococcus Microalgae
Astaxanthin Value Market Share (%) by End-use
Application Nutraceuticals, Aqua Feed, Cosmetics
and Food & Beverages ............................................292
SOUTH AMERICA ................................................ 293
Chart 112: South American Astaxanthin Market
Overview (2010-2020) by Volume in Metric Tons and
Value in USD Million ...................................................... 293

Chart 123: Chilean Paracoccus carotinifaciens Bacteria


Astaxanthin Market Overview (2010-2020) by Volume in
Metric Tons and Value in USD Million .......................... 304
REST OF WORLD ................................................. 305
Chart 124: Rest of World Astaxanthin Market Overview
(2010-2020) by Volume in Metric Tons and Value in
USD Million ................................................................. 305
Chart 125: Rest of World Astaxanthin Market
Overview (2010-2020) by Raw Material Source
Synthetic and Microalgae in Metric Tons ...............306
Chart 126: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Rest of
World Astaxanthin Volume Market Share (%) by Raw
Material Source Synthetic and Microalgae .......... 307
Chart 127: Rest of World Astaxanthin Market
Overview (2010-2020) by Raw Material Source
Synthetic and Microalgae in USD Million ................308
Chart 128: Glance at 2010, 2015 and 2020 Rest of World
Astaxanthin Value Market Share (%) by Raw Material
Source Synthetic and Microalgae and Bacteria ......... 309

TABLES & FIGURES


TABLES
Table 1: Singlet Oxygen Quenching Rate Constants of
Different Carotenoids .................................................7
Table 2: Ratios of Isomers Found in Astaxanthin from
Various Sources ........................................................13
Table 3: Free and Esterified Astaxanthin Ratios in
Various Sources ........................................................13
Table 4: Major Microorganism Sources of
Astaxanthin...............................................................20

Page 7

Table 5: Astaxanthin Commercial Sources and their


Applications ..............................................................24
Table 6: Applications of Haematococcus pluvialis
derived Astaxanthin ..................................................25
Table 7: Examples of Astaxanthin Products Available
on the Market ...........................................................25
Table 8: Synthetic Astaxanthin Forms.......................27
Table 9: Haematococcus Pluvialis Algae Astaxanthin
Forms ........................................................................29

Table 10: Other Natural Astaxanthin Forms .............30


Table 11: Worldwide H. pluvialis Algae Culture
Collection Centers ....................................................56
Table 12: Typical Composition of Culture Medium ... 61
Table 13: Standard BG-11 Medium Specifications .... 78
Table 14: BG-11 Trace Metals Solution .....................78
Table 15: Composition of Growth Medium for
Haematococcus. .......................................................89

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Table 17: 2014 Estimated Global Synthetic


Astaxanthin Production Capacities .........................104
Table 18: 2014 Estimated Global Haematococcus
pluvialis Biomass and Astaxanthin Production
Capacities ...............................................................105
FIGURES:
Figure 1: Pro-oxidant Activity of Different Carotenoids8
Figure 2: Astaxanthin Structure ................................12
Figure 3: Different Isomeric Forms of Astaxanthin ...12
Figure 4: Synthesis of astaxanthin by Wittig reaction31
Figure 5: Haematococcus pluvialis Green stage and
Red stage ..................................................................57
Figure 6: Cyanotech Corps Astaxanthin Production
Facility ......................................................................60
Figure 7: Cyanotech Corps Astaxanthin Production
Process .....................................................................61
Figure 8: Cyanotech Corps PhytoDome CCS Closed
Outdoor Photo-bioreactors ......................................62
Figure 9: Cyanotech Corps Open Raceway Ponds ....62
Figure 10: Mera Pharmaceuticals Inc Astaxanthin
Production Process ...................................................64
Figure 11: Mera Growth Module (MGM) ..................65
Figure 12: Mera Pharmaceuticals Inc Harvesting
Process .....................................................................66
Figure 13: Mera Pharmaceuticals Inc Algal Biomass
Preparation ...............................................................66
Figure 14: Jingzhou Natural Astaxanthin Incs
Astaxanthin Production Plant in Hubei, China ..........71

Figure 15: Jingzhou Natural Astaxanthin Incs H.


Pluvialis Growth Multiplied in Column Type Indoor
PBRs ..........................................................................71
Figure 16: Jingzhou Natural Astaxanthin Incs H.
Pluvialis Growth at Green Phase in Indoor Raceway
Ponds ........................................................................72
Figure 17: Jingzhou Natural Astaxanthin Incs
Astaxanthin Accumulation at Red Phase in Outdoor
Raceway Ponds .........................................................72
Figure 18: Pigmentos Naturales S.A Cultivation
Process .....................................................................73
Figure 19: Atacama Bio Naturals H. pluvialis Green
Stage Growth Process ...............................................74
Figure 20: Atacama Bio Naturals Open Raceway
Ponds for Astaxanthin Accumulation ........................74
Figure 21: Heliaes Algae Cultivation Plant in Gilbert,
AZ, United States ......................................................75
Figure 22: Heliaes Closed Tubular Photo-bioreactors ... 76
Figure 23: Heliaes Volaris Commercial Algae
Cultivation System ....................................................76
Figure 24: Algatechnologies Ltd Astaxanthin
Production Process ..................................................77
Figure 25: Algatechnologies Ltd Plant Closed Loop
Tubular Photo-bioreactors Installed Outdoors .........80
Figure 26: Biogenic Co. Ltd Haematococcus pluvialis
Cultivation Plant in Kunming, China..........................82
Figure 27: Biogenic Co. Ltd Tubular Closed Loop
Photo-bioreactor Module Design .............................83

Figure 28: Biogenic Co. Ltd Closed Loop Photobioreactors ...............................................................84


Figure 29: BGG Astaxanthin Production Plant in
Yunnan, China ...........................................................86
Figure 30: BGGs H. Pluvialis Growth Process ........... 87
Figure 31: Yunnan Alphys Photo-bioreactor Design 88
Figure 32: Yunnan Alphys H. pluvialis Cultivation
Process ..................................................................... 88
Figure 33: AstaReals Closed Stainless Steel Photobioreactors ...............................................................90
Figure 34: Algae Healths Photo-bioreactor Design .. 92
Figure 35: Algae to Omegas Incubation Tanks for
Starter Culture of H. pluvialis .................................... 93
Figure 36: Algae to Omegas Closed Tubular PBR ..... 94
Figure 37: Algae to Omegas Algae Cultivation Tanks .... 94
Figure 38: Supreme Biotechnologies Plastic Bag
Photo-bioreactors Growing H. Pluvialis Algae .......... 96
Figure 39: Supreme Biotechnologies Closed Plastic Bag
Photo-bioreactors Containing Red Cysts of H. Pluvialis
Algae ............................................................................. 97
Figure 40: Maui Tropical Algae Farms Closed Plastic
Bag Photo-bioreactors ..............................................98
Figure 41: Subitec GmbHs Flat Panel Airlift Photobioreactor Design .....................................................99
Figure 42: Subitecs FPA Bioreactors in Operation.... 99
Figure 43: MicroA AS Photo-bioreactor Design ...... 100
Figure 44: MicroA AS Vertical Flat Panel Photobioreactors at Work ................................................100

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