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b) A separately excited generator when running at 1200 rpm supplies a current of

200 A at 125V to a circuit of constant resistance. What will be the current when

the speed drops to 1000 rpm if the field current is unaltered? Armature resistance

is 0.04 ohm and the total voltage drop at the brushes is 2V. Ignore the change in

armature reaction.

(or)

c) Classify different types of generators. Explain the EMF equation for each type

d) In a 110V DC compound generator, the resistance of the armature shunt field

series field resistances are 0.06 ohm, 25 ohms and 0.04 ohm respectively. The

load consists of 200 amps each rated at 55W, 110V. Find the total emf generated

and the armature current when the machine is connected in (i) long-shunt and

(ii) short shunt.

2. a) Explain the characteristics of DC Shunt generator. Explain the critical

resistance and critical speed of DC Shunt Generator.

b) A separately excited generator when running at 1200 rpm supplies a current of

200 A at 125V to a circuit of constant resistance. What will be the current when

the speed drops to 1000 rpm if the field current is unaltered? Armature resistance

is 0.04 ohm and the total voltage drop at the brushes is 2V. Ignore the change in

armature reaction.

(or)

c) What are the conditions to build up of emf in DC Shunt generator. Explain the

reasons for failure of Voltage bulid up in DC Shunt Generator

d) Explain the commutation process with neat diagrams

3. a) Explain the Armature Reaction with neat diagrams and magnetization Curve.

b) A four-pole 220 V dc shunt generator supplies a load of 3 kW at 220 V. The

resistance of the armature winding is 0.1 O and that of the field winding is 110 O.

Calculate the total armature current, the current flowing through armature

conductors, and the EMF induced. Assume that the armature winding is wave

wound.

(or)

c) Derive the EMF Equation of a DC Machine for different Winding.

d ) The following data refer to the O.C.C of a D.C shunt generator at 1000 rpm.

Field

0.0 0.2 0.3 0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

current in A

Armature

5

40

75

100 124 145 162 178 188 195

voltage in

V

With a total field resistance of 200 . Estimate graphically i) to which the

generator will build up no load voltage. ii) Critical Resistance at speed of

1000rpm. iii) Critical speed at field resistance of 200 .

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iv) the armature, field and load currents when the terminal voltage is found to be

150 V. Neglect the effect of armature reaction and brush drop and assume

armature resistance to be 0.8

4. a) what are Interpoles ? Why are Interpoles designed to provide mmf more than

the armature mmf in the commutating zone. Draw the resultant resultant flux

density wave form.

b) Derive the formula for demagnetizing and cross magnetizing AT/pole.

(or)

c) Describe the cause of sparking between brushes and commutator by

commutation process

d) The following information is given for a 300 kW, 600 V, long-shunt

compound generator: Shunt field resistance=75, armature resistance including

brush resistance=0.03, commutating field winding resistance=0.011, series

field resistance=0.012, divertor resistance =0.036. When the machine is

delivering full load, calculate the voltage and power generated by the armature.

5. a) State the principle by which generators convert mechanical energy to electrical

energy.

b) A 4 pole, lap wound, 246 armature conductors DC generator delivers a full

load current 400A. It has shunt field current of 12A and 123 commutator

segments in the commutator ring of the machine. If the brushes are advanced by 3

commutator segments on full load. Find (a) demagnetizing AT/pole and (b) cross

magnetizing AT/pole

(or)

c) A four-pole 220 V dc shunt generator supplies a load of 3 kW at 220 V. The

resistance of the armature winding is 0.1ohms and that of the field winding is

110 Ohms. Calculate the total armature current, the current flowing through

armature conductors, and the EMF induced. Assume that the armature winding is

wave wound.

d) Explain the Armature Reaction with neat diagrams and graphical

representation.

6. a) Explain with neat diagram the 3-point starter.

b)Explain the necessity of starter. Explain the speed control techniques of a dc

series motor.

(or)

c)Draw and explain different characteristics D.C. shunt motor.

d)A 230V DC shunt motor having an armature resistance of 0.3 takes 3A

excluding a field current of 1A when running on no-load. Determine its efficiency

taking currents as a) 30A; b) 50A and c) 70A

7. a)Draw and explain are the different speed control methods of DC shunt motor.

b)A 220 V shunt motor takes 60 A when running at 800 RPM. It has an armature

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resistance of 0.1 ohm if the magnetic flux is weakened by 20 % and contact drop

per brush is 1V and total torque remains constant.

(or)

c) Explain the following speed control technique for series motor.

(i) Diverter control

(ii) tapped field control

d) Derive the condition for maximum efficiency of DC generator

e) List out the losses of DC machine

8. a) Explain the significance of back E.M.F. derive the condition for maximum

power in DC Motor.

b) Derive the torque equation of DC motor.

(or)

c) Explain with a neat circuit diagram Swinburnes test on DC shunt motor to

find the efficiency of DC machine when if runs as motor and generator? Mention

the advantages and disadvantages of this method?

d) A 400 V DC shunt motor takes 5 A at no-load. Its armature resistance

(including brushes) is 0.5 ohm and shunt field resistance is 200 ohm. Estimate the

KW output and efficiency when the motor takes 50 A on full load

9. a) Explain the brake test on DC shunt motor

b) The following reading are obtained when doing a load test on DC shunt motor

using a brake drum. Spring balance reading: 10Kg and 35 Kg. Diameter of drum

is 40 cm. Speed of the motor is 950 RPM and applied voltage is 200V; line

current is 30A. Calculate the output power and efficiency.

(or)

c) Draw and explain characteristics D.C. series motor.

d) A 600V dc shunt motor drives a 60kw load at 1000rpm . the field resistance is

100ohms and armature resistance is 0.15ohms. stray load loss is negligible. In

case of motor efficiency is 85%, determine

i) the rotational losses

ii) the speed at no load

10. a)With neat circuit diagram explain the Hopkinsons test and list out Mention

the advantages and disadvantages

b)The Hopkinsons test on two shunt machines gave the following results for full

load. The supply current was 15 A at 200 V. The generator output current was

85A. The field currents for motor and generator were 2.5 A and 3 A respectively.

The armature resistance of each machine was 0.05. Find the efficiency of each

of the machines under the above loading conditions.

(or)

c) Enumerate the various losses in a dc machine. Which of the losses are

constant? derive the expression for the efficiency of a dc generator and a dc

motor.

d) Draw the power stages of DC Generator and DC motor.

e) A 220 V shunt motor has armature and field resistance of 0.2 and 220

respectively. The motor is driving a constant load torque and running at 1000 rpm

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drawing 10 A current from the supply. Calculate the new speed and armature

current if an external armature resistance of value 5 is inserted in the armature

circuit. Neglect armature reaction and saturation.

11. a) Explain the construction of the transformer

b) Draw and explain phasor diagram of transformer on all types of load.

(or)

c) Explain various losses and derive the condition for minimum efficiency of a

transformer.

b) A 600 KVA single phase transformer when working at upf has an efficiency of

92% at full- load and also at half load. Determine its efficiency when it operates

at upf and 60% full-load.

12. a) With neat diagram, explain the equivalent circuit of 1 phase transformer.

b) In a 25 KVA 2000/200 volts transformer iron and copper losses are 350 and

400

watts respectively. Calculate the efficiency on UPF at (i) Full load (ii)

Half full load. Determine the load for maximum efficiency and iron and copper

losses in this case.

(or)

c) Explain the working principle of transformer and derive the emf equation

d) A transformer on load takes 1.5 amps at a power factor of 0.2 lagging when

connected across 50 Hz 230 V supply. The ratio between primary and secondary

number of turns is 3. Calculate the value of primary current when secondary is

supplying a current of 40 amps at a power factor of 0.8 lagging. Neglect the

voltage drop in the windings. Draw the relevant phasor diagram.

13. 3) a) Determine the load for maximum efficiency and iron and copper losses in

this case of transformer and find maximum KVA Efficiency

b) Prove that the secondary resistance R 2 and reactance X2 of the transformer

referred to primary side are R2/K2 and X2/K2 respectively, where K is

transformation ratio.

(or)

c) Explain why hysterisis and eddy current losses occur in a transformer.

d)When a transformer is supplied at 400 V 50 Hz the hysterisis loss is found to be

310 watts and eddy current loss is found to be 260 watts. Determine the

hysterisis

and eddy current loss when the transformer is supplied at 800 V

100 Hz.

14. a) Discuss the effects of variation of frequency and supply voltage on iron losses

of transformer.

b) Derive the expression for voltage regulation of a transformer from the

simplified approximate equivalent circuit and obtain condition for zero

regulation.

c) A 20 KVA 2000/200 V single phase transformer has the following parameters.

H. V. Winding: R1 = 3 ohm, X1 = 5.3 ohm,

L. V. Winding: R2 = 0.05 ohm, X2 = 0.1 ohm

Find the voltage regulation at

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(ii)UPF

(iii)

0.707 power

factor leading.

(or)

d) Explain why transformer is expressed rated as KVA not in KW.

e) Define energy efficiency and all day efficiency?

f) the daily variation of load on a 100KVA transformer is as follows:

8.00A.M to 1.00P.M : 65KW, 45kvar

1.00 P.M to 6.00P.M : 80KW, 50KVar

6.00P.M to 1.00A.M : 30KW, 30KVar

1.00A.M to 8.00A.M : No load

This transformer has no-load core loss of 370watts and full load cu loss of

1200watts . determine the all day efficiency of the transformer.

15. a) What are the various methods to reduce the leakage flux in transformer

b) The flux in a magnetic core is alternating sinusoidally at a frequency of 600

Hz.The maximum flux density is 2 tesla. The eddy current loss is 15 watts. Find

the

eddy current loss in the core if the frequency is raised to 800 Hz and the

maximum flux density is reduced to 1.5 tesla.

(or)

c) Draw the phasor diagram of a single phase transformer with load having a

leading power factor and explain its equivalent circuit

d) The efficiency of 1000 KVA, 110/220 V,50 Hz single phase transformer is 98.5

% at half full load at 0.8 power factor leading and 98% at full load, UPF.

Determine

(i) Iron loss (ii) Copper loss

(iii) Maximum efficiency at

UPF

16. a) Why OC test can be conducted at rated voltage and SC test can be conducted at

any where in the operating range of current?

b) The instruments readings obtained from open and short circuit tests on 10KVA, 450,120V, 50Hz single phase transformer are: :

OC Test: V1=120V, I1=4.2A; W1=50W; V1,W1 and I1were read on LV side

SC Test: V1=9.65V, I1=22.2A; W1=120W; -with LV is short circuited

Compute the efficiency and voltage regulation for an 80% lagging p.f load.

(or)

c) Derive the equations for the currents supplied by each transformer when two

transformers are operating in parallel with equal voltage ratios.

d) Calculate (a) the full load efficiency at unity power factor (b) the voltage at the

secondary terminals when supplying full load secondary current at power factors

of unity, 0.8 lag and 0.8 lead for the 4 KVA, 200/400V, 50Hz, single phase

transformer. of which the following are the test figures : open circuit with 200V

applied to the primary winding: current 0.8A, power 70W. Short circuit

with17.5Vapplied to secondary (high voltage) side: current 9A, power 50W.

17. a) What are the conditions required for the parallel operation of two transformers.

b) Derive the equations for the currents supplied by each transformer when two

transformers are operating in parallel with unequal voltage ratios.

(or)

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transformer? What is its new rating?

d) Two single phase transformers with equal turns have impedances of (0.5 + j3)

ohm and (0.6+j10) ohm with respect to the secondary. If they operate in parallel,

determine how they will share a total load of 100KW p.f. 0.8 lagging?

18. a)Discuss the conditions necessary for the successful parallel operation of single

phase transformers how to check the conditions.

b) The O.C and S.C test data are given below for a single phase, 5 kVA,

200V/400V, 50Hz transformer.

O.C test from LV side : 200V 1.25A 150W

S.C test from HV side : 20V 12.5A 175W

Draw the equivalent circuit of the transformer (i) referred to LV side and (ii)

referred to HV side inserting all the parameter values.

(or)

c) Explain with neat circuit diagram the Sumpners test of transformers

d) Two single phase transformers in parallel supply a load of 500A at 0.8pf

lagging and at 400V . their equivalent impedances refeered to secondary

windings are (2+j3) ohms and (2.5+j5) ohms. Compute the current and KVA

supplied by each transformer and the corresponding power factor.

19. a) To determine the efficiency and regulation of a single phase transformer by

conducting (a) open circuit test and (b) short circuit test. And the equivalent

diagram of a single phase transformer.

(or)

b) Discuss the relative merits and demerits of auto transformer.

c) The O.C and S.C test data are given below for a single phase, 5 kVA,

200V/1000V, 50Hz transformer.

O.C test from LV side : 200V 1.2A 90W

S.C test from HV side : 50V 5A 110W

Draw the equivalent circuit of the transformer (i) referred to LV side and

ii) calculate the output secondary voltage when delivering 3kw of 0.8pf lagging

the input primary voltage being 200v. fine the percentage regulation also.

20. a) Explain with neat circuit diagram the back to back test of transformers

b) Two single phase transformers in parallel supply a load of 500A at 0.8pf

lagging and at 400V . their equivalent impedances refeered to secondary

windings are (2+j3) ohms and (2.5+j5) ohms. Compute the current and KVA

supplied by each transformer and the corresponding power factor.

(or)

c) What is auto transformer? Discuss the relative merits and demerits of auto

transformer.

d) The O.C and S.C test data are given below for a single phase, 5 kVA,

200V/1000V, 50Hz transformer.

O.C test from LV side : 200V 1.2A 90W

S.C test from HV side : 50V 5A 110W

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Draw the equivalent circuit of the transformer (i) referred to LV side and (ii)

referred to HV side inserting all the parameter values.

21. a) Explain with neat diagram the operation of on and off load tap changing

(or)

b) Draw the phasor diagrams and winding connection of a three-phase

transformer for (i) Group 1: phase displacement of zero degrees, (ii) Group 2:

phase displacement of 180 degrees.

22. a) Derive the equation for saving in copper in using Auto transformer when

compared to two winding transformer.

b) What are the applications of auto transformers?

(or)

c) Explain with neat diagram the operation of Differnet types

d) what is called open delta? Campare open delta with delta-delta

23. a) Explain open delta of 3-phase transformers with diagram? And campare open

delta with scott connection

b) Explain the three phase transformer to two phase transformer conversion and

vice versa?

(or)

c) A 20 KVA, 2400/240V two winding step down transformer is connected as an

auto transformer with additive polarity. Compute: (i) Original current capacity of

HV winding (ii) Original current capacity of LV winding (iii) KVA rating of auto

transformer using current capacity of LV winding as calculated in (iv) per cent

increase in KVA capacity of auto transformer as compared to original two

winding transformer (v) percent overload of 2400V winding when used as an

auto transformer.

24. a) Derive the equation for saving of copper in using Auto transformer when

compared to two winding transformer.

b) What are the applications of auto transformers? and campare auto trnafromer

with two winding transformer

(or)

c) Describe the principle of regulating the voltage with the help of tap changers.

d) Three single phase ideal transformers, each of rating 5kVA, 200V/400V, 50 Hz

are available. i)The LV sides are connected in star and HV sides are connected in

delta. What line to line 3-phase voltage should be applied and what will be the

corresponding HV side line to line voltage will be? Also calculate and show the

line and phase current magnitudes in both LV & HV sides corresponding to rated

condition. ii)The LV sides are connected in delta and HV sides are connected in

delta. What line to line 3-phase voltage should be applied and what will be the

corresponding HV side line to line voltage will be? Also calculate and show the

line and phase current magnitudes in both LV & HV sides corresponding to rated

condition.

25. a) describe four possible ways of connections of 3-phase transformers with

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relevant relations amongst voltages, currents on both h.v and l.v sides

(or)

b) Explain the T-T Connections?

c) Explain the conversion process of three phase to two phase in T-T connection

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