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6.

0 RESULT
Input Speed, N in

= 1000 rpm

Input angular velocity, W in

= 104.72 rad/s

6.1 Spur Gear Transmission


2
27

Transmission ratio

Output speed, N out

= 74.07 rpm

Output angular velocity, W out

= 7.76 rad/s

Table 1 Data for Spur Gear Transmission


Input
Input
Input
Excitation
Force,
Torque,
Power,
Current,
F
T
P
I [mA]
[N]
[Nm]
[W]
0
1.7500
0.0875
9.1630
50
3.2500
0.1625
17.0170
100
3.5000
0.1750
18.3260
125
4.5000
0.2250
23.5620
150
5.2500
0.2625
27.4890
175
5.5000
0.2750
28.7980
200
6.2500
0.3125
32.7250
225
7.2500
0.3625
37.9610
250
8.0000
0.4000
41.8880
275
8.5000
0.4250
44.5060
300
9.2500
0.4625
48.4330
Average

Output
force,
Fout

Output
Torque,
T out

Output
Power,
Pout

[N]
0.0000
4.0000
7.0000
11.0000
16.0000
21.0000
26.0000
33.0000
37.0000
45.0000
50.0000

[Nm]
0.0000
0.4000
0.7000
1.1000
1.6000
2.1000
2.6000
3.3000
3.7000
4.5000
5.0000

[W]
0.0000
3.1040
5.4320
8.5360
12.4160
16.2960
20.1760
25.6080
28.7120
34.9200
38.8000

6.2 Worm Gear Transmission


1
14

Transmission ratio

Output speed, N out

= 71.43 rpm

Efficiency,

0.0000
0.1824
0.2964
0.3623
0.4517
0.5659
0.6165
0.6746
0.6854
0.7846
0.8011
0.4928

Output angular velocity, W out

= 7.48 rad/s

Table 2 Data for Worm Gear Transmission


Excitation
Current,
I [mA]
0
50
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
Average

Input
Force,
F

Input
Torque,
T

Input
Power,
P

Output
force,
Fout

Output
Torque,
T out

Output
Power,
Pout

[N]
2.1000
3.2000
4.1000
5.1000
6.1000
7.2000
8.2000
9.2000
10.1000
11.2000
12.4000

[Nm]
0.1050
0.1600
0.2050
0.2550
0.3050
0.3600
0.4100
0.4600
0.5050
0.5600
0.6200

[W]
10.9956
16.7552
21.4676
26.7036
31.9396
37.6992
42.9352
48.1712
52.8836
58.6432
64.9264

[N]
1.0000
7.0000
15.000
22.0000
28.0000
32.0000
40.0000
48.0000
52.0000
62.0000
68.0000

[Nm]
0.1000
0.7000
1.5000
2.2000
2.8000
3.2000
4.0000
4.8000
5.2000
6.2000
6.8000

[W]
0.7480
5.2360
11.2200
16.4560
20.9440
23.9360
29.9200
35.9040
38.8960
46.3760
50.8640

Efficiency,

0.0680
0.3125
0.5226
0.6162
0.6557
0.6349
0.6969
0.7453
0.7355
0.7908
0.7834
0.5965

7.0 DISCUSSION
I. Show calculation of output speed and output angular velocity for both
transmissions and fill in the result section :

Spur gear:
Output speed, Nout
Output angular velocity,

out

= 1000 rpm x 2/27


= 74.07 rpm
=74.07 rpm x (2

/60)
= 7.76 rad/s
Worm gear:
Output speed, Nout
Output angular velocity,

out

= 1000 rpm x 1/14


= 71.43 rpm
=71.43 rpm x (2

/60)
= 7.48 rad/s
II.

Four sample calculations for input torque, input power, output torque and
output power of each excitation :
Where Linput: 0.050 m
Loutput: 0.100 m
Spur gear:
Input torque,

Tin for 0 mA
=
=
Tin for 50 mA
=
=

= FL
(1.75 N) (0.05 m)
0.0875 Nm
= FL
(3.25 N) (0.05 m)
0.1625 Nm

Tin for 100 mA

FL
(3.50 N) (0.05 m)
0.1750 Nm
FL
(4.5N) (0.05 m)
0.2250 Nm

Tin for 125 mA

=
=
=
=
=
=

Output torque, Toutput for 0 mA


= FL
= (0.00 N) (0.100 m)
= 0.0000 Nm
Toutput for 50 mA
= FL
= (4.00 N) (0.100 m)
= 0.4000 Nm

Toutput for 100 mA


=
=
Toutput for 125 mA
=
=
Input power,

Pin for 0 mA

= FL
(7.00 N) (0.100 m)
0.7000 Nm
= FL
(11.00 N) (0.100 m)
1.1000 Nm
=T

= (0.08570 Nm) (104.72 rad/s)


= 9.1630 W
=T

Pin for 50 mA

Pin for 100 mA

= (0.1625 Nm) (104.72 rad/s)


= 17.0170 W
=T

Pin for 125 mA

= (0.1750 Nm) (104.72 rad/s)


= 18.3260 W
=T
= (0.2250 Nm) (104.72 rad/s)
= 23.5620 W

Output power, Poutput for 0 mA

=T

= (0.0000 Nm) (7.76 rad/s)


= 0.0000W
Poutput for 50 mA
=T
= (0.4000 Nm) (7.76rad/s)
= 3.1040 W
Poutput for 100 mA
=T
= (0.7000 Nm) (7.76 rad/s)
= 5.4320 W
Poutput for 125 mA
=T
= (1.1000 Nm) (7.76 rad/s)
= 8.5360 W

Worm gear:
Input torque,

Tin for 0 mA
= FL
= (2.10 N) (0.05 m)
= 0.1050Nm

Tin for 50 mA
Tin for 100 mA
Tin for 125 mA

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

= FL
(3.20 N) (0.05 m)
0.1600 Nm
FL
(4.10 N) (0.05 m)
0.2050Nm
FL
(5.10 N) (0.05 m)
0.2550Nm

Output torque, Toutput for 0 mA


= FL
= (1.00 N) (0.100 m)
= 0.1000 Nm
Toutput for 50 mA
= FL
= (7.00 N) (0.100 m)
= 0.7000 Nm
Toutput for 100 mA
=
=
Toutput for 125 mA
=
=

= FL
(15.00 N) (0.100 m)
1.5000 Nm
= FL
(22.00 N) (0.100 m)
2.2000 Nm
=T

Input power, Pin for 0 mA

Pin for 50 mA

= (0.1050 Nm) (104.72 rad/s)


= 10.9956 W
=T

Pin for 100 mA

= (0.1600 Nm) (104.72 rad/s)


= 16.7552 W
=T

Pin for 125 mA

= (0.2050 Nm) (104.72 rad/s)


= 21.4576 W
=T
= (0.2550 Nm) (104.72 rad/s)
= 26.7036 W

Output power, Poutput for 0 mA

=T

= (0.100 Nm) (7.48 rad/s)


= 0.7480 W

=T

Poutput for 50 mA

= (0.7000 Nm) (7.48rad/s)


= 5.2360 W
Poutput for 100 mA
=T
= (1.5000 Nm) (7.48 rad/s)
= 11.2200 W
Poutput for 125 mA
=T
= (2.2000 Nm) (7.48 rad/s)
= 16.4560 W
III.

Calculate the efficiency of each excitation current and fill in the Table 1 and Table 2. Show
an example of calculation :
P
= out , I =300 mA
P
Worm Gear

Pout
Efficiency, = P

50.8640
64.9264

0.7834

IV.

Plot two graphs of efficiency, vs input force, Fin for both transmissions. Explain your
findings.

Graph 1 Graph of Efficiency vs Input Force for Spur Gear


0.9
f(x) = 0.11x - 0.12
0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

Efficiency
0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
1

Input Force

10

Graph 2 Graph of Efficiency vs Input Force for Worm Gear


0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

Efficiency
0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0

Input Force

10

12

14

From the graph plotted, we can say that the efficiency will increase as the input force
increase. At a certain point, the increasing in efficiency is getting smaller as the input force
increase and eventually the efficiency will reduce if the input force keeps increasing. From
the graphs, we found that spur gear has better efficiency compare to worm gear. This is done
by referring to the line of the graph which is directly proportional for spur gear, this show
that the increasing in input force and efficiency is at the same pace. Meanwhile, the line for
worm gear show a good increasing at the beginning of the experiment and the efficiency is
decreasing at the end of the experiment. The worm gear reach its maximum efficiency during
input force at 10N.
V.

How can the efficiency of the transmission be related to the excitation current?
When an excitation current is used in a device, the current is used to operate the device at
some point. A certain amount of energy is needed to overcome the internal resistance of the
steel core. When the excitation current give the motor its power, the transmission is then
convert the power to move the load.

VI.

Wat are other sources of errors in this experiment?


After discussed with group member, we found that there are few of errors involved that
affect our experimental result. One of the errors is parallax error. Its mean that student does
not read the scale of spring balance and dynamometer perpendicularly. In order to achieve an
accurate result student should read the scale perpendicularly and student can also take
multiple reading to minimise the error. Besides that, when taking the reading for output force
student have to pull the load back to its middle position and this is hard to be done because
the load always moving and cause the reading difficult. The higher the current the higher the
force of the load is and more harder for student to maintain the load to its middle position.

Therefore the results for output load might differ a bit from the theoretical result. And finally
is the error within the equipment itself. The equipment has been used for a long time and
some part in the equipment might have wear. This small error will also affect the result.
Besides, the longer machine worked, the hotter it will become. Some of the output energy
will be release in the form of heat and this will reduce the efficiency of the machine.

8.0 CONCLUSION
At the end of the experiment, we have able to determine the efficiency of a spur gear system
and worm gear system. After we have done the gear efficiency experiment, we now knew that
the effectiveness of a power transmission can be measured by finding their efficiency. Based to
the experimental result that we obtained, we can see that for spur gear the average efficiency is
0.4928 while for worm gear the average efficiency is 0.5965. Which clearly state that worm gear
has better average efficiency compare to spur gear. But the efficiency is reduces as the input
force increase. As conclusion, even though a worm gear has an average efficiency better that spur
gear, it can only operate at low input force compare to spur gear which can operate at higher
input force.