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0 RESULT

Input Speed, N in

= 1000 rpm

= 104.72 rad/s

2

27

Transmission ratio

= 74.07 rpm

= 7.76 rad/s

Input

Input

Input

Excitation

Force,

Torque,

Power,

Current,

F

T

P

I [mA]

[N]

[Nm]

[W]

0

1.7500

0.0875

9.1630

50

3.2500

0.1625

17.0170

100

3.5000

0.1750

18.3260

125

4.5000

0.2250

23.5620

150

5.2500

0.2625

27.4890

175

5.5000

0.2750

28.7980

200

6.2500

0.3125

32.7250

225

7.2500

0.3625

37.9610

250

8.0000

0.4000

41.8880

275

8.5000

0.4250

44.5060

300

9.2500

0.4625

48.4330

Average

Output

force,

Fout

Output

Torque,

T out

Output

Power,

Pout

[N]

0.0000

4.0000

7.0000

11.0000

16.0000

21.0000

26.0000

33.0000

37.0000

45.0000

50.0000

[Nm]

0.0000

0.4000

0.7000

1.1000

1.6000

2.1000

2.6000

3.3000

3.7000

4.5000

5.0000

[W]

0.0000

3.1040

5.4320

8.5360

12.4160

16.2960

20.1760

25.6080

28.7120

34.9200

38.8000

1

14

Transmission ratio

= 71.43 rpm

Efficiency,

0.0000

0.1824

0.2964

0.3623

0.4517

0.5659

0.6165

0.6746

0.6854

0.7846

0.8011

0.4928

= 7.48 rad/s

Excitation

Current,

I [mA]

0

50

100

125

150

175

200

225

250

275

300

Average

Input

Force,

F

Input

Torque,

T

Input

Power,

P

Output

force,

Fout

Output

Torque,

T out

Output

Power,

Pout

[N]

2.1000

3.2000

4.1000

5.1000

6.1000

7.2000

8.2000

9.2000

10.1000

11.2000

12.4000

[Nm]

0.1050

0.1600

0.2050

0.2550

0.3050

0.3600

0.4100

0.4600

0.5050

0.5600

0.6200

[W]

10.9956

16.7552

21.4676

26.7036

31.9396

37.6992

42.9352

48.1712

52.8836

58.6432

64.9264

[N]

1.0000

7.0000

15.000

22.0000

28.0000

32.0000

40.0000

48.0000

52.0000

62.0000

68.0000

[Nm]

0.1000

0.7000

1.5000

2.2000

2.8000

3.2000

4.0000

4.8000

5.2000

6.2000

6.8000

[W]

0.7480

5.2360

11.2200

16.4560

20.9440

23.9360

29.9200

35.9040

38.8960

46.3760

50.8640

Efficiency,

0.0680

0.3125

0.5226

0.6162

0.6557

0.6349

0.6969

0.7453

0.7355

0.7908

0.7834

0.5965

7.0 DISCUSSION

I. Show calculation of output speed and output angular velocity for both

transmissions and fill in the result section :

Spur gear:

Output speed, Nout

Output angular velocity,

out

= 74.07 rpm

=74.07 rpm x (2

/60)

= 7.76 rad/s

Worm gear:

Output speed, Nout

Output angular velocity,

out

= 71.43 rpm

=71.43 rpm x (2

/60)

= 7.48 rad/s

II.

Four sample calculations for input torque, input power, output torque and

output power of each excitation :

Where Linput: 0.050 m

Loutput: 0.100 m

Spur gear:

Input torque,

Tin for 0 mA

=

=

Tin for 50 mA

=

=

= FL

(1.75 N) (0.05 m)

0.0875 Nm

= FL

(3.25 N) (0.05 m)

0.1625 Nm

FL

(3.50 N) (0.05 m)

0.1750 Nm

FL

(4.5N) (0.05 m)

0.2250 Nm

=

=

=

=

=

=

= FL

= (0.00 N) (0.100 m)

= 0.0000 Nm

Toutput for 50 mA

= FL

= (4.00 N) (0.100 m)

= 0.4000 Nm

=

=

Toutput for 125 mA

=

=

Input power,

Pin for 0 mA

= FL

(7.00 N) (0.100 m)

0.7000 Nm

= FL

(11.00 N) (0.100 m)

1.1000 Nm

=T

= 9.1630 W

=T

Pin for 50 mA

= 17.0170 W

=T

= 18.3260 W

=T

= (0.2250 Nm) (104.72 rad/s)

= 23.5620 W

=T

= 0.0000W

Poutput for 50 mA

=T

= (0.4000 Nm) (7.76rad/s)

= 3.1040 W

Poutput for 100 mA

=T

= (0.7000 Nm) (7.76 rad/s)

= 5.4320 W

Poutput for 125 mA

=T

= (1.1000 Nm) (7.76 rad/s)

= 8.5360 W

Worm gear:

Input torque,

Tin for 0 mA

= FL

= (2.10 N) (0.05 m)

= 0.1050Nm

Tin for 50 mA

Tin for 100 mA

Tin for 125 mA

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

= FL

(3.20 N) (0.05 m)

0.1600 Nm

FL

(4.10 N) (0.05 m)

0.2050Nm

FL

(5.10 N) (0.05 m)

0.2550Nm

= FL

= (1.00 N) (0.100 m)

= 0.1000 Nm

Toutput for 50 mA

= FL

= (7.00 N) (0.100 m)

= 0.7000 Nm

Toutput for 100 mA

=

=

Toutput for 125 mA

=

=

= FL

(15.00 N) (0.100 m)

1.5000 Nm

= FL

(22.00 N) (0.100 m)

2.2000 Nm

=T

Pin for 50 mA

= 10.9956 W

=T

= 16.7552 W

=T

= 21.4576 W

=T

= (0.2550 Nm) (104.72 rad/s)

= 26.7036 W

=T

= 0.7480 W

=T

Poutput for 50 mA

= 5.2360 W

Poutput for 100 mA

=T

= (1.5000 Nm) (7.48 rad/s)

= 11.2200 W

Poutput for 125 mA

=T

= (2.2000 Nm) (7.48 rad/s)

= 16.4560 W

III.

Calculate the efficiency of each excitation current and fill in the Table 1 and Table 2. Show

an example of calculation :

P

= out , I =300 mA

P

Worm Gear

Pout

Efficiency, = P

50.8640

64.9264

0.7834

IV.

Plot two graphs of efficiency, vs input force, Fin for both transmissions. Explain your

findings.

0.9

f(x) = 0.11x - 0.12

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

Efficiency

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

1

Input Force

10

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

Efficiency

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

Input Force

10

12

14

From the graph plotted, we can say that the efficiency will increase as the input force

increase. At a certain point, the increasing in efficiency is getting smaller as the input force

increase and eventually the efficiency will reduce if the input force keeps increasing. From

the graphs, we found that spur gear has better efficiency compare to worm gear. This is done

by referring to the line of the graph which is directly proportional for spur gear, this show

that the increasing in input force and efficiency is at the same pace. Meanwhile, the line for

worm gear show a good increasing at the beginning of the experiment and the efficiency is

decreasing at the end of the experiment. The worm gear reach its maximum efficiency during

input force at 10N.

V.

How can the efficiency of the transmission be related to the excitation current?

When an excitation current is used in a device, the current is used to operate the device at

some point. A certain amount of energy is needed to overcome the internal resistance of the

steel core. When the excitation current give the motor its power, the transmission is then

convert the power to move the load.

VI.

After discussed with group member, we found that there are few of errors involved that

affect our experimental result. One of the errors is parallax error. Its mean that student does

not read the scale of spring balance and dynamometer perpendicularly. In order to achieve an

accurate result student should read the scale perpendicularly and student can also take

multiple reading to minimise the error. Besides that, when taking the reading for output force

student have to pull the load back to its middle position and this is hard to be done because

the load always moving and cause the reading difficult. The higher the current the higher the

force of the load is and more harder for student to maintain the load to its middle position.

Therefore the results for output load might differ a bit from the theoretical result. And finally

is the error within the equipment itself. The equipment has been used for a long time and

some part in the equipment might have wear. This small error will also affect the result.

Besides, the longer machine worked, the hotter it will become. Some of the output energy

will be release in the form of heat and this will reduce the efficiency of the machine.

8.0 CONCLUSION

At the end of the experiment, we have able to determine the efficiency of a spur gear system

and worm gear system. After we have done the gear efficiency experiment, we now knew that

the effectiveness of a power transmission can be measured by finding their efficiency. Based to

the experimental result that we obtained, we can see that for spur gear the average efficiency is

0.4928 while for worm gear the average efficiency is 0.5965. Which clearly state that worm gear

has better average efficiency compare to spur gear. But the efficiency is reduces as the input

force increase. As conclusion, even though a worm gear has an average efficiency better that spur

gear, it can only operate at low input force compare to spur gear which can operate at higher

input force.

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