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An Introduction to Considerations in Rotary Kiln Design

a product of


For many years, rotary kilns have been used across various industries to drive chemical reactions by
thermal processing. Rotary kilns have become very established in fields such as cement, lime, and
minerals. Because these thermal processing tools have been used almost exclusively in these industries,
they have been designed to meet the needs of these particular materials. However, there are countless
untapped applications for the use of a rotary kiln.

Rotary kilns can be custom-engineered to meet the thermal processing needs of just about any
material. At Feeco International, we are bringing custom-designed rotary kilns to new industries and
applications. Unlike most rotary kiln manufacturers, our ability to run an array of batch tests allows us to
be very nimble in terms of designing rotary kilns around specific problems or materials.

What follows is a general overview of things to consider before entering the process of designing a
rotary kiln. This is by no means meant to be a practical guide, but rather an introduction to the many
considerations involved in the design of a rotary kiln.

For more information on rotary kilns, visit our website: or contact us at

3913 Algoma Rd. Green Bay, WI 54311 Phone: (920)468.1000 Fax: (920)469.5110 Email:



In the process of designing each custom rotary
kiln, a multitude of new questions and problems
to solve arise. Because FEECOs applications are
custom, the majority of the time, we must start from
square one, collecting all of the data, analyzing
it, and turning this data into an effective rotary
kiln design. Many people feel overwhelmed at
where to start in their search for a rotary kiln. While
Feeco International can do it all from idea to end
product, we have put together this introductory
series to not only help others understand the
process that goes into designing a rotary kiln,
but also to help others understand the things to
consider when purchasing a rotary kiln, whether it
is custom designed or not.
The first step in the design of a custom rotary kiln is
to define the desired reaction: what are you trying
to accomplish? Just about any thermally-driven
chemical reaction can be processed in a rotary
kiln. Are you trying to sterilize a material, activate
it, burn off its organic portion, or do you have a
material conversion you need completed? Other
typical rotary kiln applications include waste
lime recovery, the manufacturing of proppants,
mineral roasting, and phosphate production, to
name a few. Defining your desired reaction will
not only determine what needs to happen inside
of the rotary kiln, but it will also have a lot of input
as to what components will make up the rotary
kilns design. Once you have determined what
chemical reaction you are trying to achieve, you
must begin looking at your material.


Before a kiln can be designed, the material must go
through a thermal and chemical analysis. Getting
to know the material you are working with will let
you know how the material is going to behave
in the rotary kiln. Is your material going to melt?
Vaporize? Explode? Things like the percentage of
moisture a material holds, its bulk density, specific
heat, thermal conductivity, chemical makeup,
and so on, all have an influence on how material
performs in a rotary kiln. Lets take a look at how
some of these factors take part in rotary kiln design.
Unlike a rotary dryer, where the main focus is to
reduce the moisture, removal of moisture in a
rotary kiln is secondary to the process rather than
the goal. However, it is still an issue that needs to
be addressed.
In many instances, it is ideal to remove the moisture
before the chemical reaction takes place.
Depending on the situation, some people prefer
to add a rotary dryer into their process before


material enters the rotary kiln. Others use the

rotary kiln to dry the material, greatly increasing
the materials time in the rotary kiln, and ultimately
the work that the kiln is doing. Because a rotary kiln
does not shower the material like a rotary dryer,
the heat transfer of the gas to the material, is
inefficient. In the case of an indirect fired rotary kiln,
drying would take a substantial amount of time, as
the material is only getting heat through the shell
of the rotary kiln, and not through a stream of hot
gas. There are pros and cons to each method,
and ultimately, it is up to the customer to decide
of material, longer retention time, and possibly
what works best for their situation.
additional accessories like damns?


The specific heat of a material is another central

factor in the design of a rotary kiln. Specific
heat is how resistant a material is to heating. By
definition, it is how much energy it takes to raise
1 gram of material 1 degree Celsius. The specific
heat of water is very high, meaning it takes a lot
of energy to cause a change in the temperature
think of how long it takes to boil your water on the
stove. Metals, however, have a low specific heat,
meaning it takes much less energy to raise their
Similar to specific heat, the heat transfer properties
of a material also play a big part in the design of a
rotary kiln. How a material transfers heat will have
a direct effect on how the material behaves in
the rotary kiln: will it transfer its heat easily, causing
even heat distribution and low retention time,
or will it hold onto its heat, causing cold pockets

Another part of the thermal analysis is the thermal

gravimetric analysis, or TGA. A TGA is performed
on a material to determine changes in mass
as a function of temperature. It describes the
temperature ranges at which mass loss occurs. This
is critical in determining the required temperature
profile in a kiln. As an example, free water will show
primary removal at around 212F, where tightly
bound chemical water may show a mass loss
upwards off 500F. A TGA also helps show where a
reaction begins, and ends, as often, the curve on
a TGA starts at a specific temperature, but does
not complete until a much higher temperature.
Overall, a TGA helps determine the temperature
profiles required in a rotary kiln, by showing at what
temperatures reactions are occurring, and for how
long they need to remain at, or how much they
need to increase temperature to, for reactions
to finish. Additionally, while you may be trying to
get your material from point A to point B, many
times there are reactions that occur in between
these two points. A TGA can help indicate where


unpredicted reactions may be occurring.

FEECO also has the ability to utilize our batch rotary
kiln to assist in thermal analysis. Through various
testing, this small scale rotary kiln can be used to
help determine temperature profiles.

Knowing the chemical composition of a material
is a valuable asset in rotary kiln design for several
reasons. One important reason is that many
materials will combust inside the rotary kiln at
high temperatures, creating more heat than was
put into the rotary kiln. In this case, the rotary kiln
needs to be designed to be able to withstand
those amounts of heat. In other cases, materials
may need a particular chemical atmosphere for
a reaction to occur. For example, an atmosphere
devoid of oxygen, or rich in carbon dioxide. Still
another reason to understand the chemical

makeup of a material, and how those chemicals

react together at certain temperatures, is to what
is going to exit the rotary kiln in the gas stream.
Gases leaving the rotary kiln typically need to be
treated before their release. While a particular
fuel may enter the rotary kiln, that gas may pick
up whatever the material being processed is
releasing, to create something new and toxic.
Different gases need different treatments, so it is
essential to know what gases are exiting the rotary

After the material has been thermally and
chemically analyzed, we can begin sizing the rotary
kiln. The size of a rotary kiln is not only a function of
capacity, but also the amount of heat that will be
generated or required inside of the rotary kiln from
the volatizing of the material. Using the thermal
analysis, we can determine an approximate
retention time. Using our predetermined guides,


we use retention time to establish the length of the to control this. Another advantage to using an
rotary kiln.
indirect rotary kiln is that there are fewer exit gases
that need processing, because less gas is going
The diameter and length of the rotary kiln are into the rotary kiln.
calculated based on the maximum feed rate,
the required retention time, and what we want
the bed profile(how full of material the rotary kiln REFRACTORY
is) to look like. Once we have a rough design of
the rotary kiln, we use several computer programs Once we have our preliminary rotary kiln size, we
to help predict how the material will behave can start to think about the details of the rotary kiln
in the rotary kiln we have designed. We review internals. In the case of a direct fired rotary kiln, in
the combined analyses and if our design does which the hot stream of gas flows directly through
not meet the appropriate criteria, we adjust our the interior of the rotary kiln, refractory is usually
design accordingly.
Arguably one of the most critical components
of a direct fired rotary kiln, the refractory is what
Another aspect of rotary kiln design is deciding protects the carbon steel shell from the high
whether to go with a direct fired rotary kiln, or an
indirect fired rotary kiln. The difference between
the two is how the heat is introduced. In a direct
fired rotary kiln, the heat is introduced directly into
the internals of the kiln, via a stream of hot gas.
This means there is high heat transfer between
the material and the heat. However, it also means
that there is more gas exiting the rotary kiln that
needs to be processed. In an indirect fired rotary
kiln, the heat comes through the shell of the rotary
kiln, and the heat transfer comes from the material
being in contact with the rotary kiln shell. One of
the big advantages to an indirect fired rotary kiln
is that the temperature can be tightly controlled
along the length of the rotary kiln. For example, if
a material needs to reach a certain temperature,
and be held there for a specific amount of time,
an indirect rotary kiln is ideal, because it is easy



temperatures within. A quality refractory is of

the utmost importance, and many options are
available, depending on the needs of the rotary
Typically, there are two kinds of refractories for
lining a rotary kiln: castable, and brick. Each kind of
refractory has its advantages and disadvantages.
The choice of refractory is dependent on the
rotary kiln temperature, material chemistry, and
how abrasive the material is.
Castable and brick refractory are comparably
priced for similar refractory compositions. However,
the installation cost for brick is more since it is
more labor intensive. Castable refractory comes
in a powder form and is mixed with water onsite.
Before the mixture can be put in place, anchors

are installed. These y-shaped anchors are similar to

rebar in cement; they help give the castable lining
its strength. Once these anchors are in place,
the cement-like mixture is pumped into the lining
of the rotary kiln, and allowed to cure for several
days. Castable refractory has a similar material
cost to brick. However, brick installation is much
more labor intensive, as each brick is individually
installed. This makes the overall cost of a brick lining
more expensive than castable. The disadvantage
to using castable refractory in a rotary kiln is that
it is very susceptible to installation problems.
When castable refractory is installed very well, it
can nearly match the quality of brick. But if the
castable is installed incorrectly, there can be a
considerable difference in quality, and the life of
the refractory can be severely compromised.


Besides lower overall cost, the advantage to using

castable refractory in a rotary kiln is that it is usually
easily patched when a problem is encountered.
Down time is typically minimal, because the
problem area can just be cut out and new
refractory can be poured back in the cavity.
The second type of refractory we will look at is
brick refractory. Refractory quality is measured
by the percentage of alumina that it contains.
Alumina gives the refractory its durability in terms of
temperature resistance and strength. Brick is fired
in a furnace under tightly controlled conditions
that allow it to achieve better properties than a
similar composition castable. Brick refractory is
slightly more expensive than castable, but it does
not require anchors, and its quality is superior.
Castable is basically brick that has not been to the
furnace yet. When processing a highly abrasive
material, brick refractory is advisable most of the
time, as castable does not have the durability
to stand up against abrasive materials as well as
brick. There is a downside to brick, however. Brick
refractory is held in place much like the principle
of a roman arch: bricks are held in place by the
pressure of the other bricks pushing against each
other. When a problem is encountered, typically
the failed brick needs to be replaced, but when
one brick is relying on the bricks around it to hold it
in place, often one cannot replace just one brick,
and whole sections of the refractory need to be
replaced. Unlike castable refractory, the repair of
a fail in brick refractory is much more involved.

This is an example of castable refractory. Anchors help to give

the refractory its strength. Note the working and insulating layers,
with the optional ceramic fiber backing.

to both kinds of rotary kiln refractories. However,

there is more to refractory than just which material
you choose. In the next part of this mini-series, we
will look at the working layer, versus the insulating
layer in rotary kiln refractory.

After a material is chosen for your rotary kiln

refractory, you must decide the desired heat
loss. When efficiency is of concern, or very high
temperatures are involved, often it is desirable to
use multiple layers of refractory: a working layer,
and an insulating layer. The working layer is what is in
direct contact with the material being processed.
Because of this, this working layer is a dense lining
that can withstand the high temperatures within
As you can see, there are strengths and weaknesses the rotary kiln, and the constant abrasion from the


Typically the working layer and the insulating

layer are made of the same material (ie. brick or
castable), with varying chemistries. The working
layer tends to be a higher density, stronger
material that is more conductive. The insulating
layer does not need these qualities, and tends to
be softer, lighter, and less conductive, therefore
more insulating. These two layers often vary in
thicknesses, and these are determined from the
needs of the rotary kiln and what material is being
processed. Although, sometimes temperatures
are low enough, or efficiency is of little concern,
it is only necessary to use one working layer. For
these reasons, refractory in a rotary kiln is often a
very custom part of the design.

This illustration shows an example of brick refractory with a

working layer, and an insulating layer.

material. However, when it comes to refractory, the

denser it is, the less insulating capabilities it has. This
means that even though there may be a tough,
durable, thick working layer in place, the heat
can easily pass through it to the shell of the rotary
kiln. For this reason, an insulating layer is needed
beneath the working layer (See Figures 1 and 2).
The insulating layer does just that; it insulates the
shell of the rotary kiln so the high temperatures
cannot reach the shell and damage it, or the
nearby components.

Sometimes when insulation is extremely critical,

an optional third layer of ceramic fiber backing
is used. Though there are various kinds of this
backing, this thin, but very efficient layer is similar
to fiberglass insulation found in a house, but it is
much more compressed. However, the decision to
employ this layer comes with some responsibility.
Should a crack in the refractory occur and go
unnoticed, it is possible for the high heat inside
the rotary kiln to reach this backing and actually
burn it up. This would create a gap between the
refractory itself, and the shell of the rotary kiln,
which could cause disastrous problems. Due to
this potential of increased risk, this third layer is not
always appropriate.

3913 Algoma Rd. Green Bay, WI 54311 Phone: (920)468.1000 Fax: (920)469.5110 Email:


Protecting the life of your refractory is crucial

not only to running at high efficiency, but also to
maintaining your rotary kiln. Once your rotary kiln
refractory is installed and in use, it is important to
take the extra steps to protect it. A well-installed,
high quality refractory can have a lifespan of
many years. But there are several culprits that can
cut refractory life short. Unfortunately, aside from
a refractory, refractory failure is hard to spot. The
good news is, many of the things that can cause
refractory failure are preventable.
The biggest source of refractory failure is what is
called cycling. Cycling is simply the heating up
and cooling down of a rotary kiln. Each time the
rotary kiln is heated, the refractory expands with
the drum. As the rotary kiln is cooled, the refractory
Refractory failure can have disastrous results. Even a small crack
also retracts. If a kiln is constantly being turned
can allow heat to reach the rotary kiln shell. It is important to
routinely temp gun the exterior of the rotary kiln shell, ensuring
on and shut down, the refractory can easily be that the temperature is consistent for the entire circumference of
the drum.
stressed, causing cracks. Cracks can also occur
from heating or cooling the kiln too quickly. It handle such aggressive corrosion. Similarly, this
is important to try to reduce cycling as much as failure can also happen when a rotary kiln is used
possible, keeping shut downs to a minimum.
for something the refractory was not designed for.
Sometimes there are unknown components in a
Another source of refractory failure is chemical material, and when a feedstock is changed, these
incompatibility. refractory is not designed to be able unknown components can attack the refractory,
to withstand certain chemicals. A big offender of again, causing excessive wear.
this is chlorides. Chlorides can aggressively attack
refractory, causing excessive wear because of Aside from regular inspections, one easy way to
their corrosive nature. When these chemicals are help extend the life of your rotary kiln is to check
identified up front, refractory can be designed to for hotspots on a regular basis. This can be done by

3913 Algoma Rd. Green Bay, WI 54311 Phone: (920)468.1000 Fax: (920)469.5110 Email:


picking a spot on the rotary kiln shell, and holding

a temp gun in place. As the rotary kiln rotates, that
spot should be the same temperature for the entire
circumference of the shell. There would be trouble
if youre reading 400, 400, 700, 400. A hotspot
on the shell of the rotary kiln indicates a failure
in refractory. Left unnoticed, this could lead to
severe damage to the rotary kiln shell. In addition
to circumference temperature being the same in
a given location, there should be a gradual shift in
temperatures from one end of the kiln to the other,
not a drastic change.

drum. This chain and sprocket drive is used for

small rotary drums, running up to 75 horsepower. It
is not suitable for larger rotary kilns running above
75 horsepower, but is ideal for smaller jobs, as it is
cost-effective, and easy to run. The gear drive is
best for heavy duty situations, running above 75
horsepower. Similar to the chain and sprocket
setup, instead of a sprocket wrapped around the
girth of the drum, this setup has an actual gear
around the drum. This gear meshes with a small
gear drive, which rotates it. This type of drive is
more expensive, but is a necessity when dealing
with a heavy duty application. Unlike most other
rotary kiln components, there is not a need for
any customization in terms of the mechanicals of
Bearing and drive components for a rotary kiln are the drums. The need for one or the other is solely
similar to those on a rotary dryer. There are two dependent on how much horsepower is required.
types of arrangements for rotating a rotary dryer or
rotary kiln: a chain and sprocket, or a gear drive.
For either arrangement, there are two tires on
the rotary drum that sit on top of trunnion wheels. Indirect fired rotary kilns are an effective method of
This point of contact is what is supporting the processing materials, but sometimes it is necessary
rotary drum. Thrust rollers run on either side of the to take additional measures to ensure that the
wheels, help to keep the rotary drum from moving rotary kiln is processing efficiently. Indirect fired
too far up or down hill. A chain and sprocket rotary kilns create heat transfer by conduction
arrangement works much like a bicycle. There is a through the shell of the rotary kiln, rather than by
large sprocket wrapping around the rotary drum means of a hot gas stream. Because all of this heat
with a chain on it that goes to the reducer and transfer is occurring through the shell, it is essential
motor. The spinning motor turns a gear box, which to have good, even contact between the material
spins a small sprocket that is attached by the chain and the rotary kiln shell itself. This will assure that the
to the large sprocket wrapping around the rotary transfer of heat is as efficient as possible. Helping

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In a bed that only slips along the interior of the rotary kiln, the
inner part of the bed never really gets exposed to the rotary kiln
shell, creating major temperature discrepancies.

Fixed to the interior of the rotary kiln, a bed disturber turns over
the bed of material by creating a place for the material to build
up and tumble over, redistributing what was on top to the bottom, and vice versa.

to create this efficient heat transfer can be done whose design can vary considerably, are can be
with what is called a bed disturber.
attached to the interior of the rotary kiln, to disturb
the bed and turn it over. However, what seems like
A bed disturber, often custom designed to a simple task, can get complicated quickly, as
create maximum, material-specific efficiency, thermal stressors come into play.
is anything affixed to the inside of the rotary kiln
that helps to mix the bed of material. Ideally, the A common bed disturber is merely a bar, that runs
bed should tumble, turning over and minimizing the length of the interior of the rotary kiln. Material
dead spots, or temperature variations within the pushes up against the bar, building up and rolling
bed. Unfortunately, not all materials tumble well over it, so material that was on the top of the bed
which results in a slipping bed with poor mixing now gets redistributed to the bottom of the bed.
and large temperature variation. Bed disturbers, The disadvantage to using a bar bed disturber is

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that they can sometimes bend and break with

the thermal stresses of the rotary kiln. A rotary kiln
naturally has gradients of temperature, usually
cooler on the ends of the kiln, and hotter in the
middle. This gradation in temperature causes
thermal expansion in some places on the rotary
kiln shell, but not in others. Because of this, the
bar, welded to the shell, is being pulled in different
directions, which can cause it to bend or break.
When this kind of thermal expansion is at work, it
is usually best to look at alternative bed disturbers.

For various reasons, it is often desirable to increase
retention time in the rotary kiln. In order to do this,
the loading, or how much material is in the rotary
kiln at one time, needs to be increased. This is done
by adding what is called a dam to the interior of
the rotary kiln.
A dam in a rotary kiln works much like a dam in
a river. When a dam is put into place, material
builds up behind the dam, forcing retention time
to increase. Material then spills over the dam,
and discharges from the rotary kiln. Internal dams
can also be used if a discharge end dam is not

Another type of bed disturber is similar to flights

in a rotary dryer. These flight-like bed disturbers
are welded with one weld point each, to the
inside of the rotary kiln. This kind of bed disturber
was designed to accept the different thermal
expansion stressors, making it ideal for drums with
various temperature gradations.
Dams are useful when bed depth needs to be
increased, or when retention time needs to be
There are various types of bed disturbers, but they increased, using a kiln that was designed for a
are all designed to do the same thing: turn the particular retention time.
bed over to maximize the transfer of heat from the
rotary kiln shell to the material.

Dams are put in place when retention time needs to be increased using the same size rotary kiln. Dams allow the loading to be increased, which increases retention time by forcing the material to build up in the rotary kiln.

3913 Algoma Rd. Green Bay, WI 54311 Phone: (920)468.1000 Fax: (920)469.5110 Email:


Holding the appropriate temperature within a
rotary kiln is what allows the desired chemical
reaction to occur. Sustaining that temperature,
however, can be difficult if the right seal is not
Almost all rotary kilns run at a negative pressure,
meaning gas doesnt leak out, but rather air
leaks in. Because kilns are always running at a
higher temperature than the ambient air, any
ambient air leaking into the rotary kiln will cause
the temperature inside of the rotary kiln to drop.
Not only will this result in an unnecessary amount
of energy being used and wasted, but if the leak
is severe enough, it could potentially disrupt the
chemical reaction. This is why it is crucial to have
a quality seal.
Sealing the ends of a rotary kiln can be a
difficult task, because there is always going to
be something rotating attached to something
stationary. This breeching, or the stationary part, is
typically where leakage will occur. So how do you
seal a moving part against a stationary part? One
answer is a leaf seal. Leaf seals are the standard
seal used on rotary kilns and rotary dryers. But how
does a leaf seal work?
Leaf seals are similar to a fanned out deck of
cards. The cards, or leaves, are made out of a
spring steel. These fanned out leaves are bolted to

the breeching, and the springy leaves are forced

to push against the seal/wear plate of the rotating
kiln, naturally keeping pressure on the rotary kiln to
create a good seal. Several variations of this seal
are also available, such as the purged double leaf
The purged double leaf seal is typically used in
situations where maintaining the atmosphere inside
the rotary kiln is extremely critical. For example, in
cases where the atmosphere inside the rotary kiln
cannot tolerate oxygen from ambient air leakage.
In this case, the purged double leaf seal would
be a viable alternative to a standard leaf seal.
The purged double leaf seal is made up of two
components. The first is two sets of seals which
consist of two layers of leaves on top of each other.
The second component is an inert purge gas, such
as nitrogen, which is introduced between the two
sets of seals. This purge gas pushes outward to
ambient, so that there is a flow of gas going out,
and therefore, no oxygen is allowed to flow in.

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As a leader in the thermal processing industry, The same is true for a change in the ambient
Feeco International knows how critical it is to run conditions. A drastic change in temperature can
efficiently. We can supply leaf seals and purged throw a rotary drum out of alignment.
double leaf seals to suit your needs.
Another potential problem area, typically specific
to rotary kilns is refractory failure. Recognizing
potential refractory problems is much more
Rotary drums are a valuable investment with the difficult than recognizing problems with the rotary
potential to have a long productive life with proper drum itself. Unfortunately, many people are not
maintenance. While protecting this investment aware they have a problem until their refractory
is not hard, it does take know-how, and routine fails. If not attended to, refractory failure can have
maintenance. Luckily, this routine maintenance disastrous results.
and knowledge go a long way in recognizing
potential problems, and spotting when a rotary Learning to spot refractory issues in many cases
drum is in need of some first aid.
is as simple as using a temperature gun. Simply
picking a spot on the rotary drum as it rotates,
One of the most prevalent problems that can and making sure it is the same temperature for
cause rotary drum issues is mis- alignment. When the entire circumference of the rotary drum tells
a rotary drum is installed, whether it be a rotary you there are no hot spots in that area. If your
cooler, rotary dryer, or rotary kiln, great care is temperature gun were to read 600, 600, 600, 900,
taken to ensure that the rotary drum is in perfect 600, this would be an indicator that heat is making
alignment. While many rotary kilns and rotary dryers it through the refractory to the shell of the rotary
are running on a slope, aligning them makes sure kiln. This could mean a loss of refractory. Routinely
that there is even pressure on all wheels. Signs that temp gunning spots on the exterior of the rotary
a rotary drum is out of alignment include abnormal kiln can help keep up on some potential refractory
wear patterns or grooves on wheels and tires, issues, and help in preventing major failures.
and/or constant running on one thrust roller and
not the others. Watching for signs like these can Learning to look for some of the above issues can
help prolong the life of your rotary drum, and tell help extend the life of your rotary drum, and also
you when it is time for realignment.
help avert catastrophic failures and downtime.
Aside from caring for the rotary drum, routine
Knowing when to realign a rotary drum can also maintenance should be done on the mechanical
help in its longevity. If there has been a change components of the rotary kiln. Lubricating the tires,
in product, the rotary drum should be realigned. performing an oil change on the gear box, and
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checking potential problem spots for misalignment

should all be a part of routine maintenance checks
on rotary drums.
While its not fool-proof, doing all of these things
can only help in prolonging the life of your rotary

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