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You are on page 1of 92

Prof. Minna Karstunen

University of Strathclyde

Example of elasto-plastic behaviour: traction test (1D) in metals

Yielding

O B

F

A

C

A

L0

Elastic

behaviour

L

L0

sp ~Y (logscale

F

A

Y

Yield point, the stress

cannot be higher than

this value

Plastic behaviour:

unrestricted plastic

flow takes place at

this stress level.

Elastic

behaviour

= e+ p

L

L0

Idealization of elasto-plastic behaviour, different models

Rigid Perfectly

Plastic

Elasto-plastic

perfect plasticity

Elasto-plastic

hardening

d = d e + d p

{ { {

to ta l

e la s tic

Yield limit

depends on

(effective)

stresses

p la s tic

Elasto-plastic

softening

On softening models

Y0 = yield stress

YF = failure stress

Plastic models allow

to determine in a direct way the ultimate states and failure

to model irrecoverable strains

to model changes in material behaviour

to model a more proper way the behaviour of fragile or

quasi-fragile materials

Strains ()

Total strains

Elastic strains (recoverable on unloading)

Plastic strains (not recoverable on unloading)

Total strains = Elastic strains + Plastic strains

Stresses ()

Total stresses = Effective stresses + Pore Pressures

Stresses are related to elastic strains even in

nonlinear theories

Stresses are stresses - there is nothing like

elastic stress and plastic stress.

We talk mainly in terms of effective stress.

Elasto-Plastic Models

An elastic law

Stress

Ideal plastic

function/surface)

Strain

(Flow rule)

Stress

Strain hardening

due to plastic flow? If yes, how?

(Hardening/Softening rule)

Strain

Yield Surface

1

elastic domain

PLASTIC

On the surface

It is a

generalization of

the 1D case

Yield limit (1-D)

Yield surface (2D3D)

ELASTIC

Inside yield

surface

IMPOSSIBLE

STATE

Outside

F ( ij , )=0

i) = 0

F(,h

i

Yield Surface

F({ },h ) = 0

F({ }+ {d },h + dh ) = 0

Yield Surface

Fixed yield surface F (ij) = 0

Perfect plasticity

Expanding yield surface F(ij,hi) = 0

Hardening plasticity

Contractive yield surface F(ij,hi) = 0

Softening plasticity

The expansion or contraction of the YS is controlled by the hardening (or

softening) parameters hi

The stress state must be either inside the surface or on the surface (stress

states outside the surface are not allowed).

Stress inside the surface F(ij,hi) < 0 elastic strain only

Stress on the surface F(ij,hi) = 0 elastic and plastic strain

Yield Surface

The YS is often expressed in term of the stresses or stress invariants.

p',q are typical stress variables used to describe soil behaviour and, also, to

define the YS

Therefore typical expression of the YS are as follows:

f ( ij , h ) = 0

where

p0

f ( p, q, p0 ) = 0

Flow Rule

In one-dimensional problem, it is

clear that plastic strains take place

along the direction of applied stress

In 2D or 3D we need to make a

hypothesis regarding the direction

of plastic flow (relative magnitude of

plastic strain increments)

1, 1p

p

3, 3p

Plastic Deformations

To evaluate plastic deformations the existence of a plastic potential (g or G ) is

assumed.

The plastic potential provides the direction of the plastic strain:

g ( ij' , ) = 0

where

g ( p, q, ) = 0

g

d = d

;

p

p

p

g

d = d

q

p

q

Plastic Deformations

In general,

g

d = d

ij

p

ij

plastic deformation

plastic deformations: the vector

of the plastic deformations is

normal to the g = constant

surfaces

g ( p, q, ) = 0

Yield Surface (f) and Plastic Potential (g) are generally different functions

If f g

coupling, which is defined by the flow rule

The plastic deformations depend on the stress state rather than the

increment of the stresses applied

FLOW RULE ASSOCIATED

So, we know the plastic-strain direction, but how we can determine the

magnitude?

Hardening rule

It is necessary to provide a description of the variation of the size and/or

position of the yield surface during plastic deformations (i.e. how the YS

evolve during yielding)

q

p0 = p0 ( pp , qp )

YS

p0

p0

p

dp0 = p d p + p d qp

p

q

po

p'

Consistency condition

The plastic state is reached when the stress state is on the surface:

f ( p, q, p0 ) = 0

It is assumed that once yield occurs (i.e. f = 0), the stresses must remain on the

yield surface during plastic deformation.

This constraint is enforced by the consistency condition as follows:

df = 0

Consistency condition

f

f

f

df =

dp + dq +

dp0

p

q

p0

dp0 =

p0

p0

p0

g p0

g

p

p

d p + p d q = p d

+ p d

p

p q

q

p

q

p

f

f

f

df =

dp + dq +

p

q

p0

f ( p, q, p0 ) = 0

g

d = d

{ '}

p

Now we can

determine the

magnitude of the

plastic strain

p0

g p0

g

+ p d = 0

p d

p q

q

p

14444244443

dp0

f

f

dp + dq

p

q

d =

f p0 g p0 g

+ p

p

p0 p p q q

Plastics Deformations

f

f

f

f

dp + dq

dp + dq

g

g

p

q

p

q

d pp =

d qp =

f p0 g p0 g p

f p0 g p0 g q

+ p

+ p

p

p0 p p q q

p0 p p q q

f g

p p

d pp

1

p =

d q f p0 g p0 g f g

+ p

p

p q

q

q

0 p

f g

q p dp

f g dq

q q

Plastic modulus, H

H = 0 perfect plasticity and Eq. above not valid!

H > 0 plasticity with hardening

H < 0 plasticity with softening

Theory of Plasticity

1.

Elastic Strain

2.

Yield surface

3.

Plastic Potential

4.

Flow rule

d ep 1 K

0 d p

e =

d q

0

1

3

G

q

f ( p , q , p 0 ) = 0

g ( p, q, ) = 0

d pp = d

g

g

; d qp = d

p

q

Theory of Plasticity

Summary

5.

Hardening law

p0 = p0 ( pp , qp )

dp0 =

6.

p0

p0

p

p

d

+

p

q

pp

qp

Plastic deformations

f g

p p

d pp

1

f g

p =

f p0 g p0 g

q

+ p

p q

q

q

0 p

7.

Total deformations

f g

q p dp

f g dq

q q

d p d ep d pp

d = e + p

q d q d q

Elastoplastic Matrix

{d } = [D ]ep {d }

[D ]

ep

= [D ]

e

{b}f {b}g

T

= H + {a }Tf [D ]e {a }g

F

H =

h

{a}g

{a }g

{ }

g

=

;

{ '}

{a}f

f

=

{ '}

= [D ] {a }f

e

Elastoplastic Matrix

1. is a scalar quantity, for perfect plasticity

F

=0

h

H=0>

= {a} [D ] {a}q

T

f

tangential stiffness

3. Vectors {b}f and {b}g contain derivatives of the yield function and

the plastical potential function > Dep is symmetric only for associated

flow rule

4. Finite element stiffness matrix is also nonsymmetric for nonassociated flow rule

[K ] = [B ]T [D ] ep [B ]dV

Mohr--Coulomb Idealisation of

Mohr

Geomaterials

1 3

2=3

3

Yielding (and failure) takes place in the soil mass when

mobilised (actual) shear stress at any plane (m )

becomes equal to shear strength (f ) which is given by:

m = c+ n tan = f

where c and are strength parameters.

f( )= - n tan c= 0

Failure criterion

n

1 > 2 > 3

not influence failure

= c + n ta n

f

D

3

A

90

nf

n

45 2

45 2

1 > 3

3

FAILURE

PLANES

F = ( 1 3 ) ( 1 + 3 ) sin 2 c cos = 0 1

Space

3

1=2= 3

surface is a irregular

hexagon in the principal

stress space

1

Space

Mohr-Coulomb

rp

sometimes create

problems in

computations

For Mohr-Coulomb flow rule

is defined through the

dilatancy angle of the soil.

G(

)=

tan

Yield function

Plastic potential

function

const.= 0

3

angle and

.

n

1 > 2 > 3

Flow Rule

, &p

, d

F=0

G=0

n ,n&,np dn p

i.e., why do we get volume changes when applying shear stresses?

= + i

The apparent externally mobilized angle of friction on horizontal planes () is larger

than the angle of friction resisting sliding on the inclined planes (i)

When dense sands or

overconsolidated clays are

sheared they dilate

Larger the particle size, greater

the dilation

Mohr-Coulomb idealisation

implies dilation at a constant

rate when soil is sheared. This

is unrealistic.

F = ( 1 3 ) ( 1 + 3 )sin 2c cos = 0

'3 = '1 q

p' =

( '

3

1 +2 '3 )

q = '1 '3

'1 + '3 =

6 p' + q

3

3 p ' + 2q

3

3 p' q

3

6 p + q

or q = sin

+ 2 c cos

3

3q = 6 p sin + q sin + 6 c cos

6 c cos

6 sin

q=

p +

3 sin

3 sin

q = p + c*

6 sin * 6 c cos

,c =

where =

3 sin

3 sin

F = q p c = 0

MC - Model formulated

in p' - q

e

p

'

K

'

0

v

=

e

q 0 3G ' q

F ( p, q) = q p c* = 0

F

F

condition

dp + dq = 0 : consistency

consistency

condition

p

q

dp = K ( d v d vp )

Hooks law

dq = 3G ( d q d qp )

F

d = d

: flow rule

p

p

v

F

d = d

q

p

q

F

F

F F

F

F

Kd v

Kd

+

3Gd q

3Gd

=0

p

p

p Q

q

q

F F K

F

F

,

Kd v +

3Gd q

0

q

p

Q

d =

=

F F F

F

K

+

3G

p p q

q

F F K

p , q 0

0 d v

3G d q

F

0 p

3G F

q

F

= ,

p

F

= 1,

q

p

v

d = d ,

dp K

=

dq 0

=

3G

K

0

3G

K + 3G

d = d

3G d

0

d =

p

q

K

0

Kd v + 3Gd q

d

d

{}

{}

d

d

d

d

p

v

p

q

F = q p c* = 0

{}

{}

d

3G

3G

[ K

2

{}

3G ] d

K + 3G

=

3G

0

3G

K

K + 3G

3GK

K + 3G

2

1

2

K + 3G

K

2

3G

K

+ 3G

3GK

2

1

2

K + 3G

9G

3G

K + 3G

9G

3 GK

3G

{}

d

{}

3 GK d

2

{}

3 G d

ep

2K 2

K 2 K + 3G

=

3GK

2 K + 3G

det D ep = 0

9G 2

3G 2

K + 3G

3GK

2 K + 3G

perfect plasticity

In general form :

F

D D

=

%T

F

%

e

D ep

F

eT

D

%

e F

D

Drawbacks of MC

Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is well proven through

experiments for most geomaterials, but data for clays is still

contradictory!

An associated flow rule implies continuous dilation at a

constant rate upon shearing; this is unrealistic and leads to

negative pore pressures in undrained conditions. In an nonassociated flow rule with < , the rate of dilation is less, but

it is still constant. If = 0 then the rate of dilation is zero.

Care must be taken in applying the model for undrained

loading. This will be discussed further as part of lecture on

Drained and Undrained Analysis.

Drawbacks of MC

Soils on shearing exhibit variable volume change

characteristics depending on pre-consolidation pressure

which cannot be accounted for with MC

In soft soils volumetric plastic strains on shearing are

compressive (negative dilation) whilst Mohr-Coulomb model

will predict continuous dilation

bi-linearity (const. E)

unlimited dilation

isotropy

elastic response far from the limit state

Hardening Soil Model (sand), Soft Soil Model (clay)

models

Stress invariants

Mean effective stress

1

1

= ( 1 + 2 + 3 ) = ( x + y + z )

3

3

=

J2 =

J2

[

[

1

( 1 2 )2 + ( 2 3 )2 + ( 3 1 )2 =

6

1

( 1 M )2 + ( 2 M )2 + ( 3 M )2

2

J 3 = ( 1 M )( 2 M )( 3 M )

Lode angle

1

1 3 3 J 3

= sin

3

3

2

-30< < 30

ON =

3 M

PN

= OP ON

= ( 1 M ) + ( 2 M ) + ( 3 M ) =

2

= 2J 2

PN =

2 J2 =

Von Mises

F =

3 Y0 = 0

r =

m space

2

Y0

3

Von Mises in 3D

F =

3 Y0 = 0

Tresca

F = 1 3 Y0 = 0

in invariant formulation

F = 2 cos Y0 = 0

> dependent on Lode angle

Tresca in 3D

F = 2 cos Y0 = 0

Total stress analysis for undrained behaviour (

= 0)

cu .. undrained shear strength

Y0 = 2 c u

No volume change > = 0.5 (for numerical reasons 0.49)

Plastic volumetric strains ?

assume Lode angle = 0

F = 2 2 cu = 0

Assume associated flow rule

F

d MP = d

=0

F

= d

= 2d

P

vol

= d

P

M

=0

P

vol

= d

P

M

=0

MC Invariant formulation

F = M

1

sin + cos

sin sin c cos = 0

3

Drucker-Prager

Drucker-Prager vs MC

techniques

(as in PLAXIS)

Outline

Local level

- nodes

- stress points or integration points

- elastic point, plastic point, apex point, tension point

- constitutive stress and equilibrium stress

- local error

Global level

- initial stress method

- extrapolation

- arc-length control

- global error

Load advancement

- ultimate level

- number of steps

Calculation

Basic Concepts and Algorithms

Local Level

Global Level

Load Advancement

Calculation

Initial situation

Material models and parameters

Initial stresses and pore pressures

Initial values of state variables

Calculation

Calculation phases

Calculation types

Plastic

Consolidation

Phi-c reduction (limit state analysis)

Calculation (continues)

Calculation phases (continues)

Loading input

Staged construction

Switch on/off structural elements (beams, anchors)

Switch on/off loads (change input values)

Change pore pressures

Incremental Multipliers (L.A. Number of steps)

Calculation (continues)

Output

Displacements, stresses, forces etc. per

step/phase

Displacements and pore pressures are nodal

values

Stresses, strains and state variables are Gauss

point level values

Load-displacement curves

Basic Concepts

PHASE

Find equilibrium in final

situation

Subdivide in load steps

LOAD STEP

Find equilibrium for load

increment

1. Additional displacements

u = K-1 P

2. Total increments

u = u +u

3. Strain increment

= Bu

4. Determine stresses

c = 0 + De( p)

5. Internal reaction

P in =Bt c dV

6. Equilibrium??

P in P ex

u = K-1 (P ex - P in)

Local Level

Nodes and Stress Points

6-node triangle

15-node triangle

Plane strain

Working load

Failure loads

Phi-c reduction

Axisymmetry

no reduced integration (often used for quadrilateral elements)

Mohr Coulomb Model

dp=0

33

11

Plastic point f = 0

dp 0

Stress Points

Local Error

Constitutive stress c:

Stress that follows from the constitutive

model (e.g. Mohr Coulomb)

Stress that is in equilibrium with the external

load (calculated from stiffness matrix)

Inaccurate point:

Local Error =

c eq

c

Standard setting:

Tolerated error = 0.01

Local Error

For MC model

Local Error =

e c =

e

x

Tmax = max

) (

2

) (

) (

c eq

) (

2

Tmax

) (

2

Applied load = Load multiplier x Input load

Standard setting: Input load = 1 stress unit

Actual load is specified before each calculation

Staged construction:

Total incr. multipliers:

Input load

Load multipliers

Loads (continues)

Most calculations: Staged construction

Total load in last calculation step

Total load in last calculation step

Mdisp, MloadA, MloadB, Mweight, Msf

Additional load in one calculation step

Mdisp, MloadA, MloadB, Mweight, Msf

Nonlinear Analysis

Elastic Stiffness Method

cannot be controlled by user

Over Relaxation

Absolute maximum: 2.0

For low friction angles (<20):

1.5 acceptable

can be controlled by user

Arc Length Control

Global Error

Global Error =

unbalance

load

Unbalance = q e q c

Convergence requirement:

Global error Tolerated error

Standard setting:

qe= external load (including gravity loads)

qc= internal reaction forces (integral of c)

Convergence Requirements

Accuracy reached if:

1.

2.

3.

empirical

Inaccurate stress points 3 + (pl. soil points)/10

Inaccurate interface points 3 + (pl. intf. points)/10

Global Error =

unbalance

load

Local Error =

c eq

c

Converged within desired

minimum number of

iterations

Scaling up by factor 2

is influenced by manual settings !

desired minimum number of

iterations:

Scaling down by factor 2

See p. 4.10-4.11 in PLAXIS Reference manual

Ultimate level procedure:

Staged construction

Plastic calculation (Total multipliers)

q

u

Reaching prescribed

ultimate level

u

Failure before reaching

prescribed ultimate level

Number of steps procedure:

Plastic calculation (Incremental multipliers)

Phi- c reduction (safety analysis)

q

typically used for phi-c-reduction

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