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23/09/2014

LINGKUP PEMBAHASAN

KONSEP PENGEMBANGAN
TIK
Magister Teknik Elektro
2013

Pendahuluan
New Product Development (NPD) Processes
Siklus Hidup Pengembangan Sistem
Pengantar Rekayasa Perangkat Lunak
(Software Engineering)

CBIS (Computer Based Information System)

PENDAHULUAN
Pengembangan sistem
(berbasis Teknologi
informasi dan
komunikasi) merupakan
penyusunan dan
perumusan suatu
sistem yang baru
untuk memperbaiki
sistem yang telah ada,
atau menggantikan
sistem yang lama secara
keseluruhan.

CBIS atau Sistem Informasi Berbasis Komputer


merupakan suatu sistem pengolah data menjadi
sebuah informasi yang berkualitas dan
dipergunakan untuk suatu alat bantu pengambilan
keputusan. Shg  benar-benar berguna untuk
oraganisasi.
Sistem Informasi berbasis komputer mengandung
arti bahwa komputer memainkan peranan penting
dalam sebuah sistem pembangkit informasi.
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Definition of System
... an identifiable, complex dynamic entity composed
of discernibly different parts or subsystems that are
interrelated to and interdependent on each other and
the whole entity with an overall capability to maintain
stability and to adapt behaviour in response to external
influences [Websters];
1950s the main approach to understanding was
reductionism divide something into its parts, Ludwig
von Bertalnffy proposed systems thinking discover
how something interacts with its environment
Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering that focuses on how to design
and manage complex engineering projects over their life cycles. Systems engineering deals with
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work-processes

Systems Thinking
Systems Thinking is a way of seeing and talking about reality
that helps us better understand and work with organization
and communities to influx the quality of our lives. (Modified
by Kim);
holistic approach to problem solving, reflecting on how the
organisation relates to its business environment and how
factors in the environment can affect the organisation
One approach to problem solving is systems thinking, or
systems analysis. It expands analysis to include the system as
a whole, and the relationship of interconnected parts. It
recognizes that the whole is greater than the sum of the
parts.
Systems thinking involves backwards thinking. It begins with
the end objective, and works backward, analyzing the
relationship of each component to the final objective.
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What Is A Model ?

Proses Pemodelan

A Representation of an object, a
system, or an idea in some form other
than that of the entity itself.
(Shannon)

Pemodelan

Structure
and
Behavior

MODEL
Asumtion

Real World

Systems modeling or system modeling is


the interdisciplinary study of the use of models to
conceptualize and construct systems

Modelling

Contoh Pemodelan

Represent existing and future systems


Models are in-complete
Various models represent different perspectives and levels
of abstraction
Modelling techniques should be selected to enhance
communications between designers and users

Real world vs Technology

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Modelling: Techniques

An instance, in object-oriented
programming (OOP), is a specific
realization of any object.
An object may be varied in a number
of ways. Each realized variation of that
object is an instance.
The creation of a realized instance is
called instantiation.
Each time a program runs, it is an
instance of that program.
In languages that create objects
from classes, an object is an
instantiation of a class.
That is, it is a member of a given class
that has specified values rather
than variables.
In a non-programming context, you
could think of "dog" as a class and
your particular dog as an instance of
that class.[1]
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Basic flowchart
Cause and Effect
Diagram
Data flow diagram
Brainstorming Diagram
etc

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System Model

Analisis Pengembangan Sistem


Informasi

A system model is the conceptual model that describes and represents a system.

A system model is required to describe and represent all these multiple views. The
system model describes and represents the multiple views possibly using two
different approaches. The first one is the non-architectural approach and the
second one is the architectural approach.

The NON-ARCHITECTURAL APPROACH respectively picks a model for each view.


For example, Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM), picking
the Structure Chart (SC) for structure description and the Data Flow Diagram (DFD)
for behavior description, is categorized into the non-architectural approach.

Analisis Problem sistem


Analisis Kelemahan Sistem
Analisis Performa, Information, Economic,
Control and Efficiency (PIECES)
Analisis Study Kelayakan
Analisis Kebutuhan Sistem

The ARCHITECTURAL APPROACH, instead of picking many heterogeneous and


unrelated models, will use only one single coalescence model. For example, System
architecture, using the Architecture Description Language (ADL) for both structure
and behavior descriptions, is categorized into the architectural approach.
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NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT


Ulrich and Eppinger (2004:2) define NPD as the set of
activities beginning with the perception of a market
opportunity and ending in the production, sale, and
delivery of a product.
With a small modification, this definition includes also
new service development (NSD): in contrast to a
manufactured product, a service is co-produced with
the customer, and therefore, NSD must include a
customer interface mechanism. Still, this definition
focuses on individual new products, while the NPD
activities within a larger firm must consider a stream of
multiple ideas and products, selection among them
and their evolution over generations.

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NPD: Fundamental elements


A variant generation process, which identifies new combinations
of technologies, processes, and market opportunities with the
potential to create economic value. Variants are generated by
directed search and blind combination of unrelated elements
(creativity).
A selection process, which chooses the most promising among the
new combinations for further investment (of financial, managerial,
physical, and/or human resources) according to consistent criteria.
A transformation process, which converts (develops)
opportunities into economic goods and codified knowledge
(embodied in a design) products or services to be offered to
customers.
A coordination process, which ensures the information flow,
collaboration, and cooperation among multiple parties, involved in
the NPD activities.

Sumber :Christoph H. Loch and Stylianos Kavadias; Handbook of New Product Development15
Management, Copyright 2008, Elsevier Ltd

Three-level evolutionary view of NPD

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Cross-functional Processes
i.e., Product Development

competitor analysis
market research

MARKETING

Sumber :Christoph H. Loch and Stylianos Kavadias; Handbook of New Product Development17
Management, Copyright 2008, Elsevier Ltd

R&D

PRODUCTION

Product development
needs analysis
research
market test

component
design
product test
product release

process design
equipment design
production start

new product
prototype

A system comprises multiple views such as planning, requirement


(analysis), design, implementation, deployment, structure, behavior, input data,
and output data views.

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Why NDP :

SIKLUS HIDUP PENGEMBANGAN


SISTEM

To add to product portfolio


(processes, methods, and
technologies)  to determine
the optimal resource mix;
To create stars and cash cows
for the future;
To replace declining product;
To take advantage of new
technology ;
To maintain/increase market
share;
To keep up with rivals;
To defeat (Win a victory over)
rivals ;
To maintain competitive
advantage ;
To full gap in the market;
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SDLC: Histori

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SDLC: Definisi

The systems development life cycle, according to


Elliott & Strachan & Radford (2004), "originated in
the 1960s, to develop large scale
functional business systems in an age of large
scale business conglomerates.
Information systems activities revolved around
heavy data processing and number
crunching routines
Tahap  Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
adheres to important phases that are essential for
developers, such as planning, analysis, design,
and implementation

The Systems development life cycle (SDLC) is a process


used by a systems analyst to develop an information
system, training, and user (stakeholder) ownership.
The SDLC aims to produce a high quality system that
meets or exceeds customer expectations, reaches
completion within times and cost estimates, works
effectively and efficiently in the current and
planned Information Technology infrastructure, and is
inexpensive to maintain and cost-effective (compares
the relative costs and outcomes (effects) ) to
enhance/improve

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Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

Siklus Hidup Pengembangan Sistem

Atau juga dikenal software development process,


or Software Development Life Cycle in systems
engineering, information systems and software
engineering, is a process of creating or altering
information systems, and the models
and methodologies that people use to develop these
systems.
In software engineering, the SDLC concept underpins /
Support many kinds of software development
methodologies.
These methodologies form the framework for planning
and controlling the creation of an information system:
the software development process.

Bila dalam operasi sistem yang sudah dikembangkan


masih timbul permasalahan-permasalahan yang tidak
dapat diatasi dalam tahap pemeliharaan sistem, maka
perlu dikembangkan kembali suatu sistem untuk
mengatasinya dan proses ini kembali ke proses yang
pertama. Siklus ini disebut dengan Siklus Hidup suatu
Sistem.
Siklus Hidup Pengembangan Sistem dapat
didefinisikan sebagai serangkaian aktivitas yang
dilaksanakan oleh profesional dan pemakai sistem
informasi untuk mengembangkan dan
mengimplementasikan sistem informasi.

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Tahapan SDLC

SDLC: Alternatif 2

Penelitian awal analisis


kebutuhan
Sistem Analysis/Analysis Sistem,
keputusan berdasarkan alternatif
yang terbaik.
System Design / Perancanaan
Sistem
Implementasi, System
Development / Pengembangan
Testing
System Implementation and
Evaluation /Implementasi dan
Evaluasi
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SDLC models

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10 Fasa SDLC

SDLC models or methodologies have been


created, such as
"waterfall";
"spiral";
"Agile software development";
"rapid prototyping";
"incremental"; and
"synchronize and stabilize

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

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The Tenth Phase System

Initiation
System Concept Development.
Planning.
Requirement Analysis
Design.
Development.
Integration and testing.
Implementation (Acceptance, installation,
deployment).
9. Operation and Maintenance, Evaluation.
10.Disposal.

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SDLC: Aspek Feasibility


Siklus Hidup Pengembangan Sistem Aspek Feasibility
menjadi penting agar sistem yang dikembangkan lebih
efektif dan useable/bermanfaat serta memiliki faktor
impak yang tinggi. Diantara kelayakan yang perlu
dipertimbangkan adalah
Operational Feasibility
Economic Feasibility
Technical Feasibility
Human Factors Feasibility
Legal/Political Feasibility

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Wikipedia.org

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SDLC: Aspek testing

REKAYASA PERANGKAT LUNAK

Dalam Siklus Hidup Pengembangan Sistem, Aspek penting adalah TESTING


(pengujian sistem) .Diantara testing yang perlu dilaksanakan adalah
Path testing
Data set testing
Unit testing
System testing
Integration testing
Black-box testing
White-box testing
Regression testing ( rerunning existing tests against the modified code)
Automation testing
User acceptance testing

Software Engineering (SE) is the application of a systematic,


disciplined, quantifiable approach to the design, development,
operation, and maintenance of software, and the study of these
approaches; that is, the application of engineering to software.
Software is any set of machine-readable instructions (most often in
the form of a computer program) that directs a
computer's processor to perform specific operations.
instructions (computer programs) that when executed provide desired
function and performance,
data structures that enable the programs to adequately manipulate
information,
documents that describe the operation and use of the programs.

Catatan: White-box testing (also known as clear box testing, glass box
testing, transparent box testing, and structural testing) is a method of
testing software that tests internal structures or workings of an application,
as opposed to its functionality (i.e. black-box testing).
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Software Engineering Definition

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Tahapan SE (secara umum)


1. Melakukan survei dan menilai kelayakan proyek
pengembangan sistem informasi
2. Mempelajari dan menganalisis sistem informasi yang
sedang berjalan
3. Menentukan permintaan pemakai sistem informasi
4. Memilih solusi atau pemecahan masalah (alternatif)
yang paling baik
5. Menentukan perangkat keras (hardware) dan perangkat
lunak (software)
6. Merancang sistem informasi baru
7. Membangun sistem informasi baru
8. Mengkomunikasikan dan mengimplementasikan sistem
informasi baru
9. Memelihara dan melakukan perbaikan/peningkatan
sistem informasi baru bila diperlukan
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Software engineering is an engineering discipline that is


concerned with all aspects of software production.
The seminal definition:
[Software engineering is] the establishment and use
of sound engineering principles in order to obtain
economically software that is reliable and works
efficiently on real machines.
The IEEE definition:
Software Engineering: (1) The application of a systematic,
disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development,
operation, and maintenance of software; that is, the
application of engineering to software. (2) The study of
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approaches as in (1).

Waterfall Strengths

Model : Waterfall

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Easy to understand, easy to use


Provides structure to inexperienced staff
Milestones are well understood
Sets requirements stability
Good for management control (plan, staff, track)
Works well when quality is more important than cost or
schedule

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Model: Prototype

Model: Prototype
Definisi
The prototyping paradigm begins with requirements
gathering.
Developer and customer meet and define the overall
objectives for the software, identify whatever
requirements are known, and outline areas where
further definition is mandatory.
A "quick design" then occurs.
The quick design focuses on a representation of those
aspects of the software that will be visible to the
customer/user (e.g., input approaches and output
formats).
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THE RAD MODEL


Rapid application development (RAD) is an
incremental software development process model
that emphasizes an extremely short development
cycle.
The RAD model is a high-speed adaptation of
the linear sequential model in which rapid
development is achieved by using componentbased construction.
5 Tahapan dalam RAD  Business modeling; Data
modeling, Process modeling; Application
generation; Testing and turnover

Rapid Application
Development (RAD)

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Agile Development

Agile Development
Bisa dikatakan ini merupakan metodologi yang
lebih cepat dalam pengembangan sebuah
sistem informasi.
Metodologi ini melakukan perampingan pada
proses pemodelan dan pembuatan dokumen,
Pengembangan metodologi ini disebut
EXTREME PROGRAMMING.

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Iteration means the act of repeating a process with the aim of approaching a desired goal,
target or result. Each repetition of the process is also called an "iteration," and the results of one
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iteration are used as the starting point for the next iteration

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Model Spiral

Model Spiral

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The spiral model, originally proposed by Boehm [BOE88], is


an evolutionary software process model that couples the
iterative nature of prototyping with the controlled and
systematic aspects of the linear sequential model.
It provides the potential for rapid development of
incremental versions of the software.
Using the spiral model, software is developed in a series of
incremental releases. During early iterations, the incremental
release might be a paper model or prototype.
During later iterations, increasingly more complete versions
of the engineered system are produced.
A spiral model is divided into a number of framework
activities, also called task regions. Typically, there are
between three and six task regions.
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Model Spiral

Model Spiral: uraian

A spiral model is divided into a set of framework


activities defined by software engineering terms.
As the evolutionary process begins, software team
performs activities that are implied by a circuit around
the spiral in a clockwise direction, beginning at the
center.
The first circuit around the spiral might result in the
development of a product specification; subsequent
passes around the spiral might be used to develop a
prototype and then progressively more sophisticated
versions of software.
Unlike other process models that end when software is
delivered, the spiral model can be adapted to apply
throughout the life of the computer software.

Figure depicts a spiral model that contains six task regions:


Customer communicationtasks required to establish effective
communication between developer and customer.
Planningtasks required to define resources, timelines, and other
project related information.
Risk analysistasks required to assess both technical and
management risks.
Engineeringtasks required to build one or more representations
of the application.
Construction and releasetasks required to construct, test,
install, and provide user support (e.g., documentation and
training).
Customer evaluationtasks required to obtain customer feedback
based on evaluation of the software representations created
during the engineering stage and implemented during the
installation stage.

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RANGKUMAN

When to use Spiral Model


When creation of a prototype is appropriate/
Suitable
When costs and risk evaluation is important
For medium to high-risk projects
Long-term project commitment unwise because of
potential changes to economic priorities
Users are unsure of their needs
Requirements are complex
New product line
Significant changes are expected (research and
exploration)

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1. Berfikir Sistem diperlukan dalam proses pengembangan


sistem/TIK agar semua subsistem dan supra sistem dapat
diidentifikasi dan dapat diketahui perilaku sistem.
2. Pendekatan NPD proses dapat digunakan dalam
membangun sistem/produk.
3. SDLC : sistem/software development life cycle merupakan
daur hidup sistem/software atau teknologi informasi dan
komunikasi yang perlu selalu dipertimbangkan dan
dilaksanakan secara berkelanjutan.
4. Terdapat bebapa Model yang dapat digunakan dalam
rekayasa perangkat lunak sesuai dengan varible
konsideran yang dihadapi terutama waktu dan biaya serta
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SDM.

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RUJUKAN

SEKIAN TERIMA KASIH

www.wikipedia.org Systems development lifecycleSenin, 09 September 2013.


Roger S. Pressman, Ph.D. Software
Engineering: Apractitioners approach, Fifth
Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies, 2001, ISBN
0073655783

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Acknowledgement:
Terima kasih dan penghargaan yang tinggi kepada
kontributor dalam slide ini. Penulis slide ini anonim, Slide ini
dikutip dengan dari berbagai sumber diantaranya dari buku,
jurnal, proseding dan web
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ISTILAH
cost-effective - Economical in terms of the
goods or services received for the money
spent

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