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output, speeds and different heads, it is convenient to determine the

output, the speed and the discharge, when the head on the turbine is

reduced to unit y, i.e. 1 m. The conditions of the turbine under unit head

are such that the efficiency of the turbine remains unaffected. Thus the

velocit y triangles under working conditions and under unit head are

geometricall y similar.

Given a turbine every velocit y vector ( V 1 , U 1 , Vw 1 , V f 1 ) is a

function of H where H is the head on the turbine. With this basic concept,

we can determine the speed, discharge and power under unit head.

Unit Speed (N u ):

This is the speed of a turbine working under a unit head

Let N be the speed of tu rbine, H be the head on the turbine and u be the

peripheral velocit y.

We know that the peripheral velocit y u is given b y

u

DN

where D is the mean diameter of the runner which is treated as

60

Henc e u N

But u K u 2 H and hence u H

Hence N H

i.e. N K 1 H , where K 1 is the proportionalit y constant.

From definition of Unit speed, it is the speed of a turbine when working

under unit head. Hence at H=1, N=N u . Substituting, we get

N u K1 1

N Nu H or Nu

N

H

Unit Discharge (Q u ):

This is the discharge through the turbine working under a unit head

continuit y equation, Q = a x V, where a is the cross -sectional area of flow

and V is the mean flow velocit y.

For a given turbine, the cross -sectional area is constant and hence Q V

But V C v 2 g H and hence V H and hence Q H

i.e., Q K 2 H where K 2 is the proportionalit y constant.

From definition of Unit discharge, it is the discharge through the turbine

when working under unit head. Hence at H=1, Q=Q u . Substituti ng, we get

Qu K 2 1

Q Qu H or Qu

Q

H

Unit Power (P u ):

This is the Power developed b y the turbine working under a unit head

Consider the P as the power developed by the turbine.

We know that the efficie ncy of turbine is given b y

P

QH

turbine, Q is the discharge through the turbine and H is the head under

which the turbine is working. But efficiency of a turbine and we ight

densit y of water are constants and hence, we can write

P Q H

From discharge continuit y equation, Q = a x V, where a is the cross sectional area of flow and V is the mean flow velocit y.

For a given turbine, the cross -sectional area is constant and he nce Q V

But V C v 2 g H and hence V H and hence Q H

Substituting, we get

P H H or P K 3 H H

when working under unit head. Hence at H=1, P=P u . Substituting, we get

Pu K 3 1 1

P Pu H H or Pu

P

H H

2

turbine.

If for a given turbine under heads H 1 , H 2 , H 3 ,. the corresponding speeds

are N 1 , N 2 , N 3 ,, the corresponding discharge s are Q 1 , Q 2 , Q 3 ,. and the

powers developed are P 1 , P 2 , P 3 ,. Then

Unit speed = N u

N1

H1

Unit Discharge = Qu

Unit Power = Pu

N2

Q1

P1

H H1

N3

Q2

Q3

P3

H2

H1

H2

P2

H H2

H3

H3

H H3

or Pu

P1

3

H1 2

P2

3

H2 2

P3

3

H3 2

head are known, the corresponding quantities for an y other head can be

determined.

Specific Speed of a Turbine (N s )

The specific speed of a turbine is the speed at which the turbine will run

when developing unit power under a unit head. This is the t ype

characteristics of a turbine. For a set of geometricall y similar turbines the

specific speed will have the same value.

Consi der the P as the power developed by the turbine.

We know that the efficiency of turbine is given b y

P

QH

turbine, Q is the discharge through the turbine and H is the h ead under

densit y of water are constants and hence, we can write

b

D

D

P Q H

Discharge is given by the product of cross sectional area of flow and the

flow velocit y. Cross sectional area is d b and hence

Q = D b Vf

But V C v 2 g H and hence V H

And u K u 2 H and hence u H

Further, the peripheral velocit y is given by

DN

where D is the mean diameter of t he runner.

60

From the above two equations of u, we can write that

u

DN H

H

N

But in turbines the width of flow area b is proportional to the diameter D.

or D

b

H

N

H H

H

N N

Hence P

5

H 2

or P 2

N

5

H 2

H 2

or N

K

P

P

2

Simplifying further

N K

But from the definition of specific speed, it is the speed of a turbine when

it is working under unit head developing unit power. Hence when H = 1

and P = 1. N = N s . Hence

Ns K

and K N s

Substituting we get

N Ns

or N s

N P

H

Examination questions

Dec/Jan 07

Define unit power, unit speed, unit discharge and specific speed with

reference to h ydraulic turbines . Derive expressions for these terms. (06)

July 06

Derive expressions for specific speed of a turbine

(06)

9 m 3 /s. If the efficiency is 90 %, determine :

i) Power generated

(07)

Jan 06

What is specific speed of a turbine and ex plain its significance

(04)

Jan 05

Define and derive an expression for specific speed of a turbine, indicating

its significance.

(08)

Define the terms unit po wer, unit speed and unit discharge with reference

to a h ydraulic turbine. Also give the expressions for these terms

(06)

July 04

Define specific speed of a h ydraulic turbine. Derive an equation for

specific speed in terms of operating speed, power and head

(08)

Dec/Jan 07

Suggest a suitable type of a turbine to develop 7000 kW power under a

head of 20 m, while operating at 220 rpm. What are the considerations fo r

your suggestion?

(04)

Solution:

P = 7000 kW; H = 20 m; N = 220 rpm.

We know that speci fic speed of a turbine is given b y

Ns

N P

H

Substituting , we get

Ns

220 7000

20

435 rpm

As the specific speed is between 300 and 1000, Kaplan turbine can be

suggested .

Jan 06

A turbine is to operate under a head of 25 m at 200 rpm. The disc harge is

9 m 3 /s. If the efficiency is 90%, determine the performance of the turbin e

under a head of 20 m

(08)

Solution:

H 1 = 25 m; N 1 = 200 rpm; Q = 9 m 3 /s; = 0.90, H 2 = 20 m; N 2 = ?; Q 2 = ?

P 1 = ?, P 2 = ?

We know that

P

QH

0.9

P

10 1000 9 25

P 1 = 2025 kW

Further unit quantities are given b y

Unit speed = N u

N1

H1

N2

H2

Unit Discharge = Qu

Unit Power = Pu

P1

3

Q1

H1

H1 2

Nu

200

25

N2

20

Q2

H2

P2

3

H2 2

40

Qu

9

25

Q2

20

1.8

Q 2 = 8.05 m 3 /s (Ans)

Pu

2025

25

P2

20

16.2

2

P 2 = 1449 kW (Ans)

July 04

Suggest a suitable type of turbine to develop 7500 kW of power under a

head of 25 m, while operating at 220 rpm. If the same turbine has to work

under a head of 10 m, what power would devel op? What would be the new

speed?

(12)

Solution:

P 1 = 7500 kW; H 1 = 25 m; N 1 = 220 rpm; H 2 = 10 ; P 2 = ? ; N 2 = ?

We know that specific speed of a turbine is given b y

Ns

N P

H

Substituting , we get

Ns

220 7500

25

340.8 rpm

As the speci fic speed is between 300 and 1000, Kaplan turbine can be

suggested .

Further unit quantities are given b y

Unit speed = N u

N1

Unit Power = Pu

P1

H1

3

H1 2

Nu

220

25

N2

10

N2

H2

P2

3

H2 2

44

N 2 = 139.14 (Ans)

Pu

7500

25

P2

10

60

2

P 2 = 1897.4 kW (Ans)

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